U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History
Skip Navigation, go to content

HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL HISTORY

AMEDD BIOGRAPHIES

AMEDD CORPS HISTORY

BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS

HISTORICAL ART WORK & IMAGES

MEDICAL MEMOIRS

AMEDD MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS External Link, Opens in New Window

ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORIES

THE SURGEONS GENERAL

ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

AMEDD UNIT PATCHES AND LINEAGE

THE AMEDD HISTORIAN NEWSLETTER

Chapter XXV

Contents

SECTION V

OTHER GENERAL HOSPITALS

CHAPTER XXV

ARMY AND NAVY GENERAL HOSPITAL; GENERAL HOSPITAL, FORT BAYARD; LETTERMAN GENERAL HOSPITAL; GENERAL HOSPITALS, NOS. 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, AND 8.

ARMY AND NAVY GENERAL HOSPITAL, HOT SPRINGS, ARK.

Under the pressure of war this hospital was expanded to 268 beds;1 no new buildings, however, were added. Suitable space for augmenting the capacity of the hospital was not available and for this reason no attempt was made to make much use of it. The purchase of the Eastman Hotel, across the street from the hospital, was contemplated at one time as a possible means of material enlargement, but was not consummated.2 The requisition of unimproved property, in the immediate vicinity of the hospital, as well as at a distance, was also considered only to be given up.2

The institution continued to function, throughout the years 1917, 1918, and 1919, much in the same manner as it did for many years preceding the war. Patients of the same type were admitted as formerly, comprising those sent to the hospital for treatment of conditions for which the Hot Springs of Arkansas had an established reputation for being beneficial.

There is nothing in the records to show that this hospital participated in any of the activities incident to the war until the spring of 1919, when certain venereal and other cases from overseas were admitted to the hospital to the number of approximately 200,3 none of which could be the subject of any special remark.

Though considerably smaller than any of the temporary general hospitals, the Army and Navy General Hospital outstripped many of them in numbers treated, due primarily to the fact of its continuous operation throughout the whole war period.


484

FIG. 165.-Army and Navy General Hospital, Hot Springs, Ark.


485-486

Statistical data, Army and Navy General Hospital, Hot Springs, Ark., from April, 1917, to December, 1919, inclusive

UNITED STATES ARMY GENERAL HOSPITAL, FORT BAYARD, N. MEX.

Fort Bayard was situated in the southwestern part of New Mexico, 9 miles distant from Silver City and 3 miles from Bayard Station, both of which points were reached by branches of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway.4

The area of the reservation of Fort Bayard was approximately 19 square miles. On the north the land rises rapidly, reaching the height of 9,000 feet at Black Peak, and to the south of the post breaks away rapidly to the treeless plains. The elevation of the post proper was about 6,000 feet.4

Fort Bayard was first established in 1866. After the close of the war with Spain it was turned over to the Medical Department of the Army as a United States Army General Hospital for the care and treatment of tuberculous officers and soldiers.4

The feature which constitutes the peculiar excellence of the climate of Fort Bayard, and distinguishes it from other parts of the Rocky Mountain plateau, is its relative equability. It is warmer in winter than is Colorado, and it is cooler in summer than is Arizona, and outdoor life is pleasant throughout the year. Two factors contribute to secure this result-the altitude and the geographical position. The altitude, 6,165 feet, prevents excessive heat; the hot plains of a lower elevation, which surround on all sides the mountainous region in which Fort Bayard was situated, temper the cold winds of winter and prevent excessive cold.5 While a temperature of 20? F. is not rarely met with in Colorado and is not unknown in northern New Mexico, the lowest tempera-


487

FIG. 166


488

ture of record at Fort Bayard was 3? F., and this temperature was recorded but once in 37 years. During the period of the Army occupancy of the hospital the days were usually clear in the winter; wraps were rarely required during exercise, and, in fact, the sun shone with such power that some patients could not long endure to sit exposed to its rays even in midwinter. The nights were relatively cold, the temperature usually falling below the freezing point, yet the cold portion of the night was so brief-the minimum temperature being usually reached near morning, when the dissipation of heat had continued for some hours-that the frost rarely remained after 10 a. m. in ground which was exposed to the sun.

Upon the declaration of war with Germany there were approximately 300 patients* at Fort Bayard.6 Anticipating that there would be an enormous increment of patients with the increase in the size of the Army, steps were taken for the enlargement of the hospital at once; but the first of the new wards was not opened for occupation until the middle of February, 1918, followed in March by the opening of three more wards for bed patients.7 On January 1, 1918, there were 467 patients at this hospital,6 and the overcrowded condition was commencing to be acute. By February 1, 1918, the number of patients had increased to 505.6 This situation was partially relieved by the opening, in March, of the three new wards mentioned above; but by this time the number of patients had increased to about 600,6 and 12 hospital ward tents were erected for ambulant patients. On July 1, eight more wards and a new mess were placed in operation, these being known as the open-air wards. At this time the number of patients at the hospital was 991, and the hospital was still overcrowded. Six N-2 barracks for the enlisted personnel were opened on August 15, thus releasing the old detachment quarters, which were then converted into a receiving ward with a bed capacity of 90. At approximately the same time four sets of cantonment officers' quarters and nine sets of noncommissioned officers' quarters were opened.8 An officers' dormitory for patient officers was opened in October, and at about the same time 20 framed and floored single tents for officers were placed in operation. During August two condemned wooden wards were repaired and remodeled and used for ambulant patients. Between October and December 24 hospital tents were erected and occupied. On December 1 there were 1,536 patients in the hospital.6

The necessity for the various increments in the bed space at this hospital, as in other tuberculosis hospitals, was largely determined by the tuberculosis section of the Surgeon General's Office.  The requirements indicated by this section, with certain modifications, formed the basis of construction projects for tuberculosis hospitals. The design of these buildings was fixed by the War Department, but the location and grouping of the buildings were determined by local authority. They were distributed partly among the buildings already there and partly grouped in the southwest section of the hospital, to form a temporary hospital group more or less complete, with its own kitchen, mess, barracks, etc.

Considerable sums of money were required not only for new construction but for improvements in the interior of existing buildings, making the water supply more adequate, for other utilities, and for miscellaneous work. The total cost amounted to approximately $900,000.9

*Figures for patients, as given in this paragraph, include those on a civilian status.  


489-490

Statistical data, United States Army General Hospital, Fort Bayard, N. Mex., from April, 1917, to December, 1919, inclusive

LETTERMAN GENERAL HOSPITAL, PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

In 1898, when the Eighth Army Corps assembled at San Francisco, and during the period of its organization, the hospital service for the troops was performed under canvas, but the climate proving unfavorable for this method of accommodation, the new brick barracks at the Presidio were assigned for use pending suitable construction for hospital purposes. A general hospital was organized on December 1,10 1898, in these buildings, and steps were at once taken for the construction of a hospital. The plan most suited to the purpose was that of an architect of San Francisco, said to be based on that of the Lariboisi?re, Paris, and was adapted to the military service. The general plan of the hospital can best be described as a quadrangle formed by a veranda, onto which abutted all the buildings, except the administration building which occupied a greater part of the front, with quarters on either side the buildings for male and female nurses.10

The primary purpose of the hospital was the care of sick and wounded invalided home from the Philippine Islands. This was later made to include those requiring hospitalization from the Hawaiian Islands and Alaska, as well as from the troops in the vicinity of the hospital.

Originally known as General Hospital, San Francisco, General Order No. 152, War Department, November 23, 1911, caused a change in its designa-  


491

FIG. 167


492-493

tion to Letterman General Hospital, in honor of Jonathan Letterman, who served in the War of the Rebellion as medical director, Army of the Potomac. 

Located directly on the reservation of the Presidio of San Francisco, its surroundings were highly attractive and constantly maintained in excellent condition.

At the time the United States entered the World War the Letterman General Hospital was a well-organized and smoothly functioning institution of 400 beds capacity,11 in view of which fact no difficult problems of organization arose, it being necessary only to expand.

Twenty-six new buildings, mostly wards, were added during the war. Unlike the general hospital at Fort Bayard, the major portion of the temporary buildings were installed en bloc,12 and early in the war. The added buildings were of temporary construction with but one exception: special representations were made by the Surgeon General to secure a permanently constructed psychiatric ward, and this was approved.13 Practically all of the new construction was put up as a detached group comprising wards, kitchen, mess, barracks, facilities for recreation, etc. By January, 1918, the hospital was reporting a capacity of 1,100 beds.11 Its maximum emergency capacity of 2,200 beds was reached in July, 1919, when the sick numbered 1,800,a those in excess of 1,200 occupying emergency expansive space.11

From April, 1917, to May, 1918, inclusive, the activities of the hospital were not greatly in excess of those of normal peace time.11 Patients from France began to arrive about August, 1918, and the number in hospital continued to increase until August, 1919, afterwards gradually decreasing and approximating a pre-war number at the end of 1919.11

Statistical data, Letterman General Hospital, Presidio of San Francisco, Calif., from April, 1917, to December, 1919, inclusive


494

GENERAL HOSPITAL NO. 1, WILLIAMSBRIDGE, NEW YORK CITY

A unique feature of General Hospital No. 1 was its origin in Columbia War Hospital with its inception antedating the declaration of war. On Thursday, March 29, 1917, a tentative plan for Columbia University to aid the medical and surgical defense of New York was conceived, and on April 6, 1917, was published in the New York Times, coincidentally with the President's proclamation of war.14

On April 2, 1917, authority was given by the trustees of the university to erect an emergency war hospital on the so-called Williamsbridge, or Gun Hill Road, property, belonging to the University, provided the funds necessary for the purpose could be raised by gift. The necessary funds, amounting to nearly $300,000, were obtained by subscription in a very short time, and on May 30, 1917, the first unit of the hospital was ready for service.15

This hospital comprised a number of separately located buildings or congeries of buildings. The "main hospital," as it was locally called, consisted of

FIG. 168.-General Hospital No. 1, Williamsbridge, New York City

the series of temporary structures at the northeastern corner of Gun Hill Road and Bainbridge Avenue, Borough of the Bronx. It was about 12 miles from Washington Square and was accessible to trolley, elevated railway, subway, and the railroad. Its location was such, however, that it was without the boundaries of the congested portion of the metropolis, thus making for a most ideal place for a hospital in greater New York. Opposite the main hospital, on Gun Hill Road, was the Montifiore Private Pavilion, a modern brick structure, which was used for the care of officer patients. Three miles distant from the hospital was the Messiah Home, located at One hundred and seventy?seventh Street and University Avenue, New York City, used as a special ward. In the Bloomingdale Hospital for mental cases, in White Plains, N. Y., at a distance of 18 miles from the hospital, 50 beds were reserved. A home at Riverdale-on-the-Hudson was maintained for the care of convalescent nurses. Thus, it will be seen there were five geographically separate parts of General Hospital No. 1.15


  495

THE MAIN HOSPITAL

The principal buildings of this group were located on fairly high ground and spread over an area of about 10 acres. The original buildings were erected by private donations and were composed of sections so assembled as to be readily taken apart for assembling elsewhere. The work on these buildings began early in June, 1917, the original structures comprising 26 single-story wards, a kitchen, and mess hall, and eight other buildings, the bed capacity of the hospital being rated as 500.15

On June 15, 1917, Columbia University tendered the War Department the use of the Columbia War Hospital.16 This offer was accepted by the War Department upon the recommendation of the Surgeon General;17 a nominal lease was secured, and the hospital was designated General Hospital No. 1.18  

Because of the necessity for increasing hospital accommodations in the United States, it was decided to enlarge this hospital to 1,000 beds, and plans were prepared for a rapid expansion. There was an immediate and imperative need for additional ground and it was necessary to trespass upon the property of the Woodlawn Cemetery, adjoining the hospital grounds on the north. Permission had been requested from the cemetery authorities to use a portion of their unimproved land for the erection of temporary wards for the war period, but this request was met by a refusal and peremptory demand to quit the property.  However, there was reason to feel that this action on their part was not in keeping with their sympathies; that it was prompted by the provisions of their charter; and, pressed by the necessity to enlarge this hospital to more useful and efficient proportions, the Medical Department proceeded, after informal agreement, with the erection of temporary wards upon their property.15

In March, 1918, the War Department began the construction of 18 single?story wards and a one-story frame barracks for the detachment, Medical Department. In the meantime the construction of large steam heating plants had been started, and was completed in the early part of the year 1918. A year later the War Department constructed 2 two-story stuccoed, hollow-tile barracks.15

The physical property of the hospital consisted of a group of 43 one-story frame wards; 1 two-story frame barracks; 2 two-story stuccoed, hollow-tile barracks; 2 one-story frame barracks; 20 one-story frame buildings for the various activities of the hospitals, such as the operating pavilion, receiving room, kitchens, mess halls, laundry, post exchange, warehouses, etc.; one concrete heating plant, and 2 two-story frame buildings, one used as headquarters and the others as the officers' club.15

The following buildings were of portable framework: Wards 13 to 25, inclusive; wards 31 to 41, inclusive; the office of the detachment, Medical Department; the sick and wounded officers; the supply and finance officers; two barracks for the enlisted personnel; and the two mess halls. The quartermaster storehouse, the laundry, the main kitchen, the operating room, and the garage were of portable steel construction. Wards 26 to 30 and 42 to 54, 1 two-story frame barracks, 2 two-story hollow-tile barracks, the personnel office, and the steam heating plant and system were constructed by the War Department.15


496

MONTIFIORE PRIVATE PAVILION15

The Montifiore Home, of New York City, generously proferred the Government the use of its private pavilion for the care of officer patients. It was taken over by the War Department on September 1, 1918, at the nominal rent of $1 per month. This building was located just across the street from the hospital and was a most comfortable, five-story brick structure, with ample accommodations for 110 patients. It comprised private rooms, or suites of two rooms with baths. Each floor had a modern kitchenette, with gas range, ice box, dumb waiter, etc. On the main floor there were a spacious dining room and kitchen, and a large lobby, wherein convalescent patients and their visitors could sit, and entertainments could be given. In the basement there were a laboratory, an occupational department, a very costly and modern hydrotherapy equipment, as well as storerooms. The Montifiore Home proved to be a most valuable asset to the hospital, in which were cared for hundreds of officer patients.

MESSIAH HOME15

The Messiah Home was located at the southwestern corner of University and Tremont Avenues, and was operated as ward 55 of the hospital. Like the Montifiore Home it was obtained at a nominal rental of $1 per month, and was turned over to the Government by the Catholic War Council. The building was of brick and granite, was four storied, and had accommodations for 200 patients. It was remodeled to provide wards with kitchenettes, mess hall, receiving and entertainment rooms, etc., and was used as the psychiatric department of the hospital. It served, in addition, as a clearing hospital for special neuropsychiatric patients returning from overseas. Opening on November 22, 1918, it subsequently cared for approximately 3,000 neuropsychiatric patients debarked from the American Expeditionary Forces.

CAMP ESTATE15

Adjoining the Messiah Home was the Camp Estate, which was also leased from the Catholic War Council. The two residences on this estate were used for quarters for the nurses and enlisted men on duty at the Messiah Home.

BLOOMINGDALE HOSPITAL15

Almost from the incipiency of the hospital it was apparent that some special place would have to be procured in the port of New York in which officer patients with acute mental condition could be adequately cared for. Accordingly, the Surgeon General made arrangements at the Bloomingdale Hospital, White Plains, N. Y., for the care of as many as 50 mental cases at this hospital. This foresighted arrangement proved very satisfactory, for the hospital was exceedingly well arranged, beautifully situated, and surrounded by large well-kept grounds, where the patients were excellently cared for. The first patient was admitted May 2, 1918, and the total number of admissions was approximately 90. The patients were cared for partly by the physicians in charge of the institution and partly by medical officers assigned to General Hospital No. 1. Charges for the patients were at the rate of $35 a week.

RIVERDALE-ON-THE-HUDSON15

Through the generosity of its owner, Riverdale-on-the-Hudson, a sumptuous home, was tendered the Government for use in the care of convalescent  


497

nurses. The house was given rent free, and subsistence for the nurses was furnished at the expense of the owner. The residence was a stone structure, beautifully located on the banks of the Hudson, and had accommodations for 24.

While in the home, the nurses were under the professional and administrative care of General Hospital No. 1.

Owing to the great need of beds in New York City for debarking sick and wounded, General Hospital No. 1 operated for the greater part of the period of its existence as a debarkation hospital under the control of the commanding general, Port of Embarkation, Hoboken, N. J.15

General Hospital No. 1 was especially equipped to care for drug addicts, epileptics, insane officers, mental defectives, those with organic diseases of the nervous system, orthopedic patients, and patients with peripheral nerve, brain, and spinal-cord injuries.15

The principal structural defect of the hospital was that the portable buildings, originally built for the Columbia War Hospital, were stove heated, and were not only bad fire risks but were too loosely put together to permit the successful installation of a steam heating system. Considerable expenditures were required to keep the buildings from falling apart.15

Statistical data, United States Army General Hospital No. 1, Columbia War Hospital, Williamsbridge, New York City, N. Y., from July, 1917, to October 15, 1919, inclusive


498

GENERAL HOSPITAL NO. 4, FORT PORTER, BUFFALO, N. Y.

General Hospital No. 4 was located at Fort Porter, N. Y., in the city of Buffalo, between Massachusetts and Connecticut Streets, on the north and south, and Front Street and Niagara River on the east and west. Being situated on a 60-foot bluff at the northeast end of Lake Erie, where the lake opens into its outlet, the Niagara River, the site commanded an excellent view of Lake Erie, Niagara River, and the Canadian shore. The reservation covered about 28? acres and was practically a continuation of the north end of one of Buffalo's parks, "The Front."

Fort Porter had been an Infantry garrison, and there were about 40 post buildings comprising 20 sets of quarters for officers and noncommissioned officers, four barracks, a hospital, several storehouses and magazines, a headquarters building, a bakery, stables, sheds, etc. These buildings faced either outwardly upon the surrounding city streets, or inwardly upon two open


499

areas-the drill ground and the parade ground. The post used the light, sewerage, and water systems of the city of Buffalo, and the buildings were heated, for the most part, by separate steam-heating plants.19

The hospital site was exposed to much high wind, principally winds from the southwest and west. The winters were severe, with sudden changes in temperature, but the summers were delightfully cool. The average temperature for the entire year was 48?.

On October 16, 1917, the Surgeon General requested the use of Fort Porter for general hospital purposes.20 This request was approved by the Secretary of War 10 days later, and on November 10 the post was named General Hospital No. 4, and as such was opened at once.21 Some renovation, repair, alterations, and additions had already been instituted by the Surgeon General, but considerably more was necessary. No great expansion was contemplated because of the limited area available, and plans for remodeling were left to the local commander.

In the spring of 1918 the commanding officer of the hospital furnished the Surgeon General a plan of development, which plan was approved by the War Department only in part, and construction based on the modified plan was requested. As it was impossible to economically make a large hospital at the place, it was decided to develop only the existing buildings and use the hospital for the special treatment of the insane.22 Meanwhile, improvements and alterations were being accomplished. Compared with other general hospitals, relatively little construction work was done here, and the most of it was accomplished in the later months of 1917 and the early months of 1918. During this time the hospital had been fully operating as a general hospital; and subsequent to November 10, it had been caring for the sick except during a period of two weeks in January, 1918, when it was closed for repairs. At first, general medical and surgical cases of a minor character were sent to this hospital for treatment; later, its activities were restricted to the care of mental cases only, the first patients of this class being admitted in February, 1918.23 Later still, after better facilities for the treatment of the insane had been provided at General Hospital No. 43, Hampton, Va., all mental cases were transferred from General Hospital No. 4 to that hospital, and the treatment of neuroses only was continued at General Hospital No. 4, until the date of its closure, November 9, 1919.24


500

Statistical data, United States Army General Hospital No. 4, Fort Porter, N. Y., from November, 1917, to October, 1919, inclusive


501

GENERAL HOSPITAL NO. 5, FORT ONTARIO, N. Y.

Fort Ontario is located in the city of Oswego, county of Oswego, New York State, at the mouth of the Oswego River. The Oswego River, the southwestern boundary of the reservation, empties into Lake Ontario. The lake is the north and northwestern boundary of the reservation, and the city of Oswego, on the south, is the southeastern boundary.25

The tract owned by the Government at Fort Ontario comprises 55 acres. It is about 275 feet above sea level and was graded and filled to a depth of about 6 feet. The contour of the land is such, ranging in elevation from 50 feet above the level of Lake Ontario, at the northwest corner, to 18 to 20 feet above the lake level along the eastern boundary, that it has a natural drainage.25

Fort Ontario was built by the English under Governor Shirley, in 1755, captured and destroyed by the French under Marquis de Montcalm, in 1756, rebuilt by the English under Lord Amherst, in 1759, destroyed by the Americans about 1788, and again rebuilt by the English in 1792 and surrendered by them to the Americans in 1796, it being the last military post to be evacuated by the English in the United States after the War of the Revolution.25

Ever since the year 1796 Fort Ontario has been a United States military post, garrisoned by United States troops, and the site upon which it was located has been owned by the United States Government. During the year 1814 it was captured and destroyed by an English fleet under Admiral Yeo, and was rebuilt of earth and timber construction by the United States Government in the year 1839. It was again rebuilt of stone and concrete construction about 1863. As constructed in 1839 and reconstructed in 1863, the post occupied only a small part of the tract of land owned by the Government,  


502

and that part which was utilized was situated in the northwest corner of the reservation and was referred to as the "Old Fort." In 1903 the reservation property was again improved; the "Old Fort" was abandoned and practically all that part of the land which had previously been used was filled and regraded and utilized either as building sites, for roads, or for the parade ground. New buildings of brick structure were erected, water lines and sewage systems were installed, and the capacity of the post was increased to accommodate a battalion of Infantry.25

Being located on the shore of Lake Ontario in rather an exposed position, Fort Ontario was subjected to high winds from off the lake; in winter it was usually quite cold, with considerable snow, though in summer a moderate temperature obtained.

The country surrounding the fort was of the rolling, partially wooded type, and was principally farm land.

FIG. 169.-Portion of General Hospital No. 5, Fort Ontario, N. Y.

The soil was a mixture of gravel and lime, of rather a clay type, and there was very little dust in dry weather or mud in rainy weather. The grounds of the reservation were cultivated and covered with a good variety of grass.

The roads of the reservation were macadam, a crushed stone base with an oil binder, and were well kept. Those of the city were brick, concrete, macadam, or good dirt roads. There was but one main stream in the vicinity, the Oswego River.

The parade ground, located in the center of the post, was about 600 feet wide and extended from a point about 800 feet from the southwest corner to a point about 800 feet from the northwest corner of the post.

The post of Fort Ontario made a desirable place for hospital purposes; and on July 3, 1917, the Secretary of War, upon request of the Surgeon General, authorized the use of "such barracks as may be necessary for base or general hospital purposes."26 On the day of the approval of his request the Surgeon General wired the surgeon, Eastern Department, to direct the post surgeon,


503

Fort Ontario, to plan a base hospital and to make telegraphic request for necessary additional buildings. In the late summer work on remodeling and improving the existing buildings was begun. In the fall some common wards, X-ray facilities, additional barracks, and a heating plant were authorized.27

On March 1, 1918, a fairly comprehensive schedule of construction was called for, consisting of a receiving building, a laboratory, an operating pavilion, a mess and kitchen, an officers' ward, barracks and wards planned to add 280 beds to the hospital capacity. This request came from the field and was estimated to cost $131,922. Twelve days later the cantonment division of the Quartermaster General's Office informed the Surgeon General that $145,300 would be required. The expenditure of this amount was approved. On April 23, due to a change in the wording of the appropriation, it was necessary to return the approved request to the Surgeon General's Office for the approval of a still greater sum. By this time 10 per cent had to be added to the estimated cost, due to an increase in prices since the project was initiated March 1, increasing the total to $192,910. This sum was approved by the Surgeon General's Office and the request returned for construction May 3,28 and on June 10 actual construction work began. In August additional construction, buildings, corridors, the installation of equipment, etc., caused the total expenditures to be $281,550.29

In all, 30 new buildings of frame material were constructed. They were located by local authority and so placed about, and at the rear of, existing buildings that the parade ground remained free for recreation purposes, and the whole was connectible by closed corridors.

The permanent barracks buildings and other post buildings were of stone foundation, brick buildings with slate roofs. The buildings put up as additional for hospital use were of the standard temporary construction used in all camps. The operating pavilion was located on the first floor of one of the permanent barracks buildings and consisted of three operating rooms, anesthetizing rooms, sterilizing room, instrument room, scrub-up rooms for officers and one for nurses, linen closets, and a recovery ward, completed September 1, 1918.30 All the construction authorized was completed by January 22, 1919.

The water used at Fort Ontario was purchased from the water department of the city of Oswego and supplied from water mains extended from the city mains. The water was obtained from Lake Ontario, the intake pipe being about 1 mile from the shore, from which place it was pumped to the pumping station, where it was oxygenated by spraying into a reservoir and chemically treated by the chlorination method.31 This water was piped to all wards. Water lines were extended to supply the newly constructed buildings and to furnish a greater supply of water to the hydrants for fire protection.

The sewerage system in existence was extended so that all newly constructed buildings were properly provided for. The main sewer was sufficient in size to take care of the extensions and additions to the system.32

In the beginning, before the mess halls and kitchens had been erected, the detachment and patients' messes were separate, one barracks building being used as a mess and kitchen for the detachment, while one ward in the permanent barracks building, which was supplied with stoves, was used as the patients' kitchen and mess hall.33 Later a large building was completed, which contained a kitchen, diet kitchen, and mess hall, with accommodations for  


504

about 700 persons at one time. The detachment and patients then messed in the same hall and the menu only was different. Bed patients confined to wards were fed also from the main mess hall.34 The carriers used were large containers built on the thermos principle for the purpose of keeping food hot or cold as the case might be. Mess for all patients was under the observation of the ward surgeon and all messes were under the direction of the mess officer. 

The officers' quarters comprised seven brick buildings, six of which were double houses, and a single house used by the commanding officer. Under ordinary circumstances these quarters were used for 13 officers and their families; however, with the large number of officers at this post they were divided up so that a few married officers with their families were assigned two or more rooms and single officers one room.

At first the nurses were quartered in two of the officers' quarters33 but subsequently nurses' quarters were erected,30 which in addition to one of the officers' quarters caused only one or two nurses, rarely more, to occupy one room.

The detachment, enlisted personnel, was quartered at first in the permanent barracks, and later, when these were required for wards, the new temporary barracks were used,33 each having a capacity of 46 men. At one time it was necessary to establish a camp for the use of the detachment and the men were then quartered in tents.

This hospital functioned as a general hospital for the treatment of medical, surgical, and venereal cases,35 and as a reconstruction hospital. On September 1, 1919, it ceased to exist as a general hospital.

Statistical data, United States Army General Hospital No. 5, Fort Ontario, N. Y., from, November, 1917, to September 3, 1919, inclusive


505

GENERAL HOSPITAL NO. 6, FORT McPHERSON, GA.

Fort McPherson, 4 miles to the southeast of Atlanta, was named in honor of Gen. J. B. McPherson, commander of a corps of Sherman's army.

The terrain is hilly and heavily wooded with red oak and pine. The soil is a sandy red clay, sticky when wet and easily carried, but the excellent condition of the grounds obviated this. The roads of the post were well watered and oiled, which prevented dust from scattering in dry weather.

The climate, during the period covered by the history of the hospital, offered no extremes in seasons, the summers being warm but not oppressively so.   During summer the days were hot, but the nights were cool, and the


506

FIG. 170


507

humidity was seldom high. The winter cold rarely started before January. There was little snow, but considerable sleet and ice, which was more in the nature of frozen mist. The winds were frequently high in wintry weather, sometimes extending into early spring.

The roads consisted of macadam, asphalt, and tarvia. The Dixie Highway passed the eastern side of the post. While the road construction was good, the maintenance was very poor, the condition of the main highway leading to the hospital being at times dangerous to traffic.

The first important step in the establishment of the hospital was taken on June 23, 1917,36 when the Secretary of War, through The Adjutant General of the Army, directed "that the permanent barracks of Fort McPherson * * * be made available for general or base hospital use." A little over a month later, on July 31, the commanding officer of Fort McPherson was directed to "get in touch with the commanding officer of the hospital to be established at Fort McPherson, and endeavor to arrange a complete transfer of administration to the hospital authorities" simultaneously with the withdrawal of his troops.36 Within a few weeks-on August 20-the transfer was effected,36 the post being turned over to the senior medical officer, by the commanding officer of the Seventeenth Infantry, on the departure of that regiment-and thus began the base hospital at Fort McPherson.

On December 2, 1917, it was directed by telegraphic information that the base hospital at Fort McPherson be designated General Hospital No. 6, this being confirmed a few days later by receipt of General Orders, No. 150, War Department, November 29, 1917.

The permanent buildings consisted of a guardhouse, a two-story headquarters building, a two-story officers' clubhouse, and 18 two-story houses (for officers) extending along the northern side of the parade ground. Fourteen of these houses were double, being designated east and west. There was also a row of two-story brick barracks extending along the southern side of the parade ground, which had verandas on both floors and a northern and southern exposure, and 2 two-story double machine-gun barracks, one facing north and the other facing west. Along the southeastern margin of the post, skirting the Dixie Highway, were the various quartermaster buildings. In addition to these brick buildings, there was a number of frame buildings located in different portions of the post and used for storehouses by the Quartermaster Department, which were frame buildings originally erected on the parade ground for the reception of patients during the Spanish American War.37

General Hospital No. 6 had its beginning in the post hospital, a two-story brick building, with 2 one-story wings, one running south and the other running north. This was the original post hospital, the central two-story portion serving as the administrative offices of the hospital, and the wings as medical and surgical wards, each accommodating about 20 patients.

Early in the summer of 1917 the Surgeon General sent plans for the build?ing of certain wards and storehouses to be used as a base hospital, and it was directed by The Adjutant General of the Army that the commanding officer, the surgeon, and the quartermaster should constitute a board of officers to locate these buildings. They were a receiving ward, female nurses' home, enlisted men's barracks, two isolation wards, two single sets of wards, two double


508

sets of wards, operating pavilion, two psychiatric wards, a medical storehouse, and a morgue.

On August 20, 1917, on the departure of headquarters and the six companies of the Seventeenth Infantry, the post was turned over to the ranking medical officer, in accordance with instructions of The Adjutant General referred to above. Later in the fall of 1917 a battalion of the Seventeenth Infantry returned to Fort McPherson for guard duty in the city of Atlanta and occupied barracks in the training camp buildings. After the officer who commanded this battalion left, a junior officer of Infantry was left in command, and, with the approval of the department commander, assumed command of the whole post,36 under the provisions of the One hundred and twentieth Article of War, notwithstanding the fact that the last clause of the One hundred and twentieth Article of War clearly states that "unless otherwise directed by the President". After considerable correspondence with The Adjutant General through the Surgeon General's Office, this situation was rectified and about December 2, 1917, the hospital became a general hospital, and about March 5, 1918, the Medical Department's jurisdiction was clearly defined.

The water supply of the hospital was obtained from deep wells, supplemented by Atlanta water, piped from the Chattahoochee River.38 The independent water supply was of great service in 1918, when the Atlanta water supply was found to be contaminated, causing a small epidemic of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in the city of Atlanta and in neighboring commands. Only temporary gastrointestinal disturbance was experienced among the inhabitants of the post and this was carefully investigated by a special detail of officers. Until the condition of the Atlanta water supply was pronounced good by the hospital laboratory, water wagons delivered water, drawn from the wells, to the wards and mess hall.38 It is believed that more serious illness was averted by this precaution.

Incineration of the sewage was practiced until recent years. To meet the demands of the increased population, a large modern sewage-disposal plant was built on the northwestern corner of the post,39 part of the land lying outside the post boundary. Two large stone filtration beds received the effluent in alternating automatic sprays through which it filtered into a small streamlet, the spring of the recipient water shed having been filled in to prevent drinking.

There were no latrines in use at the hospital, flush closets and urinals, with modern plumbing, being used throughout.

Connected with the permanent barracks were toilets, tubs, and shower baths, either in the basement of the main building or in the basement of adjoining buildings. In order to make these barracks available for wards for the care of bed patients, it was necessary to introduce in or near the ward running water with wash basins and slop sinks. This was accomplished by screening off a portion of each ward. There was erected a small frame building with toilets, basins, and shower baths, originally designed for the use of the Medical Corps, who were to have been housed in a building immediately adjoining this. Owing to the growth of the hospital, it was found more practical to assign these buildings for the use of colored patients.

The heating of the hospital buildings was accomplished by two heating plants (steam). The first of these was authorized October 12, 1917,40 and completed  


509

December 9, 1917. This plant heated some of the permanent hospital buildings and the newly constructed frame wards. The nurses' and officers' quarters, consisting of a clubhouse, and 20 separate buildings (houses) as well as some permanent barrack buildings, were heated by individual furnaces and open fireplaces. To heat these buildings and the nurses' Red Cross Building, and additional living quarters, mess hall and kitchen, and infirmary for nurses, a second steam heating plant was authorized September 19, 1918.41

In this connection it is of interest to mention that the authorization for the first heating plant came so late (Oct. 12, 1917) that completion in time to meet the winter cold would have been impossible. The commanding officer, foreseeing this, ordered the construction of the heating plant without authorization and later was commended by The Adjutant General for his action.

The hospital was lighted by electricity, the power being supplied by the Georgia Railway & Power Co., Atlanta.

In August, 1917, the mess of the hospital at Fort McPherson comprised three kitchens, two of which were for patients and the other for the enlisted personnel of the hospital. At that time about 400 patients and Medical Department enlisted men were being cared for in these three kitchens, the equipment of which consisted of regular garrison equipment but no modern labor-saving devices. When the barrack buildings, vacated by the Seventeenth Infantry, were remodeled and made into wards, a kitchen was opened for each building in which there were two wards. When the new buildings to be used as surgical wards were completed, they were connected with the large gymnasium and post exchange building by a runway. The stage of the gymnasium was remodeled and made into a large kitchen for these surgical wards; and the gymnasium proper was converted into a large mess hall for the convalescent patients from the adjoining wards and for the men of the detachment, Medical Department. The equipment was meager at first, but was soon replaced by up-to?date appliances.

This large institution, in addition to being a hospital, soon assumed the nature of an Army medical school, for both scientific and military training. The officer personnel was divided into a permanent staff of headquarters, medical, sanitary, and quartermaster officers, and comprised the commanding officer, the chief of the surgical service and 40 ward surgeons, the chief of the medical service and 25 assistants, the chief of the laboratory service with laboratory technicians, and the quartermaster with nine assistants. It continued in existence as a general hospital until December, 1919, when it reverted to the status of a post hospital.


510

Statistical data, United States Army General Hospital No. 6, Fort McPherson, Ga., from December, 1917, to December, 1919, inclusive


511

GENERAL HOSPITAL NO. 7, BALTIMORE, MD.

The Garrett Estate, located in the northern suburban portion of Baltimore, was in the early fall of 1917 generously tendered the Government by its owner for use as a hospital for the blind.42 The estate comprised 50 acres of land, beautifully landscaped and wooded, on which were located several sumptuous dwellings, separately known as Evergreen, Evergreen, Junior, and The Wilson Home. These structures were adequate to house 50 patients and the necessary personnel and supplies.

Adjacent to the Garrett Estate was a tract of land, consisting of 2 acres, which was also offered the Government, and this and the offer of the Garrett Estate were accepted by the War Department at the nominal rental of $1 per.43

Much study was devoted to the incidence of blindness, both total and partial, in the armies of the allies. Varying reports were received in the Surgeon General's Office; conflicting statistics were analyzed, and direct personal reports were secured. The application of this experience to our own forces was a difficult matter and required considerable care, lest wrong conclusions be reached. Even with the care exercised, the estimated number of the blinded, to be expected in our forces, varied widely, dependent on the point of view of the one making the estimate, as well as upon the grounds used for his calculations. In consequence, many studies were made, and data from all quarters were considered in evolving plans for the necessary additional buildings at this hospital. It was desired to provide facilities to teach advanced vocational subjects to the blind; but there were no known institutions in the


512

United States giving instruction of this sort; and considerable difficulty and delay were encountered while sufficiently definite building plans were being prepared. Some of these plans were developed at the hospital and some were prepared in the Office of the Surgeon General. Three main construction items, initiated in the Office of the Surgeon General, were consolidated into two, and their execution was begun in April, 1918, and January, 1919, respectively, and completed in November, 1918, and March, 1919.

The hospital, however, was organized as General Hospital No. 7 on November 27, 1917, with the primary purpose of physical, mental, and vocational reconstruction of economically blinded soldiers, sailors, marines, and civilians in the Government service.44

When completed, this institution, which was virtually a school, consisted of two school buildings, two manual training buildings, one recreation building,

FIG. 171.-Swimming pool in gymnasium, General Hospital No. 7, Baltimore

one physical recreation building, five barracks, and the necessary utility structures in addition to the buildings originally on the estate. The ultimate capacity of the hospital was 300, and the cost of its construction was $300,000.

In addition to teaching Braille, various trades suitable for the blind were taught. Certain of the men were also given intensive training in vocations with which they had become identified prior to their entrance into the service.

The physical recreation building at the hospital was found to be of a decided advantage; its swimming pool, especially, engendered self-reliance and lent poise to the patients. It was learned that after a blind man became able to calmly dive from an elevated spring board into the pool he had gone a long way in overcoming that physical timidity which is so common. Strangely enough, the bowling alleys were put to good use, and the benefit in developing a sense of direction was often remarked.  


513

Soldiers who had received injury to the eyes were cared for in General Hospital No. 2, Baltimore, so long as medical or surgical attention was required, after which they were sent to General Hospital No. 7. While these soldiers were in General Hospital No. 2, however, it was the practice to begin reeducation of them so that no time would be lost.

In April, 1919, following a visit of Sir Arthur Pearson, who told of the methods and success of St. Dustan's in England, which he, a blinded man, had founded and was operating, it was decided to demilitarize General Hospital No. 7. All the blind soldier inmates were discharged from the service; and as a result of their civilian status, with total disability, they were drawing a compensation greater in amount than their active pay had been. This increased their morale markedly. Such was not the case with the officer patients, however; but they were few in number. In order to continue the work at this institution the Medical Department entered into an agreement with the American National Red Cross whereby the Medical Department held the property on lease, but turned over the buildings to the Red Cross on a revocable license so that that organization, in cooperation with the Federal Board for Vocational Training, could carry on the instruction of the blind.

Statistical data, United States Army General Hospital No. 7, Baltimore, Md., from December, 1917, to December, 1919, inclusive


514

GENERAL HOSPITAL NO. 8, OTISVILLE, N. Y.

This hospital had its inception in a conference at Otisville, in the fall of 1917, between representatives of the Surgeon General's Office, the New York City Sanatorium for Tuberculosis, and the office of the commissioner of health, New York City. As a result of this conference, the city of New York, on December 10, 1917, granted to the War Department the exclusive temporary occupancy of about 40 acres of unimproved land adjoining the New York City Sanatorium for Tuberculosis in the outskirts of Otisville, N. Y. The property acquired was on the rather steep southern slope of Shawangunk Mountain, overlooking the town on the north. Three additional small tracts of land were obtained in order to secure an avenue of entrance, a heating plant, and reservoirs for the water supply. Later, and after the hospital was in operation, it was necessary to lease three additional properties: for farming purposes, recreational and occupational features, and quarters for officers and reconstruction aides.  


515

On September 9, 1917, in a letter to The Adjutant General's Office the Surgeon General requested authority to have constructed a 500-bed hospital for the treatment of tuberculosis.45 This authority being received, the Surgeon General on October 24 sent plans to the Construction Division and requested the erection of a 300-bed hospital.46 This was to be the first hospital for the treatment of the tuberculous. Much time was now given to the study of the wards to be used. Although preliminary plans for the hospital had been transmitted to the Construction Division, study was continued on the design of various types of wards to be adopted and upon the various classes of wards for the varying clinical conditions of the sick. This premature request for construction served its purpose, as the Construction Division utilized the time in estimating materials and starting them to the site, in securing authority for the expenditure of the necessary funds, in surveying, and in organizing for the project. Meanwhile, opinions from the best authorities available were con?

FIG. 172.-General Hospital No. 8, Otisville, N. Y.

sidered and decisions made from time to time, as a result of which substitutions in the original request were made. Negotiations, for the lease of the land, which as yet had not been secured, were going forward. During this period, however, there was evidence of much misunderstanding of the purpose of the Surgeon General, as his office received letters charging that he was providing accommodations for the tuberculous identical with those in the large military camps then being completed. Before construction was begun, the erection of six more special wards was added to the request. Construction began on this (now a 500-bed hospital) early in February, 1918, and by July, 1918, it was finished.48

In the summer of 1918, the necessity for more space for the tuberculous was evident, and eight open-air wards, four infirmary wards, one barracks, additions to the laboratory, nurses' quarters, and head surgery building and other miscellaneous construction items, were called for.49 The water being unsatisfactory, an ultraviolet ray sterilizer was installed and some months later filtration and sewage disposal plants were installed.50 Great difficulties  


516

in construction were experienced, especially in the winter and spring, but the work was prosecuted with energy and dispatch.

The land was situated near the tracks of the Erie Railroad. It was not possible to run a spur up the mountain into the hospital; so to save hauling coal the heating plant was built down by the tracks; and the sick, arriving as they did by train, were carried the short distance from the station to the hospital by ambulance.

Construction work ceased early in 1919 with a total normal capacity of 1,000 beds. In the main, the wards were built for three clinical classes: Bed cases, ambulatory cases, and a class midway between these two. For the first class, infirmary wards were built, for the second class, ambulatory wards, and for the middle group, semi-infirmary wards.51 The cost was approximately one and one-half million dollars, or $1,500 a bed.

The hospital was opened in June, 1918, and within a month over 500 sick were constantly under treatment.52 The number remained at about 600 until March, 1919, when it began to increase, and by April it had reached 800, where it remained until September, when a rapid decline began.52 This decline was furthered by the decision to close the hospital on November 15.53 This decision was approved and carried out; and the remaining patients requiring further treatment were transferred to other tuberculosis hospitals, namely, General Hospitals, Nos. 19, 20, and 21.54

Statistical data, United States Army General Hospital No. 8, Otisville, N. Y., from May, 1918, to December, 1919, inclusive


517

REFERENCES

(1) Report of Sanitary Inspection of Army and Navy General Hospital, Hot Springs, Ark., on December 23, 1918, by Lieut. Col. H. B. McIntyre, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Army and Navy Gen. Hosp.) K.

(2) Correspondence relative to land and buildings at Hot Springs, Ark., for hospital sites. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 601 (Hot Springs, Ark.) S.

(3) Shown on weekly bed reports. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (U).

(4) Outline Description of Military Posts and Reservations in the United States and Alaska and of National Cemeteries. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1904, 53.

(5) Letter from Surg. Gen. George M. Sternberg, to the Secretary of War, July 7, 1899. Subject: Sanitarium for Soldiers Suffering from Tuberculosis.     On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 60225 (Old Files).

(6) Shown on weekly bed report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 U.

(7) Letter from Lieut. Col. Edward P. Rockhill, M. C., commanding officer, General Hospital, Fort Bayard, to Maj. E. H. Bruns, M. C., S. G. O., February 2, 1918. Subject: Opening of wards. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (Gen. Hosp. Ft. Bayard) (K).

(8) Letter from Lieut. Col. Edward P. Rockhill, M. C., to Lieut. Col. E. H. Bruns, M. C., S. G. O., August 4, 1918. Subject: Occupation of wards. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (Gen. Hosp. Ft. Bayard) K.

(9) Annual Report of the Surgeon General U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. II, 50. 

(10) Annual Report of the Surgeon General U. S. Army, 1900, 29.  


518

(11) Shown on weekly bed reports. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632.

(12) Shown on "block plan," Letterman General Hospital. On file, Hospital Division, S. G. O. 

(13) Sixth indorsement from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, November 19, 1917. Subject: Request construction of permanent building for psychiatric wards. Also: Eighth indorsement from The Adjutant General to the commanding general, Western Department. Subject: Authorizing construction of permanent building for psychiatric wards. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632.11 (Letterman General Hospital) K.

(14) Tentative plan for Columbia University to aid the medical and surgical defense of New York, suggested by J. Bentley Squier. Published in the New York Times, April 3, 1917.

(15) Report from Lieut. Col. P. W. Gibson, M. C., commanding officer, General Hospital No. 1, Williamsbridge, N. Y., to the Surgeon General, October 18, 1919. Subject: Report of activities of General Hospital No. l. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O. (General Hospitals).

(16) Letter from F. A. Goetze, treasurer, Columbia University, to the Secretary of War, June 15, 1917. Subject: Offer of use of war hospital for military purposes. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 187538 (Old Files).

(17) Letter from the Surgeon General to the Secretary of War, June 25, 1917. Subject: Offer of war hospital by Columbia University, N. Y. Approval of Secretary of War indorsed thereon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 187538 (Old Files).

(18) G. O. No. 103, W. D., Washington, August 6, 1917. Par. I.

(19) Report of Sanitary Inspection of General Hospital No. 4, at Fort Porter, N. Y., on April 25, 1919, by Col. E. R. Schreiner, M. C. On file, Division of Sanitation, S. G. O.

(20) Letter from the Surgeon General to the Chief of Staff, October 16, 1917. Subject: Use of Fort Porter, N. Y., for general hospital purposes. On file, Record Room, A. G. O., 323.7 (Gen. Hosp. No. 4) K.

(21) Letter from commanding office, General Hospital No. 4, Fort Porter, N. Y., to the Surgeon General, November 11, 1917. Subject: Duties. On file, Record Room, S.G.O., 323.7-5 (Gen. Hosp. No. 4) K.

(22) Letter from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, February 8, 1918. Subject: Accommodations for troops returning from Europe. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 680.1 (General Hospitals) K.

(23) First indorsement from United States Army General Hospital No. 4, Fort Porter, N. Y., to the Surgeon General, April 8, 1918. Report on psychiatric service at this hospital. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Gen. Hosp. No. 4) K.

(24) Memorandum from Lieut. Col. T. D. Woodson, M. C., for the Chief, Morale Branch, General Staff, July 7, 1919. Subject: General Hospital No. 4, Fort Porter, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 652 (Gen. Hosp. No. 4) K.

(25) Outline Description of Military Posts and Reservations in the United States and Alaska and of National Cemeteries. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1904, 356.

(26) Telegram from The Adjutant General to the commanding general, Eastern Department, July 3, 1917. Subject: Use of barracks at Fort Ontario. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 176795-2 (Old Files).

(27) Letter from the Surgeon General to the commanding officer, Base Hospital, Fort Ontario, N. Y., October 17, 1917. Subject: Hospital construction. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 621.-1 (Ft. Ontario) (N).

(28) Letter from the Surgeon General to the commanding officer, General Hospital No. 5, Fort Ontario, N. Y., May 3, 1918. Subject: Additional hospital buildings and improvements. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (General Hospital No. 5) K.

(29) Letter from the Chief of Construction Division, to the Surgeon General, October 3, 1918. Subject: Construction work, General Hospital No. 5, Fort Ontario, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 652 (Gen. Hosp. No. 5) (K).

(30) Letter from the chief of surgical service, to the commanding officer, General Hospital No. 5, January 20, 1919. Subject: Report of surgical work for year 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Gen. Hosp. No. 5) K.

(31) Report of Sanitary Inspection of United States Army General Hospital No. 5, Fort Ontario, N. Y., made on August 29-30, 1919, by Col. Paul C. Hutton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.-1 (Gen. Hosp. No. 5) K.

(32) Report on Sanitary Inspection of General Hospital No. 5, at Fort Ontario, N. Y., April 26, 1919, by Col. E. R. Schreiner, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Gen. Hosp. No. 5) K.


519

(33) Letter from Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., to the Surgeon General, February 7, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection General Hospital No. 5, Fort Ontario, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Gen. Hosp. No. 5) K.

(34) First indorsement from United States Army General Hospital No. 5 to the Surgeon General, June 4, 1919. Subject: Conditions at the hospital. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. 333. (General Hosp. No. 5) K.

(35) Memorandum from Col. Robert E. Noble, M. C., to all officers of the Surgeon General's office, April 29, 1918. Subject: Designation of hospitals as points to which patients will be sent, according to their classification. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (General).

(36) Letter from commanding officer, General Hospital No. 6, to Surgeon General, December 6, 1917. Subject: Conditions at Fort McPherson, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Lawson Gen. Hosp.) K.

(37) Shown on chart of Fort McPherson, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 168795-A (Old Files). 

(38) Monthly sanitary reports from General Hospital No. 6, for months of June, July, August, and September, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Gen. Hosp. No. 6) P.

(39) Letter from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, October 16, 1917. Subject: Operation of sewage disposal plant at Fort McPherson, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 672 (Ft. McPherson, Ga.) N.

(40) Letter from the commanding officer, General Hospital No. 6, to the Surgeon General, May 27, 1919. Subject: Report of activities. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O. (Gen. Hosp. No. 6).

(41) Letter from the chief of Construction Division, to the Surgeon General, September 27, 1918. Subject: Installation of steam heating plant at General Hospital No. 6, Fort McPherson, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 674 (Lawson General Hospital) K.

(42) Letter from Mrs. T. Harrison Garrett to the Surgeon General, April 10, 1917. Subject: Offer of property to Government for use as a hospital. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 601 (Baltimore, Md.) S.

(43) Letter from the Surgeon General to the Quartermaster General, November 1, 1917. Subject: Lease of Mrs. T. Harrison Garrett's estate. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 601 (Baltimore, Md.) S.

(44) Memorandum from Maj. H. H. Johnson, M. C., to Personnel Division, November 28, 1917. Subject: Personnel of General Hospital No. 7 now being organized. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 210.31-1 (General Hospital No. 7) K.

(45) Letter from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, September 12, 1917. Subject: Hospital for tuberculosis. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 204575 (Old Files).

(46) Letter from the Surgeon General to the Quartermaster General, October 24, 1917. Subject: Tuberculosis Hospital, Otisville, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632-1 (Gen. Hosp. No. 8) K.

(47) Letter from the Surgeon General to the Secretary of War. February 15, 1918. Subject: Tuberculosis Hospital, Otisville, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (Gen. Hosp. No. 8) K.

(48) Letter from Maj. W. G. Hammer, M. C., General Hospital No. 8, to Col. George E. Bushnell, M. C., S. G. O., July 11, 1918. Subject: Progress report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Gen. Hosp. No. 8) K.

(49) Letter from the Surgeon General to Construction Division, War Department, August 15, 1918. Subject: New construction, General Hospital No. 8, Otisville, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (Gen. Hosp. No. 8) K.

(50) Letter from the Surgeon General to the commanding officer, General Hospital No. 8, November 7, 1918. Subject: Water supply. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Gen. Hosp. No. 8) K.

(51) Shown on plans of General Hospital No. 8. On file, Hospital Division, S. G. O.

(52) Shown on weekly bed reports. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (U).

(53) Letter from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, October 9, 1919. Subject: Discontinuance of Gen. Hosp. No. 8, Otisville, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 323.72-3 (Gen. Hosp. No. 8) K.

(54) Letter from commanding officer, General Hospital No. 8, to the Surgeon General, November 16, 1919. Subject: Final report of hospital. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 323.72-3 (Gen. Hosp. No. 8) K.

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS