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Bibliographical Note


Bibliographical Note

Sources used in preparing this volume consist largely of official records relating to the Army Medical Department during the years 1939-45, found in a number of files as indicated below. As stated in the Preface, additional information was obtained from Medical Department officers and a few other individuals concerned with the Army's medical work in World War II.

Records of The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service

The official records used are contained in large measure, as of the date of writing, in the files of The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service. Because of the early incipience of the Medical Department's historical program, dating from August 1941 (referred to in chapter III). the Historical Division, as it was then called, built up during the war years a file of documents chosen primarily for its historical value. As to type, these documents are of wide variety. They include memorandums, letters, periodic and special reports of medical offices and medical units and installations, histories and monographs on various phases of Army medical service, rough drafts of plans and incomplete histories, and a few personal diaries, as well as a good deal of official serial material issued by the Surgeon General's Office and the War Department during the war years.

The periodic reports (usually covering the calendar or fiscal year) of the so-called "services" and "divisions" of the Surgeon General's Office and of the medical offices of major commands in the United States and overseas were extensively used for the present volume. The Historical Unit's file of annual reports of elements of the Surgeon General's Office for the war years is fairly complete. The internal files of a few divisions of the Office are also among the sources maintained by The Historical Unit, although most material of this sort is now in the custody of the Departmental Records Branch in the Office of the Adjutant General.

A few monographs on certain phases of the Medical Department's activities in the United States have served to direct the writer to chief developments which would otherwise have come to light only in the course of examining the hundreds of primary documents on which they were based. A monograph entitled "The Organization of the Medical Department in the Zone of the Interior" by Captain Edward J. Morgan and Dr. Donald O. Wagner has afforded this sort of guide for drafting those passages in the present volume which are devoted to the internal organization of the Surgeon General's Office and of the offices of surgeons of service commands in the United States. Volume I, Organization and Administration, of a series entitled "History of the AAF Medical Service in World War II," prepared in the Air Surgeon's Office under the direction of Dr. Hubert A. Coleman but transferred to the files of The Historical Unit, has served as a guide to chief developments in the Office of the Air Surgeon and the medical offices of the Army Air Forces commands in the United States. Inquiry into matters not covered in these two studies, but related to them, has led, however, to personal examination of a large proportion of the documents used in their preparation. A number of manuscripts prepared for the clinical volumes of the Medical Department's history have served to point out administrative developments in their respective fields.

Documentary sources in The Historical Unit for the administration of medical service in oversea commands are of uneven value. The annual reports of medical offices of oversea commands, extensively used in the preparation of this volume, include for the most part those of the medical sections (or offices) of the theater headquarters, Services of Supply headquarters, the headquarters of Services of Supply area commands, and of the chief ground force commands. The roster of these is fairly complete.

Another important body of material on the oversea theaters which is on file in The Historical Unit consists of histories, which vary as to fullness of coverage, of Army medical


service in certain theaters of operations and oversea base commands. These were prepared by historical units in the medical sections of theater headquarters. Fairly complete ones exist for the Mediterranean and Chin a-Burma-India theaters, which have aided greatly in shaping the account of medical administration in those areas.

On the other hand, the "theater history" of medical service is conspicuously lacking for the two areas in which Medical Department work was most extensive in World War II the European theater and the Southwest Pacific Area. The lack of theater histories or other documents of a summary nature, except for a history of the medical service of the Communications Zone of the European theater, has made the task of preparing an account of Army medical administration in those areas much more difficult, as well as more time consuming, than in other theaters. Summaries of certain phases of medical service for the European theater have proved helpful, but almost no documents of a summary nature-beyond the scope of periodic reports -exist for the Southwest Pacific Area. In order to piece together the story for the Southwest Pacific Area it was necessary to resort to hundreds of memorandums and letters produced in day-to-day operations of the chief medical offices there, as well as the periodic reports of many commands. The file of periodic reports of medical offices of the Southwest Pacific Area maintained in The Historical Unit is voluminous by comparison with similar reports made by the medical offices of other commands, for quarterly, rather than annual, reports were required of the medical offices at the headquarters of the many commands in the area. Although histories of certain phases of medical service were compiled for the Central and South Pacific Areas, they are some-what fragmentary in nature, particularly for the latter. Sources for the South Pacific Area available in The Historical Unit are less satisfactory than those for ally other oversea region, since no complete theater medical history was written for the area and the office files of the theater surgeon are not in the possession of The Historical Unit.

The files of The Historical Unit contain a good deal of the official material in series issued by the War Department, Army Service Forces headquarters, and the Surgeon General's Office during the war years. Such material became an important source for appointments of individuals, for changes in functions of elements of the Surgeon General's Office, and relations of the Office with the Army Service Forces headquarters. Among series which contributed to this volume were The Surgeon General's Office Orders, Army Service Forces Circulars, and the War Department Regulations. The annual reports of the Surgeon General's Office (discontinued in printed form after the fiscal year 1941) were the most widely used of the reports published in the War Department.

Records containing information which was gleaned from Medical Department officers after the war form another important source in The Historical Unit's file. Among them are recorded accounts of a good many of the interviews which historians held with Medical Department officers in the postwar period and a number of letters written by officers to answer specific questions raised by historians. Written comment which officers made on draft manuscript submitted to them for review served to correct errors of fact and interpretation.

Central Files of the Surgeon General's Office

Of secondary importance for the present volume, the central files, of the Surgeon General's Office include copies of memorandums, letters, periodic and special reports, and various other documents produced in the course of the daily operations of the office throughout the war. They are now in the custody of the Army's major depository of historical records, the Departmental Records Branch in the Office of the Adjutant General.

Records of the Army Service Forces

The Departmental Records Branch, Office of the Adjutant General, is also in possession of another body of documents, which proved of considerable value for the present volume. These are the files maintained by Headquarters, Army Service Forces. These, particularly


the records of the Control Division, Army Service Forces, and of the immediate offices of Gen. Brehon B. Somervell and his chief of staff, Gen. Wilhelm D. Styer, were a chief source for relations of The Surgeon General and his office with individuals and organizational elements of Headquarters, Army Service Forces.

Records of the Office of the Air Surgeon

A special collection of records of the Air Surgeon's Office, which was amassed for the purpose of preparing a separate history of medical service in the Army Air Forces, was on loan to The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, for several years. These records consist primarily of periodic (chiefly annual) reports, special reports, reports on trips of inspection, and histories of the medical service of a number of air commands; they also include some correspondence of the Air Surgeon's Office with air force surgeons overseas. They were the chief source for medical administration within the commands of the Army Air Forces and contributed substantially to the various accounts in this volume of the dealings between the Air Surgeon and The Surgeon General.

Office of the Chief of Military History: Manuscripts and Studies

Various monographs and draft manuscripts for volumes to be published in "United States Army in World War II" contain brief summary accounts of the medical service within certain oversea commands. A number served to throw light on the command channels above the medical sections at the headquarters of these oversea commands. A few manuscripts dealing with the Army Service Forces and its elements aided in clarifying the relations of the Surgeon General's Office with the Army Service Forces.

Miscellaneous Files

A number of other files, both in the Washington area and elsewhere, have been less widely used. The records of some of the technical services-Quartermaster Department, Engineer Department, and Chemical Warfare Service-furnished a few documents dealing with the participation of these services in one phase or another of the Army's medical work. The Army's Kansas City Records Center has supplied a good many documents relating to the field medical service-that is, the medical service of headquarters, units, and installations in the United States outside of Washington and in oversea areas. The files of the Research Studies Institute, Air University, now at Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala., and of the Military Air Transport Service furnished supplemental information on the organization and administration of the medical service within the Army Air Forces. Some of the wartime records of the medical section (the so-called "Ground Surgeon's Office") at Headquarters, Army Ground Forces, have proved useful, but inquiry by the General Reference and Research Branch of The Historical Unit has failed to produce satisfactory records on the internal organization of that office. The personal files of a few individuals were also consulted.

Documents Relating to the Investigation of the Medical Department

One group of documents, which should properly have been found in a single file, had to be drawn together from a number of sources. These are the papers relating to the Committee to Study the Medical Department which form the basis for most of chapter V dealing with the work of the committee. A protracted search throughout the files of the Department of the Army has failed to turn up the official file known to have been main-tained by the executive secretary of the committee. The author has been informed from time to time that this file was probably destroyed. Various papers relating to the Committee's work, including copies of the testimony before the committee and a number of supporting documents, are in The Historical Unit's files, while the important final report and various memorandums and other papers authored by officials of the Army Service Forces were obtained from the files of that organization maintained by the Departmental Records Branch, Office of the Adjutant General, mentioned above. The records which the Hospitali-


zation and Evacuation Branch, Army Service Forces, kept during the war were on loan to The Historical Unit for several years. By tracing down internal references within documents to other documents, it was possible to locate originals or copies of what appear to be all major documents relating to the work of the committee. The author has also had access to the personal files of Col. Sanford H. Wadhams, chairman of the committee, and those of Dr. Lewis H. Weed, who acted as representative of The Surgeon General on the committee. Additional information concerning the committee's work was elicited by addressing specific questions to committee members and others concerned with the investi-gation and by submitting the manuscript of chapter V to a number of them for comment.

Papers relating to the investigation proved of historical value beyond that of furnishing material for an account of the investigation itself. A number of them review developments during the early war years down to September 1942, the date of the investigation, in the internal administration of the Surgeon General's Office and its relations with higher elements of the War Department.

Published Works

Although a number of published works and some articles appearing in periodicals are cited in the footnotes, they are not listed here, as most were used only for the purpose of substantiating one or two specific passages. However, certain published books and series proved consistently useful in furnishing information on the command structure within which the Medical Department operated. The chief contributor of this sort was the "United States Army in World War II," published by the Office of the Chief of Military History. A similar contribution was made by the series entitled "The Army Air Forces in World War II." A few volumes of the official history of the Medical Department's experience in World War I, "The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War"-principally Volume I, The Surgeon General's Office, and Volume II, Administration, American Expeditionary Forces-afforded a basis for comparison of Army medical administration in World War II with that in World War I.

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