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Contents

Books and Documents

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II


Body Armor in Korea


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

WOUND BALLISTICS

Prepared and published under the direction of

Lieutenant General LEONARD D. HEATON
The Surgeon General, United States Army

Editor in Chief

Colonel JAMES BOYD COATES, Jr., MC

Editor for Wound Ballistics

Major JAMES C. BEYER, MC

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1962

Contents

FOREWORD 

PREFACE

Chapter:

I.     Enemy Ordnance Materiel (Maj. James C. Beyer, MC, Maj. James K. Arima, MSC, and Doris W. Johnson)

Japanese Ordnance
German Ordnance
Causative Agents of Battle Casualties in World War II 
North Korean Forces Ordnance Materiel 

II.     Ballistic Characteristics of Wounding Agents (Maj. Ralph W. French, MAC, USA (Ret.), and Brig. Gen. George R. Callender, USA (Ret.)

Physical Aspects of the Missile Casualty 
Physical Aspects of the Missile 
The Wound as a Physical Entity 

III.     Mechanism of Wounding (E. Newton Harvey, Ph. D., J. Howard McMillen, Ph. D., Elmer G. Butler, Ph. D., and William O. Puckett, Ph. D.) 

Historical Note 
Methods Used in Studying Wounding 
Underwater Ballistics as a Guide to the Wounding Mechanism 
The Wound Track or Permanent Cavity in Muscle 
The Explosive or Temporary Cavity in Muscle 
The Explosive or Temporary Cavity in Abdomen, Thorax, and Head 
Movements Following Collapse of the Explosive Cavity 
Nature and Extent of Damage Around the Wound Track 
Damage to Bone by High-Velocity Missiles 
Damage to Blood Vessels and Nerves Near Wound Track 
Pressure Changes Accompanying the Passage of Missiles 
Retardation of Missiles by Soft Tissue and Tissuelike Substances 
Penetration of Missiles Into Soft Tissue and Bone 
Casualties in Relation to Missile Mass and Velocity 

IV.     Casualty Survey-New Georgia and Burma Campaigns (James E. T. Hopkins, M.D.)

New Georgia Campaign 
Burma Campaign 
Analysis of Casualties 
Causative Agents 
Circumstances of Wounding 
Disposition of Casualties 
Influence of Protective Armor 
U.S. Casualties Caused by U.S. Missiles 
Conclusions 

V.     Study on Wound Ballistics-Bougainville Campaign (Ashley W. Oughterson, M.D., Harry C. Hull, M.D., Francis A. Sutherland, M.D., and Daniel J. Greiner, M.D.) 

Factors Peculiar to the Bougainville Campaign 
Bougainville Campaign During Survey Period (15 Feb.-21 Apr. 1944) 
Disposition of Battle Casualties and Anatomic Distribution of Wounds 
The Different Weapons Causing Battle Casualties 
Treatment of the Wounded
Morbid Anatomy 
Circumstances and Protective Measures 
Summary 
Conclusions

VI.     Examination of 1,000 American Casualties Killed in Italy (William W. Tribby, M.D.)

Purpose of Study
Methods of Study 
Statistical Studies
Case Reports

VII.     Study of Fifth U.S. Army Hospital Battle Casualty Deaths (Howard E. Snyder, M.D., and James W. Culbertson, M.D.) 

Region, Type, and Distribution of Wounds 
Causes of Death 
Special Studies on Intra-Abdominal Wounds 
Cases in Which the Immediate Cause of Death was Shock 
Pigment Nephropathy in Battle Casualties 

VIII.     Casualty Survey, Cassino, Italy (Allan Palmer, M.D.)

Medical Facilities and Evacuation of Casualties 
Analysis of Casualties

IX.     Survey of Battle Casualties, Eighth Air Force, June, July, and August 1944 (Allan Palmer, M.D.)

Collection of Data 
Analysis of Battle Casualties
Casualties Due to Flak 
Casualties Due to Secondary Missiles 
Casualties Due to Missiles From Enemy Fighter Aircraft 
KIA Casualties-June Through November 1944 
Summary and Conclusions 

X.     Directional Density of Flak Fragments and Burst Patterns at High Altitudes (Allan Palmer, M.D.) 

German 88 mm. High Explosive Antiaircraft Shell 
Aircraft Battle Damage Data 
General Conclusions 

XI.     Personnel Protective Armor (Maj. James C. Beyer, MC, William F. Enos, M.D., and Col. Robert H. Holmes, MC)

Helmet Development 
Helmet Design 
Body Armor 

XII.     Wound Ballistics and Body Armor in Korea (Carl M. Herget, Ph. D., Capt. George B. Coe, Ord Corps, and Maj. James C. Beyer, MC) 

Battle Casualty Survey-November1950 
Joint Army-Navy Body Armor Field Test, 14 June-13 October 1951 
Army Body Armor Test Team, February-July 1952 
Medical Study of KIA Casualties 
Lower Torso Armor 
Improvised Armor for Special Purposes 

APPENDIXES

A.     Casualties, 1st Battalion, 148th Infantry, 37th Division 
B.     Casualties, 1st Battalion, 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional) 
C.     Casualties, 3d Battalion, 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional) 
D.     Principal and Associated Wounds 
E.     Combined Wound Groups 
F.     Detailed Observations on Wound Groups 
G.     Bomb Incident 
H.     Comparison of World War II Missile Casualty Data 
I.       Medical Program for the Study of Wounds and Wounding 

INDEX 

Illustrations

Figure:

1.     Model 14 (1925) 8 mm. pistol 
2.     Model 100 (1940) 8 mm. submachinegun 
3.     Model 38 (1905) 6.5 mm. rifle 
4.     Model 96 (1936) 6.5 mm. light machinegun 
5.     Model 97 (1937) 81 mm. infantry mortar 
6.     Model 97 (1937) 90 mm. mortar 
7.     Model 90 (1930) 75 mm. gun 
8.     Model 91 (1931) 105 mm. howitzer 
9.     6.5 mm. ball ammunition 
10.   Model 100, 81 mm. mortar shell 
11.   Fragments from Japanese 81 mm. mortar shell 
12.   Model 91 (1931) hand grenade
13.   Model P 38 (Walther) 9 mm. pistol 
14.   MP 40 (Schmeisser) 9 mm. submachinegun 
15.   Model 98, 7.92 mm. German Mauser rifle 
16.   Model FG 42, 7.92 mm. automatic rifle 
17.   Model 35, 7.92 mm. AT rifle 
18.   MG 34 (Solothurn) 7.92 mm. dual-purpose machinegun
19.   81 mm. mortar with bipod and baseplate 
20.   Pak 38, 50 mm. AT gun 
21.   Pak 43, 8.8 cm. AT gun 
22.   7.92 mm. German ball ammunition
23.   Fragments from one of two 5 cm. mortar shells 
24.   Fragmentation characteristics, German 8 cm. mortar shell 
25.   High explosive mortar shells 
26.   Fragments from one of two 50 mm. high explosive shells of a German antitank gun
27.   Fragments from German 75 mm. high explosive shell 
28.   Fragments from German 75 mm. hollow-charge shell 
29.   Fragments from German 88 mm. high explosive shell 
30.   Fragmentation characteristics, German 88 mm. high explosive artillery shell
31.   Fragments from two rounds of German 105 mm. howitzer ammunition 
32.   Antipersonnel mine 
33.   Antipersonnel shrapnel mine 
34.   CCF Maxim heavy machinegun 
35.   Soviet 120 mm. mortar 
36.   Soviet 120 mm. mortar 
37.   Soviet 122 mm. howitzer 
38.   Soviet 152 mm. gun howitzer 
39.   CCF 82 mm. mortar shell 
40.   CCF 82 mm. mortar shell 
41.   CCF short 120 mm. mortar shell 
42.   CCF extra long 120 mm. mortar shell 
43.   CCF 75 mm. high explosive shell 
44.   Soviet fragmentation hand grenade 
45.   Japanese 6.5 mm. bullet
46.   Japanese bullets 
47.   Smoothbore .30 caliber gun 
48.   Wooden sabots to carry steel spheres 
49.   Water tank for study of shot into liquid 
50.   High-speed motion picture cameras 
51.   Apparatus for spark shadowgram technique 
52.   Westinghouse Micronex apparatus for X-ray pictures
53.   Frames from high-speed motion picture of 3/16-inch steel sphere entering water
54.   Frames from high-speed motion picture of 1/8-inch steel sphere striking water
55.   Frames from motion picture of 1/8-inch steel sphere entering gelatin gel 
56.   Frames from high-speed motion picture of gelatin block shot with 1/8-inch steel sphere 
57.   Temporary cavities formed in water
58.   Spark shadowgrams of 1/8-inch spheres striking water 
59.   Pressure-time record of shock wave 
60.   Spark shadowgram of 3/16-inch steel sphere in water 
61.   Record of pressure changes in water 
62.   Frames from high-speed motion picture of 3/16-inch steel sphere entering water
63.   Muscle of cat thigh with entrance and exit holes produced by steel sphere 
64.   Muscle of cat thigh with entrance and exit holes produced by steel fragment 
65.   Roentgenograms of cat thigh showing permanent cavity after passage of steel sphere
66.   Blocks of 20 percent gelatin gel 
67.   Soft tissues of thigh of cat 
68.   Blocks of 20 percent gelatin gel
69.   Roentgenogram of thigh of cat after passage of steel sphere 
70.   Spark shadowgraph of 4/32-inch sphere in water 
71.   Block of Plasticine
72.   Spark shadowgraph of 4/32-inch steel sphere in gelatin gel 
73.   Spark shadowgraph of cat thigh after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere 
74.   Microsecond roentgenograms of 4/32-inch steel spheres passing through block of butcher meat and container of water 
75.   Microsecond roentgenograms of thigh of dog after passage of steel sphere 
76.   Frames from high-speed motion picture of 1/8-inch steel sphere through leg of cat 
77.   Roentgenograms of thigh of cat before and after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
78.   Microsecond roentgenogram of thigh of cat showing temporary cavity after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
79.   Microsecond roentgenogram of thigh of cat showing temporary cavity after passage of shell fragment
80.   Microsecond roentgenogram of thigh of cat showing temporary cavity after passage of wire nail
81.   Microsecond roentgenogram of thigh of dog showing temporary cavity after passage of rifle bullet
82.   Microsecond roentgenograms of thigh of cat showing temporary cavities after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
83.   Microsecond roentgenograms of thigh of cat showing temporary cavity after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
84.   Frames from high-speed motion picture showing volume changes in abdomen of cat
85.   Frames from high-speed motion picture showing volume changes in tube filled with water
86.   Microsecond roentgenogram of abdomen of cat showing temporary cavity after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
87.   Roentgenograms of abdomen of cat
88.   Microsecond roentgenogram of abdomen of cat showing temporary cavity after passage of steel cylinder
89.   Frames from high-speed motion picture of thorax of cat after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
90.   Roentgenograms of thorax of cat
91.   Microsecond roentgenogram of head of dog showing temporary cavity after passage of 1/8-inch steel sphere
92.   Roentgenograms of head of cat
93.   Skull of head of cat
94.   Skull of head of cat
95.   Frames from motion picture of cavity in gelatin after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
96.   Microsecond roentgenograms of abdomen of cat
97.   Frames from motion picture of skinned leg of cat after passage of 4/32-inch sphere
98.   Frames from motion picture of cat thigh after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
99.   Microsecond roentgenograms of thigh of cat
100. Frames from high-speed motion picture of thigh of cat after passage of 1/8-inch steel sphere
101. Frames from motion picture of pig spleen after passage of 1/8-inch steel sphere
102a. Photomicrographs of muscle fibers
102b. Photomicrographs of muscle fibers
103. Photomicrograph of muscle fibers
104. Microsecond roentgenogram of thigh of cat after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
105. Microsecond roentgenogram of thigh of cat after passage of shell fragment 
106. Microsecond roentgenogram of beef rib after passage of 8/32-inch steel sphere
107. Roentgenogram of thigh of cat
108. Roentgenogram of thigh of dog
109. Roentgenogram of thigh of cat
110. Microsecond roentgenogram of thigh of cat showing temporary cavity after passage of 4/32-inch steel sphere
111. Microsecond roentgenogram of thigh of cat showing temporary cavity after passage of steel fragment
112. Cat skulls 
113. Roentgenograms of thigh of cat 
114. Roentgenograms of thigh of cat
115. Photomicrograph of sciatic nerve of cat 
116. Photomicrograph of sciatic nerve of cat 
117. Photomicrograph of sciatic nerve of cat 
118. Shadowgram of shock wave 
119. Shadowgrams of shock waves 
120. Shadowgram of shock wave
121. Shadowgram of shock wave 
122. Shadowgrams of shock waves 
123. Shadowgrams of shock waves 
124. Shadowgrams of shock waves 
125. Records of shock wave pressures 
126. Microsecond roentgenogram of abdomen of cat after passage of 3/16-inch steel sphere
127. Spark shadowgram of shock wave complex 
128. Crystal record of pressure changes 
129. Crystal record of pressure changes 
130. Frames from high-speed motion picture of abdomen of cat after passage of 3/16-inch steel sphere 
131. Frames from motion picture of 1/8-inch steel sphere striking water 
132. Frames from motion picture of frog hearts after passage of 1/8-inch steel sphere 
133. Frames from motion picture of frog hearts after passage of 1/8-inch steel sphere 
134. Frames from motion picture of colon of cat suspended in Ringer's solution
135. Frame from high-speed motion picture of cavity formed by steel sphere
136. Spark shadowgraphs of cavities formed by spheres 
137. Spark shadowgraphs of cavities produced by cylindrical slugs 
138. Spark shadowgram of layers of skin after passage of 6/32-inch steel sphere 
139. Tank filled with 20 percent gelatin gel
140. Roentgenogram of thigh of dog 
141. Roentgenogram of butcher meat after passage of steel spheres 
142. Roentgenogram of abdomen of cat 
143. Roentgenogram of beef femur
144. Medical aidmen carrying wounded man to ambulance jeep 
145. Members, 37th Division Clearing Company, completing a surgical procedure, New Georgia Island
146. Wounded soldiers lying in vessel, awaiting transportation to 17th Field Hospital 
147. View of the Ledo Road 
148. U.S. troops and Kachin natives watching a parachute supply drop 
149. Kachins from a friendly native village leading men of the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional) through the jungle 
150. Wounded soldiers awaiting evacuation, Myitkyina airfield
151. Operating room of surgical team in field hospital 
152. Litter bearers carrying wounded Chinese soldier to ambulance pickup point
153. One of the routes of evacuation between clearing station of Americal Division and 21st Evacuation Hospital 
154. Perimeter road near junction of Americal and 37th Divisions 
155. Roadway along the Laruma River, outside the perimeter 
156. Ward area, 21st Evacuation Hospital on Bougainville 
157. Underground operating room, 21st Evacuation Hospital on Bougainville 
158. Interior, underground ward, 21st Evacuation Hospital on Bougainville 
159. Situation map 
160. Focal point of entire Hill 260 battle 
161. Variety of banyan tree 
162. Jungle growth on Hill 260
163. Hill 260 being shelled by Americal Division artillery fire 
164. Enemy pillbox on Hill 260 
165. Partially cleared jungle growth on Hill 700
166. Precipitous hillside off the perimeter road 
167. Wounded being transferred from halftrack to jeep 
168. Wounded soldier being helped down the side of Hill 700 
169. Japanese 75 mm. gun emplacement on Blue Ridge 
170. Enemy dead on Hill 700
171. A cleared field of fire in front of the 129th Infantry sector 
172. Light tank of the 754th Tank Battalion 
173. Soldiers crawling up to barbed wire 
174. An area devastated by U.S. artillery shell fire 
175. Scene of action of Japanese infiltration, 2d Battalion, 129th Infantry, 37th Division 
176. General Sherman medium tank and infantrymen attacking Japanese positions along perimeter of 129th Infantry, 37th Division 
177. Japanese killed on perimeter of Company F, 129th Infantry, 37th Division
178. Japanese foxholes 
179. Roentgenogram of skull showing artillery shell fragment lodged in sinus cavity 
180. Roentgenogram of compound comminuted fracture of humerus 
181. Roentgenogram of thoracic cavity 
182. Roentgenogram of thoracic cavity 
183. Roentgenograms of lower and upper extremities 
184. Litter carry 
185. A screened operating room in a clearing station
186. Jeep ambulance 
187. Entrance sites of lethal wounds in 104 autopsied casualties 
188. Widespread destruction of cranial vault and brain 
189. Extensive fracture of skull at site of entrance wound 
190. Missile fragments 
191. Extensive fracture of skull 
192. Deformed .25 caliber bullet 
193. Head wound 
194. Entrance wound in head and wounds of left upper extremity 
195. Head wound 
196. U.S. 75 mm. shell fragment 
197. Perforating head wound 
198. Entrance wound in head 
199. Large defect in skull at site of entrance wound 
200. Chest wound of exit 
201. Mortar shell fragment 
202. Chest wound 
203. Japanese hand grenade fragments 
204. Japanese .25 caliber bullet 
205. U.S. artillery shell fragment 
206. Deformed Japanese rifle bullet 
207. Wound of scapular area 
208. Japanese artillery shell fragments 
209. Gutter wound of left side of face and neck 
210. Deformed .25 caliber machinegun bullet 
211. Recovered metal fragments, identified as parts of first aid box 
212. Fragments of Japanese hand grenade 
213. Fragments of U.S. hand grenade 
214. Laceration of abdominal wall and evisceration 
215. Traumatic amputation stump 
216. Multiple mutilating wounds and traumatic amputations 
217. Multiple wounds 
218. Small mortar shell fragment 
219. Wounds of head and chest 
220. Perforating wound of abdomen 
221. Recovered fragments of U.S. landmine 
222. Well-constructed pillbox 
223. Wire netting covering firing slits
224. Natural jungle growth 
225. "Necessary" and "unnecessary" exposure 
226. "Little" and "moderate" protection 
227. Unnecessary exposure and concentration of men 
228. Infantry advancing behind tanks 
229. Worksheet, with anatomic views of body and location of wounds 
230. High explosive steel fragments (primary missiles) 
231. Multiple fatal and nonfatal wounds due to high explosive shell fragments 
232. Traumatic decapitation 
233. Extensive multiple and mutilating wounds 
234. Single head wound 
235. Multiple wounds of the head 
236. Single neck wound 
237. Single neck wound 
238. Single chest wound
239. Multiple wounds of the chest 
240. Single thoracic wound 
241. Single abdominal wound 
242. Multiple wounds of lower extremities 
243. Multiple wounds of lower extremities 
244. Multiple wounds of lower extremities
245. Multiple wounds 
246. Multiple wounds of chest and left upper extremity
247. Multiple wounds of head, neck, chest, and upper extremities 
248. Multiple wounds of head, chest, and right upper extremity 
249. Multiple wounds of head, chest, abdomen, right upper extremity, and both lower extremities 
250. Multiple wounds of chest, abdomen, and upper and lower extremities 
251. Multiple wounds of neck and chest 
252. Multiple wounds of head, neck, chest, and upper and lower extremities 
253. Multiple wounds of head, neck, chest, abdomen, and right upper extremity
254. Multiple wounds of pelvis, lower extremities, and genitalia
255. Multiple wounds of head, neck, chest, abdomen, and upper extremities 
256. Single wound of neck 
257. Multiple wounds of abdomen, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities 
258. Building occupied by field hospital platoon and four surgical teams, Porretta, Italy
259. 95th Evacuation Hospital, Monghidoro, Italy 
260. Capt. James W. Culbertson, MC, obtaining information concerning battle casualties
261. Col. Howard E. Snyder, MC, Surgical Consultant, Fifth U.S. Army 
262. Location of field hospital platoon used as a forward surgical unit before the breakthrough into the Po Valley 
263. Plasma being administered at a battalion aid station 
264. Rapido River valley area, Italy, 6 February 1944 
265. Town of Cassino, Italy, 6 February 1944 
266. Map of Cassino area
267. View from center of Monte Lungo, Italy, 18 February 1944 
268. German emplacements south of Monte Lungo, Italy, 26 December 1943 
269. Aerial view of Monte Lungo, Italy, 1944 
270. Cassino area, Italy, 6 March 1944 
271. Approach to Monte Cassino, 30 May 1944 
272. Town of Cassino being destroyed, 15 March 1944 
273. Cassino area, Italy, 18 May 1944 
274. Operational Research Section, Office of the Chief Surgeon, ETOUSA 
275. Outline form with demarcations of body regions 
276. Lamport's curve II
277. Chart showing relationship between "military loss" and weight of flak fragments causing wounds
278. Primary missiles (flak) 
279. Secondary missiles (dural) 
280. Secondary missiles (body armor) 
281. Secondary missiles (Plexiglas) 
282. Secondary missiles (miscellaneous) 
283. Location of 85 wounds due to Plexiglas fragments 
284. Primary missiles (7.92 mm.) 
285. Primary missiles (13 mm.) 
286. Primary missiles (20 mm.) 
287. Radio operator in B-17 aircraft 
288. Waist gunner in B-17 aircraft 
289. Radio operator in B-17 aircraft 
290. Navigator in B-17 aircraft
291. Radio operator in B-17 aircraft 
292. Pilot of B-24 aircraft 
293. Structure of German 88 mm. HEAA shell 
294. Diagrammatic representation of directional fragmentation density of a spherical burst 
295. Directional fragmentation density 
296. Location of flak hits, B-17 aircraft, plane surfaces only 
297. Location of flak hits, B-24 aircraft, plane surfaces only 
298. Directional fragmentation density 
299. Location of flak hits, fuselages only 
300. Location of flak hits, B-17 aircraft 
301. Location of flak hits, B-24 aircraft 
302. Projected body surface areas 
303. Directional fragmentation density 
304. Helmet, M1917A1 
305. Army M1 helmet 
306. Helmet, TS3 
307. M1 helmet 
308. Ball-and-clevis release for chinstrap of M1 helmet 
309. Helmet, Steel, M1C (Parachutist's) 
310. Tank crash helmets in use in November 1941 
311. Series of helmets
312. Helmet, T19E1 
313. Combat vehicle crewman's helmet 
314. Ground troop helmet, T21 
315. Aero Medical Laboratory standard head models 
316. Flyer's helmet, M3 
317. Flyer's helmets 
318. Face armor (T6 type) 
319. Jettisoning of flyer's armor 
320. Flyer's vest, M1
321. Flyer's vest, M2 
322. Flyer's apron 
323. Flyer's groin armor 
324. Flyer's vest, M6 
325. Flyer's neck armor 
326. Japanese body armor 
327. Japanese body armor 
328. Japanese body armor 
329. Japanese body armor 
330. Armor, vest, M12 
331. Crotch armor, T16E4 
332. Eye armor, T45 series 
333. Mobile shield, T1E2 
334. Lt. Col. I. Ridgeway Trimble, MC, wearing captured Japanese vest 
335. Armorplates 
336. Japanese body armor 
337. Orientation map, Korea 
338. Anatomic location of body regions
339. Location of wounds in Turkish soldiers wounded in action 
340. Slipover thoracoabdominal vest 
341. Doron slipover vest 
342. Army all-nylon vest, T52-1 
343. Map showing disposition of Body Armor Test Team, March-July 1952 
344. Typical fragments and missiles removed from casualties in Korea 
344b. Typical fragments and missiles removed from casualties in Korea
345. Typical missiles removed from armor vest, T52-l, in Korea 
346. Protection provided by Army all-nylon vest, T52-1
347. Lt. Rodney M. Brigg, Body Armor Team, points to skin bruise on back of Lt. Frank H. Bassett 
348. Effect of armor on evaporation of perspiration 
349. World War II M12 vest, Korea, 25 May 1952 
350. World War II M12 vest and all-nylon, T52-1, vest 
351. Types of armored vest 
352. Types of armored vest
353. World War II M12 body armor, Korea, 3 July 1953 
354. Body armor
355. Body armor, T52-1 
356. Body armor, T52-1 
357. Body armor 
358. Armor vest, T52-2 
359. Armor vest, T52-3 
360. Marine Corps doron-nylon vest, M1951, 27 September 1952 
361 Demarcation of anatomic surface regions 
362. All-nylon lower torso armor 
363. Armored suit for mine clearance 
364. Armored suit for demolition work 

Tables

Number

1.     Japanese guns and howitzers
2.     Japanese small arms ammunition
3.     Japanese mortar ammunition 
4.     Frequency distribution of Japanese grenade discharger and mortar shells 
5.     Hit probability, Japanese grenade discharger and mortar shells 
6.     Japanese artillery ammunition 
7.     Distribution of weapons in Japanese triangular infantry division 
8.     German guns and howitzers
 
9.     German small arms ammunition 
10.   German mortar ammunition 
11.   German artillery ammunition 
12.   Fragmentation characteristics, German 75 mm. shells 
13.   Weapons and equipment of German divisions 
14.   Frequency distribution of casualty-producing agents in wounded, First and Third U.S. Armies, 1944-45
15.   NKA and CCF small arms ammunition 
16.   NKA and CCF mortar ammunition 
17.   NKA and CCF artillery ammunition 
18.   Pressures from point of detonation of bombs 
19.   Fragments from aerial bombs 
20.   Retardation of effective fragments 
21.   Retardation of effective fragments 
22.   Effect of mass on retardation of fragments 
23.   Values of yaw 
24.   Volumes of cavities 
25.   Data on steel spheres 
26.   Distribution of 4,994 casualties of New Georgia campaign, 20 June-22 September 1943 
27.   Distribution of 181 casualties, 1st Battalion, 148th Infantry, 18 July-5 August 1943, by category 
28.   Estimated number of troops, Burma campaign, 15 February-8 June 1944 
29.   Distribution of 212 casualties, Burma campaign, February-June 1944, by category
30.   Distribution of 393 casualties, New Georgia Island-Burma, by category and survey period 
31.   Distribution of 393 casualties, New Georgia-Burma campaigns, by category
32.   Distribution of wounds in 369 battle casualties, by anatomic location 
33.   Distribution of wounds in 101 dead, by anatomic location 
34.   Distribution of wounds in 268 living wounded, by anatomic location 
35.   Mean projected body area and wound distribution 
36.   Distribution of 369 battle casualties, by anatomic location of wounds and by disposition 
37.   Disposition of casualties with wounds of upper and lower extremities 
38.   Distribution of 369 battle casualties, by effect of causative agent 
39.   Relative lethal effect of weapons, by anatomic location of wounds 
40.   Relative effect of weapons causing wounds of upper and lower extremities 
41.   Distribution of 101 fatal casualties, by causative agent 
42.   Relative lethal effect of U.S. weapons 
43.   Disposition of 66 U.S. casualties produced by U.S. weapons, by category 
44.   Relative effect of weapons on disposition of casualties 
45.   Relative effect of weapons: Casualties returned to duty 
46.   Relative effect of weapons: Casualties lost to combat duty 
47.   Relative effect of weapons: Casualties lost immediately to combat 
48.   Distribution of 349 casualties, by position and causative agent 
49.   Distribution of 287 casualties, by position 
50.   Distribution of 270 casualties, by position 
51.   Distribution of 362 casualties, by type of action and causative agent 
52.   Distribution of 208 casualties, by category and range of missiles 
53.   Distribution of 85 casualties wounded by mortar and artillery shells 
54.   Distribution of 47 casualties wounded by hand grenade 
55.   Anatomic distribution of fatal wounds of the head, thorax, and abdomen in 173 casualties 
56.   Distribution of lethal wounds in 496 casualties, by anatomic location 
57.   Japanese weapons responsible for 1,569 Allied casualties 
58.   Distribution of 713 casualties among 1,350 U.S. Army troops engaged on Hill 260, by category 
59.   Distribution of 426 casualties among 800 men, 182d Infantry, engaged on Hill 260, by category 
60.   Distribution of 519 casualties among 2,600 U.S. troops engaged on Hill 700, by category 
61.   Distribution of 450 casualties among 1,850 U.S. troops engaged on 129th Infantry sector, by category 
62.   Distribution of 2,335 Allied casualties in Bougainville campaign, 15 February-21 April 1944, by category 
63.   Comparison of wounds in living wounded of two past wars and World War II with casualties of Bougainville campaign 
64.   Distribution of wounds in 1,788 battle casualties, by anatomic location (regional frequency) 
65.   Distribution of wounds in 395 dead, by anatomic location 
66.   Distribution of wounds in 1,393 living wounded, by anatomic location 
67.   Distribution of 1,788 battle casualties, by disposition and anatomic location of wounds (regional frequency) 
68.   Distribution of 505 casualties with head wounds (including multiple wounds), by category 
69.   Disposition of 319 casualties with wounds of upper extremities and 393 casualties with wounds of lower extremities 
70.   Mean projected body area and wound distribution (excluding multiple wounds) 
71.   Distribution of 1,788 battle casualties, by relative lethal effect of causative agent 
72.   Relative lethal effect of weapons, by anatomic location of wounds and for multiple wounds 
73.   Disposition of 123 and 196 casualties with upper extremity wounds, by relative effectiveness of bullets and HE fragments, respectively 
74.   Disposition of 110 and 283 casualties with lower extremity wounds, by relative effectiveness of bullets and HE fragments, respectively 
75.   Relative effect of weapons causing wounds of upper and lower extremities, among the living wounded
76.   Disposition of 16 and 215 casualties with multiple wounds, by relative effectiveness of bullets and HE fragments, respectively 
77.   Distribution of 395 fatal casualties, by relative effect of causative agent 
78.   Relative effect of weapons: Probability of hits resulting in death, by anatomic location of wounds (excluding multiple wounds) 
79.   Relative effect of weapons: Probability of causing light wounds 
80.   Relative effect of weapons: Probability of causing serious nonfatal wounds 
81.   Relative effect of weapons: Lost to service in the theater 
82.   Relative effect of weapons: Casualties returned to duty from first echelon 
83.   Relative effect of weapons: Casualties lost to Bougainville campaign 
84.   Relative effect of weapons: Casualties lost to combat 
85.   Days lost by 700 casualties returned to duty from first echelon hospitals, by causative agent 
86.   Days lost by 700 casualties returned to duty from first echelon hospitals, by anatomic location 
87.   Anatomic distribution (regional frequency) of wounds, by causative agents
88.   Disposition of 1,337 nonfatal casualties, by causative agent 
89.   Disposition of patients with multiple wounds as related to number of anatomic regions hit and to severity of wounds, by causative agent 
90.   Ratio of number of anatomic regions hit per patient evacuated in each echelon, by causative agent
91.   Distribution of 219 U.S. casualties produced by U.S. weapons, by category
92.   Relative lethal effect of U.S. weapons on 219 U.S. casualties 
93.   Relative lethal effect of Japanese weapons on 1,569 U.S. casualties 
94.   Distribution of fatal wounds in 104 autopsied casualties, by anatomic location 
95.   Cause of death in 104 casualties, as determined by post mortem examination 
96.   Weapons causing wounds in 104 casualties, as determined by post mortem examination
97.   Anatomic distribution of wounds among 44 casualties killed by rifle fire, and weapon from country of origin 
98.   Size of wounds of entrance and exit, caused by rifle bullet, at various ranges
99.   Anatomic distribution of wounds among 24 casualties killed by mortar fire, and weapon from country of origin 
100. Distribution of 1,557 casualties, by causative agent and by position and protection 
101. Distribution of 1,240 casualties, by aimed and random fire and by position 
102. Distribution of 1,164 casualties, by aimed and random fire and by position
103. Distribution of 1,620 casualties, by aimed and random fire of causative agent and by type of action 
104. Distribution of 460 casualties produced by small arms weapons, by range of fire and disposition
105. Distribution of 799 casualties produced by shell fragments, by distance from point of burst and disposition 
106. Distribution of casualties wounded by hand grenade fragments, by distance from point of burst 
107. Distribution of 1,707 casualties, by aimed and random fire of causative agent, 15 February-21 April 1944 
108. Regional frequency of wounds in 1,788 casualties, by anatomic location and order of frequency 
109. Percent distribution of 1,788 casualties, by relative effectiveness of weapons
110. Percent distribution of casualties lost to battle and combat, by distribution and effectiveness of causative agent 
111. Period of time, location of cemetery, and number of cases studied at each cemetery
112. Distribution of wounds in 983 KIA casualties, according to body areas and probable causative agents
113. Distribution of 396 injuries in 171 cases with multiple regional involvements of upper half of body
114. Distribution of 67 injuries in 30 cases with multiple regional involvements of lower half of body

115. Distribution of 1,648 injuries in 452 cases with wounds involving regions both above and below the diaphragm 
116. Distribution of 2,445 injuries in the various groups of the 987 KIA casualties, by anatomic location
117. Distribution of 2,183 injuries in 983 KIA casualties, by anatomic location
118. Distribution of 7,006 wounds in 983 KIA casualties, by anatomic location 
119. Comparison of regions actually involved and regions recorded on EMT's 
120. Distribution of 91,631 Fifth U.S. Army casualties, from 1 January 1944 to May 1945, by category
121. Post mortem studies available and total hospital battle casualty deaths studied, 1 January 1944-2 May 1945 
122. Correction of total battle casualty admission figures to agree with proportion of total deaths analyzed, 1 January 1944-2 May 1945 
123. Distribution of 1,450 deaths as related to hospital admission, anesthesia, and surgery, 1 January 1944-2 May 1945 
124. Percent of 1,411 hospital deaths studied to total battle casualty hospital admissions, 1 January 1944-2 May 1945.
125. Effect of increased efficiency of evacuation from forward areas on hospital mortality 
126. Distribution of battle casualty hospital deaths (1,450 cases), by region of principal wound 
127. Distribution of battle casualty hospital deaths (1,450 cases), by principal wound 
128. Distribution of 20,747 battle casualties admitted to Fifth U.S. Army hospitals, 1 August 1944-2 May 1945, by principal wound group
129. Hospital battle casualty deaths listed as to principal wound with percentage of hospital battle casualty admissions 
130. Distribution of 1,450 casualties, by causative agent as related to principal wound 
131. Distribution of 1,450 battle casualty deaths as related to hospital admission anesthesia, and surgery, by principal wound 
132. Distribution of battle casualty hospitals deaths, 1 January 1944-2 May 1945, by region of primary trauma leading to death 
133. Distribution of 1,450 battle casualty deaths, 1 January 1944-2 May 1945, by cause of death 
134. Distribution of 1,450 battle casualty deaths, showing percent of the total battle casualty admissions, 1 January 19440-2 May 1945, by cause of death 
135. Comparison of principal wound with region of immediate cause of death (1,450 cases) 
136. Region of immediate cause of death as related to region of principal wound (1,450 cases) 
137. Region of primary trauma leading to death, by period 
138. Reported incidence of shock in 1,450 battle casualty deaths 
139. Reported incidence of intracranial conditions in 1,450 battle casualty deaths
140. Reported incidence of shock in 1,450 battle casualty deaths 
141. Reported incidence of maxillofacial conditions in 1,450 battle casualty deaths
142. Reported incidence of cervical conditions in 1,450 battle casualty deaths 
143. Reported incidence of intravertebral conditions in 1,450 battle casualty deaths
144. Reported incidence of extremity conditions in 1,450 battle casualty deaths 
145. Reported incidence of thoracic conditions in 1,450 battle casualty deaths 
146. Reported incidence of abdominal conditions in 1,450 battle casualty deaths
147. Reported incidence of clostridial myositis or cerebritis in 1,450 battle casualty deaths
148. Reported incidence of embolism, infarction, and thrombosis in 1,450 battle casualty deaths
149. Reported incidence of miscellaneous conditions in 1,450 battle casualty deaths
150. Hospital admission, anesthesia, and surgery, in 178 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and the immediate cause of death was shock 
151. Intra-abdominal pathology in 178 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and the immediate cause of death was shock 
152. Transfusion record in 178 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and the immediate cause of death was shock 
153. Distribution of 178 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and the immediate cause of death was shock, by causative agent 
154. Hospital admission, anesthesia, and surgery, in 230 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and the immediate cause of death was not shock 
155. Hospital admission, anesthesia, and surgery, in 175 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and peritonitis was evident or suspected to be present 
156. Operating time for primary surgery, in 175 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and peritonitis was evident or suspected to be present
157. Primary surgery on 175 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and peritonitis was evident or suspected to be present 
158. Immediate cause of death in 175 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and peritonitis was evident or suspected to be present 
159. Shock as a contributory condition in 175 cases where the principal wound was intra-abdominal and peritonitis was evident or suspected to be present 
160. Location of principal wound in 523 cases where the immediate cause of death was shock 
161. Hospital admission, anesthesia, and surgery, in 523 cases where the immediate cause of death was shock 
162. Shock in 523 cases where shock was the immediate cause of death 
163. Lowest recorded blood pressure and other evidence in 498 cases where the immediate cause of death was shock 
164. Primary operations performed on 327 cases where the immediate cause of death was shock 
165. Miscellaneous observations on 219 cases where the immediate cause of death was shock 
166. Distribution of 1,411 hospital battle deaths, by result or status of pigment nephropathy 
167. Anesthesia in 68 patients who died of pigment nephropathy 
168. Anesthesia in 31 patients in which pigment nephropathy contributed to death
169. Analysis of 7 cases where death occurred before anesthesia and where pigment nephropathy contributed to death 
170. Incidence of fractures in 100 casualties, by causative agent 
171. Distribution and weight of fragments, by distance from shellburst 
172. Distribution of single and multiple wounds in 100 casualties, by anatomic location
173. Estimated casualty rates from Allied and enemy artillery and mortar shells
174. Eighth Air Force heavy bombardment groups, by divisions
175. Distribution of 69,682 Eighth Air Force heavy bomber day operations, 1 June-31 August 1944
176. Distribution of 657,096 man-combat missions, 1 June-31 August 1944, by Eighth Air Force heavy bomber day operations 
177. Distribution of 541 casualties in flak-damaged B-17 aircraft 
178. Distribution of 193 casualties in flak-damaged B-24 aircraft 
179. Distribution of 28 casualties in B-17 aircraft 
180. Distribution of 9 casualties in B-24 aircraft 
181. Distribution of 1,117 aircrew battle casualties of 1st, 2d, and 3d Divisions, by heavy bombardment group 
182. Frequency distribution of 1,117 battle casualties in 944 heavy bombers 
183. Distribution of 1,117 aircrew battle casualties, by category and causative agent of wounds 
184. Distribution of 1,117 battle casualties due to all missiles, by category and combat position 
185. Distribution of 1,553 wounds due to all missiles, by anatomic location (regional distribution) 
186. Distribution of 1,117 aircrew battle casualties, by anatomic location (regional frequency) of wounds
187. Case fatality rates in casualties of Eighth Air Force and in ground force casualties at Bougainville 
188. Distribution of 1,117 battle casualties, by number of regions wounded 
189. Regional distribution of fracture wounds in 1,109 aircrew battle casualties due to all missiles 
190. Wounds and fractures in aircrew battle casualties due to all missiles, by anatomic location 
191. Distribution of 34 traumatic amputations in 32 battle casualties 
192. Distribution of 221 aircrew battle casualties with wounds of head and neck, by disposition 
193. Distribution of 38 aircrew battle casualties with wounds of the chest, by disposition 
194. Distribution of 18 aircrew battle casualties with abdominal wounds, by disposition 
195. Distribution of 243 aircrew battle casualties with wounds of upper extremity, by disposition 
196. Distribution of 421 aircrew battle casualties with wounds of lower extremity, by disposition 
197. Distribution of 176 aircrew battle casualties with multiple wounds, by disposition 
198. Distribution of 963 casualties due to flak 
199. Mean projected area of body 
200. Distribution of 1,222 flak hits on 961 aircrew battle casualties 
201. Distribution of 963 casualties by regional frequency of flak hits 
202. Comparison of case fatality rates of Bougainville ground force casualties with Eighth Air Force flak casualties 
203. Altitude of aircraft at which casualties due to flak sustained wounds 
204. Distribution of 375 WIA casualties due to flak, by time interval between injury and surgical treatment 
205. Distribution of casualties due to flak, by disposition 
206. Days lost from active duty and resulting military loss 
207. Weight distribution of 505 flak fragments 
208. Weight distribution of 30 flak fragments 
209. Weight distribution of 56 flak fragments 
210. Comparison of aircrew casualties with ground force casualties, in Cassino area 
211. Relative vulnerability of different body regions 
212. Regional distribution of flak hits according to combat position 
213. Relative vulnerability of body regions in different combat positions 
214. Regional distribution of flak wounds in unarmored and armored aircrew personnel 
215. Distribution of 458 casualties with cranial injuries due to flak, by protected or unprotected helmet area 
216. Distribution of 104 aircrew battle casualties, by causative agent 
217. Distribution of 104 aircrew battle casualties due to Plexiglas fragments, by disposition 
218. Distribution of 50 aircrew battle casualties, by missile fired from enemy aircraft
219. Distribution of 50 aircrew casualties due to missiles fired from fighter aircraft
220. Distribution of 83 wounds in 50 aircrew battle casualties, by anatomic location of wounds 
221. Distribution of 50 aircrew battle casualties, by number of regions wounded
222. Distribution of 50 aircrew battle casualties, by altitude 
223. Distribution of 164 KIA aircrew casualties, by missile 
224. Distribution of 164 KIA aircrew casualties, by combat position 
225. Distribution of 451 wounds in 164 KIA aircrew casualties, by anatomic location 
226. Distribution of 164 KIA casualties, by anatomic location of wounds 
227. Distribution of 164 KIA aircrew battle casualties by regions wounded 
228. Distribution of 265 fractures in 149 KIA aircrew battle casualties, by anatomic location 
229. Distribution of 164 aircrew battle casualties, by anatomic location in which the primary fatal wound occurred 
230. Distribution of 164 KIA aircrew battle casualties, by anatomic location and type of fatal wound 
231. Distribution of flak casualties sustained according to combat position 
232. Mean projected body areas and regional distribution of flak wounds in unarmored and armored battle casualties 
233. Directional fragmentation densities for a static spherical burst 
234. Directional fragmentation densities, German 88 mm. HEAA shell
235. Directional fragmentation densities, 90 mm. shell, static burst 
236. Directional fragmentation densities, 90 mm. HE shell 
237. Densities of flak hits on plane surfaces, B-17 and B-24 aircraft 
238. Directional fragmentation densities of flak against B-17 aircraft 
239. Directional fragmentation densities of flak against B-24 aircraft
240. Densities of flak hits on fuselages, B-17 and B-24 aircraft 
241. Densities of flak hits on B-17 aircraft 
242. Densities of flak hits on B-24 aircraft 
243. Résumé of density of flak hits, B-17 and B-24 aircraft 
244. Résumé of standardized densities, B-17 and B-24 aircraft 
245. Directional fragmentation densities of flak on B-17 aircraft 
246. Directional fragmentation densities of flak on B-24 aircraft 
247. Directional fragmentation densities of flak against personnel, B-17 aircraft
248. Directional fragmentation densities of flak against personnel, B-24 aircraft
249. Production figures for flyers' armor, World War II, 1943-45 
250. Flyers' armor, weight and area protection 
251. Ground troop armor, weight and area protection 
252. Regional distribution of 7,773 wounds in 4,600 WIA casualties 
253. Regional distribution of 7,773 wounds in 4,600 WIA casualties, by wounding agent 
254. Area distribution of 1,275 head wounds in 4,600 WIA casualties, by wounding agent 
255. Distribution of 613 wounds of the thorax in 4,600 WIA casualties, by wounding agent 
256. Area distribution of 481 wounds of the abdomen in 4,600 WIA casualties, by wounding agent 
257. Area distribution of 1,948 wounds of the upper extremities in 4,600 WIA casualties, by wounding agent 
258. Area distribution of 3,394 wounds of the lower extremities in 4,600 WIA casualties, by wounding agent 
259. Area distribution of 62 wounds of the genitalia in 4,600 WIA casualties, by wounding agent 
260. Distribution of 7,773 wounds in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wound 
261. Area distribution of 1,275 head wounds in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wound 
262. Distribution of 613 wounds of the thorax in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wound 
263. Area distribution of 481 wounds of the abdomen in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wound 
264. Area distribution of 1,948 wounds of the upper extremities in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wound 
265. Area distribution of 3,394 wounds of the lower extremities in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wound 
266. Area distribution of 62 wounds of the genitalia in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wound 
267. Distribution of 7,467 wounds in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wounding 
268. Area distribution of 1,189 wounds of the head in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wounding 
269. Area distribution of 594 wounds of the thorax in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wounding 
270. Area distribution of 466 wounds of the abdomen in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wounding 
271. Area distribution of 1,908 wounds of the upper extremities in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wounding 
272. Area distribution of 3,252 wounds of the lower extremities in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wounding 
273. Area distribution of 58 wounds of the genitalia in 4,600 WIA casualties, by type of wounding 
274. Distribution of 1,762 fractures in 4,600 WIA casualties, by site of fracture 
275. Disposition of 4,566 WIA casualties, by region wounded 
276. Distribution of 200 cases with peripheral nerve wounds, by causative agent and anatomic location of nerves 
277. Distribution of 100 cases of vascular damage, by type of wound 
278. Distribution of 100 cases of vascular damage and associated bone and nerve injury 
279. Distribution of 100 cases of vascular injury, by type of missile causing damage 
280. Distribution of 116 self-inflicted wounds in 2,605 casualties, by region 
281. Distribution of 950 wounds in 286 Turkish WIA casualties, by number of hits on surfaces of body region 
282. Distribution of 950 hits on 286 Turkish WIA casualties, by type of missile
283. Distribution of 233 determinations of degree of damage caused by each type of missile 
284. Distribution of 250 casualties, by type of missile 
285. Distribution of estimated number of enemy casualties caused by Turkish soldiers, by weapon used 
286. Frequency of causative agent producing wounds in 125 DOW casualties, by body region 
287. Anatomic cause of death and body region wounded in 125 DOW casualties
288. Regional frequency of fatal wounds in 1,500 KIA casualties, by anatomic location 
290. Eighth U.S. Army units participating in test of Army nylon vest 
291. Regional distribution of 1,474 wounds in 908 WIA casualties not wearing body armor 
292. Regional distribution of 850 wounds in 552 WIA casualties wearing body armor
293. Distribution of 1,460 armored and unarmored WIA casualties, by causative agent
294. Distribution of 1,460 armored and unarmored WIA casualties, by type of wounding
295. Distribution of 415 KIA casualties, by wounding agent 
296. Regional frequency of lethal and associated wounds in 547 KIA casualties, by anatomic location
297. Causative agent and disposition of 254 vest-wearing KIA and WIA casualties
298. Distribution of 874 hits on 254 armor vests, by causative agent
299. Regional distribution of 1,346 wounds in 346 KIA casualties 
300. Distribution of 1,346 wounds in 346 KIA casualties, by causative agent 
301. Distribution of 1,346 wounds in 346 KIA casualties, by type of wound 
302. Entrance location of 128 lethal wounds in 103 KIA casualties, by body region 
303. Regional distribution of wounds in Army and Marine Corps personnel killed in action
304. Regional distribution of lethal wounds in Army and Marine Corps personnel killed in action 
305. Status of armor vests available to major Army units, 31 December 1952 
306. Status of armor vests available to major Army units, 29 February 1953 
307. Entrance location of lethal wounds in unarmored and armored casualties 
308. Regional distribution of 3,510 wounds in 500 K1A casualties wearing body armor


WOUND BALLISTICS IN WORLD WAR II

Supplemented by Experiences in the Korean War

 

The Historical Unit, United States Army Medical Service

Colonel JOHN BOYD COATES, Jr., MC, Director
Colonel REX P. CLAYTON, MSC, Executive Officer
Colonel R. L. PARKER, MSC, Special Assistant to Director
Lieutenant Colonel R. J. BERNUCCI, MC, Special Assistant to Director
Major WARREN W. DABOLL, MSC, Special Assistant to Director
Lieutenant Colonel MATTHEW GINALICK, MSC, Chief, Special Projects Branch
CHARLES M. WILTSE, Ph. D., Litt. D., Chief, Historians Branch
ERNEST ELLIOTT, Jr., Chief, Editorial Branch
Lieutenant Colonel LEONARD L. COLLIER, MSC, Chief, Information Activities Branch
Major ALBERT C. RIGGS, Jr., MSC, Chief, General Reference and Research Branch
HAZEL G. HINE, Chief, Administrative Branch

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 62-60002

 

CMH Pub. 81-34

Reprinted 1984



WOUND BALLISTICS


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

The volumes comprising the official history of the Medical Department of the U.S. Army in World War II are prepared by The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, and published under the direction of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army. These volumes are divided into two series: (1) The administrative or operational series; and (2) the professional, or clinical and technical, series. This is one of the volumes published in the latter series.

VOLUMES PUBLISHED

ADMINISTRATIVE SERIES

Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior

CLINICAL SERIES

 Internal Medicine in World War II:

Vol. I. Activities o/ Medical Consultants

Preventive Medicine in World War II:

Vol. II. Environmental Hygiene
Vol. III. Personal Health Measures and Immunization
Vol. IV. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Chiefly Through Respiratory and Alimentary Tracts
Vol. V. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Through Contact or By Unknown Means

Surgery in World War II:

General Surgery, vol. II
Hand Surgery
Neurosurgery, vol. I
Neurosurgery, vol. II
Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
Orthopedic Surgery in the European Theater of Operations
Orthopedic Surgery in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations
The Physiologic Effects of Wounds
Vascular Surgery

Miscellaneous:

Cold Injury, Ground Type
Dental Service in World War II
Veterinary Service in World War II