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Appendix C

Contents

APPENDIX C

Casualties, 3d Battalion, 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional), Burma Campaign, 15 February-8 June 1944

James E. T. Hopkins, M.D.

In the following pages, the various engagements of the 3d Battalion, 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional), during the Burma campaign are grouped into tactical situations, and casualties are described in the order in which they occurred in combat.

1.-On 28 February 1944 in the region of Nzanga Ga, the I and R (Intelligence and Reconnaissance) Platoon, 3d Battalion, was traveling 6 hours ahead of the main body of troops. The I and R Platoon consisted of 46 men, 4 animals, 4 Browning automatic rifles, and 6 Thompson submachineguns.

At 1000 hours, the platoon was on the trail where it crossed a rice paddy which was overgrown with tall, thick elephant grass, and the first section made contact with the enemy at the village boundary. Since the platoon was under orders not to engage in any fire fights, it withdrew 2 miles north to Lanem Ga where a trail block was set up, and they waited the arrival of the battalion. The enemy force was estimated to be made up of approximately 20 men with rifles, 2 light machineguns, and 1 heavy machinegun. Reconnaissance at a later time showed that the enemy apparently left the area during the night. Only one American casualty was sustained.

Case 1.-Mild laceration of the left side of the face. This man, while on patrol, was firing his Ml rifle from a prone position when he was struck by an enemy .25 caliber light machinegun bullet at an approximate 30-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

2.-On 3 March, the 3d Battalion was moving along the north trail leading into the village of Lagang Ga. The I and R Platoon had already passed through the village and was being followed by several rifle platoons and the Orange and Khaki Columns. As the battalion Headquarters Company of the column passed through the village, a group of Japanese were noted approaching along the south trail along the river bank. Word was passed along the column that the enemy was approaching, and, when they were approximately 50 yards from the Headquarters Company, many of the men in the column opened fire. The party of Japanese consisted of seven men, and they were carrying a litter. The enemy party was protected by a light machinegun. Five of the Japanese were killed instantly by the American fire and two escaped. However, they were killed at a later time. There were no American casualties. The Japanese casualties had multiple wounds inflicted by small arm weapons, and all had died instantly. It was impossible to examine the bodies carefully because of the continuing engagement with the enemy.

3.-Shortly after the encounter just described, the leading elements of the Orange Column contacted a small party of Japanese approaching from the vicinity of Walawbum. A brief fire fight ensued and several of the enemy were killed, but there were no American casualties.

Perimeters were set up, and the entire column dug in for the night. Later in the same day, the I and R Platoon was ordered to leave the area and cross the Numpyck Hka River and protect the right flank of the column as it proceeded toward Walawbum on the following day. The platoon halted at dark and dug in.

At dawn the next morning, the platoon leader took a small group forward about 300 yards and found slightly commanding ground from which the column could receive flank protection until it reached its position along the river opposite Walawbum. The entire I and R Platoon then moved forward and took up its new position.


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All of this movement took place at approximately 0700 hours on 5 March. Since it was quite foggy, the visibility was very poor, and the Americans sustained a casualty along their perimeter before they realized that they had been surrounded by approximately 90 Japanese. The platoon leader had available 48 men with 3 Browning automatic rifles and 6 Thompson submachineguns. The ensuing engagement lasted from 0700 hours until 1100 hours when the I and R Platoon withdrew under cover of mortar fire and smoke, leaving approximately 60 Japanese casualties. During the engagement, the platoon had sustained three casualties.

Case 2.-Severe perforating wound of the right lower quadrant of the abdomen and multiple penetrating wounds of the right and the left arm. This man, while on defensive action at the platoon perimeter, was standing gathering camouflage material when he was struck by enemy small arms fired at a range of approximately 50 yards. This man reached the battalion surgeon in approximately 3 hours and received 5 units of plasma and was evacuated by plane 10 hours after receiving his injury. Classified as DOW, with a 10-hour survival time. This casualty might have been avoided if he had been more alert and had taken advantage of protective cover.

Case 3.-Severe perforating wounds of the left temporal region of the head. This man was on defensive action firing from a prone position in a shallow foxhole when he was struck by fragments from a Japanese mortar shell which had a tree burst at a 25-yard range. He was taken to the battalion surgeon but died within 2 hours. Classified as DOW, with a 2-hour survival time. This casualty might have been avoided if he had worn his helmet and had taken advantage of a deeper foxhole.

Case 4.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the left forearm. This man was in a position similar to Case 3 and was wounded under similar circumstances. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

4.-During the encounter between the I and R Platoon and the encircling enemy force, the Orange Column, which had dug in for the night approximately 40 yards from the river, came under enemy mortar fire. Three American casualties were sustained.

Case 5.-Severe penetrating wounds of the left thigh and the thorax. This man was on defensive action, and in charging with a mortar section he moved off the trail to construct a foxhole when he was struck by a fragment from a Japanese knee mortar shell which had a tree burst at a 15-foot range. Classified as KIA, died instantly.

Case 6.-Mild penetrating wound of the right side of the abdomen. This man was in a prone position in a foxhole when he was struck by a fragment from the shell which struck Case 5. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 7.-Mild laceration of the abdomen. This man was sitting in the jungle without advantage of any protective cover or a foxhole when he was struck by the shell which struck Case 5. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

5.-The Khaki Column remained in the vicinity of the village of Lagang Ga in order to protect the rear of the column as well as the airstrip. No contact had been made with the enemy on 3 March, but at approximately 0630 hours on 4 March the perimeter was struck by an enemy force of approximately 30 men armed with 2 light machineguns, 2 knee mortars, and many rifles. The American troops were engaged in preparing breakfast and were considerably disorganized during the attack. A number of American troops were examining the bodies of five Japanese killed during the previous day. The entire engagement lasted approximately 20 minutes when the Japanese withdrew with at least six KIA casualties. The Americans sustained six WIA casualties.

Case 8.-Severe penetrating wound of the right forearm with a compound fracture of the radius. This man was on defensive action in a prone position with his machinegun when he was struck by an enemy .25 caliber light machinegun bullet. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 9.-Multiple, moderately severe penetrating wounds of the right and left upper and lower extremities. This man had approximately 100 small fragments in the skin, the


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subcutaneous tissues, and the muscles of the upper and lower extremities. He was in a prone position under the same circumstances as Case 8 when he was struck by fragments of an enemy knee mortar shell which burst at a range of approximately 3 yards. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 10.-Multiple, moderately severe penetrating wounds of the right and left lower extremities. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 9. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 11.-Mild laceration of the left side of the thorax. This man was in a position similar to that of Case 9 when he was struck by a fragment from an enemy hand grenade which exploded at a 3-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover in a foxhole.

Case 12.-Mild laceration of the head and face. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 9. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 13.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the head and severe penetrating wound of the right side of the thorax. This man was on defensive action in a prone position when he was struck by a fragment from an enemy knee mortar shell which had a tree burst. Classified as WIA, first echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had worn his helmet and taken advantage of a foxhole or of other protective cover.

6.-Later in the day on 4 March, the Khaki Column, with all men and animals, moved from its position 200 yards south of Lagang Ga to set up a perimeter on the bank of the river opposite the village of Walawbum. During the afternoon, an extensive mortar barrage was fired into the village, but the enemy force retaliated with approximately 20 mortar shells.

During 5 March, there were sporadic artillery exchanges, but there were no American casualties. However, during the morning and early afternoon of 6 March, the enemy expended about 200 mortar and artillery shells into the Orange Combat Team area and the Americans had three minor casualties. During the late afternoon, the enemy made a sudden attack in force along the river side of the American perimeter. It was necessary for the enemy to approach the river by crossing 60 yards of flat, brush-covered terrain, at least 10 feet below the fairly flat jungle-covered terrain, occupied by the American force. Very few of the enemy troops were allowed to reach the river.

During this encounter of the Orange Combat Team with the enemy on 4 through 6 March, approximately 400 American troops were engaged and only 4 slightly WIA casualties were sustained. Approximately 1,000 Japanese troops were engaged, and it was estimated that they had at least 400 KIA casualties.

Case 14.-Slight penetrating wound of the right thigh. This man was on defensive action sitting in a foxhole when he was struck by a fragment of a Japanese mortar which had a tree burst of a 20- to 30-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of a prone position in his foxhole.

Case 15.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the right forearm. This man was walking on patrol when he was struck by a Japanese rifle bullet. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 16.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the left leg. This man was on defensive action in a prone position in a foxhole with his lower extremities unprotected. He was struck by a fragment from a Japanese mortar shell which had a tree burst directly over his foxhole. Classified as WIA, first echelon type and required 1 month of hospitalization.

Case 17.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the right side of the head. This man was in the same foxhole and was wounded under the same circumstances as Case 16. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty could have been avoided if he had taken advantage of the protection afforded by his helmet.

7. -During the time that the Orange Combat Team was supporting the I and R Platoon, the Khaki Combat Team rested along the trail at Lagang Ga. Though no active


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fighting took place and no Japanese artillery shells landed in the Khaki Combat Team area, one casualty was sustained.

The Khaki Column bivouacked during the night of 5 March in the area occupied by the Orange Column. The Khaki Combat Team remained in this area covering the Orange Column's supply trail until midafternoon on 6 March. A few 77 mm. artillery shells fell in the area, and two men were wounded. After leaving the bivouac area, the Khaki Column attempted to reach the Orange Combat Team by traveling through the jungle to the left of the main trail. However, this operation was unsuccessful, and the men became lost and wandered in the jungle for 8 hours. During this time, 4 men were wounded and 1 was killed by contact with boobytraps which had been set by the Orange Combat Team. Finally, both columns were reunited, and they were relieved by Chinese troops.

Case 18.-Slight lacerations of the left side of the thorax. This man was on patrol walking along an open trail when he was struck by an enemy rifle bullet at a range of approximately 200 yards. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 19.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the left hand. This man, while on defensive action guarding a supply line, was in a prone position. He was wounded by a fragment from an enemy 77 mm. artillery shell which fell 20 yards from his position. Classified as WIA, first echelon type, and required 30 days of hospitalization. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover or of a foxhole.

Case 20.-Mild lacerations of the thorax. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 19. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 21.-Multiple penetrating wounds of the lower extremities. This man while on a night march through thick jungle, was attempting to reach the Orange Combat Team when he walked into a boobytrap previously set up by that unit. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 22.-Multiple perforating wounds of the lower extremities. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 21. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 23.-Multiple, mild penetrating wounds of the lower extremities and of the face. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 21. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 24.-Severe, multiple wounds of various body regions. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 21 and several days elapsed before his body was found. Classified as KIA.

Case 25.-Multiple penetrating and perforating wounds of the thorax and the upper and lower extremities. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 21. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

8.-During the period from 7 March to 31 March, the 3d Battalion was engaged in marching through very rugged and mountainous terrain toward the Japanese-held road at Inkangahtawng 12 miles north of Kamaing. On 25 March, the Khaki Combat Team of the 3d Battalion and members of the 2d Battalion reached the area and set up a roadblock. The 2d Battalion became engaged with the enemy, and after inflicting many casualties they withdrew because of a threatened encirclement. The Khaki Combat Team did not take a very active part in the fighting, and they withdrew with the 2d Battalion to Sharaw. A landing strip was constructed here for the evacuation of U.S. wounded.

On the following day, the retreat was continued through Manpin toward Auche. The Orange Combat Team had been holding the trail open at Manpin. On 26 and 27 March, the Orange I and R Platoon fought two skirmishes with the forward elements of a Japanese battalion advancing from Kamaing toward Warawng Ga by another trail. The 2d and 3d Battalions reached Auche during the afternoon of 27 March. The following casualties were sustained:

Case 26.-Mutilation of the head and traumatic amputation of the right lower extremity. This man was watching a supply drop for the Chinese when he was struck by a case of


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mortar ammunition which had become separated from its parachute. Classified as KIA. It had not been planned to include this casualty in the records of this casualty survey, but unfortunately he was recorded in the tabulation of multiple wounds due to miscellaneous causes.

Case 27.-Minor, severe penetrating wounds of the left shoulder and lacerations of the left leg. This man was on defensive action retreating from bivouac area when he was injured by a fragment from an enemy 77 mm. artillery shell at an unknown range. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 28.-Mild penetrating wound of the left buttock. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 27. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 29.-Multiple, severe penetrating and perforating wounds of the right lower extremity and a severe penetrating wound of the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. This man was cleaning his Ml rifle when he was struck by a burst of fire from a rifle being cleaned by another enlisted man at a 10-foot range. Classified as DOW, with a 1-hour survival. This casualty could have been avoided.

Case 30.-Severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man was a member of a five-man patrol which had just come out of dense jungle along a narrow trail into fairly open terrain. Another patrol from the 2d Battalion was sighted 50 yards ahead on the trail. One of the men of this patrol opened fire with his rifle. Classified as KIA. This casualty could have been avoided since the light tan British-type coveralls which this casualty was wearing probably confused the members of the other patrol.

Case 31.-Mild perforating wound of the right thigh. This man was a member of a 60 mm. mortar squad and was wounded by an accidental discharge of a defective propelling charge. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

9.-During the period from 7 March to 31 March 1944, there were approximately 450 Americans engaged against an approximated equal number of the enemy. The Americans sustained a total of 6 casualties, and the Japanese sustained a total of from 95 to 145 casualties.

On the morning of 28 March, the 3d Battalion arrived at Hsamshingyang with the mission of supplying the 2d Battalion at Nhpum Ga and of keeping the trail open for the evacuation of the wounded. On 28 March, the 2d Battalion was engaged by the enemy, and they evacuated their casualties through the 3d Battalion during the next 3 days.

On 31 March, patrols could not reach the 2d Battalion, and the Orange Combat Team was ordered to open the trail. During the next 6 days, their attempts were unsuccessful, and the Khaki Combat Team was called on to take over the job.

During the period of 1 through 6 April, while the Orange Combat Team was engaged in attempting to lift the Japanese-held trail block, 36 American casualties were sustained of which 6 were KIA, 2 were DOW, and 28 were WIA. The enemy sustained approximately 200 casualties during this same period.

Case 32.-Severe perforating wound of the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. This man was a member of a five-man patrol and was in a kneeling position furnishing cover fire for another scout when he was struck by a Japanese rifle bullet at a 20-yard range. Classified as WIA, first echelon type, and was returned to combat duty within 7 weeks. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of better cover and if he had been more cautious.

Case 33.-Severe perforating wound of the left side of the face. This man was on patrol duty advancing on a steep trail flanked by thick jungle and bamboo. He was struck by an enemy rifle bullet at a range of approximately 10 to 20 yards. The battalion surgeon put a tight compress over the mutilated left side of the face, and the casualty walked 1 mile to the regimental aid station. He died during the night. Classified as DOW, with an 18-hour survival.

Case 34.-Severe perforating wound of the left foot. This man was a member of a patrol and was wounded by an enemy rifle bullet at an unknown range. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type.


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Case 35.-Severe penetrating wound of the right thigh. This man was on offensive action firing at the enemy from a sitting position when he was wounded by a .25 caliber rifle bullet at a 30-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type, and returned to duty within 3 months.

Case 36.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the right arm. This man was on patrol duty when the patrol encountered a Japanese trail block. The lead scout warned the others to take cover along the side of the trail. The enemy forces opened fire with a light and a heavy machinegun. This man was hit by an enemy light machinegun, but he continued to fire his weapon after being wounded. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. It is noteworthy to see that this man continued in combat even after being wounded and then walked 3 to 4 miles to the airstrip before he was evacuated.

Case 37.-Severe penetrating wound of the right thigh. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 36. Classified as KIA.

Case 38.-Severe, multiple penetrating wounds of the right and left lower extremities and a perforating wound of the thorax. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 36. The first burst of fire had wounded this soldier in the legs, and as a friend was pulling him to safety he was killed by a bullet through the chest. Classified as KIA.

Case 39.-Mild laceration of the right arm. This man was in a crawling position when he was struck by a ricochet of a .25 caliber rifle bullet. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 40.-Mild laceration of the left inguinal region. This man was working with a mortar squad, during preparation for an infantry attack, when he was struck by a stray .25 caliber bullet. He was in a sitting position with no protective cover. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty might have been avoided if the mortar squad had taken advantage of defensive cover.

Case 41.-Severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man, while on defensive action, was a member of a group of about 10 men who were bunched along the trail 30 yards from the enemy roadblock. An enemy knee mortar shell exploded 5 yards in back of the group on a slight elevation along the side of the trail. In addition to this casualty, seven others were injured. Classified as KIA. This casualty, as well as the following seven cases, could have been avoided if they had taken advantage of dispersion and of protective cover.

Case 42.-Multiple penetrating and perforating wounds of the neck and of the upper and lower extremities. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 43.-Multiple perforating wounds of the upper and lower extremities. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 44.-Multiple perforating wounds of the upper and lower extremities. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type.

Case 45.-Mild perforating wound of the thorax. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 46.-Mild penetrating wound of the left shoulder. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 47.-Multiple penetrating wounds of the head and the thorax. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 48.-Severe penetrating wound of the head. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type.

Case 49.-Multiple, severe wounds of the thorax and the abdomen. This man was on offensive action and was walking without advantage of protective cover when he was struck by a burst of fire from an enemy light machinegun at a 10-yard range. Classified as KIA. This casualty might have been avoided. Cases 49 and 50 were providing protective fire for a man with a flamethrower. They were at the farthest part of the advance when they became careless and stepped from the jungle cover onto the trail where both men were shot.


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Case 50.-Severe perforating wounds of the thorax and the right upper extremity. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 49. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type.

Case 51.-Mild lacerating wound of the right shoulder. This man was in a prone position behind a tree when he was struck by a fragment from a Japanese hand grenade at a 5-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 52.-Mild laceration of the left forearm. This man was in a prone position when he was struck by a .25 caliber Japanese rifle bullet, at an unknown range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 53.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the abdomen. This man was walking on defensive action when he was struck by an enemy sniper's bullet at a 60-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover. The enemy sniper had been active in this area for some time, and the men had been warned to stay out of open areas.

Case 54.-Mild laceration of the left arm. This man was in a prone position in a foxhole when he was struck by a .50 caliber machinegun bullet from a U.S. P-57 during a strafing attack. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. Better air-ground communications would have prevented this accident.

Case 55.-Severe perforating wound of the abdomen. This man was sitting in a very shallow foxhole with his upper torso exposed when he was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 54. This man received plasma within 5 minutes after being injured and was then evacuated 4 miles by litter carry. He died approximately 24 hours after being injured. Classified as DOW, with a 24-hour survival time. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of more complete protection.

Case 56.-Moderately severe lacerating wounds of the left forearm. This man was in a prone position on offensive action when he was struck by an enemy rifle bullet. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 57.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the right shoulder. This man was in a prone position on offensive action when he was struck by an enemy sniper's bullet at a range of approximately 40 yards. The advance had stopped, and the man was attempting to reach an old Japanese foxhole. He was injured as he was entering the foxhole. Classified as WIA, first echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover instead of exposing himself to sniper fire as he crawled over the ground to the foxhole.

Case 58.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the right arm. This man was in a prone position on offensive action when he was struck by a bullet from a Japanese light machinegun at a 30-yard range. Classified as WIA, first echelon type, and returned to duty within 30 days.

Case 59.-Severe penetrating wounds of the head. This man was in a prone position in a shallow foxhole waiting for the mortar barrage to lift when he was struck by a fragment from a 50 mm. U.S. mortar shell which had a tree burst at a range of approximately 15 yards. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type. This man's helmet probably saved his life. The mortar was being fired from a position too far back of the frontline.

Case 60.-Mild penetrating wound of the right leg. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 59. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 61.-Mild laceration of the left leg. This man was walking on offensive action when he was struck by an enemy rifle bullet at a range of approximately 30 to 100 yards. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 62.-Mild laceration of the left shoulder. This man was sitting in a shallow foxhole near the air station when he was struck by a fragment from a Japanese knee mortar which had a tree burst directly overhead. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of a prone position in the foxhole.


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Case 63.-Multiple, moderately severe wounds of the head. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 62. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had worn his helmet and had been in a prone position.

Case 64.-Mild penetrating wounds of the right upper extremity. This man was in a prone position in a foxhole when he was wounded by fragments from a U.S. 60 mm. mortar shell which exploded at a distance of 3 feet from the edge of the hole. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 65.-Mild penetrating wound of the head. This man was in a prone position on offensive action when he was wounded by fragments from a Japanese hand grenade which exploded at a 2- to 3-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 66.-Severe penetrating wound of the thorax. This man, while on defensive action, was standing on a trail in a known previous line of fire near the front perimeter when he was hit by a .25 caliber rifle bullet at a range of approximately 200 yards. Classified as KIA. This casualty might have been avoided if the man had not engaged in sightseeing and if he had heeded the warning about the enemy's line of fire.

Case 67.-Severe perforating wound of the head. During the change of guard at night, this man sat up in his foxhole. The battalion veterinarian, thinking the soldier was a Japanese, shot him with his .45 caliber pistol. Classified as KIA. This casualty could have been avoided.

10.-On 4 April, the Khaki Combat Team was ordered to bypass the Japanese resistance on the Nhpum Ga trail and to make a right flank attack on the Japanese at the northeast sector of the village where another trail led into the area. After considerable difficulty in passing through the jungle, the combat team arrived in the vicinity of the village at approximately 1600 hours. While advancing up the trail, the three lead scouts were wounded by a burst of Japanese machinegun fire. These men advanced into an ambush without proper reconnaissance or preparation. All other attempts of the Americans to advance were repulsed.

On 5 April, after a quiet night without attack from the Japanese, the combat team advanced along the trail. However, heavy fire from the enemy light machinegun prevented any flanking movement, and the combat team retired from the area.

Case 68.-Severe perforating wound of the head. This man was a lead scout on patrol and was walking up a trail when he was struck by a bullet from an enemy light machinegun. Classified as KIA. This casualty might have been avoided if different tactics had been adopted.

Case 69.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the left thigh. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 68. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 70.-Severe perforating wound of the neck. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 68. Classified as DOW, with a 7-hour survival time. This casualty might have been avoided if he had not attempted to reach Case 69. He should have taken advantage of protective cover until the offensive action could have been properly organized.

Case 71.-Traumatic amputation of the right third finger. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 68. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 72.-Moderately severe laceration of the right thigh. This man was on offensive action and advancing through thick jungle in a low crouched position when he was struck by an enemy light machinegun bullet at a range of approximately 40 yards. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 73.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the right leg. This man was advancing in a crouched position through thick jungle cover when he was struck by an enemy light machinegun bullet. This man was seen by the battalion surgeon 15 minutes after he was injured, but before that time he had not received any first aid nor had a tourniquet been


797

applied to his leg. Classified as DOW, with a 40-minute survival time. This casualty could have been avoided if a tourniquet had been applied to his leg.

Case 74.-Minor laceration of the right shoulder. This man was advancing in a crouched position on offensive action when he was struck by an enemy light machinegun bullet. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

11.-On 7 April, the Khaki Combat Team took over the perimeter of the Orange Combat Team. The latter team was dispatched on a wide flanking movement to the left of the main trail. Their mission was to cut the Japanese supply line south of Nhpum Ga. This maneuver was not successful because of difficult terrain and supply shortages.

During the period of 7 through 9 April, the Khaki Combat Team had numerous contacts with the enemy forces. The heaviest part of the offensive during 8 April was carried out by the I and R Platoon of Headquarters Company and the 2d Platoon of I Company. All of the positions taken on 7 April were given up because of the high ground held by the Japanese. Five separate attacks were organized during the day. Both 60 and 81 mm. mortars were used to give a barrage of about 400 shells preceding each attack. Much of the fighting took place with only a few yards separating the advance elements of the approaching forces. The fighting throughout most of the day was up steep terrain through closely growing bamboo and thick jungle growth.

Case 75.-Severe penetrating wound of the left forearm with a compound fracture of the left radius. This man, while on offensive action in a prone position, crawled into the fire lane of a Japanese light machinegun. He was wounded at an approximate 60-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had stayed out of the known machinegun lane.

Case 76.-Mild penetrating wound of the right arm and multiple penetrating wounds of the left lower extremity. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 74. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 77.-Mild laceration of the left hand. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 75. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 78.-Severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man was on offensive action and in a crawling position during advancement against the enemy when he was hit by a burst of fire from a Japanese light machinegun at a 100-yard range. Classified as DOW, with a 1-hour survival time.

Case 79.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the right hand. This man was on offensive action and was standing throwing a grenade when he was struck by a fragment from a Japanese hand grenade at a range of approximately 10 feet. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 80.-Severe penetrating wound of the right side of the head. This man was on offensive action and was carrying a radio. The platoon leader informed him that they were entering a danger zone, and, as the soldier was attempting to assume the prone position, he was struck by a bullet from a Japanese .25 caliber rifle at a 40-yard range. Classified as KIA.

Case 81.-Severe penetrating wound of the right side of the head. This man was walking to the left of the trail toward the enemy line in a known fire lane when he was struck by an enemy light machinegun bullet at a 50-yard range. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover and if he had heeded the previous warning in regard to the fire lane.

Case 82.-Mild laceration of the left hand. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 81. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 83.-Severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man was on offensive action and his platoon had just been relieved and was going into position for flank protection when he was struck by a .25 caliber bullet at a 75- to 100-yard range. He was in a prone position. Classified as DOW, with a 2-hour survival time.


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Case 84.-Severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man was on offensive action advancing in a crouched position when he was struck by a .25 caliber rifle bullet at a 20-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 85.-Severe penetrating wound of the right leg with a compound comminuted fracture of the right tibia. This man was a radio operator and was occupying a shallow foxhole 50 yards in front of the perimeter and 100 yards in back of the advancing troops. The foxhole had been dug by the Japanese and had a log in front and in back. A light machinegun bullet passed through the log and wounded this man. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had not occupied this foxhole which was in a known lane of machinegun fire.

Case 86.-Mild penetrating wound of the right thigh. This man was the lead scout of his platoon and in a crouched position when he was struck by a fragment from an enemy hand grenade which had a tree burst of a 5-foot range. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 87.-Mild laceration of the head and face. This man was in a prone position behind a tree when he was struck by a fragment from an enemy hand grenade which exploded at a range of approximately 5 feet. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 88.-Mild laceration of the upper part of the left leg. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 86. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 89.-Mild penetrating wound of the left side of the face. This squad leader was standing behind a tree when he was struck by numerous fragments from a Japanese hand grenade which exploded at a 2-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of a prone position.

Case 90.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the left hand. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 89. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 91.-Mild laceration of the right hand. This man was in a prone position of a shellhole when he was struck by a fragment from a Japanese hand grenade at a 5- to 10-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 92.-Severe penetrating wound of the left arm with a compound comminuted fracture of the elbow region. This man was in a prone position firing at a Japanese light machinegun crew when he was struck by an enemy machinegun bullet at a range of approximately 30 yards. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had not occupied a known lane of machinegun fire.

Case 93.-Multiple, moderately severe penetrating wounds of the head and the right upper and lower extremities. This man was on offensive action and delivering Browning automatic rifle fire from a shellhole when a Japanese hand grenade burst at a 2-yard range. Despite his multiple wounds, this man continued to deliver effective fire against the enemy light machinegun crew. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type.

Case 94.-Multiple penetrating wounds of the left lower extremity. This man was in a prone position when he was struck by a fragment from an enemy hand grenade at a 2-yard range. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 95.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the abdomen, posteriorly. This man was on offensive action and was crawling forward when he exposed himself to enemy rifle fire by crawling over a slight elevation on the ground. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had circled around, rather than crawled over, the elevation on the ground.

Case 96.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the right forearm. This man was on offensive action and was talking in a crouched position into attack when he made an excessive amount of noise in going through a clump of bamboo. He was wounded by fire from a Japanese sniper's rifle. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided.

Case 97.-Mild penetrating wound of the right side of the neck. This man was crawling back to the command post for ammunition when he was wounded by fragments from an enemy hand grenade which exploded within a few feet of his position. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.


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Case 98.-Mild penetrating wound of the right hand. This squad leader was crawling toward the enemy lines when he was struck by a fragment from an enemy hand grenade at a 5-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 99.-Severe perforating wound of the abdomen and a moderately severe penetrating wound of the thorax. This man was on offensive action and was scouting about in a dense clump of bamboo when he was struck by the first burst of Japanese heavy machinegun fire at a 25- to 30-yard range. Classified as DOW, with a 24-hour survival time.

12.-On 8 April, an unfortunate accident occurred. A 60 mm. mortar shell scored a direct hit on a headquarters company heavy machinegun crew. One man survived, two died of wounds, and a fourth was killed instantly. A prior air and artillery barrage had cleared away the bamboo and jungle growth for approximately 100 yards along the trail, and the U.S. mortars were set up in this area. The frontline of the perimeter was 200 yards in front of the mortars. At this distance on the left of the trail, there was a large hole in which was placed a heavy machinegun squad. Across the trail was another hole occupied by the battalion commander and the officer directing fire. A mortar barrage was planned and the 81 mm. mortars were zeroed in. It was then decided to add the 60 mm. mortars to the barrage. The initial range was 350 to 400 yards. Following the primary zeroing round, a second round was requested, and subsequent investigation revealed that despite the usual precaution this round fell short and landed on the machinegun emplacement. After this accident, the 60 mm. mortar was used only as a frontline weapon.

Case 100.-Multiple, moderately severe penetrating wounds of the neck, thorax, and upper and lower extremities. This man was crouched in a left posterior corner of the machinegun hole when the 60 mm. mortar shell exploded at an approximate 4-foot range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 101.-Multiple penetrating and perforating wounds of the abdomen and lower extremity. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 100. Classified as DOW, with a 12-hour survival time.

Case 102.-Multiple penetrating wounds of the face, abdomen, and upper and lower extremities. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 100. Classified as DOW, with a 2-month survival time.

Case 103.-Large mutilating wounds of the right side of head and body with compound comminuted fractures of right arm and leg. This man was in very close proximity to the 60 mm. mortar shell when it exploded. Classified as KIA.

13.-On 9 April 1944, an early morning patrol was sent forward from the Khaki Combat Team perimeter. In the area where the resistance had been the strongest, the patrol encountered only one live Japanese. He appeared to be in a dazed condition and was wandering about carrying the arm of another soldier which had been cleanly cut off below the elbow. In his attempt to escape, he was killed.

The Khaki Combat Team Rifle Platoon soon moved into the area and made contact with the 2d Battalion without meeting any enemy resistance. The 2d Battalion had been surrounded by elements of one Japanese battalion reinforced with a heavy weapons company which had opposed all rescue attempts. The 2d Battalion had been subjected to 11 days of fanatical rushes by the enemy from all sides of their perimeter and daily pointblank artillery fire from two mountain artillery pieces (nicknamed "whiz bangs") and mortar fire. A combat team from the 1st Battalion, which had been on a flanking mission, entered the village somewhat later. The long train of wounded men was quickly moved to the airstrip, 5 miles away.

The Orange Combat Team arrived from its unsuccessful flanking movement, and a strong perimeter was set up about the village. Strong points were placed along the trail to keep the 5-mile supply route open.

Elements of the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional) remained in this area until 24 April, when the entire area was turned over to the Chinese troops. Constant patrol action


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was carried out during this period. The Japanese had withdrawn south along the trail to Auche and Warawng.

Case 104.-Severe penetrating wound of the left leg. This man was sitting on the edge of a previous Japanese foxhole when he was struck by a fragment from an enemy artillery shell which exploded at a 5-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 105.-Multiple penetrating wounds of the right and left lower extremities and the thorax. This man was on patrol activity when he walked into a U.S. boobytrap armed with a hand grenade. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty could have been avoided.

Case 106.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the left arm and penetrating wound of the thorax. This man, a member of a five-man patrol, had moved from the protective cover of the tall grass onto the trail. He was struck by fire from an enemy machinegun at a range of approximately 75 yards. Classified as KIA. This casualty could have been avoided if he had refrained from stepping into the trail in this close proximity to the enemy.

Case 107.-Mild laceration of the thorax. This man was a member of the same patrol as Case 106 and became very nervous after the patrol leader was struck. In his attempt to crawl to the rear, he was struck by fire from a Japanese sniper's rifle. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty could have been avoided if he had remained at his post.

Case 108.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the left lower extremity. This squad leader, becoming very excited when the enemy contact was made, was struck by fire from an enemy sniper's rifle bullet at a 60-yard range. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 109.-Severe perforating wound of the right leg. This man was cleaning his Ml rifle and forgot to remove the cartridge in the clip; the gun was accidentally discharged. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type. His wound necessitated amputation of the leg. This casualty could have been avoided.

Case 110.-Severe perforating wound of the left leg. This man was on patrol and thought he heard a noise. He then proceeded to arm his pistol but forgot to release it to safety after placing it in his holster. A few minutes later, there was an accidental discharge of the weapon. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty could have been avoided.

14.-The entire regiment (5307th Composite Unit (Provisional)) was in the vicinity of Naubum on the Tanai Hka River from 25 to 30 April. After reorganization at Hsamshingyang, plans were drawn up for the capture of the airfield at Myitkyina. Because of its reduced strength, the 2d Battalion was to be held in regimental reserve. The 3d Battalion with approximately 350 men in the Orange Combat Team and 250 men in the Khaki Combat Team was to work with the 88th Infantry Regiment and the 1st Battalion, with the 150th Infantry Regiment of the Chinese Army. The Chinese troops had been trained by Americans and were equipped with American weapons. The majority of American troops were in very poor physical condition after their 3 months' stay in Burma. Many had medical conditions which under ordinary circumstances would have required hospitalization.

The 3d Battalion followed by the Chinese 88th Infantry Regiment left Naubum on 30 April for the very difficult trek over the 6,034-foot high Jaupadu Bum mountain range leading to the Myitkyina Valley. In spite of many alarms, no contact was made with the enemy by the King Force (the 3d Battalion plus the Chinese 88th Infantry Regiment) until it reached Ritpong, a typica1 Kachin hill valley 50 miles north of Myitkyina. The north trail into the village rises 500 feet within 500 yards, and the south trail runs over a gentle ridge with steep sides. Therefore, the terrain presented an ideal defensive position for the enemy.

On 6 May, the 3d Battalion cut a trail through the jungle to the left of the village and blocked the south trail. The Chinese closed in on the north trail and attacked on 7 May, finally entering the village on 10 May. The Japanese garrison of one company had been destroyed, and one wounded Japanese who remained described a small party of about 30 men who escaped.


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Between 7 and 10 May 1944, about 700 U.S. troops were engaged in the action described, though never more than 3 platoons were involved at any one time. Of the approximately 3,000 Chinese troops engaged, never more than 500 were used at one time. There were between 200 and 300 Japanese in the opposing forces. They sustained about 185 casualties, and the Chinese sustained 30 KIA and 100 WIA.1

The details of the five U.S. troops WIA, one of whom later died of his wounds, are as follows:

Case 111.-Severe penetrating wound of the right side of the thorax. This man was on defensive action in a prone position in a foxhole when he was struck by a stray Japanese bullet at a 100-yard range. Classified as DOW, with a 4-day survival time.

Case 112.-Severe perforating wound of the right side of the neck. This man was on offensive action and was bringing up several men to support the light machinegun which his platoon leader had set up. He knew that snipers had been shooting into this general area for the past 15 minutes. While moving just to the right of the trail with very poor jungle cover, he turned to give a command and was struck by a .25 caliber rifle bullet at a 70-yard range. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover and concealment.

Case 113.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man was on offensive action and advancing in a crouched position when he was struck by a .25 caliber rifle bullet at a 100-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover and concealment.

Case 114.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the right thigh. This man was in a prone position in the midst of jungle cover firing at the enemy when he was struck by a heavy machinegun bullet at a 75-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 115.-Penetrating wound of the left foot and multiple penetrating wounds of the left leg. This man was on defensive action and was withdrawing from contact with the enemy when he was struck by fragments from 90 mm. Japanese mortar shell which burst 1 yard in front of him. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

15.-After leaving Ritpong, the I and R Platoon of the Orange Combat Team managed to cover 12 miles in approximately 24 hours and approached Tingkrukawng on 13 May 1944. Their route had led up a steep hill on a razorback trail which threaded its way through thick

1During this 4-day engagement, the Chinese, according to their regimental surgeon, sustained between 25 and 30 casualties (KIA). It was never possible to obtain any further information.
No records are available on the Chinese wounded, but the writer of this chapter saw the 100 who were treated in the 42d Portable Surgical Hospital located 400 yards north of the village and can make a fairly accurate statement concerning them.
Mortar and grenade fragments accounted for at least 80 percent of the casualties and machinegun and rifle bullets for the remainder. About half of the mortar casualties seemed caused by Chinese fire.
Local anesthesia was used in all cases, supplemented by Penthothal sodium (thiopental sodium) in two abdominal operations.
No skull fractures or brain wounds were treated, though 10 percent of the casualties had head injuries. One casualty had a severe perforating mortar wound of the right side of the neck, laterally, with the exit wound through the distal third of the tongue. This man died in 72 hours, without surgical intervention, and with uremia as the most prominent feature. The entire end of the tongue was necrotic before his death.
No sucking thoracic wounds and very few penetrating wounds were seen, though thoracic wounds were found in 20 percent of the casualties. One casualty with a wound 6 cm. in diameter over the right scapula had no evidence of penetration of the thoracic cavity. He died after debridement.
Three casualties with abdominal wounds died of hemorrhage and shock a few minutes after they arrived at the aid station, and two others, apparently with penetrating wounds, were operated on, but no perforations were found. A sixth casualty survived severe peritonitis without surgical intervention; treatment consisted of sulfadiazine and a liquid diet. He had a foul wound of the left lower quadrant of the abdomen, in which the descending colon was visible. No other penetrating wounds were observed. Twenty percent of the casualties had abdominal wounds.
No amputations of the lower extremities were performed, and only one hand and one arm were removed. Extremity wounds were found in 50 percent of the casualties, and at least 15 compound fractures of the lower extremities were observed.
Of the 100 Chinese wounded in action, 47 were considered litter cases. They were carried 30 miles to a jungle strip at Arang, whence they were evacuated by plane. The majority had been on some form of sulfonamide therapy for 3 days.


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bamboo and jungle growth. As the platoon came down the trail to where it gave a view of the village, the first scout motioned for his platoon to come to a halt. He saw about 40 men bunched on the trail 50 yards distant on the far side of the village. Their helmets were decorated with parachute cloth, such as the Chinese troops often wore. One of these Japanese gave the Chinese greeting and the American scout replied. Therefore, the American troops thought that they had encountered a group of Chinese. However, the Japanese soon began to deploy and take cover and opened fire on the American troops. The Americans did not disperse properly since they were on a very narrow ridge, and a fire fight developed. Four American casualties were sustained, and numerous casualties were inflicted on the enemy.

Case 116.-Severe penetrating wound of the occipital region of the head and a bayonet wound of the neck. The latter wound was probably inflicted after the man was killed by the head wound. This man was attempting to take cover from the enemy when he was struck by a bullet from a Japanese light machinegun at a 75-yard range. Classified as KIA. This casualty might have been avoided if some distinction had been made between Japanese and Chinese uniforms.

Case 117.-Moderately severe lacerating wound of the right side of the head and the right eye. This man was in a prone position firing his M1 rifle when he was struck by a .25 caliber rifle bullet at a 75-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 118.-Severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man was in a standing position attempting to put a light machinegun into operation when he was struck by a Japanese light machinegun bullet at a 100-yard range. Classified as KIA. Notwithstanding the fact that this man sustained a perforating wound of the left lung and the heart, he was conscious for approximately 3 minutes before he died.

Case 119.-Moderately severe penetrating wounds of the abdomen. This man was attempting to reach the body of Case 116 when he was struck by an enemy light machinegun bullet. The bullet perforated his canteen before entering his abdomen. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty might have been avoided if the battalion commander had been aware of the true tactical situation.

16.-The first platoon of Company L was engaged in setting up a perimeter for the night in the vicinity of a somewhat protected ridge to the left of the trail near the entrance to the village. Two men who had been assigned a sector in back of a small ridge which offered excellent protection became casualties when they carelessly exposed themselves.

Case 120.-Severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man was on defensive action and was standing on a small ridge 70 yards from a Japanese-held village when he was struck by a sniper's bullet. Classified as KIA. This casualty could have been avoided.

Case 121.-Moderately severe laceration of the left buttock. This man was standing near Case 120 and was attempting to assume a prone position when he was struck by an enemy sniper's bullet at a 70-yard range. Classified as WIA, first echelon type. This casualty could have been avoided.

17.-On 13 May 1944, the Khaki Combat Team was sent on a flanking movement to the left of the village in order to form a trail block on a trail leading north from the village. At the same time, two Chinese companies were to form trail blocks on two trails entering from the south. The entire combat team dug in on the sides of the razorback ridge over which the trail led. During the rest of the day, numerous casualties were sustained.

Case 122.-Multiple, severe penetrating wounds of the abdomen and the right lower extremity. This man was on offensive action and was walking up the trail in attempt to locate a Japanese sniper when he was struck by a .25 caliber bullet at a 100-yard range. The bullet hit and exploded a U.S. grenade which was carried in his belt. Classified as DOW, with a 4-hour survival time. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover and concealment.


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Case 123.-Mild penetrating wound of the thorax. This man was in a kneeling position administering blood plasma to Case 122 when he was struck by a fragment from a Japanese knee mortar which had a tree burst at a 10-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 124.-Mild penetrating wound of the right thigh. This man was on offensive action and was walking by the aid station when a knee mortar exploded at a 10-yard range. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 125.-Mild penetrating wound of the left leg. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 124. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 126.-Moderately severe perforating wound of the left thigh. This man was a member of a squad which was being moved across a trail which was exposed to enemy fire. While running across the trail, he was hit by a sniper's bullet at a 75-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken proper precaution in crossing the trail.

Case 127.-Mild laceration of the face. This man, while on offensive action sitting in back of a bank, was preparing to cross the trail when fragments from a sniper's bullet struck him in the face. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 128.-Moderately severe penetrating wounds of the occipital region of the head. This man was on defensive action sitting on the edge of the trail when he was struck by fragments from a knee mortar shell which had a tree burst at a 3-yard range. Classified as WIA, first echelon type. This casualty could have been avoided if he had worn his helmet and if he had attempted to take advantage of protective cover.

Case 129.-Moderately severe penetrating wounds of the head and of the thorax. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 128. Classified as WIA, first echelon type. This casualty could have been avoided.

Case 130.-Mild penetrating wound of the left leg. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 128. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type.

Case 131.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the right foot. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 128. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 132.-Severe penetrating wound of the head with compound fracture of the skull. This man was on defensive action and was sitting in a rather well protected spot. When he removed his helmet to look over the small ridge which was protecting him, he was struck by a .25 caliber sniper's bullet at a range of approximately 100 yards. He was attended by a surgeon but did not arrive at a main aid station until 14 hours later. Classified as DOW, with a 40-hour survival time. He died while being carried on a litter to the evacuation point. This casualty might have been avoided if he had worn his helmet.

Case 133.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the right arm. This man was wounded in the same vicinity as Case 132. He was struck by a .25 caliber bullet at a 70-yard range. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 134.-Severe penetrating wound of the thorax. This man was on offensive action and was advancing in a crouched position when he was struck by the first burst of a Japanese light machinegun at a range of approximately 50 yards. Classified as KIA. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover and of a prone position.

Case 135.-Multiple penetrating and perforating wounds of the right thigh. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 134. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty, which might have been avoided, occurred because the man was attempting to reach Case 134 while the enemy was still firing.

Case 136.-Mild laceration of the left shoulder. This man was on defensive action walking down a trail when he was wounded by an enemy light machinegun bullet at a range of approximately 70 yards. Classified as WIA, immediate duty type. This casualty could have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover.


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18.-During the afternoon of 13 May, the Chinese casualties began to filter back to the 42d Portable Surgical Hospital. They left an estimated 5 dead in the jungle and sent out approximately 25 WIA. At least 90 percent of the wounds had been caused by mortar fire. In this group of casualties, no brain or penetrating abdominal wounds were seen. Surgery consisted of simple debridement only.

On 13 May, the Khaki Combat Team was ordered to the right flank, and a Chinese company took over the defense of the main trail for 300 or 400 yards in back of the Orange Combat Team which was working up the trail toward the village. The Chinese troops neglected to make a strong point of the high ground to the left of the trail and put inadequate defense along the small trail which ran over into the main trail. Five Japanese with a light machinegun set up on this ground and commanded the entire main trail. The Chinese were unable to cope with the situation and in attempting to knock out the machinegun one of the American muleskinners was killed and one wounded. Later in the day, a heavy machinegun was brought up from the Orange Combat Team, and the Japanese gun was soon knocked out.

19.-On 14 May 1944, the King Force received orders to break off contact with the enemy and proceed toward Myitkyina. The 1st Battalion, with the 150th Chinese Infantry Regiment, had already proceeded on the way to the airfield. The King Force was disbanded on 24 May. After 18 May, the 3d Battalion had little contact with the enemy, and the men were gradually replaced by the 236th Engineer Combat Battalion. Most of the original unit was evacuated by 1 June, but approximately 150 men remained and fought in various capacities during the next 2 months.

The Orange Combat Team sustained one casualty on the afternoon of 18 May.

Case 137.-Severe penetrating wound of the right thigh. This man was on offensive action in a prone position and was protected by a small ground elevation when he was struck by a .25 caliber rifle bullet at a range of approximately 150 yards. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

While the 3d Battalion was working its way down the Mogaung-Myitkyina Road toward its junction with the Sumprabum Road, two casualties were sustained during patrol activity.

Case 138.-Severe perforating wound of the abdomen. This man, on patrol activity, had located an enemy automatic weapon emplacement. Instead of taking advantage of protective cover and waiting for the remainder of his patrol to reach him, he continued to advance in a standing position and was struck by a Japanese light machinegun bullet at a range of approximately 100 yards. Despite his wound, he managed to walk 60 yards to an aid station. He was then evacuated by litter 5 miles to Myitkyina where a laparotomy was performed. Classified as WIA, U.S. evacuation type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had used better judgment.

Case 139.-Severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man was on defensive action and at 2300 hours stood up in his foxhole. A guard who was located 5 yards in front of him mistook him for a Japanese and shot him with his M1 rifle. Classified as KIA. This casualty could have been avoided.

On 23 May 1944, while holding a roadblock near Charparte, the Orange Combat Team had several five-man outposts. Case 140 was in an outpost 400 yards from the perimeter and had been informed that the Japanese would be through the area during the day. The outpost was in a well-protected position and was armed with one Browning automatic rifle and four M1 rifles. Case 140 saw a man approaching the outpost and instead of waiting for positive identification went to meet him. The American soldier was mortally wounded before the Japanese soldier was killed.

Case 140.-Severe perforating wounds of the thorax. This man was hit by a .25 caliber rifle bullet at a 50-yard range. This casualty was carried 400 yards to an aid station where he was given plasma. No litter planes were available so the man could not be evacuated.


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He died 14 hours later. Classified as DOW, with a 14-hour survival time. This casualty could have been avoided.

During the night of 23 May, the 3d Battalion continued to hold the Mogaung-Myitkyina Road as it passed through the village of Charparte. It was the feeling of the majority of the officers that the perimeter was too large and that the defensive plan was poor. The Charparte region was quite flat and most of the area occupied open terrain. Early in the evening, 20 Chinese had passed a 5-man American outpost 400 yards west of the perimeter and had continued through the U.S. lines. The night was very dark and it was raining and at 2300 hours a company of Japanese passed by the outpost before the Americans realized what was happening. The outpost did not have any communication with the perimeter, and the men left the outpost and started back toward the perimeter by way of the jungle. The Japanese were first to reach the perimeter, and since they were mistaken for Chinese approximately 30 enemy troops entered the area before they were challenged. The remainder of the enemy deployed about the area. During the fight which followed, the 3d Battalion sustained five KIA and five WIA casualties. It was estimated that the Japanese had approximately 50 casualties with 15 dead. Hand grenade fragments killed two Americans and wounded two others. One man had a bayonet wound, and the rest of the casualties were due to small arms fire.

Case 141.-Multiple penetrating and perforating wounds of the anterior surface of the thorax and abdomen. In addition, there were numerous bayonet wounds inflicted after death. This man was a member of the outpost attempting to reach the perimeter when he ran into the midst of a group of Japanese. An enemy hand grenade exploded a few inches from the center of his chest. Classified as KIA.

Case 142.-This man was killed under circumstances similar to those of Case 141.

Case 143.-Multiple penetrating wounds of the head and thorax. This man was on defensive action in a prone position in a foxhole when he was struck by fragments from an enemy hand grenade. Classified as WIA, first echelon type.

Case 144.-Multiple penetrating wounds of the thorax. This man was wounded under circumstances similar to those of Case 143. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 145.-Severe penetrating wound of the right forearm and a compound comminuted fracture of the radius. This man was in defensive action in a prone position in a foxhole when he was struck by an enemy rifle bullet at a 10-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type.

Case 146.-Multiple penetrating wounds of the thorax, the right upper extremity, and the left buttock. This man was on defensive action and was a member of a machinegun section which had become disorganized. In attempting to find the company command post, he walked into the center of a group of Japanese. He did not have any weapon and was bayoneted by the enemy. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty could have been avoided.

Case 147.-Severe perforating wound of the neck. This man, on defensive action in a prone position under a shelter half, became excited and attempted to crawl away. He was shot by another American with an M1 rifle. Classified as KIA. This casualty could have been avoided. This man's companion continued to stay under the shelter and killed several Japanese with his pistol.

Case 148.-Severe perforating wound of the left side of the thorax. This man, while on defensive action, had taken cover under a shelter half without the protection of a foxhole. He left the shelter half and was in a standing position calling over the radio when he was struck by an enemy rifle bullet at a close range. Classified as KIA. This casualty could have been avoided.

Case 149.-Severe perforating wound of the thorax. This man was in a prone position in a foxhole but assumed a kneeling position in order to use the telephone. He was killed instantly by an enemy rifle bullet at a 20-yard range. This casualty could have been avoided.


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Case 150.-Moderately severe penetrating wound of the abdomen. This man had left the protection of his foxhole in an attempt to aid Case 148. He was struck by an enemy rifle bullet at a 25-yard range. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty could have been avoided.

On 24 May, the 3d Battalion formed a perimeter across the Myitkyina railroad. Numerous night skirmishes took place with the Japanese. Two days later, a 10-man American patrol, armed with 4 Browning automatic rifles, 1 Thompson submachinegun, and 5 M1 rifles encountered 45 Japanese armed with 4 light machineguns and 1 knee mortar. Twenty Japanese were killed and a large number were wounded. There were no American casualties.

On 26 May, Case 151 was told to lead a patrol to the east beyond the advance outpost. He was aware that Japanese troops were in the area but advanced alone to the designated spot and was wounded by an enemy hand grenade.

Case 151.-Multiple penetrating wounds of the face, thorax, and abdomen. All the wounds seemed to involve soft tissue only. This man had advanced 100 yards from the outpost when he was struck by fragments from a Japanese hand grenade which exploded a few feet in front of him. Classified as WIA, second echelon type. This casualty might have been avoided if he had taken advantage of protective cover. In addition, it was felt that this was an unnecessary patrol.

In the period from 18 to 26 May, there were approximately 541 American troops and 276 Japanese troops involved in the fighting. The Americans sustained a total of 15 casualties (5 KIA, 1 DOW, and 9 WIA). The Japanese sustained approximately 83 casualties.

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