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Army Medical Specialist Corps

AMEDD Corps History > Medical Specialist

Chiefs, Army Medical Specialist Corps


Colonel Emma E. Vogel
December 1947-November 1951

Colonel Nell Wickliffe
December 1951-October 1954

Colonel Harriet S. Lee
November 1954-October 1958

Colonel Ruth A. Robinson
November 1958-October 1962

Chiefs Army Medical Specialist Corps

 


ARMY MEDICAL SPECIALIST CORPS

Prepared and published under the direction of

Lieutenant General LEONARD D. HEATON
The Surgeon General, United States Army

Editor in Chief

Colonel ROBERT S. ANDERSON, MC, USA

Editors

Colonel HARRIET S. LEE, USA (Ret.)
Lieutenant Colonel MYRA L. MCDANIEL, USA (Ret.)

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

WASHINGTON, D.C., 1968


ARMY MEDICAL SPECIALIST CORPS

Advisory Editorial Board

Major General FLOYD L. WERGELAND, USA (Ret.), Chairman

Colonel HARRIET S. LEE, AMSC, USA (Ret.)

Colonel KATHARINE E. MANCHESTER, AMSC, USA

Colonel NELL WICKLIFFE MERRILL, WMSC, USA (Ret.)

Colonel RUTH A. ROBINSON, AMSC, USA (Ret.)

Colonel EMMA E. VOGEL, WMSC, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant Colonel HELEN M. DAVIS, AMSC, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant Colonel BARBARA R. FRIZ, AMSC, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant Colonel EDNA LURA, WMSC, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant Colonel MYRA L. MCDANIEL, AMSC, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant Colonel ELEANOR L. MITCHELL, AMSC, USA (Ret.) (Deceased)

Major HELEN BURNS GEARIN, WMSC, USA (Ret.)

Mrs. WINIFRED C. KAHMANN, OTR

Miss H. ELIZABETH MESSICK, OTR (Deceased)

Colonel ROBERT S. ANDERSON, MC, USA (ex officio)

THE HISTORICAL UNIT, UNITED STATES ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE

Colonel ROBERT S. ANDERSON, MC, USA, Director

CHARLES J. SIMPSON, Executive Officer

HAZEL G. HINE, Chief, Administrative Branch

ERNEST ELLIOTT, Jr., Chief, Editorial Branch

RODERICK M. ENGERT, Chief, General Reference and Research Branch

CHARLES M. WILTSE, Ph. D., Litt. D., Chief, Historians Branch

Lieutenant Colonel GILBERT A. BISHOP, MSC, USA, Chief, Information Activities Branch

Lieutenant Colonel FREDERICK BELL, Jr., MSC, USA, Chief, Special Projects Branch

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 68-60001


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $5.25

Authors Page


Contents

FORWARD

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter

Part I

THE CONSTITUENT GROUPS BEFORE WORLD WAR II


IV. Occupational Therapists Before World War II (1917-40) (Lieutenant Colonel Myra L. McDaniel, USA (Ret.))

THE CONSTITUENT GROUPS IN WORLD WAR II

      Part III

THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE CORPS

Chapter

Part IV

PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES AND PROBLEMS, 1947-61

APPENDIXES

A. Letter, The Supervising Dietitian, U.S. Army, to The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 29 July 1919

B. Salaries for Dietitians Assigned to Army Hospitals in a Civilian Status, 1918-48

C. Dietitians Trained in Army Hospitals, 1919-42

D. Army Student-Apprentice Training Program, 1942-48 (Civilian)

E. Army Hospitals Conducting and Number Entering Apprentice Dietitian Training, 1943-48

F. Direct Appointments to Apprentice Dietitian Training Programs, 1943-45

G. Emergency Physical Therapy Training Courses (Didactic Phase) Conducted by the Army, 1941-46

H. Rehabilitation Schedule, 5th General Hospital, 1943

I. Physical Therapy Department, 108th General Hospital

J. Strength, Women's Medical Specialist Corps, 1947-60

K. Distribution, Women's Medical Specialist Corps Officers, 1947-51, 1953-60

L. Number of Women's Medical Specialist Corps Officers Who Attended Military and Civilian Courses, January 1948 to 30 December 1960

M. Strength of the Army and the Women's Medical Specialist Corps, 1948-60

N. Assignment of Women's Medical Specialist Corps Procurement Officers in Army Headquarters, 1950-60

O. Women's Medical Specialist Corps Officers Serving in Field Grades, Fiscal Years 1948-61

P. Number of Students Graduated in Women's Medical Specialist Corps Professional Educational Programs, Fiscal Years 1950-61

Q. Army Dietetic Internship Programs, 12-Month Course 1949-60 (Military)

Illustrations

1. Maj. Gen. Norman T. Kirk, USA, The Surgeon General, 1 June 1943-31 May 1947

2. President Truman, after signing Public Law 80-36

3. Room in nurses' quarters, General Hospital No. 21, Denver, Colo., 1920

4. Contrast in uniforms, 1942

5. American National Red Cross gray travel uniform, World War I

6. Fourth of July muster, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1925

7. Dietitian instructing diet kitchen employees, Mess No. 2, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1928

8. Diet kitchen, Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver, Colo.

9. Kitchen in Mess No. 2, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1921

10. Diet kitchen, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1943

11. Group exercise, 1918

12. Uniform worn by physical therapists in some Army hospitals, 1920

13. Street uniform worn by physical and occupational therapists, World War I

14. Physical therapy clinic, Fort Sam Houston Station Hospital, Tex., 1918

15. Physical therapy clinic, U.S. Army Base Hospital, France, 1918

16. First graduating class, Army physical therapy course, 1923

17. Electric treatment in physical therapy

18. Modalities used in the thirties

19. Occupational therapy ward and workshop activities, 1918-20

20. Occupational therapy for amputees, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1918

21. Heliotherapy ward, Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver, Colo.

22. Occupational therapy aides, Evacuation Hospital No. 27, army of occupation, Coblenz, Germany

23. Handmade occupational therapy equipment, American Expeditionary Forces

24. Occupational therapy for orthopedic patients, Base Hospital No. 9, Chateauroux, France

25. Miss Emma E. Vogel and Miss Helen C. Burns, 1942

26. Lt. Col. Walter E. Barton, MC

27. Mrs. Winifred C. Kahmann, OTR

28. Miss Wilma L. West, OTR, and Miss H. Elizabeth Messick, OTR

29. USAHS Acadia

30. Maj. Helen C. Burns, Maj. Gen. Paul R. Hawley, Chief Surgeon, European Theater, and Maj. Emma E. Vogel, 1945

31. Blue hospital uniform worn overseas by physical therapists early in World War II

32. Off duty uniforms, World War II

33. Hospital uniforms, World War II

34. Hospital uniform worn by occupational therapists, World War II

35. Class in dehydrated food preparation using field equipment, Fort Sam Houston, Tex

36. Medical officer lecturing on gastrointestinal diseases to student and staff dietitians

37. Apprentice dietitian participating in therapeutic phase of food service activities

38. Student dietitian discussing recipe with head cook

39. Instruction and practice in bandaging techniques, physical therapy course for civilian students, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C.

40. Anatomy instruction, physical therapy course for civilian students, Brooke General Hospital, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

41. Enlisted student physical therapist adjusting infrared lamp in preparation for treatment of patient's left shoulder, Fort Huachuca Station Hospital, Ariz.

42. Enlisted student physical therapist receiving instruction in use of a walker, Army and Navy General Hospital, Hot Springs, Ark.

43. Apprentice physical therapists in training, Fletcher General Hospital, Cambridge, Ohio

44. Clinical learning experiences, War Emergency Course, World War II

45. Classes for occupational therapy apprentices, Battey General Hospital, Rome, Ga.

46. Dietitian and mess sergeant checking the daily menu

47. Supervision of food service on a ward to assure uniform servings

48. Cafeteria service for ambulatory patients

49. Food carts

50. M-1937 field range

51. Dietitian checking the planned diet while another weighs the special diet food, 17th General Hospital, Naples, Italy, 1943

52. Fifteen nurses who graduated from dietetics training, Brisbane, Australia, January 1944

53. Hospital ship

54. Hospital food service facilities overseas

55. 1st Lt. Roberta Mack, 1946

56. Hospital ration tent

57. Hospital food service, New Guinea, 1944

58. Map of Manila Bay area with inset of Luzon Island, Philippines

59. Malinta Tunnel

60. Physical therapy facilities, Zone of Interior

61. Exercise for the amputee

62. Exercise and instruction for lower extremity amputee patients

63. Rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries

64. Patient receiving instruction for exercise prior to thoracic surgery

65. Postthoracic surgery rehabilitation

66. Treatment of vascular conditions

67. DeLorme exercise program

68. Physical therapist assisting a patient in exercise in Hubbard tank

69. Oversea physical therapy facilities, World War II

70. Improvised water heater, China-Burma-India

71. Improvised physical therapy apparatus, World War II

72. Improvised hand exerciser frame

73. Physical therapist supervising group exercise, Italy

74. Electrical stimulation while immobilized in cast

75. "Oscar" received by The Surgeon General, 22 June 1949

76. Preprosthetic training, lower extremity amputee

77. Retraining for the upper extremity amputee

78. Activities requiring minimal exertion for general medical and surgical patients

79. Staff conference, neuropsychiatric occupational therapy section, Battey General Hospital, Rome, Ga.

80. Industrial therapy providing socialization and constructive activity which benefits both the hospital and the patient

81. Graded activity program for orthopedic patient with shoulder disability

82. Following surgery, occupational therapy prescribed to increase range of motion in affected part

83. Peripheral nerve injury

84. Occupational therapy following plastic surgery

85. Patient with poliomyelitis working to regain coordination and strength

86. Patient on Stryker frame works with plastic project to maintain functional use of upper extremities

87. Convalescent patient gaining experience in automotive mechanics

88. Work therapy program, Birmingham General Hospital, Van Nuys, Calif.

89. Activity programs for convalescent patients, Communications Zone

90. Occupational therapy, Communications Zone

91. Insignia of Women's Medical Specialist Corps

92. Maj. Gen. Norman T. Kirk, Col. Emma E. Vogel, and Maj. Gen. Raymond W. Bliss

93. Brig. Gen. George E. Armstrong, Deputy Surgeon General, Lt. Col. Helen C. Burns, and Col. Howard W. Doan, MC, Executive Officer, Surgeon General's Office, 24 February 1948

94. Lt. Col. Edna Lura, Lt. Col. Ruth A. Robinson, Lt. Col. Eleanor L. Mitchell, and Maj. Gen. Raymond W. Bliss, 27 August 1948

95. Uniforms worn during 1945-51

96. Wool taupe and summer dress uniforms authorized in 1951

97. Col. Emma E. Vogel

98. Lt. Col. Gerard J. Sheehan, MSC, Col. Nell Wickliffe, and Brig. Gen. Silas B. Hays, Deputy Surgeon General, 3 December 1951

99. Section chiefs, Women's Medical Specialist Corps

100. Maj. Katharine E. Manchester, Col. Nell Wickliffe, and Maj. Eleanor M. Marshall, July 1952

101. Civilian consultants meet in the Surgeon General's Office to discuss Women's Medical Specialist Corps personnel procurement, January 1951

102. Representatives of the Army Medical Service participating in the February 1951 Philadelphia contact camp meeting

103. Directors of the nine women's military services, 1951

104. A member of the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services visiting the Occupational Therapy Section, Brooke General Hospital, Fort Sam Houston, Tex., August 1952

105. Maj. David E. Marchus, Jr., JAGC, Maj. Agnes P. Snyder, Maj. Gen. George E. Armstrong, The Surgeon General, Lt. Col. Harriet S. Lee, and Maj. Vincent P. Verfuerth, MSC

106. Lt. Col. Myra L. McDaniel

107. Lt. Col. Helen M. Davis

108. Lt. Col. Barbara R. Friz

109. Maj. Gen. Silas B. Hays, Lt. Col. Ruth A. Robinson, and Col. Harriet S. Lee

110. Lt. Col. Cordelia Myers

111. Lt. Gen. Leonard D. Heaton, The Surgeon General, Lt. Col. Katharine E. Manchester, and Col. Maurice Levin, JAGC

112. Insignia of Army Medical Specialist Corps

113. Col. Inez Haynes, ANC, Lt. Col. E. L. Waddell, Maj. Gen. Silas B. Hays, The Surgeon General, and Col. Harriet S. Lee

114. Maj. Marion M. Donaldson, Lt. Col. Katharine V. Jolliffe, ANC, Col. Harriet S. Lee, Maj. Gen. Earle G. Standlee, Surgeon, Army Forces Far East and Eighth U.S. Army, Lt. Col. Mabel G. Stott, ANC, and Maj. Elizabeth C. Jones

115. New uniform styles authorized for women in the service

116. Dedication of Eleanor L. Mitchell Terrace, Irwin Army Hospital, Fort Riley, Kans.

117. Maj. Velma L. Richardson, Lt. Col. Eleanor L. Mitchell, Maj. Gen. Martin E. Griffin, Commanding General, Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver, Colo., Capt. Jeanne B. Morris, and 1st Lt. Martha Shivvers

118. Miss Helen S. Willard and Col. Ruth A. Robinson

119. Col. Emma E. Vogel

120. Maj. Helen B. Gearin

121. Dietetic intern orienting new employee in special diet procedures

122. Dietetic intern training in different units of hospital food service

123. Field trips

124. Intern lectures to medical clinical specialists to gain experience in methods of teaching

125. A new student officer, 2d Lt. Joicey Putnam is "pinned" by her parents, Brig. Gen. P. A. Putnam, USMC (Ret.), and Mrs. Putnam

126. Background for a new career

127. Classroom and laboratory activity, Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

128. Students practicing and experiencing therapeutic procedures they will soon be applying to patients

129. Capt. Beatrice Whitcomb

130. Capt. S. F. Moorehead, Jr., MC

131. Maj. Vann S. Taylor, MC, Assistant Director, Department of Physical Medicine, Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Tex., James G. Golseth, M.D., and Maj. Agnes P. Snyder

132. Practice clinic, physical therapy course, Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

133. Clinical experience in the hospital

134. Physical therapists at Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C., preparing for incoming class of students

135. Students in academic phase at Medical Field Service School observing treatment procedures at Brooke General Hospital, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

136. Military occupational therapy affiliates, 1953

137. Woodworking project, Army Occupational Therapy Course

138. Instruction in the Army Occupational Therapy Course, Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Tex., 1953

139. Ceramic workshop, Army Occupational Therapy Course, Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

140. Brig. Gen. James P. Cooney, Commandant, Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

141. On-the-job training for enlisted occupational therapy technicians, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C.

142. Decentralized ward service

143. Centralized tray service

144. Tray service

145. Dining room area

146. On-the-job training session for civilian food service employees

147. Tilt table improvised from X-ray table, Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco, Calif., 1959

148. Physical therapy equipment

149. Variety in patients treated by Army physical therapists

150. An amputee receiving gait training

151. Wand exercises for the young and older patients

152. Patient receiving mild exercise for fracture and dislocation of humerus

153. Physical therapy ward, 21st Station Hospital, Korea, 1954

154. Col. Aniello F. Mastellone, MC, Chief, Physical Medicine Service, Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver, Colo., and 1st Lt. Virginia Barr

155. Activities of daily living

156. Splints and devices used in activities of daily living

157. Work therapy constructively occupying patient who is waiting for his upper extremity prosthesis

158. Kineplastic prostheses

159. Art activity by neuropsychiatric patients, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C.

160. Occupational therapy with pulmonary tuberculosis patients

161. Group activity for tuberculous patients

Charts

Number

1. Physical therapy training courses conducted by the Army at Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1922-41

2. Dietitian training patterns, 1942-48

3. Army hospitals conducting applicatory (apprentice) physical therapy training programs, 1942-45

4. The 18-month period of input, didactic and clinical phases, occupational therapy, War Emergency Course, 1944-45

5. Organization of hospital dietetics division before 1947

6. Organization, Women's Medical Specialist Corps Division, Surgeon General's Office, December 1947-June 1950

7. Women's Medical Specialist Corps career pattern

8. Organization, Women's Medical Specialist Corps Division, Surgeon General's Office, June 1950-July 1953

9. Organization, Women's Medical Specialist Corps Division, Surgeon General's Office, July 1953-January 1961

10. Hospital mess organization, 1947

11. Food service division organization in general hospitals, 1950

Tables

Number

1. Physical therapists and physical therapy facilities in the Medical Department, U.S. Army, October 1918 to May 1919

2. Physical therapists and physical therapy facilities in the Medical Department, U.S. Army, July 1919 to June 1920

3. Comparison of curriculums in the physical therapy courses, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C., l922-23 and 1938-39

4. Comparison of curriculums in occupational therapy, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1924 and 1932

5. Tabulation of age and educational background of physical therapists, 31 October 1945

6. Effect of demobilization for dietitians and physical therapists, 31 August 1945 to 30 June 1947

7. Comparison of class hours in regular and emergency physical therapy courses, Medical Department, U.S. Army, 1940-4l

8. Outline of emergency 4-month course for occupational therapists, 1944

9. Flow of trainees, occupational therapy, War Emergency Course, 1944-45

10. Educational background of enlisted members of the Women's Army Corps enrolled in Army physical therapy training courses, 1943-45

11. Emergency physical therapy training courses conducted by civilian institutions, 1942-45

12. Food constituents of hepatitis diet, July 1944 to March 1945

13. Food constituents of hepatitis diet initiated in March 1945

14. Recapitulation of appointments, Women's Medical Specialist Corps, 16 April 1947 to 16 April 1948

15. Breakdown by grades of Regular Army officers in the Women's Medical Specialist Corps, 30 June 1950

16. Number of graduate dietitians, physical therapists, and occupational therapists called to active duty, fiscal years 1950-53

17. Number of hospitals to which Army Medical Specialist Corps officers (excluding students) were assigned, 1953 and 1960

18. Civilian educational level of Army Medical Specialist Corps officers as of 25 November 1959

19. The Army Physical Therapy Course curriculum, 1948-50, 1953, and 1959

20. Program of instruction, physical therapy enlisted courses, 1949-51, 1954, and 1956-57

21. Physical therapy enlisted courses, 1949-60

22. Curriculum, Army Occupational Therapy Course, Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Tex., 1952-54

23. Number of outpatient visits to Army hospitals, 1952 and 1960