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Chapter VIII

Contents

CHAPTER VIII

Functional Organization in Theater and Minor Commands

At the beginning of the war period, the oversea organization of the Army Veterinary Service was divided between the four oversea departments: Hawaiian, Panama Canal, and Philippine Departments, and the new Puerto Rican Department which was established on 1 July 1939. Each department's headquarters staff included a department surgeon with a veterinary officer as an assistant (that is, the department veterinarian) to supervise the veterinary affairs within the territorial or departmental area. The duties of these department veterinarians generally paralleled those prescribed for corps area veterinarians in the Zone of Interior. Below the level of the headquarters, veterinary personnel generally were assigned to various provisional veterinary general and station hospital organizations which were located at the larger installations, and infrequently a few personnel were assigned to a tactical unit. There was no sharp line of demarcation between the departmental air, ground, and service forces such as made its appearance in the war period, and a unified veterinary service organization under the technical supervision of the single department veterinarian satisfied all Army requirements.

In 1939-40, the oversea veterinary strength totaled 17 to 19 officers; during World War II, 700 Veterinary Corps officers were distributed among at least 23 theater commands. The more important of these commands were as follows:

Minor commands and American theater: 
Caribbean Defense Command 
  Panama Canal Department
  Antilles Department (superseding Puerto Rican Department) 
Bermuda Base Command  
Newfoundland Base Command 
Greenland Base Command 
Iceland Base Command 
Northwest Service Command 
Alaskan Department
U.S. Army Forces, South Atlantic
Middle East, Mediterranean, and European theaters: 
U.S. Army Forces, Africa-Middle East theater 
  U.S. Army Forces in the Middle East 
  U.S. Army Forces in Central Africa 
Mediterranean (formerly North African) Theater of Operations, U.S. Army 
European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army


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Pacific-Asiatic theaters:
U.S. Army Forces, Pacific Ocean Areas
  U.S. Army Forces in Central Pacific Area (superseding Hawaiian Department) 
  U.S. Army Forces in South Pacific Area
U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (superseding Philippine Department) 
  U.S. Army Forces, Services of Supply, Southwest Pacific Area 
U.S. Army Forces, China-Burma-India, predecessor to-
  U.S. Forces, India-Burma Theater
  U.S. Forces, China Theater

Technically, there is no definition of a theater command that would allow for the proper listing of all for the war period, because there were some, such as the U.S. Army Forces in Liberia and the many task forces which were sent to the South Pacific Area, that originated as separate War Department-controlled commands. Eventually, many of these were merged or relegated to control by a larger theater command.

One of the reasons for this grouping of the theater commands into three major groups was that it simplified the description of veterinary functional organization by geographic area. However, beyond this, there can be no simple description of a theater's veterinary service for the war period that would be descriptive for all or most of the oversea command. Because each was developed separately, rapidly, and concurrently, none followed any particular organizational pattern. In fact, the historical record of oversea veterinary functional organization, its development, and its accomplishments comprises an individual study for each theater command. There was no typical theater veterinary service organization. The absence of a theater veterinary organization plan may be explained in a number of ways; there was the general concept in peacetime planning for a single theater of operations such as existed with the American Expeditionary Forces in France during World War I. Also, there was the single General Headquarters (GHQ) about which the War Department had been centering its attention since the early 1930's, and it was not until 1941 that, for the first time, there was some real indication that perhaps the single theater plan would not be followed. In that year, U.S. Army Forces in the Far East and U.S. Army Forces in Iceland were created as theater-like commands. These generally followed the appearance of semitactical base commands and defense commands that were established in and surrounding the United States and the Western Hemisphere .

Another significant factor responsible for failure to properly forecast theater requirements for an adequate veterinary service originated with a fundamental concept that veterinary personnel were to be attached to units (in field service) whose animal strength was sufficient to justify their employment (1). This was set forth even in the latest wartime manuals on Medical Department doctrine, though animal strength had long been argued by the Veterinary Division, Surgeon General's Office, as comprising an inadequate basis for determining veterinary personnel requirements. Further-  


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more, there had been prescribed or recognized since World War I, the duality of the mission of the Army Veterinary Service to care for sick and wounded animals and to inspect foods. However, despite this, primary emphasis was placed on the evolution of a theater veterinary organization, made up of detachments and units that would operate a system of animal evacuation and veterinary hospitalization; in the years just before Pearl Harbor, these detachments and units were only slightly modified to include provisions for the operation of meat and dairy hygiene services. Undoubtedly, the very sudden mechanization and motorization of the Army that took place in 1940-41 saw the nonactivation or conversion of detachments and units that were identified primarily for veterinary animal service and thus the complete loss of personnel and units who could otherwise have been diverted from animal service to veterinary food inspection within the theater commands. The scarcity of veterinary personnel in the opening days of several theater commands was amplified by the fact that overall logistic planning had given no indication that the Army overseas would be rationed or subsisted by Allied governments from local resources to the extent that it was and that programs of military meat and dairy hygiene would have to be set up in such places as India, China, Australia, New Zealand, South and Central America, and on the African Continent.

Of course, there were many other factors that would account for the varied developments of the Army Veterinary Service among the wartime theater commands. For example, as in the Zone of Interior, there were three separate Army entities: Air Forces, Ground Forces, and Service Forces. The theaters' air forces-particularly the very heavy, long-range, or strategic bombing commands and the Air Transport Command-usually exempted themselves from jurisdiction of the theaters as being War Department, or global commands; these had their own assigned veterinary personnel. Then, too, in most major theaters, the Army ground combat forces with their veterinary service organization came under the operational control of an Allied command or a joint Army-Navy headquarters, and it was unreasonable for the U.S. Army theater command to exert any real effective administrative control over matters such as veterinary affairs in the U.S. Army field armies and other tactical forces that were part of such a senior Allied or joint command. Of course, such senior commands frequently had but little concept of military veterinary medicine. Another factor was that the Army theater commands showed an overwhelming tendency to subordinate the nominal chief or theater veterinarian to the theater's services of supply headquarters organization-a status comparable to that set forth in the War Department reorganization of 1942, which had reduced the standing of The Surgeon General and his chief of Veterinary Corps under the jurisdiction of Headquarters, Army Services of Supply. That this was improper was clearly seen in the actions or reorganizations during the last year of the war


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period when most oversea commands restored the position of chief veterinarian to the respective theater headquarters' medical section.

VETERINARY SERVICE OF FIELD UNITS

Preliminary to the description of the veterinary service organization in theater commands, an understanding of the various types of military organizations or units is necessary. Units, as the term is used here, refer to standard military formations which were manned and equipped in conformity with War Department T/O&E's (tables of organization and equipment). Each T/O unit was periodically reviewed by the Veterinary Division, Surgeon General's Office, as to its composition, equipment, and mission, as described in the pertinent T/O&E's, particularly if such table provided for, or should have included provisions for, veterinary personnel. Also, the Veterinary Division, Surgeon General's Office, sometimes following a suggestion of the Medical Field Service School at Carlisle Barracks, Pa., or of a theater veterinarian, initiated procedures for War Department approval of tables for new types of veterinary units. In contrast to the units, there were the various military organizations or provisional organizations which were developed locally within the theater commands to satisfy temporary needs. Theater headquarters staffs and base command headquarters were the more common examples of such military organizations, but sometimes a T/O unit-like organization was improvised locally. The number and size of provisional organizations was limited only by the personnel space vacancies (so-called overhead allotment) granted by the War Department to each theater command. There was no central veterinary control from the Surgeon General's Office over what share of the overhead allotment, or grades, should be set aside for veterinary personnel, and each theater commander retained a perogative to indicate, or change, such of the allotment as pertained to the theater's veterinary service. The importance of this is indicated by the fact that personnel space authorizations and grades for veterinary officers in the theater headquarters staff were part of this theater overhead allotment, and the Surgeon General's Office had no regulatory or administrative control over theater commanders or theater surgeons to sponsor a theater veterinarian in the grade of colonel, for example.

At the start of the war period, T/O's (later T/O&E) providing for veterinary units and units having their own or organically assigned veterinary personnel were 24 in number (2). During the war, this number was increased to 65 or 70, including some few which were canceled (such as that for the veterinary convalescent hospital), not utilized in organizing a unit, or changed with the resultant discontinuance of the veterinary component (such as that for the headquarters, infantry division). At least 550 War Department-activated units had veterinary officers and enlisted personnel assigned to them pursuant to the pertinent T/O's during World War II.  


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The following tabulation shows the number of such assignments in units known to have veterinary personnel assigned: 

(TABLE)


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Headquarters, Army and Corps

The senior theater command headquarters to be described in T/O's was general headquarters. One such table pertaining to its initial organization included provisions for two veterinary officers, one in the grade of colonel and the other in the grade of captain or first lieutenant, who were to be a part of the headquarters medical section (of 13 Medical Department officers) (3, 4). Actually, no such headquarters unit was deployed that included Veterinary Corps officers. Mention must also be made of another command staff that was described; namely, headquarters, medical service, communications zone (5, 6). This set forth a veterinary section of five officers, which approximated a fifth of the total number of Medical Department officers authorized, including one each in the grades of colonel, lieutenant, and major, and two in the grade of captain, and five veterinary enlisted personnel. The other sections of this medical headquarters staff were administrative, hospitalization, supply, personnel, evacuation, sanitation, vital statistics, consultant, and dental.

The senior, and active, echelon of tactical command headquarters staff unit in the theater commands during World War II was headquarters, army. Its T/O included provisions for two veterinary officers, one in the grade of colonel and the other in the grade of captain, and two veterinary enlisted personnel (7, 8, 9). At the beginning of the war, four such army headquarters (First, Second, Third, and Fourth) had been established in the Zone of Interior to organize the defense of continental United States, but later two of these were deployed overseas, as were seven other army headquarters. Army veterinarians accompanied the First, Third, Seventh, Ninth, and Fifteenth U.S. Armies in the European theater, the Fifth U.S. Army which fought on the Italian peninsula, the Sixth and Eighth U.S. Armies in the Southwest Pacific Area, and the Tenth U.S. Army which fought the last battle of World War II, on Okinawa. The composition of each field


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army varied considerably, but so far as the active field army's veterinary service was concerned, none included a large number of veterinary units. 

The army veterinarian was normally the assistant to the army surgeon, who reported on veterinary affairs to the army commander only indirectly or through the army's G-4 section of the general staff. During the war period, a new general staff section, or G-5, was established within these army headquarters specially to supervise civil affairs and military government activities during the periods of combat in liberated Allied and occupied countries. Some few armies in the European theater thus gained the attachment of veterinary civil affairs officers in their headquarters staffs.

During the war, in the European and Mediterranean theaters of operations, two or more field armies were grouped and operationally controlled by a new type headquarters organization, the army group. For example, in their fight northward on the Italian peninsula, the U.S. Fifth and British Eighth Armies were major commands of the Fifteenth Army Group-predominantly staffed by British Army personnel. On the European Continent, the U.S. Sixth Army Group comprised the U.S. Seventh and French First Armies on the southern front, while the First U.S. Army Group, later named the  U.S. Twelfth Army Group (in the winter of 1944-45), controlled the American field armies on the central front. There was no prescribed T/O for an army group headquarters, and only the Twelfth Army Group included a Veterinary Corps officer-only in the capacity to technically supervise or coordinate veterinary civil affairs matters between the central armies.

Next below the echelon of the field army headquarters, tactical command was assumed by corps headquarters. At the beginning of the war, the headquarters staffs for the army corps (of infantry type), cavalry corps, and the new armored corps were described in the pertinent T/O's as including a corps veterinarian. Of course, no cavalry corps headquarters was organized, and, during the winter of 1942-43, War Department action on streamlining the other corps headquarters staffs to have a tactical mission only resulted in the elimination of the personnel space authorizations for the veterinarian from both the armored and the army corps headquarters. As a result, the majority of existent corps veterinarians were transferred at once, but others were continued in their assignments for a year or more. In 1942, veterinarians were on duty with the II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIV, XV, and XVIII Corps, and the I and II Armored Corps.

Headquarters, Division

In World War II, 91 divisions were mobilized; this number included the 2d Cavalry Division which was activated twice and inactivated twice during the war period, but the Army Veterinary Service was not the important segment of the combat division that it was in World War I when these utilized horses and mules as their principal means of transport. The


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infantry division and the armored division bore the major share of the land combat operations, but other types, such as airborne, mountain, and cavalry divisions, were deployed also. All of these included, at one time, their own organically assigned veterinary personnel, as did an experimental type of division referred to as the light division (pack transport).

Infantry division.-Veterinary Corps officers were assigned, at one time or another, to all but a few of the some 60 infantry divisions that were in active status during World War II. By V-J Day, however, there were few, if any, infantry division veterinarians in the Army. This loss of veterinary personnel in the basic ground combat organization was quite drastic in view of the fact that T/O's as late as 1939 were authorizing space vacancies in an infantry division for three veterinary officers and several enlisted personnel. By the end of another year or two, the basic organization for the existing square-type infantry division was being re-formed into the new triangular­type and was being completely motorized. However, the newer T/O's for headquarters, infantry division (square), continued the veterinary personnel authorizations at one officer in the grade of major and two enlisted personnel; the new triangular division headquarters T/O provided for the assignment of only the veterinary officer in the grade of major. Eventually, all infantry divisions were converted to the triangular type. The continuing need for divisions, without animals, to have such assigned personnel was described once, at the start of the war period, as "the division veterinarian with an infantry division will primarily be concerned with the inspection of meats, meat-food, and dairy products for the division" (10). Subsequently, in the spring-summer of 1943, Headquarters, Army Ground Forces, successfully programed a reduction or economies of personnel within the T/O's for the infantry division; and thus "* * * The veterinary officer was dropped; when the office of The Surgeon General protested, the Army Ground Forces explained that the division had no animals and that meat inspection was a function suitably relegated to [the field] army" (11). Actually, the new T/O (dated 15 July 1943) which did not provide for a division veterinarian was not immediately applied, and some division veterinarians were continued in their assignment for many months, either as part of the permissible overhead or as substitute sanitary officers and assistants to division surgeons.

Armored and airborne divisions.-During the first few years of the war, the T/O's for headquarters, armored division, and for headquarters, airborne division, each included space authorizations for division veterinarians in the medical sections, usually an officer in the grade of major and one or two veterinary enlisted assistants. Pursuant to this authorization, the five airborne divisions which were overseas in 1944 were assigned their own veterinary personnel (namely, the 11th, 13th, 17th, 82d, and 101st Airborne Divisions); and nearly all of the 16 active armored divisions at one time had division veterinarians.


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Light division.-During World War II, Army Ground Forces studied proposals modifying or reducing the standard infantry division and specializing its personnel and equipment for deployment such as in an amphibious, airborne, jungle, or mountain operation. Thus, in June 1943, a single, pack animal-transported light division was organized for trial study as one proposed for jungle warfare (the 71st Light Division, Pack, Jungle), but it was reconverted to a standard infantry division before deployment from the Zone of Interior. It may be observed, however, that pursuant to T/O's, the headquarters, light division, contained a veterinary officer in the grade of major, if the division was to be moved by pack animals.

Mountain division.-The mountain division originally occupied the same trial status as did the light division. That is, in mid-1943, a single light division was organized as a reduced infantry division but was specially manned and equipped for mountain warfare (namely, the 10th Light Division, Pack, Alpine). Later in 1944, when Army Ground Forces discontinued its trials with the special light divisions, this unit was brought up to regular division strength as the 10th Mountain Division and was redeployed in December 1944 to the Mediterranean theater. Pursuant to T/O's, a division veterinarian in the grade of major and two veterinary enlisted personnel were assigned to headquarters, mountain division (12, 13). Divisional elements below the headquarters that had assigned veterinary personnel were: Special troops (with one veterinary officer in grade of captain and five veterinary enlisted personnel), the three infantry regiments (each with two company grade veterinary officers and six enlisted personnel), and the engineer battalion (with one veterinary officer in the grade of captain or first lieutenant and five enlisted personnel), these leaving 243, 953, and 538 animals, respectively. Other elements were the veterinary troops of the mountain medical battalion, the division artillery with its three field artillery battalions and veterinary sections, and the quartermaster battalion, mountain, with its three quartermaster pack companies. Altogether, the animal strength of the mountain division aggregated 6,152 mules and horses.

Cavalry division.-The medical section of headquarters, cavalry division, was authorized to include the division veterinarian and two veterinary enlisted personnel (one as a meat and dairy inspector) (14 through 18). During the early part of the war period, the division veterinarian was also commanding officer of the division medical squadron's veterinary troop, but, in December 1940, the offices of division veterinarian and troop commander were separated by changes in the existing T/O's for the medical squadron. This was confirmed later, in the spring of 1942, when new T/O's for headquarters, cavalry division, included provision for the division veterinarian without referring to the organization of the medical squadron or its veterinary troop. Of course, there were other and major changes in the various elements comprising the standard cavalry division. The wartime T/O's


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generally referred to the division as including two brigades (each with two cavalry regiments and a machinegun squadron); division artillery; engineer, medical, and quartermaster squadrons; signal troop; and military police battalion. The division, at full strength, had 11,000 to 12,000 officers and enlisted personnel (including 14 Veterinary Corps officers) and approximately 7,300 horses and mules.

There were two cavalry divisions in the wartime Army: The 1st Cavalry Division which continued in existence after the early 1920's; and the 2d Cavalry Division which was activated in April 1941 and temporarily or partially disbanded in July 1942, only to be completely reactivated in February 1943 (with Negro enlisted personnel) and then completely inactivated during the first 5 months of 1944. The 2d Cavalry Division, without its animals but with its full complement of veterinary personnel, was deployed into the North African theater in 1944. During the earlier period of its active status, this division included the following elements with assigned veterinary personnel: The 9th, 10th, 27th, and 28th Cavalry Regiments; the 77th and 79th Field Artillery Battalions; the 20th Quartermaster Squadron; and a veterinary troop. The 1st Cavalry Division, like the other, proceeded overseas without animals, and included the Headquarters Troop, the 5th and 12th Cavalry Regiments of the 1st Cavalry Brigade, the 2d Cavalry Brigade with the 7th and 8th Cavalry Regiments, the 61st and 99th Field Artillery Battalions (75-mm. Howitzer Pack), 16th Quartermaster Squadron, and the 1st Medical Squadron. It was deployed in the Southwest Pacific Area in mid-1943 but entered combat as infantry.

Cavalry Brigades and Regiments

The cavalry regiment, horse, and the cavalry regiment, horse and mechanized, pursuant to T/O's, had different-sized veterinary sections. In the cavalry regiment, horse, the medical detachment veterinary section included 3 officers (including one in the grade of captain who normally was designated regimental veterinarian, and two in the grade of first lieutenant who served with the regiment's two rifle squadrons) and 14 enlisted personnel (19, 20, 21). The regiment was mounted on 1,500 to 1,600 horses. In contrast, the cavalry regiment, horse and mechanized, was furnished approximately 550 horses specifically for the regimental squadron, horse, while this regiment's other squadron was completely motorized or mechanized. The horse-mechanized unit included a veterinary section of one officer in the grade of captain and six enlisted personnel (22, 23, 24). During World War II, veterinary officers were assigned to duty to, or as National Guard officers entered active military service with, at least 23 of these regiments: namely, 2d through 14th, 27th, 28th, 101st, 102d, 104th, 106th, 107th, 112th, 113th, 115th, and 124th; also, Veterinary Corps officers served with the 26th Cavalry Regiment (Philippine Scouts) which fought on the Bataan peninsula in 1941-42.  


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Field Artillery Battalions and Regiments, and Division Artillery

Field artillery units having organically assigned veterinary personnel included at least four kinds of battalions, three types of regiments, and the so-called division artillery such as of cavalry, light, and mountain divisions (table 18). These were horse mounted, horse drawn, or moved by pack animal. During the war, available records show that there were as many as 28 such field artillery battalions to which veterinary officers were assigned at one time or another.1 Of course, many of the battalions were converted or motorized later, and thus their veterinary personnel departed, as did the horses and mules, before the battalions were deployed. This number also includes the battalions that were a part of the 1st and 2d Cavalry Divisions and of the 10th Mountain Division which entered into combat in the final push against the Germans in the Apennines. Other battalions, with their organically assigned veterinary sections, were deployed into combat as separate units, such as the 601st and 602d Field Artillery Battalions in southern France and the 612th and 613th Field Artillery Battalions that comprised the MARS Brigade artillery in the Burma operations.

TABLE 18.-Assigned veterinary personnel, field artillery battalions  

Field artillery battalion, 75-mm.

Animals

Veterinary section

Officers

Enlisted personnel

Gun, horse-drawn

389 horses

1 1st Lt.

7

Howitzer:

 

 

 

Horse

491 horses

1 1st Lt.

7

Pack

288 mules and horses

1 1st Lt.

4

Pack, mountain

413 mules and horses

1 Capt. or 1st Lt. 

6


In the formation of regiments, two such battalions were grouped, and a regimental veterinary detachment of 2 officers and 10 to 12 enlisted personnel were authorized for the following: Field artillery regiment, 75-mm. field howitzer, horse; field artillery regiment, 75-mm. howitzer, pack; and field artillery regiment, 75-mm. gun, horse-drawn.

It must be mentioned that two horse or horse-drawn battalions were grouped with a third or truck-drawn battalion to form the division artillery, cavalry division (with a total animal strength approximating 1,000 horses), and that a special T/O of the latter simply merged the two relevant veterinary sections to form the division artillery's veterinary detachment (25, 26). The latter was true also for the division artillery of other type divisions.

1This number, however, does not include the utilization of the pertinent portion of the T/O's  for the pack howitzer field artillery battalion as regards the battalion's veterinary section that comprised the basis for organizing 34 separate veterinary sections or detachments.  


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Thus, division artillery, light division (pack transport), included three field artillery battalions, 75-mm. howitzer, pack, each with their own veterinary sections (27). Altogether, there were 3 veterinary officers and 12 enlisted personnel to care for approximately 850 mules and horses which were authorized for the light division's division artillery. There were three battalions, 75-mm. howitzer, pack, mountain, in the composition of the division artillery, mountain division, whose animal strength aggregated close to 1,300 mules and horses; veterinary personnel in the sections with each of the battalions aggregated 3 officers and 18 enlisted personnel (28). The mountain pack battalion was designed for a part of mountain division artillery but need not be so deployed; in August 1945, the earlier pack battalion was replaced by the mountain pack battalion.

Medical Department Units

There were a large number of Medical Department field units whose T/ O's provided for organically assigned veterinary personnel, including those T/O's which prescribed for what was frequently referred to as veterinary field units. The latter may be subgrouped into those whose primary function in a theater command was to establish a system of animal evacuation and veterinary hospitalization, and the second group of those concerned with a theater food inspection service. These veterinary field units were:

Separate veterinary company 
Veterinary troop, medical squadron  
Veterinary company, medical battalion (mountain)
Veterinary animal service detachment, Team DC
Veterinary evacuation detachment, Team CD
Veterinary evacuation detachment, Team CE
Veterinary evacuation hospital  
Veterinary convalescent hospital
Veterinary general hospital
Veterinary station hospital
Veterinary hospital detachment, Team DA 
Veterinary hospital detachment, Team DB
Headquarters animal service, Team AR 
Veterinary food inspection detachment, Team DD
Veterinary detachment, aviation

In addition, two different types of separate veterinary sections and detachments were organized during the war period by the utilization of pertinent parts of T/O's for the field artillery battalion, 75-mm. howitzer, pack, and the quartermaster remount troop. Including the latter, 226 veterinary units were organized or completely reorganized pursuant to T/O's.

Medical Department units, other than those specified for the veterinary service, that included organically assigned veterinary personnel included hospital, laboratory, supply, and medical administrative staff units. Applicable T/O's provided for a veterinary enlisted man, in the capacity of meat and dairy hygienist, in a number of hospital and medical treatment units such  


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as the general hospital, general hospital (neuropsychiatric), station hospital, convalescent hospital, convalescent camp, and convalescent center. Many of these, following their activation, presumably gained the assignment of the veterinary enlisted personnel, but the exact number that did was not determined. In fact, the situation with regard to veterinary service for hospital units was made less clear because some few, particularly during the early part of the war period, were deployed in the theater commands with a Veterinary Corps officer included in their organization. The same situation pertained to the headquarters, hospital center, and headquarters, medical concentration center, except that some of these headquarters units did not have the assigned veterinary personnel, though the pertinent T/O's expressly authorized veterinary personnel space vacancies for an officer in the grade of major and an enlisted man.

During World War II, four medical general laboratories were deployed in the theater commands overseas: The 1st in the European theater, the 15th in the Mediterranean theater, the 18th in the Central Pacific Area, and the 19th in the Southwest Pacific Area. These units were deployed to function as central medical department laboratory facilities in the theaters, conducting epidemiological studies, research, and technical inspections and investigation; preparing and distributing certain biologics; and issuing laboratories animals. The T/O for the medical general laboratory authorized the assignment of two veterinary officers, one in the grade of lieutenant colonel and the other in the grade of captain, and approximately four enlisted men, who were specialized in bacteriology, pathology, and food analyses (29 through 34). A similar, but smaller, unit was the medical laboratory. This unit, designed for deployment by a field army or in a section of a theater's communications zone, was organized internally to include a base or stationary laboratory and three mobile laboratories. During the war, 19 such units were deployed in the theaters. Each such laboratory, pursuant to T/O's, was authorized one veterinary officer in the grade of major and three to four enlisted specialist personnel, who specialized in bacteriology, pathology, and food analyses (35 through 40).

The medical supply depot was another field unit, with the specific mission of operating as the medical supply storage and distribution agency in a field army or section of the communications zone. The T/O's initially provided for the assignment of a veterinary officer in the grade of major and an enlisted man as his assistant. At least 12 such units were organized during the early war period and are known to have had their own assigned veterinary officers. A number of these continued the assignment of their veterinary officers even after the authorization was deleted in April 1943.

Quartermaster Corps Units

In World War II, 21 or more quartermaster pack troops and companies were organized, but none may be regarded as having its own organic veteri-


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nary section. The troop or company, each with 298 mules and horses and having the capability for hauling 20 tons of cargo, was designed to operate either separately or as operational elements of a cavalry division's quartermaster squadron (in which the troop name was used) and of a mountain division's quartermaster battalion (in which the company was used) (41, 42, 43, 44). Thus, these were the 16th and 20th Cavalry Quartermaster Squadrons, each with a pack troop, and the 10th Mountain Quartermaster Battalion, with 2 pack companies, but these 4 troops and companies are to be counted as additional to the 21 just mentioned. The reason for noting this is that the T/O's originally did not provide for a veterinary section as an organic part of the pack company or troop, so that veterinary animal service detachments of varying organizational structure were specially organized and attached to these units when operating separately. On the other hand, as elements of a cavalry squadron or mountain battalion, the veterinary animal services for the troops and companies were provided by veterinary section organizations that were set forth in the tables for the parent squadrons and battalions-the cavalry squadron having a veterinary section of one officer in the grade of lieutenant and four enlisted personnel, and the mountain battalion having its veterinary section of one officer in the grade of captain or first lieutenant and nine enlisted personnel. The inequality in the T/O's regarding the pack company and troop's veterinary services when operating separately or as elements of a squadron or battalion was corrected in May 1945 when T/O's for the pack company or troop were amended to authorize an organic or unit veterinary detachment of one officer in the grade of captain or first lieutenant and four enlisted personnel, when such company or troop was deployed separately; however, no such units were organized at this time.

Another type of pack unit was that provided in the pack-transported light division; namely, the quartermaster pack company, light (45). Three such companies were authorized for each division, each having 287 mules and horses, but no veterinary section was included in the organic composition of the company.

Other quartermaster field units concerned with Army horses and mules were the quartermaster remount squadron and the quartermaster remount troop-each provided with a veterinary detachment. Approximately 10 remount troops, and including separate troop units and those grouped under a remount squadron headquarters, were organized during the war.2 Another animal unit was the quartermaster war dog platoon, later redesigned as the infantry scout dog platoon, which included a personnel space authorization in the T/O's for a veterinary enlisted man. Altogether, 21 platoon units were organized.

2This number does not include, however, the utilization of the pertinent portion of the T/O's for the quartermaster remount troop as regards the troop's veterinary section that comprised the basis for organizing nine separate, lettered veterinary sections.


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In regard to the various quartermaster field units which were concerned with the receipt, storage, distribution, or other handling of subsistence in theater commands, there was only one whose T/O had provisions for a veterinary detachment; namely, the quartermaster refrigeration company, fixed (46, 47). This unit was designed to operate a perishable subsistence distribution point serving as many as 120,000 troops and, as required, to operate a field abattoir. It was authorized its own veterinary detachment of two officers in the grades of captain and first lieutenant and eight enlisted personnel; in July 1944, the veterinary detachment's enlisted strength was cut back to four men. During World War II, an estimated 20 such units with their veterinary detachments operated in the oversea commands-many companies were deployed without their butcher or other platoon elements being activated. At least nine quartermasters refrigeration companies, fixed, saw duty in the European theater, where they were attached to the quartermaster base depot units.

Signal Corps Units

There was only one field unit of the Signal Corps authorized organic veterinary service; namely, the signal pigeon company. Veterinary Corps officers were assigned to 12 or more such units during World War II.

Transportation Corps Units

At the onset of the war, water transportation was the responsibility of the Quartermaster Corps, and its oversea field installations were referred to as mobile ports, each with prescribed capacities for handling as many as 50,000 personnel and 300,000 tons of cargo a month. The T/O's for headquarters and headquarters company, port (mobile), authorized veterinary personnel spaces for in officer in the grade of lieutenant colonel and an enlisted man as meat and dairy inspector (48). With the development of the Transportation Corps, the Quartermaster Corps mobile port organization was replaced by two new port units-the major port and the medium port. During the war period, approximately 30 such port headquarters were activated, probably each with its own port veterinary personnel, but this last was difficult to accurately determine from available historical reports because some port headquarters were subordinated in various theater provisional organizations. For example, the 24th Major Port was lost in the organization of the Army Port and Service Command, Central Pacific Base Command, which set up at Honolulu, T.H. The numerical designation of some port headquarters units were the 1st through the 18th, the 20th through the 24th, the 51st, 52d, 53d, 55th, and the 668th through the 671st.

The headquarters and headquarters company, major port (oversea), comprised the administrative overhead for a mobile port organization and facility (49). Its T/O's authorized the assignment of two veterinary officers


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(one in the grade of lieutenant colonel and the other as captain) and four enlisted personnel as meat and dairy inspectors. The smaller unit, headquarters and headquarters company, medium port (oversea), regulated a port organization and facility with capabilities at about a half of that prescribed for a major port (50). The pertinent T/O's provided personnel space authorizations for one veterinary officer in the grade of major and two enlisted personnel.

Army Air Forces Units

War Department T/O's for the medical section of headquarters, air force, included provisions for the assignment of one veterinary officer in the grade of major and a veterinary noncommissioned officer (51, 52). During World War II, there were four such numbered air forces in the Zone of Interior, and the Fifth through the Fifteenth and the Twentieth were deployed in the oversea areas, but, in many of these, there was no headquarters­assigned or air force veterinarian. Usually, this last-named staff position was occupied by the commanding officer of the veterinary detachment, aviation, which was attached to the air force, or by the relevant air service command veterinarian. In the air service command, veterinary personnel space authorizations for one officer in the grade of major and an enlisted man were prescribed in the T/O's for this unit (53). The authorizations were a part of those provided for the medical section of the headquarters special staff group.

Another Army Air Forces unit was the Air Corps headquarters and headquarters squadron, air force base command. This included a veterinary officer in the grade of captain and one veterinary enlisted man, as a meat and dairy hygienist, in the medical personnel space authorization for the headquarters group (51). Also, there was the arctic search and rescue squadron which contained authorizations for a veterinary enlisted man in each of its three flights that contained sled dog teams.

TYPICAL THEATER VETERINARY SERVICE ORGANIZATION

The foregoing paragraphs are descriptive of the types of individual veterinary units and those field units having organically assigned veterinary personnel who saw service in the theater commands during World War II. Throughout the war, however, there was no single description of the principles and doctrine, which brought these various units together or into focus, as to what really comprised a theater veterinary service organization. Furthermore, such few descriptions as did exist were incomplete and meager in detail, outdated, or pertained to veterinary animal service almost exclusively (55 through 60). Long after the end of the period of active hostilities, such a description was developed and officially entered into discussions generally on the roles of the medical, dental, and veterinary services in a theater of operations. Referring largely to the wartime expe-  


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riences, the typical theater veterinary service organization thus was described in FM (Field Manual) 8-10, Medical Service, Theater of Operations, 22 March 1951.

BASE, DEFENSE, AND MINOR THEATER COMMANDS

Preparatory to the description of the functional organization of the Army Veterinary Service in the Middle East-African-European and the Asiatic-Pacific theaters, reference is made first to the several departments, base and defense commands, and minor theater organizations which were included in, or surrounded, the Western Hemisphere. The latter, for the most part, comprised the American theater. These included the original departmental commands in the Panama Canal region and in the Puerto Rican area, and the semiterritorial, semitactical organization in Alaska, later reorganized as the Alaskan Department. As Germany continued her military successes over all of the European Continent, the United States entered into the development of a number of Atlantic and Caribbean bases for bettering the defenses of the North American Continent. Thus, pursuant to the destroyer-base transaction concluded by the President in the fall of 1940, British territorial areas and islands along the North Atlantic coastline and in the Caribbean became sites for new U.S. military bases. The largest of these, created as administratively separate organizations, were the Newfoundland Base Command and Bermuda Base Command; the others, including Trinidad, in the Caribbean area were subordinated as island base organizations of the new Caribbean Defense Command. Greenland became the location for Army bases pursuant to an agreement reached in April 1941 between the United States and Denmark. In Iceland, the Army took over bases that were originally set up there in the spring of 1940 by a British expeditionary force; in 1944, Iceland separated itself from Denmark to become an independent sovereignty.

Parallel with the foregoing developments, other bases-many identified later as belonging to the Army Air Forces Air Transport Command-were developed in the Western Hemisphere along the aerial routes which were followed in the delivery of airplanes and lend-lease supplies to the Allied military forces in various parts of the world. This, in part, marked the origin of U.S. Army Forces, South Atlantic, and also certain commands in Canada, though the western part of that country became more important militarily as the Northwest Service Command in connection with the development of the Alcan Highway and Canol Project. Regardless of the nature or military reasons for their creation and development, the various base and defense commands each had its own veterinary service organization. Their missions were primarily those of food inspection, including the conduct of inspections on meat and dairy products which were procured from indigenous sources. On the other hand, the veterinary services with animals in  


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these commands were not extensive, though Army dogs were utilized in some, and Army mule and horse strength in the Panama Canal Department approximated a thousand animals in 1941.

Caribbean Defense Command

The Caribbean Defense Command, with headquarters located at Quarry Heights, C.Z., was organized in February 1941 purposefully to coordinate the control of Army activities in the Panama Canal Department, the Puerto Rican Department (later Antilles Department), and the several task forces and base commands which then were setting up at the bases leased from the British and in other territories in the Caribbean area. This was one of six defense commands created to organize the defense for that which was to be named the American theater, before war was declared; the others being the Alaska Defense Command and the four (that is, Eastern, Central, Southern, and Western) which were established within the continental United States. The early organization of the Caribbean Defense Command was made up of three sector subcommands: the Panama Sector; the Puerto Rican Sector, including the department by that name, as well as Army personnel and activities in the Virgin Islands, Jamaica, Cuba, and Antigua; and the Trinidad Sector, including the Trinidad Base Section and the forces in Saint Lucia, Aruba, and Curacao, and the Guianas (British, French, and Dutch). Each sector subcommand had its own veterinary service organization, but there was no coordination between them at the level of the Caribbean Defense Command-the latter having no staff veterinarian in its headquarters. On the other hand, the commanding general of the Caribbean Defense Command also was the Panama Canal Department commander, but the defense command headquarters special staff was kept unusually small; it did not include a staff surgeon until the fall of 1943.

The trisector organization of the Caribbean Defense Command lasted until June 1943 when the Puerto Rican Department was renamed Antilles Department and reorganized to include the Trinidad Sector and Base Section as a subordinate echelon of command. The two-departmental organization was continued until September 1945. At that time, "defense" was dropped from the name and it became Caribbean Command. Just before this change in name was made, or on 11 August 1945, the theater command headquarters formally gained a Veterinary Corps officers on its medical staff by the additional duty assignment of the Veterinarian, Panama Canal Department. On 1 September 1945, a T/O reversed the status of the theater command veterinarian, with his reassignment to primary duty in the theater headquarters and additional duty to Headquarters, Panama Canal Department (61).

Panama Canal Department

The Army Veterinary Service with the Panama Canal Department originated in World War I. During 1940-41, its peacetime personnel strength  


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was almost doubled, to include, as of the end of December 1941, 7 veterinary officers and 53 enlisted personnel. Most of these were on duty with the 3d Veterinary Company, the 2d Field Artillery Battalion, and provisional veterinary hospital organizations at Fort Clayton and Fort William D. Davis; the department's animal strength approximated 1,000 mules and horses. However, after 1942, when the 2d Field Artillery Battalion was motorized and its mules transshipped to the Pacific theaters and Zone of Interior, this number of veterinary personnel was reduced to approximately 6 officers and 15 enlisted personnel and so remained until after the war period. In July 1944, the personnel were transferred to the newly established Veterinary Service Detachment, Panama Canal Department, under the direct jurisdiction of the department veterinarian located at Fort Clayton. Subdetachments then were organized at Fort Clayton, Fort William D. Davis, Post of Corozal, and at Guatemala City, Guatemala, and at Salinas, Ecuador. The War Department allotment or manning table that provided for this organization also included the veterinary space authorizations for the Sixth Air Force.

The veterinary service with animals concerned the mules and horses which were used by the 2d Field Artillery Battalion and the Panama Mobile Force, but these units were motorized later, and the excess animals then were transshipped from the department, the last shipment being made in June 1943. In the interim (beginning in December 1942), however, Army dogs were brought into the Panama Canal Department and were placed under the control of the Army Veterinary Service; on request, dogs also were issued to the U.S. Marine Corps (fig. 17). In addition to these activities, complete professional services were provided to the Navy and the Marine Corps which were utilizing mules and native ponies in mounted guard patrols, a veterinary investigation was conducted for the Panama National Police Corps following an incident of feed poisoning among a large number of its police horses, and the Army Veterinary Service cooperated with local civilian authorities in the operation of import animal quarantines such as concerned the traffic of dogs and other pet animals belonging to military personnel. In this connection, it may be noted that a dog involved in a fatal case of human rabies (in an Army officer, in Guatemala) was quarantined for approximately 2 months at the Army veterinary hospital, Fort Clayton, and then destroyed; the fact that this dog manifested no clinical symptoms of rabies during the quarantine period and the subsequent laboratory examination of brain tissue was negative for Negri bodies resulted in civil action to extend the animal import quarantine period to 6 months.

In regard to the subsistence supply, the Army Veterinary Service inspected all foods, including fruits and vegetables, that were received from the Zone of Interior and cooperated with quartermaster officers in the procurement locally of fresh milk, ice cream, and beef. The handling of perish-


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FIGURE 17.-Kennel areas in the Panama Canal Department.

able subsistence in the Panama Canal Department was facilitated by the construction of a cold storage plant (of approximately 360,000 cu. ft. capacity) at Corozal General Depot; ration issues were distributed from this point by refrigerated truck and boats to outposts as far as a hundred miles away. Under the prevailing tropical and humid climatic conditions, considerable difficulty was experienced in the handling of perishable subsistence without the occurrence of some losses in quality due to partial thawing of products. To prevent outright spoilage, many products which ordinarily were handled in a chilled refrigerated state were frozen. The difficulty was best indicated by spoilage losses totaling 50 to 95 percent of the quantities in certain shipments received at Corozal, particularly in shipments of head lettuce. The fresh fruits and vegetables that were procured locally originated from Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Ecuador. Fresh milk for the military forces in the department was obtained from two dairies, one at Mount Hope, and the other at Aguadulce.

During 1943 and 1944, the Army Veterinary Service in the Panama Canal Department inspected more than 160 million pounds of meat and dairy products, as follows:


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1943

Pounds

Procurement inspections:

 

 

Prior to purchase

15,503,527

On delivery at purchase

23,684,983

Surveillance inspections:

 

Any receipt except purchase

10,778,618

Prior to shipment

2,388,329

Issue

33,914,959

1944

 

Procurement inspections:

 

Prior to purchase

714,354

On delivery at purchase

5,222,261

Surveillance inspections:

 

Any receipt except purchase

34,296,236

Prior to shipment

10,457,882

Issue

26,486,920


Another 1,805,952 and 1,268,899 pounds, respectively, were inspected for the Army Exchange System which manufactured most of the ice cream that it sold, though some quantities were procured from three commercial plants. It must be noted that the veterinary inspections pertaining to locally procured foods were also a part of the medical protective procedures of antibiological warfare.

Along with the theater programs to lessen the volume of water transportation into the Panama Canal Department, the Army Veterinary Service surveyed the fresh beef supply in Central and South American countries and conducted the necessary ante mortem and post mortem inspections. The Rastio Nacional, Escuintla, Guatemala, proved to be the largest of the sources surveyed, and under Veterinary Corps supervision produced and shipped to the Panama Canal Department more than 850,000 pounds of fresh-frozen carcass beef during the period November 1943 through July 1944. The absence of suitable abattoir facilities in San Salvador precluded beef procurement from El Salvador. For the supply of fresh beef to the airbases at David, Panama, and Salinas, Ecuador, local cattle slaughtering projects were set up with veterinary officers conducting the necessary inspections. The David airbase supply originated at Los Potreros and approximated 15,000 pounds each month, and that in Ecuador provided more than 210,000 in the period from 6 October 1942 through 24 November 1943. None of these projects was conducted without certain problems, not excluding international relations, such as refrigeration and transportation of the meat, the standards of abattoir construction and operation, and the grade quality of the beef. In Ecuador, in addition to the development of a suitable meat supply, the veterinary officer surveyed and assisted in the development of modern marketing procedures and sanitary controls for fresh fruits and vegetables, eggs, and milk. The last-named product was obtained from a dairy plant in Guayaquil which bottled the milk in beer bottle containers and then pasteurized the bottled milk in a nearby brewery plant; the raw milk  


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supply originated from a herd specially examined and tuberculin tested by the veterinary officer. The latter, also, provided attending veterinary services to the bases at Talara, Peru, and in the Galapagos Islands where the major problem was that of properly handling and storing perishable subsistence.

Antilles Department

The Antilles Department, like the Panama Canal Department, was a sector or administrative subarea of the Caribbean Defense Command. It was established on 1 July 1939, originally as the Puerto Rican Department, with headquarters at San Juan, P.R., but on 1 June 1943, its name was changed and the new Antilles Department was assigned jurisdiction over a much larger area. Soon after the Department was established, in December 1939, a Veterinary Corps officer was assigned to station at the Post of San Juan and station hospital; though he acted in the capacity of Department veterinarian, that office was not officially designated until September 1941. By that date, the Puerto Rican Department had gained sufficient numbers of veterinary personnel for their assignment throughout the immediate geographic areas which were added when the Department became a sector subcommand to the newly created Caribbean Defense Command.

By the end of 1942, the Department's veterinary service organization was extended to the Post of San Juan, to Fort Buchanan (site of the Puerto Rican General Depot, later Antilles General Depot 1), and to the Department's medical laboratory, as well as to the forces or base commands on Cuba, Jamaica (at Fort Simons), Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, Antigua, and British West Indies. Then, during the next year, after the original name was changed to Antilles Department, the geographic boundaries were greatly expanded, encompassing those of the formerly independent Trinidad Sector and Base Command. The latter, with headquarters at Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I., included a base force veterinarian. The original Trinidad Sector and Base Command, after its formation (in May 1941), gradually added the base subcommands and task forces that were being set up, such as in the British West Indies on Saint Lucia Island, in British Guiana, in the Netherlands Antilles (or Netherlands West Indies) on Aruba and Curacao, in Netherlands Guiana (or Surinam), and in French Guiana. On account of the small size of the various defense forces, only veterinary enlisted personnel were assigned to most areas. The merger of the original Puerto Rican area and the Trinidad Sector totaling 14 or more separate countries, islands, and island groups saw the strength of the Army Veterinary Service in the Antilles Department at 12 officers and 25 enlisted personnel (as of the end of 1943). During 1945, these personnel were regrouped under the central supervision of the Department's Veterinary Detachment, Medical Section, with home station at Antilles General Depot 1 (at Fort Buchanan).  


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Veterinary service with animals in the Antilles command was limited to Army sentry dogs, 24 of them being received during November 1942 and distributed to military installations in Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and Antigua. As of December 1945, only 12 dogs remained, all housed and cared for by the veterinary detachment at the general depot, Fort Buchanan. Another 10 Army dogs were utilized at Fort Read, Trinidad. The veterinary meat and dairy hygiene inspection activities largely concerned surveillance inspectional control over products which were received from the Zone of Interior. During 1942, subsistence brought into the area and inspected approximated 20 million pounds of meat and dairy products; losses totaled 0.34 percent on account of spoilage. In Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and Cuba, fresh milk and ice cream (totaling 4 million pounds in 1943), and some fresh-frozen fish were procured locally, as were also some fresh beef and poultry from the Dominican Republic and Cuba. In Puerto Rico also, the Army Veterinary Service, on request of the Department surgeon, expanded its inspection activities to commercial food establishments, including soft beverage bottling plants, bakeries, and restaurants. In connection with the conduct of these sanitary inspections of food establishments and of locally procured food products, the necessary bacteriological examinations and chemical analyses workload was referred to the Department medical laboratory which had become, operational, in the spring of 1942, complete with a veterinary laboratory subsection. In the Trinidad Sector, there was almost no procurement of foods locally, though a very small quantity of fresh milk was obtained in British Guiana, and some few cattle of Venezuelan origin were slaughtered under veterinary supervision to furnish beef to the U.S. Engineer Department civilians at airbase construction camps.

Bermuda Base Command

The Bermuda Base Command, coming into existence in the spring of 1941, evidenced no need for veterinary personnel until after a special survey of the local milk industry was conducted by a Veterinary Corps officer, on request of the Government of Bermuda. This survey demonstrated that the command's milk supply was originating from a local milk industry wherein 51 percent of the dairy cattle were infected with brucellosis (an animal disease, transmissible to the human being, called undulant fever), less than half of the milk production was pasteurized, and dairy farm and milk plant sanitary controls were almost nonexistent. Subsequently, with the assignment of a veterinary officer and two enlisted personnel to the base command surgeon's office in 1942, much was accomplished in assisting the Bermuda Government to improve the local dairy industry. His principal duties were the inspection of the troop food supplies and the care of Army horses.  


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FIGURE 18.-Office of the Post Veterinarian, Fort Pepperrell, Newfoundland, November 1943.

Newfoundland Base Command

Newfoundland, an area named in the destroyer-base exchange agreement of 1940 between the United States and Great Britain, was entered by an Army task force landing there in January 1941. The station hospital, including a Veterinary Corps officer and the medical staff section of the new base command headquarters, comprised the original Medical Department organization at Fort Pepperrell (near St. John's). Area or station commands, each with their own veterinary personnel, were set up at Fort Pepperrell, Fort McAndrew (near Argentia), Harmon Field (near Stephenville), and the airbase at Gander Lake-the last two installations being transferred in October 1943 to the jurisdiction of the North Atlantic Wing, Air Transport Command (fig. 18). Personnel strength reached a peak of 5 veterinary officers and approximately 30 enlisted personnel. During July 1944, the office of the post veterinarian, Fort Pepperrell, was merged with that of the base command veterinarian, and, as of the end of that year, three veterinary officers (together with nine enlisted personnel) were at station at Forts Pepperrell and McAndrew, and at Air Transport Command's Harmon Field.

The Army Veterinary Service with the Newfoundland Base Command was largely concerned with inspecting the troop food supply. Thus, during  


227

1943 and 1944, the inspection workload each year approximated 7 million pounds of subsistence, including 4 million pounds which originated from the Zone of Interior and the remainder comprising inspections of locally procured products. Rejections in 1944 totaled 92,250 pounds of meat for failures to satisfy contractual requirements and another 36,000 pounds of Government-owned products, mostly fresh fruits and vegetables, which were spoiled. Veterinary animal service, on the other hand, was more limited, this being extended to approximately 35 Army dogs which were used as adjunct security guards at installations and to 1,000-1,500 Army signal pigeons which arrived during 1943. The enzooticity of canine distemper among the civil dog population led to the veterinary programming for annual revaccinations of the Army dogs against this disease; rabies, however, was nonexistent.

In regard to the troop food supply, the Army Veterinary Service routinely inspected all foods (including fruits and vegetables) which were received from the Zone of Interior, for sanitary condition, and conducted procurement inspections for grade and sanitary qualities of that brought in from Canada and of the fresh milk and fish which were procured locally. In connection with food procurement in Newfoundland, the Army Veterinary Service surveyed the local dairy industry, cooperated with civilian agricultural and public health officials in the start of test programs against tuberculosis and brucellosis in the dairy herds, cooperated with the two veterinary officials in conducting these tuberculin and brucellosis tests on the cattle, and sought improvement in the sanitary standards for the handling, storage, and dressing of the local fish catch. The bacteriological examination of fresh milk supply was conducted by the Army Veterinary Service in its provisional laboratory set up at a base hospital.

Greenland Base Command

Greenland was another area vital to the defense of the air and sea communications routes in the North Atlantic. Pursuant to an agreement reached between the United States and Denmark, a U.S. Army task force landed there in June-July 1941, relieving the original U.S. Marine Corps garrison, and established Headquarters, Greenland Base Command. Station hospital units soon were set up at the four main, widely scattered bases, but it was not until 1942, that Medical Department activities throughout Greenland were brought under the central supervision of a recently designated base command surgeon. A staff veterinarian, who attended all four bases, was named at the same time. The veterinary activities at these bases included the sanitary or surveillance inspections of meat and dairy products which were supplied to Army troops (which reached a peak strength of 5,600 in October 1943) and the professional care of the Army dogs. All food supplies were received from the Zone of Interior. Limited quantities of mutton and lamb were planned for local procurement, but a


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FIGURE 19.-Maj. F. A. Todd, VC (kneeling) and Capt. H. J. Robertson, VC (standing) providing professional assistance to the Icelandic agricultural authorities and their veterinarians.

veterinary survey showed that the existing shortages in facilities to properly move the meats to the bases would preclude this.

Iceland Base Command

In Iceland, the Army Veterinary Service established a program for civil affairs assistance that was the first of its kind and that contributed materially to the excellent relations of the U.S. military forces with that country's government and population (fig. 19). In fact, what was accomplished there by Army veterinary officers was recorded in U.S. diplomatic correspondence by an expression of appreciation by the Prime Minister of Iceland "for the valuable services they are rendering to Icelandic economy and the rural life of Iceland by this cooperation" (62). These services included the initiation of regulatory controls against the diseases affecting the local animal industry, the modernization of the milk and dairy industry and the development of hog raising, and the conduct of scientific and prac-


229

tical veterinary research programs, including investigational studies on that disease of sheep called jagziekte.

Veterinary services in Iceland were organized under the jurisdiction of Headquarters, Iceland Base Command, which set up operations at Reykjavik, in September 1941. This headquarters included a veterinary officer in its base surgeon's office, who maintained technical supervisory responsibilities over the veterinary officers attached to two hospital units (the 208th General and the 168th Station Hospitals) and the 5th Infantry Division that came into Iceland from the Zone of Interior. The veterinary enlisted personnel were assigned for administrative purposes to a quartermaster refrigeration company. Aside from their special duties in regard to civilian veterinary matters, their primary duty was that of inspecting the Army food supply. Most of this supply originated from the Zone of Interior, being transported on U.S. Navy vessels. On request of local Icelandic authorities, incoming fresh fruits and vegetables were inspected, particularly with reference to the prevention of the introduction of new plant diseases, but later, the Army adopted procedures for burning garbage waste containing such material. With civilian cooperation, the Army Veterinary Service set up a sanitary source of fresh milk supply for hospital patients, and eventually, this supply was extended to troops. Ice cream, lamb, and fish were procured locally, following Veterinary Corps inspection of the commercial industries. Laboratory controls over the local food supply and investigational research on animal diseases were established and maintained by the Army Veterinary Service, on invitation of Icelandic authorities, in the University of Reykjavik.

Northwest Service Command

The Army Veterinary Service with the Northwest Service Command was begun during January 1943, or approximately 3 months after the command-with headquarters at Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada-was established by the War Department. That command was the designated field agency of Army Service Forces (in the Zone of Interior), taking over the administration of U.S. military activities in western Canada (namely, in Alberta Province, British Columbia Province, Yukon Territory, and Mackenzie District) and the southeastern area of Alaska. These activities were the maintenance of a railway, the completion of the Alaskan (or Alcan) Highway, and the construction of pipelines (called the Canol Project) from Norman Wells and Watson Lake. Since early 1942, the U.S. Roads Administration Agency, Army engineer construction regiments, and Task Force 2600 had been pioneering the highway and pipeline projects. Near the war's end, on 30 June 1945, the Northwest Service Command was reorganized as a district subcommand under the jurisdiction of the Sixth Service Command.


230

Following the arrival of the first veterinary officer, further development of the command veterinary service organization was delayed for some time by local administrative difficulties and a misleading conception that none was needed. Between June and October 1943, 19 additional veterinary personnel, including 5 officers and 14 enlisted men, were brought in on request of the service command; these were grouped under the administrative control of the newly formed Veterinary Section, Medical Branch, Headquarters, Northwest Service Command. From this single veterinary detachment, personnel under the supervision of the service command veterinarian were placed on detached service at stations along the Alaskan Highway, the Mackenzie River supply route, and the Army Quartermaster Market Center at Edmonton, Alberta Province. Another veterinary detachment was included in the organization of the Northwest Service Command Medical Laboratory, which was established in August 1943 and was discontinued by the end of March 1944. In addition, a varying number of personnel other than those assigned to the service command conducted veterinary services for or in the Northwest Service Command: (1) The veterinary personnel belonging to the Alaskan Wing or Division, Air Transport Command, who provided base veterinary services along the airplanes-for-Russia route through the Northwest Service Command; (2) others from the Ninth Service Command, Army Service Forces, who conducted meat and dairy hygiene inspections in the Vancouver Barracks, B.C., area; and (3) those from the Seattle Port of Embarkation who rendered ancillary port veterinary services along the inland overwater route through Prince Rupert, B.C. The veterinarian at Skagway, Alaska, which like Prince Rupert, was a subport installation originally of the Seattle Port of Embarkation, was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Northwest Service Command in the fall of 1943.

Veterinary activities in the Northwest Service Command included the care of animals, meat and dairy hygiene inspections, and laboratory services. The first-named activity, to be sure, was not extensive. However, a few pack horses and mules and sled dogs were procured and used locally by Army engineer units and, until mid-1943, some 30 dogs were kept at Camp Prairie (near Waterways). Other dogs were utilized by the Air Transport Command for use in search and rescue work for crews of forced-landed airplanes. Also, until November 1944, seven Army mules and horses were maintained at Chilkoot Barracks, Alaska. In regard to meat and dairy hygiene services, veterinary surveys were made of the sources of meat and fresh milk in western Canada, food procurement inspections were conducted for the Edmonton Quartermaster Market Center, and surveillance inspections were made of all subsistence, including fruits and vegetables, during its storage, transportation, and other handling before issue to the messhalls.

The veterinary food procurement inspections saw the rapid development of a list of approved food establishments, particularly in the Edmonton area. There, the veterinary officer with the Northwest Service Command


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Medical Laboratory established a laboratory quality control over the raw milk supply and in the milk pasteurization plants which provided milk to the Army; before this time, there was little or no public health control over dairy production. In the procurement inspections of meats, the Army Veterinary Service accepted the sanitary standards prevailing in the meat plants operating under the supervision of the Veterinary Division, Health of Animals Branch, Dominion Department of Agriculture; however, Army veterinary personnel were stationed in these plants as inspectors for quality of the products during their manufacture and to check the weight or quantity of the products at delivery. The last-named activity became important because there was a great deal of variation between the Army's and the Canadian contractor's conceptions of tare weights and shrinkages. In another action regarding local supply, the Army Veterinary Service successfully prevailed upon the U.S. Engineer Department's civilian contractors of the Canol Project along the Mackenzie River route to obtain their meats through Army channels from the Edmonton area; the local sources used by the contractors were found to be unreasonably primitive and completely insanitary. The Edmonton Quartermaster Market Center also procured, during 1944-45 throughout Canada, 22,500,000 pounds of frozen poultry for Army use and export; veterinary point of origin inspections of this poultry were conducted in the Vancouver Barracks and Toronto-Montreal areas by personnel on temporary duty from the Ninth and the Second Service Commands and also of 10,600,000 pounds by veterinary personnel who were assigned to the Northwest Service Command. It may be mentioned here that the Canadian Government and poultry industry were appreciative of the improvements made in poultry production as the result of the application of Army veterinary standards of sanitation and quality control. Altogether, veterinary procurement inspections in the command for the 2½-year period (January 1943 through June 1945) approximated 46 million pounds of meat and dairy products.

Of the major supply routes through the Northwest Service Command, the overwater transportation route from the Seattle Port of Embarkation along the shores of western Canada to Skagway proved to have the least veterinary problems for subsistence surveillance inspections. In fact, the Northwest Service Command's veterinary service organization had little to do with this until late 1943, when the Skagway port veterinary service was transferred from the jurisdiction of the Seattle Port of Embarkation. At Skagway and later at Whitehorse, which were terminal points of a railway, small refrigerated storage depots were constructed. In these intertheater shipments by railroad, difficulties arose when the quantities of subsistence unloaded at the port exceeded the storage facilities in Skagway, or when snow, rockslides, and wrecks disrupted the traffic to Whitehorse. At one time, frozen foods were temporarily stacked under tarpaulin coverings, and, in another instance, boxcar loads of subsistence were moved to holding in a colder area,  


232

but even these were lost temporarily when the cars were covered by snowdrifts. An innovation in the shipment of certain perishable foods was the use of charcoal heaters inside the railroad cars during the winter months. There were no major food losses encountered; however, in the subsistence which was returned to depot storage from camps and stations as they were closed up, there were some requirements to set up food reclamation operations. Regarding this returned subsistence-

* * * it was found that repeated freezing and thawing, plus general weather exposure had not materially damaged many canned meats. Other items such as evaporated milk were ruined by such exposure and were condemned. Some quantities had developed rust, dents, bacterial fermentation, and lost labels.

Alaskan Department

The Army Veterinary Service with the Alaskan Department originated in October 1940 when one veterinary noncommissioned officer arrived for duty at Ladd Field (near Fairbanks). On 3 June 1941, the first Veterinary Corps officer was assigned, and before the end of that year, additional personnel were brought in from the Zone of Interior; these officers established station veterinary services at Fort Richardson (near Anchorage), Fort Ray (near Sitka), and on Kodiak Island (at Fort Greely) and Dutch Harbor (at Fort Mears). At the time, however, there was no true military department organization-the Army operations in the area being organized (in mid-1940) as the Alaska Defense Force, or as the Alaska Defense Command which was the new designation after 4 February 1941. It must be recalled that this comprised one of six such commands which were formed during the prewar emergency periods for purposes of general defensive planning for the continental United States. Until 1 November 1943, when military activities in the Alaskan command came to be administered on the basis of a separate oversea military department and the Alaska Defense Command was redesignated Alaskan Department, the area was under the control of the Ninth Corps Area and then the Fourth U.S. Army, but for defensive purposes, it was supervised by the Western Defense Command. As will be observed later, the early military organization in Alaska had little or nothing to do with the fighting on, and the recapture of, the Aleutian Islands, though this area later was included in general descriptions of the Alaskan Department.

During the early war years, the medical staff section in the Alaskan command was without a headquarters-assigned veterinarian. In April 1943, the many small and widely scattered veterinary detachments were grouped into the newly organized Veterinary Section, Service Command, Alaska Defense Command. This was renamed later as Veterinary Detachment, Alaskan Department. Its senior ranking Veterinary Corps officer initially was assigned to station on Adak Island. During this time, veterinary subsections were established at 14 locations: Adak Island, Annette Island, Fort  


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Glenn, Fort Greely, Fort Mears, Fort Morrow, Fort Randall, Fort Ray, Fort Raymond, Fort Richardson, Juneau, Ladd Field, Nome, and Whittier. This marked the period of maximum activity, and, soon after the reoccupation of Kiska Island (in August 1943) and the end of the Aleutian campaign, the original defense command organization gave way to a peace-time oversea department, the Alaskan Department. Eventually, the original veterinary organization was merged into Headquarters, Alaskan Department, and during December 1944, the ranking veterinary officer took over the role of department veterinarian. Then, the number of veterinary personnel in the Alaskan Department reached its peak strength of 7 officers and 33 enlisted personnel. Of course, with the decline of military operations in Alaska, the veterinary service that once had been scattered at 14 locations were consolidated on Adak Island, at Forts Glenn, Greely, Mears, and Morrow, at Ladd Field, Nome, Whittier, and at 3 new locations: Amchitka Island, Camp Earle, and Shemya Island.

At these stations, both meat and dairy hygiene and veterinary animal services were provided. During the war, more than 150 sled dogs were maintained at Fort Richardson, Ladd Field, and Nome for use in connection with land-rescue operations and evacuations of patients, and scout­messenger dogs were used on Attu, Adak, and Amchitka Islands. Also, there were 275 pigeons at Fort Richardson and Ladd Field during the period from November 1941 through October 1943. In June 1945, a veterinary officer undertook the development of a livestock farm on Adak Island which, by the end of the year, had a hundred hogs, fed on Army messhall garbage, and 250 chickens whose egg production was being furnished to the Army hospital. The fresh vegetable production in the gardens and hothouses at Ladd Field was managed by the veterinary officer. In cooperation with the Alaska Territorial veterinarian and public health officials, Army veterinarians tested dairy herds for tuberculosis and brucellosis. An education program for improved sanitary milk production was conducted among the farms and producers.

The Alaskan command was provided with subsistence which for the most part originated from the Zone of Interior; however, varying quantities of fresh meat and dairy products were procured locally. Thus, beginning in 1942, veterinary procurement inspections were inaugurated on quartermaster purchases of fresh fish (salmon and halibut) and locally canned salmon; also, ante mortem and post mortem inspections of reindeer (at Nome and Bethel) and of cattle (on Kodiak Island) were conducted. Later, in 1943 and 1944, lambs and hogs, respectively, were slaughtered under veterinary supervision in the Matanuska Valley. Along with this, the Army Veterinary Service programmed improvements in the local dairy industries so that a regular supply of fresh milk became available for the troops at Fort Richardson, Ladd Field, and Juneau. Losses among the subsistence brought in from the Zone of Interior were relatively great because there


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were no adequate storage facilities to keep the tin containers from rusting or the foods from alternately freezing and thawing with the seasonal weather changes. During the first year at Ladd Field, perishable (or fresh) subsistence was stored in an abandoned mine shaft which penetrated below the perpetual ice sheet. Also, in 1942, aerial bomb damage at Fort Mears and inadequate construction of refrigerated storage facilities at Fort Raymond led to serious losses of fresh foods.

Reference is made here to the Aleutian Islands Campaign (3 June 1942 to 24 August 1943) which otherwise is cited formally as one of the campaigns of the Army in the Asiatic-Pacific theater. The Alaskan Department had little to do with the fighting for Attu or the reoccupation of Kiska Island; however, after the United States had regained possession of these islands, they were included in the geographic boundary definitions of the Alaskan Department. Army task forces landed on Adak (in August 1942) and Amchitka Islands (in January 1943) to develop bases for the Eleventh Air Force. At about this time, a Veterinary Corps officer attached to the 25-bed hospital unit which was scheduled for deployment to Atka Island was transferred to Adak Island. On 11 May 1943, a task force composed of the main portion of the 7th Infantry Division made a surprise landing on Attu Island and, before the end of that month, drove off the Japanese forces. As to the activities of the division veterinarian who accompanied the task force, it was reported:

* * * due to the fact that most subsistence consumed was "Type C and K", he had very little food inspection to do, so he acted as Liaison Officer, organizing litter squads at the beaches and leading them up to the front line, and in general assisting the Medical Officers where necessary. During his spare time, [he] assisted in debugging Japanese mines and high explosives * * *.

When Kiska Island was reoccupied, a Veterinary Corps officer accompanied that task force. This ended the Aleutian campaign, but within a year, the large stockpiles of food that were built up in these islands, becoming excess to requirements when the tactical forces were withdrawn, began to show evidences of deterioration and spoilage. Large quantities of these stockpiles subsequently were condemned, while some were returned to Quartermaster depots in the Zone of Interior for reclamation and repackaging. Thus, in regard to the subsistence stockpiles on Adak Island, a veterinary officer reported:

* * * this food had been hurriedly stored on the tundra in three large dumps, which for the main part were completely covered with snow during the winter. As the snow melted off, the Veterinary Detachment was able to work, removing all that had been badly damaged by the weather. During the following year [1944] approximately 600,000 pounds of food of all types was condemned. While this amount seems high, it must be remembered that most of this subsistence had been, of necessity, roughly treated during the early stages, and much of it had been excesses on the mainland and other stations. At the time of condemnation most of it was two years old and was badly damaged due to rough handling, freezing, and rust.


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U.S. Army Forces, South Atlantic

The Army Veterinary Service with. U.S. Army Forces, South Atlantic, which was established, in November 1942, with headquarters located at Recife, Brazil, was initially represented by the veterinary officer then on duty with the South Atlantic Wing, Air Transport Command. He served in the additional-duty capacity as theater veterinarian, but, as it became evident that Air Transport Command operations would be exempted from theater control, he was replaced, pursuant to arrangements made by the headquarters surgeon, by another officer newly arrived from the Zone of Interior (on 1 February 1943). On 31 October 1945, when the U.S. Forces, South Atlantic, was discontinued, veterinary service in the geographic area was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Air Transport Command, South Atlantic Division, and a veterinary officer was transferred to the latter headquarters at Natal, Brazil.

The U.S. Army Forces, South Atlantic, was never a theater of operations; in fact, in many respects it was similar to the U.S. Army Forces in Central Africa-both initially acting as defense commands for the air-ferrying operations and the bases of the Air Transport Command which were strung from southeastern United States, through the northeastern part of South America, central Africa, and thence into the Middle East. During February 1943, Composite Force 8012 on Ascension Island was added to the jurisdiction of U.S. Army Forces, South Atlantic, this task force, including a Veterinary Corps officer, had set up station there in March 1942. By the end of 1943, the theater command's veterinary service organization included three officers and six enlisted personnel. These were distributed among three area subcommands: Recife, which included Fernando de Noronha, Bahía, and Ascension Island; Natal, which extended to Fortaleza (approximately 200 miles from Natal); and Belém, which included also São Luiz and Amapá. Later, a fourth area was established in southern Brazil to include Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Pôrto Alegre, and Rio Grande, where large quantities of foods were procured for local use.

The main activity of the Army Veterinary Service in these areas was the inspection of meat and dairy products. Large quantities of these were received by shipment from the United States, but, on account of the irregularities of shipping due to threatened enemy submarine action and the shortages in refrigerated storage facilities until the last year of the war, considerable quantities were procured locally. As of the spring of 1943, eight commercial food establishments in Brazil were listed by the Veterinary Corps as approved sources for procuring meats, poultry, milk, eggs, butter, and cheese. Others were added later, so that this number was 25 as of the end of 1944. A fresh milk supply was developed for troops in the Recife area, and some of this was shipped, in 10-gallon containers, by airplane to Natal. Ice cream was obtained, however, by the Army's manufacturing its  


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own from a powdered mix brought in from the Zone of Interior. Fresh eggs were procured locally, but stringent supervision was made over the inspection (or candling) before procurement; rejections of this product approximated 65 percent of contractors' offerings. The most extensive of veterinary food procurement inspections within the South Atlantic command were conducted in southern Brazil. Early shipments of meats received from contractors in that area were rejected frequently on account of poor grade quality or where the commercial refrigerated ships had not properly handled the perishable foods. The supply from this area improved considerably after the theater veterinarian surveyed and set up a program for products improvement among the food establishments, and an Army purchasing agency was formed with headquarters in Rio de Janeiro. Eventually, in early 1945, so far as it was possible to do so, this general purchasing agency began a procurement program to satisfy the demands of the South Atlantic command for all of its meats and poultry products, and at that time a veterinary detachment was established to conduct inspections of products during their processing in the plants. Though the Brazilian meat inspection services were accepted in regard to the conduct of ante morten and post mortem inspections of beef cattle, the Army Veterinary Service emphasized product quality grading; the inspections of sausage, bacon and ham, and other prepared meat products; and the proper packaging and transshipment of Army subsistence. Along with this, poultry inspection and the techniques of Army boneless beef production were introduced into the Brazilian food industries. Between January 1943 and September 1945, the Army Veterinary Service inspected 4,076,141 pounds of meat and dairy products on arrival from the Zone of Interior and another 8,322,585 pounds of Brazilian origin-rejections among these quantities totaling 287,147 pounds and 613,363 pounds, respectively.

Air Transport Command

A unique command, having no geographic boundaries and in a sense superimposed over all theaters of operations and theater commands, was the Army Air Forces Air Transport Command, with headquarters in Washington, D.C. Prior to June 1942, this was known as the Air Corps Ferrying Command-created in mid-1941 to deliver lend-lease airplanes to points designated by Allied Nations. Along the major aerial routes, the Air Transport Command organized sectors, later (in mid-1942) renamed wings; in July 1944, certain of these wings became divisions, some with wing subelements. There were changes in the aerial routes as the war progressed.

In July 1944, a Veterinary Corps officer was assigned to Headquarters, Air Transport Command, and about this time the number of veterinary officers on duty with the divisions approximated twenty-two. These veterinary officers were assigned to most of the principle airbases operated under the jurisdiction of the Air Transport Command or were assigned as staff


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officers to the wing medical offices and thus were available to provide attending veterinary services at a number of bases along the aerial routes. Another group of veterinary officers, approximately 1.5 in number, were assigned to various bases of the. Air Transport Command's Ferrying Division which operated from fields located in the Zone of Interior. Actually, that command's ground installations were referred to as Army Air Forces base units. Base veterinary services were not unlike those provided by other Army Air Forces veterinary personnel, and these services became particularly important where the bases along an aerial route were far distant from regular channels of Army subsistence supply. Thus, at bases along the central African route, veterinary personnel successfully developed and inspected locally procured fresh foods which were fed to aircrews and in-transit personnel. In the China-Burma-India theater, in Canada, and at various base commands of the American theater, these inspection services supplemented those conducted by theater or services of supply personnel; elsewhere, such as with U.S. Army Forces, South Atlantic, U.S. Army Forces, Azores, and U.S. Forces in Central Africa, the wing veterinarians were utilized at various times in an additional duty status in the Army theater command headquarters. In fact, following the war, military operations, such as in the South Atlantic theater command and in the Bermuda, Greenland, Iceland, and Newfoundland Base Commands, were transferred to control by the Air Transport Command.

Military Missions

Along with the discussions of the lesser theater commands, mention must be made of the various U.S. military missions. There were a number of these which were sent to foreign countries, and in several instances such as the Special Observers Group to England, the Stilwell Mission (to China), or the U.S. Military Mission to North Africa, the missions became starting points for Army theater commands.

Similar missions were maintained also in Central and South American countries to promote their military efficiency. One such agency was the U.S. Military Mission to Peru which was established in the sprung of 1941 to act in technical advisory capacity to the Peruvian Army on its remount service. Subsequently, on request, a Veterinary Corps officer was assigned as assistant to the Advisor of the Remount Service of the Peruvian Army, arriving there during early March 1942. He took command of the Peruvian Army Veterinary General Hospital, Las Palmas, Lima, Peru. In mid-1944, when the original mission was enlarged to one of full mission status, the veterinary officer was designated as assistant chief of the mission, with duties also as technical advisor of the veterinary service of the Peruvian Army, commander of the veterinary hospital, supervisor of the military horseshoeing school, and technical advisor and director of clinical studies in the new National Veterinary School of Peru. Much was accomplished in improving  


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the veterinary services and the standards of animal care and management, including the development of new standards for training horseshoers, horseshoe manufacturing, procuring of remount animals, and breeding horses for military purposes. Also, the field procedures for conducting test and eradication programs against tuberculosis and brucellosis were demonstrated in the local dairy industry. Most notable, however, were successes obtained in the reconstruction of the civilian veterinary educational system, with action being taken by the Government of Peru in establishing its National Veterinary School, and in the start of translating standard texts on veterinary medicine into the Spanish language. "This translation project alone has warranted the detail of a U.S. veterinary officer to Peru in that it should be of great value to the veterinary profession and hence to the Peruvian Army and the livestock industry as a whole in all countries where Spanish is the national language."

A veterinary officer was also on duty with the military mission to Panama.

References

1. FM 8-10, 28 Mar. 1942.

2. Kelser, R. A.: Veterinary Service in the Preparedness Program. Vet. Med. 36. 12-18, January 1941.

3. T/O 502 W, 1 July 1929.

4. T/O 300-1, 1 May 1940. (Rescinded by WD Circular No. 193, 1944.) 

5. T/O 678 W, 23 Feb. 1927.

6. T/O 8-500-1, 1 Nov. 1940. 

7. T/O 200-1, 1 Jan. 1941. 

8. T/O 200-1, 1 July 1942.

9. T/O&E 200-1, 26 Oct. 1944.

10. New Tables of Organization. In: Army Vet. Bull. 33: 331-337, October 1939.

11. Greenfield, K. R., Palmer, R. R., and Wiley, B. I.: United States Army in World War II. The Army Ground Forces: The Organization of Ground Combat Troops. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.

12. T/O&E 70, 4 Nov. 1944.

13. T/O&E 70-1, 4 Nov. 1944. See also T/O&E 70-3, 4 Nov. 1944; T/O&E 7-131, 4 Nov. 1944; and T/O&E: 5-235, 4 Nov. 1944.

14. T/O 489 W, 1 Jan. 1925. 

15. T/O 8-85, 1 Mar. 1939.

16. T/O 8-85, 1 Nov. 1940, with Changes No. 1, 12 Dec. 1940, and Changes No. 2, 4 June 1941.

17. T/O 2-1, 1 Apr. 1942.

18. T/O&E 2-1, 30 Sept. 1944. 

19. T/O 2-11, 1 Nov. 1940. 

20. T/O 2-11, 1 Apr. 1942.

21. T/O&E 2-11, 30 Sept. 1944. 

22. T/O 2-51, 1 May 1940. 

23. T/O 2-51, 1 Nov. 1940. 

24. T/O 2-71, 1 Apr. 1942.

25. T/O 6-110, 1 Apr. 1944.

26. T/O&E 6-110, 30 Sept. 1944. 

27. T/O&E 6-270T, 21 Jan. 1944. 

28. T/O&E 6-150, 4 Nov. 1944.  


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29. T/O 680 W, 23 Feb. 1927. 

30. T/O 8-504, 1 Nov. 1940. 

31. T/O 8-610, 1 Apr. 1942.

32. T/O&E 8-610, 6 June 1943. 

33. T/O&E 8-500, 23 Apr. 1944. 

34. T/O&E 8-500, 18 Jan. 1945. 

35. T/O 286 W, 23 Feb. 1927.

36. T/O 8-234, 1 Oct. 1940. 

37. T/O 8-611, 1 Apr. 1942. 

38. T/O&E 8-611, 25 Aug. 1943. 

39. T/O&E 8-500, 23 Apr. 1944. 

40. T/O&E 8-500, 18 Jan. 1945. 

41. T/O&E 10-118, 26 Sept. 1944, with Changes No. 1, 29 May 1945. 

42. T/O 10-115, 15 Sept. 1942.

43. T/O&E 10-115, 30 Sept. 1944. 

44. T/O&E 10-335, 4 Nov. 1944. 

45. T/O 10-578, 4 May 1943.

46. T/O 10-217, 1 Apr. 1942.

47. T/O&E 10-217, 30 July 1943, with Changes No. 3, 19 July 1944. 

48. T/O 10-260-1, 1 July 1942.

49. T/O&E 55-110-1, 20 Nov. 1943. 

50. T/O&E 55-120-1, 13 May 1944. 

51. T/O 1-800-1, 1 July 1941.

52. T/O&E 1-800-1, 26 July 1943. Note: Modifications of the table were published also, such as T/O&E 1-800-1S-2T, and T/O&E 1-800-1S-RS, and T/O&E 1-801-1.

53. T/O 1-400-1S, 13 July 1942. Note: Modifications of the table were published also, such as T/O&E 1-400-2S and T/O&E 1-400-3S.  

54.  T/O 1-450-1, 16 Dec. 1941.

55.  FM 8-5, 12 Jan. 1942.

56.  FM 8-5, May 1945.

57.  FM 8-10, 27 Nov. 1940.

58.  FM 8-10, 28 Mar. 1942.

59.  FM 100-10, 29 Apr. 1942.

60.  The Army Medical Bulletin No. 19, The Veterinary Service. Medical Field Service School, Carlisle Barracks, Pa., 1926.

61. WD Manning Table 8-1S-PC, 1 Sept. 1945.

62. Letter, Mr. Lincoln MacVeagh, U.S. Minister to Iceland, to Commanding General, U.S. Forces in Iceland, 19 June 1942. See also, General Orders No. 16, Headquarters, ETOUSA, 12 Feb. 1944, and General Orders No. 47, Headquarters, ETOUSA, 12 May 1944, awarding the Legion of Merit to Maj. F. A. Todd, Capt. H. J. Robertson, and Maj. R. B. Meeks.  

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