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Civil Affairs and Military Government
The Army Veterinary Service with CA/MG (civil affairs and military government) was an innovation of World War II; it was developed without precedent and prewar planning. Nowhere before had Veterinary Corps officers been involved in any kind of administrative, supervisory, or surveillance duties over the veterinary affairs of a foreign country, its government and economy. During the war, in the Allied-liberated countries and recaptured areas and in the occupation of surrendered countries, these personnel succeeded in the application of civilian public health and veterinary measures which protected the health of the American fighting forces and its animals against the threats of indigenous animal and foodborne diseases, and concurrently aided in the early restoration and beginning rehabilitation of the respective countries' veterinary public health and agricultural livestock industries. As will be observed in the following paragraphs, the extent or degree of veterinary CA/MG activities varied among the theaters and, from time to time, from that of minimal observance (or surveillance) and assistance in civilian affairs to that of direct military government or of actually conducting or supervising the immediate veterinary services.
The missions and functions of the Army Medical Department were early defied in Army Regulations to include "the preservation of health and the prevention of disease among personnel subject to military control, including the direction and execution of measures of public health among the inhabitants of occupied territory" (1). Then, in 1940, the War Department in its field manual on military government described the type organization for a civil affairs section of the staff of theater commanders as including a public health department with a doctor of medicine in charge (2). It further stated that "this department will exercise supervision over the public health, including sanitation, the control of communicable diseases, the protection of food, milk, and water supply * * * drugs, the practice of * * * veterinary medicine, diseases of animals, and similar matters." Later, in December 1943, the foregoing publication was adopted in a revised form as a joint Army and Navy manual on military government and civil affairs, and the reference to veterinary matters, especially food inspection, was repeated in the description of the public health and sanitation functions of civil affairs (3). The Navy had no veterinary personnel, but this reference to veterinary matters in the joint publication undoubtedly gave origin to the unexpected utilization of Army Veterinary Corps officers by the Navy-administered CA/MG on islands in the Pacific theater.
Within the Army organization, overall policy matters concerning the administration and government of areas occupied or liberated as a result of military operations were handled by the Civil Affairs Division, War Department Special Staff. This was established in the spring of 1943 and included a medical or public health section as a part of that division's Civilian Relief Branch. Previously, the War Department General Staff's Operations Division (predecessor to the War Plans Division) had been processing such matters as arose at the time of the invasion of North Africa in November 1942. Even before then, however, the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1 (Personnel) of the War Department General Staff was assigned responsibility for selecting military personnel who were to be used in CA/MG activities, but, after the start of the war, the Provost Marshal General actually selected and trained the personnel for such assignments. Liaison and channels of communication were maintained with these by The Surgeon General, who in January 1944 established the Civil Public Health Division as a component of the Preventive Medicine Service, Surgeon General's Office. Earlier, or in June 1943, within that office, medical planning for supply aid to civilians in liberated countries was undertaken in the newly designated CAD (Civil Aid Division) Board. Eventually (in February 1944), this CA/MG planning by both the Preventive Medicine Service and CAD Board was coordinated and centralized in a specialized branch of the Operations Service, Surgeon General's Office. Pertinent matters were referred to the Veterinary Division, Surgeon General's Office, for review and comment, although one veterinary officer was designated part-time membership on the aforementioned supply planning board.
The decision to use veterinary officers in CA/MG operations during World War II was made in the summer of 1943 by the Civil Affairs Division, upon recommendation of The Surgeon General. Ever since the development of modern veterinary medicine, the veterinarian has been an important factor in livestock economy through the preservation of animal health. A healthy livestock industry means increased animal work power; increased meat, milk, eggs, and other foods of animal origin; and increased nonfood products, such as wool, leather, and pharmaceuticals. In more recent years, the veterinary profession has been increasingly active in public health functions such as food inspection and control of animal diseases transmissible to man. All of these functions are highly important to CA/MG operations, both in combat and occupation.
Outside of the Army organization, there were two major policy-making agencies concerned with CA/MG activities. One was the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Army and Navy), which referred its problems to the War Department's Civil Affairs Division and the Joint Post-War Committee but, in March 1945, established its own Joint Civil Affairs Committee. These committees were wholly military and considered matters for geographic areas of joint Army and Navy responsibility, as in the Pacific theaters. The other
agency was the Combined Chiefs of Staff (United States and United Kingdom) which in July 1943 created its own Combined Civil Affairs Committee. The latter, with office location in Washington, D.C., and a London Subcommittee (established in January 1944) coordinated civil and military interests in furnishing directives and guidance regarding the administration and government of the civil populations in those geographic areas or countries which were liberated or occupied incident to combined AmericanBritish operations, as in the European and Mediterranean theaters. A chief working group of the Combined Civil Affairs Committee was its Supply Committee, created in August 1943; a Veterinary Corps officer was detailed to duty with the latter's Veterinary Working Party. In those military operations carried on by Army alone, or where the Navy or the Allied forces did not participate, the concerned Army theater commander conducted his own detailed planning and established CA/MG pursuant to policy control by the War Department.
Allied Control Commission (Italy)
The Army Veterinary Service
with CA/MG in the Mediterranean theater began on
Headquarters, ACC, was one of two CA/MG organizations in the Mediterranean theater; it was not the first, though it was the only one having assigned veterinary personnel to be organized under control of AFHQ. The latter, it must be recalled, was the American-British command which had directed the assault landings on North Africa on 8 November 1942. There,
veterinary CA/MG seemed to have been unrecognized; in fact, an indeterminable political situation in French Morocco and Algeria, and the interposition of the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, U.S. Department of State, had now at the start of the war truly complicated the description of American military responsibility in CA/MG. However, in the planning for Operation HUSKY and following the landings, on 10 July 1943, on Sicily, this responsibility was without question assumed by the 15th Army Group (including the Seventh U.S. Army). This army group utilized its own AMGOT (Allied Military Government for Occupied Territory) organization-the first of such organized in the Mediterranean theater. Then, with the assault landings which were made on the Italian peninsula in early September 1943, the AMG organization set forth the pattern for military government operations in the combat areas of the field armies (including the Fifth U.S. Army) as they advanced northward through Italy.
In the CA/MG operation that took place after the surrender of the Italian Government, the AMG, 15th Army Group, conducted true military government in the combat areas, and, as the armies advanced, AFHQ transferred these areas to "armistice control" by the new ACC which then restored the administration of the respective areas to the Italian Government. This last action took place rather slowly at first because of early weaknesses in the Italian Government in administering the restored areas or before the Allies had captured Rome (in mid-1944), and, of course, the turnover was dependent on the successes of the campaigns against the Germans until their surrender in northern Italy on 2 May 1945. In Sicily and areas on the Italian mainland, the Veterinary Section, Public Health Sub-Commission, of the ACC, originally functioned to supervise, coordinate, and assist the Italian civil veterinary services in their restoration and beginning rehabilitation of the country's animal food and livestock industries. Of course, this was secondary to the primary requirements that the Italian Government must conform to the terms of its surrender and conduct sanitary controls over its food and livestock industries as would not jeopardize the health of the Allied armies and their animals. These veterinary activities related not only to the areas which were under jurisdiction of the ACC but also to a degree in the combat areas wherein AMG had control jurisdiction. The latter had no assigned American veterinary officers, but its headquarters was so integrated after the winter of 1943-44 with that of the ACC in its new location at Naples, and then in Rome, as to permit the Veterinary Section, Public Health Sub-Commission, to fuction for both; of course, the duality of veterinary affairs was affirmed later when the ACC was assigned technical control over all military government operations.
In those areas restored to the Italian Government, the ACC veterinary functions were originally one of supervisory control; in November 1944, this relationship to the civilian veterinary services was changed. During that month, as the result of continuing progressive demonstrations by Italy as a
pro-Ally in the war effort, the armistice control group was renamed AC (Allied Commission) and its functions were changed to advisement only. Thus, after that time, the Veterinary Section, Public Health Sub-Commission, acted only as adviser to the government in regard to its veterinary matters in the restored Italian areas and provided such assistance as was requested. Now, supply for rehabilitating the Italian economy became a major AC activity. The cessation of active hostilities (in May 1945) led to the early restoration of more areas to the Italian Government so that by the end of 1945 the latter was controlling all its national territory except in the Trieste area. There, Yugoslavia was questioning an international boundary line. The AC, however, remained operational until its abolishment on 31 January 1947, although the Italian surrender terms which had chartered the agency were not fully terminated until the Allied governments ratified the Italian Peace Treaty on 15 September 1947.
Headquarters, AC, patterned its functional organization of components after the organization of the Italian Government over which armistice control was being maintained. The Veterinary Section was a part of the Public Health Sub-Commission, and the latter, in turn, was only one of several sub-commissions which was headed by a chief or director of the Headquarters' Administrative Section (chart 6). Another chief or directorate section, the Economic Section, included the Agriculture, Forests and Fisheries SubCommission, but the latter had little if anything to do with veterinary affairs. The Veterinary Section's officer, as were all U.S. personnel on duty with any CA/MG organization in the area, was assigned for administrative purposes to the 2675th Regiment (Overhead). After January 1944, the Veterinary Section obtained the employment of an Italian civilian veterinarian who accomplished much in establishing working liaison with the Italian veterinary profession.
Civil Veterinary Services in Italy
The functional organization of Italian veterinary affairs at the national level was centered in the Ministry of the Interior, and within that ministry it was a part of the Public Health Division. However, the Ministry of Education regulated the employment of the instructional staffs in the country's veterinary schools. There were no veterinary personnel with the Ministry of Agriculture, and even at the lower, or provincial and communal, levels of government, the veterinarians had little working relationships with agricultural officials. At these lower levels of government, veterinary affairs were handled as an entity separate from, but coordinate with, public health matters, and the provincial veterinarian-one for each province-regulated or supervised the activities of 20 to 50 communal veterinarians. The latter were responsible for the supervision of slaughterhouses, the control and prevention of animal diseases pursuant to the provisions of sanitary police laws and regulations, and the conduct of private practice. Of course, the state
of socialism that had prevailed throughout Sicily and Italy after 20 years of Mussolini's Fascist rule was now showing in the veterinary service which was not especially efficient, lacked initiative, and was unaccustomed to hard work; the farmers needed, but could not obtain, professional veterinary services.
Until after the capture of Rome (in mid-1944), the AMG and ACC more or less administered the Italian veterinary services in the provinces of
Sicily and southern Italy. The original (or Badoglio) Italian government was scarcely more than a name, without archives and complete ministerial staffs, and it was inevitable that some veterinarians once occupying important positions in the Fascist government organization had fled with the enemy, were removed by Italian patriot groups, or were necessarily dismissed from their offices. The removal of pro-Nazis and Fascists from the Italian Government, was not energetically enforced in Sicily and southern Italy because the Allies did not have the military personnel to conduct local administration and the Badoglio government had not the political strength to reestablish an administration with the personnel who were then available. In fact, the Italian Government soon assumed operational control over screening of its personnel. After the capture of Rome, a new chief of Italian Government veterinary service was appointed, but even this appointment was made temporary, pending the naming of a veterinarian who was politically acceptable.
In Sicily and Italy, animal diseases were controlled, pursuant to national veterinary sanitary police regulations which were promulgated in 1914 and revised slightly in 1932. As was true in other European countries, regulatory enforcement was actually the responsibility of communal police personnel and the local veterinarians who conducted the necessary professional services. Many of the factors involved in the breakdown of regulatory controls during the period of hostilities manifestly continued into the early part of the occupation period, so that animal diseases which once seemed to have been well controlled now presented major problems to the Allied occupation forces. As the result, horses and mules, so urgently needed by the Allied armies and in the Allied programs for restoring the Italian economy, were untested for glanders in fear that they would be destroyed; draft animals, infected with equine epizootic lymphangitis, or food animals with brucellosis and tuberculosis, were kept alive, and diseased animals and anthrax-infected cadavers became sources of food to the human populace. Other factors contributing to the breakdown of animal disease controls were the shortages in communications and transportation facilities and of veterinary supplies, the wartime increases in traffic of animals, and the war weariness of a socialized people in their destroyed country. Under these conditions, and until they could be improved, CA/MG operations were directed only at the restoration of animal disease controls to prewar levels pursuant to the Italian regulations and past practices. Early attempts for improvement (or modernization) of control measures failed as sometimes did local governments in complying with direct orders when given by AMG officers. Generally, there was no change or improvement made in any Italian veterinary activity-or at least nothing comparable to that observed in the postwar occupation of Germany, Japan, and Korea-because the period during which such could be impressed on the country was relatively brief, and,
as shown earlier, the Allied civilian affairs operations were limited after November 1944 to that of advising and assisting the Italians.
The existing veterinary sanitary police regulations and disease control practices of the Italian veterinary service were adequate with regard to only a few animal diseases, particularly those which could be regulated by programs of animal immunization. There were, however, a greater number of other diseases-equally serious and also possessing a public health threat-against which little or no truly effective controls were established. The first group of animal diseases included anthrax, blackleg, and swine erysipelas; the latter group included brucellosis in sheep and goats, equine glanders, bovine tuberculosis, sheep scabies, and rabies. Anthrax enzootics first occurred in two provinces of Italy in which the provincial officials had delayed the reinstitution of annually recurrent programs of animal vaccination. In another province, including the Cassino battleground, a starving civilian population attempted to recover the carcasses of infected animals for food. Swine erysipelas was controlled by immunization with a "living" nonvirulent vaccine. It may be mentioned that the early action by the AC to rehabilitate local Italian Government veterinary laboratories made possible the start of these annual or seasonal programs for animal disease control; frequently, military courier service was made available for delivering the required veterinary supplies in the provinces. Brucellosis of sheep and goats was differentiated from bovine brucellosis by the Italian veterinary service to the extent that the latter was generally disregarded, even after the AC veterinary officer had introduced a vaccinal agent that was being successfully used to control this disease in the dairy industry of the United States. Ovine brucellosis, on the other hand, was granted more consideration, and a locally developed diagnostic test agent (Mirri's brucellin) was used to segregate "nonreactors" from infected milking goats, whose output was required to be pasteurized, or the goats destroyed.
Summarizing, the veterinary service in postwar Italy successfully accomplished a restoration of several animal disease control programs at the level of their prewar standards. However, it manifested no immediate interest in the establishment of more modern controls that would eradicate or completely remove these diseases which would continually threaten the Italian agricultural economy and public health for many more years.
Animals were tested for glanders, but routinely only those showing clinical signs or symptoms of the disease were destroyed; the "reactor" animals were placed in a sort of working quarantine. This kind of control was not effective as a test-and-eradication program but seemed to have comprised the only practical procedure in postwar Italy where the high price and the lack of transport facilities placed each horse and mule beyond any value of animal disease control. Bovine tuberculosis-like brucellosis-was quite prevalent, probably involving 50 to 80 percent of Italy's dairy cows. Only in northern Italy was there any organized program underway for its control
-the program including the segregation of uninfested animals from "reactors" that were shown by subcutaneous tuberculin test to be infected, the vaccination of young cattle with Calmette Guérin vaccine (which possessed a questionable protective value), and the addition of known tuberculosis-free cattle into existent dairy herds. Sheep scabies came into prevalence when the country's supply of nicotine sulfate was disrupted, and farmers could ill afford the high expense of buying this antiscabies dip product in an illicit market. As a substitute, the American technique with lime-sulfur dipping solution was demonstrated and successfully introduced as a means of effectively controlling sheep scabies. Rabies, the last of the diseases to be briefly noted here, became enzootic in parts of Italy; in Rome, alone, 400 suspect cases and 58 laboratory-confirmed cases in dogs were reported in the 12-month period ending June 1945, and 2,000 civilians were treated for dogbite wounds. Military government proclamations were issued for impounding stray dogs, and owners were ordered to muzzle or restrain their dogs by leash. Antirabic vaccine was unavailable at the time, but the procedures which were set forth in the proclamations were sufficiently enforced as to effectively stop the enzootic.
In addition to the foregoing diseases, there were others which, once well regulated or controlled, now reappeared in virulent form among the Italian animal population. The reinstitution of controls was made difficult because of the untimely appearances of these diseases, when communications and transport facilities had been disrupted; furthermore, the local veterinary service was generally unacquainted with the specific diseases or unprepared for organizing effective programs. These diseases included dourine, equine epizootic lymphangitis, hog cholera, Newcastle disease (of poultry), piroplasmosis, and bovine trichomoniasis. Actually, some few diseases such as sheep scab and rabies-previously described-may be included in this group.
Dourine, the syphilislike disease of the horse, was first observed in May 1945 among captured German army horses, but steps were taken early to control rather than to eradicate the disease, which involved the institution of quarantine and treatment for the infected.
Equine epizootic lymphangitis was handled in much the same manner. However, the disease became so commonplace in the Naples area as to require AMG to intervene with regulatory prohibition against the public appearance of diseased animals.
Foot-and-mouth disease (also called aphthous fever), originally reported during May 1944 among dairy herds and a sheep flock in three widely separated places (Taranto, Foggia, and Salerno), gradually spread over an area of 15,000 square miles within four months (fig. 44). This epizootic spread continued into the Siena province, by February 1945, and then by August 1945, into the Perugia, Rieti, and Terni Provinces. The only production laboratory for Waldmann-type vaccine, which was used in Italy, was not uncovered and did not become operational until September 1944;
but from that time until August 1945, vaccine to immunize 140,000 animals was produced there. The same vaccine was also used to protect animals in Sardinia. However, even though the animals there failed to show immunity, no earnest studies were made to confirm an Italian postulation that the Astrain virus of foot-and-mouth disease was involved, whereas the Italian vaccine was protective only against the O-strain virus. The immunization program was necessarily restricted-due to the limited quantity of vaccine available-to work cattle and dairy herds. Among these herds, the disease mortality rates in the cows and young animals averaged 7 percent and 25 percent, respectively; the abortion rates of pregnant cows approximated 100 percent, and the milk production was reduced by 70 percent for periods up to a month. Beef cattle, other than breeding stock, received little attention because the meat of the infected and dying (or dead) animals was entered into regular trade channels.
Hog cholera-once considered nonexistent in Italy-appeared in virulent epizootic form, first in the Foggia area during April 1944 and then throughout liberated or occupied Italy. In the instance of establishing con-
trols over this disease, the Italian veterinary service accepted the suggestions given by the AC veterirnary officer that anti-hog-cholera serum of U. S. origin be imported at once for immediate local use and that the American-developed Boynton crystal violet product be studied for production and distribution by Italian veterinary laboratories for use throughout the Italian swine industry. The results were successful; approximately a half million swine were vaccinated during the 12-month period ending June 1945.
Newcastle disease of poultry-like hog cholera-was regarded as nonexistent in Italy or as an atypical laryngotracheitis; however, confirmatory studies were made of specimens submitted to the laboratory of the Army Veterinary School, Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C. In the control of this disease, which was causing heavy losses in the Italian poultry industry (a mortality of 50 to 100 percent in infected flocks), the Italian veterinarians administered a locally produced vaccine which conferred shortperiod immunization.
The tick-transmitted piroplasmosis was a common summertime disease among cattle in Sardinia and in the southern and central Italian provinces. Rather than the organization of programs for its prevention, such as are known to be effective, the Italian veterinary service preferred to treat the infected animals. The German-made Acaprin or English Pireven was administered intramuscularly (in a single 6-cc. dose) to infected animals with almost spectacular success.
In regard to the meat and dairy industries, the Italian veterinarian exercised little or no sanitary control over production. Of course, in the situation of food shortages that existed in occupied Italy during the war, animals frequently were not slaughtered in the abattoirs, neither was the meat entered into regular market channels. A great many abattoirs were scattered throughout the country, usually inadequate in their facilities, and the ante mortem and post mortem inspections, when they were conducted, were performed by random selection of organs from various animals for inspection and with no examination of lymph glands. On the other hand, each Italian abattoir was required to operate under veterinary supervision. In the coastal cities, the Italian veterinarian also inspected the fish which were landed, but their standards were not the same as those commonly observed in the American fishing industry. The dairy industry was completely outside the sphere of veterinary activities except for the control of diseases among the dairy herds; in Palermo and in the Italian metropolitan cities, such as Rome and Naples, milk control was invested with non-public health personnel and politicians, but there was no sanitary control. Raw milk, with contaminants of manure and flies clearly visible, was received at the dairies and treated with hydrogen peroxide in lieu of pasteurization. It was bottled or otherwise handled in equipment which had been washed in cold water. In one city, AMG employed a milk specialist and provided such material as was needed to properly operate the local dairy.
FIGURE 45.-Cattle, later used for food, being artificially infected with suspensions of the viral agent of foot-and-mouth disease, injected under the mucous membrane of the top of the tongue to produce vaccine to combat this disease. The rehabilitation of biologic-producing-laboratories in Italy posed a major problem in reestablishing the disease control program against foot-and-mouth disease.
The Italian veterinary biologic-producing laboratories were the focal point for the animal disease control programs which were evolved in occupied and postwar Italy (fig. 45). There were 11 government-owned laboratories and 3 privately owned; all suffered some war damage, but energetic action was taken for their early rehabilitation. This feature of CA/MG operations probably originated in November 1943 when the veterinary laboratory at Palermo was employed in the manufacture of smallpox vaccine for human use in controlling an epidemic of this disease that occurred in Naples; by August 1945, smallpox vaccine production in Italian veterinary laboratories had totaled 10 million doses.
Aside from the supply of veterinary biologicals mostly from indigenous sources, veterinary medicines and equipment were urgently needed. In Sicily and southern Italy, the problem was largely one of locating existing stockpiles and arranging for their distribution, but, as the more populous and better agricultural areas were reached, the supply needs had to be satisfied by importations. An American-British Combined Chiefs of Staff supply committee, in Washington, D.C., had previously planned for this
supply, and eventually some shipments of so-called Civil Affairs Division supplies arrived. Unfortunately, the delivery of the first shipment was generally unsuccessful because the material was not specifically marked for veterinary use, was proselyted into regular medical supplies which were being received in quantities below requirements of Italian medical needs, and included items which the Italian veterinarians had little or no use for because of normal variations from American methods of veterinary practice. Following their arrival in Italy, these veterinary supplies were assigned to the Italian Government veterinary laboratories for distribution because this action assured their proper receipt and improved the chances for their reaching the Italian veterinarian in regular civilian trade channels.
Other Civil Affairs and Military Government Operations of Allied Force Headquarters
The same Allied military headquarters that organized the CA/MG operations in Italy also became involved in the planning for Albania, Greece, and Yugoslavia, and participated with SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Forces) in the European theater on matters relating to southern France and Austria. In Albania, Greece, and Yugoslavia, the Allied military forces, which were principally British, only entered after the Germans had vacated, and AFHQ, through a newly organized AMG (Balkans), operated as an interim agency to provide emergency relief supplies until the UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration) could assume the supply responsibility. No Veterinary Corps personnel were assigned, although during the period of military responsibility some few veterinary supplies and equipment of U.S. origin are known to have been made available for distribution in the three countries. The foregoing situation was equally applicable to CA/MG veterinary activities in southern France which was invaded by the Seventh U.S. Army in mid-August 1944. Planning for Operation ANVIL-DRAGOON, which was the invasion of southern France, was conducted by AFHQ within the overall policy described by SHAEF; the latter, on 1 November 1944, took over operational control of the military forces in that area from the Allied headquarters of the Mediterranean theater. In the military occupation of Austria, American troop units and personnel of the Mediterranean theater were originally planned for, but when the Third and Seventh U.S. Armies swept through Germany and entered Austria (in the last week of April 1945) the original planning was changed. In fact, as will be observed later, the U.S. military forces in Austria were now created as a semi-independent command within the European theater, but matters relating to occupation and administration of the Austrian civil government were separately reported to the Joint Army and Navy Chiefs of Staff in Washington, D.C.
General Military Government in Germany
Months before the surrender of Germany, the U.S. forces in the European theater were preparing for occupation tasks (5). Specific planning for the occupation began in the spring of 1943, when the Allied governments decided on the launching of a cross-Channel invasion in early summer of 1944 (Operation OVERLORD). This decision led to the creation of the strategic planning agency, COSSAC (Chief of Staff, Supreme Allied Command). A Posthostilities Planning Section of COSSAC was designated to consider the responsibilities of the commander in chief after the close of combat. A G-5 staff division was also created in COSSAC to handle military government matters. At the intergovernmental level, EAC (European Advisory Commission), consisting of the foreign ministers of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, was organized to make recommendations to the member governments on terms of surrender and occupation matters. The EAC prepared a draft of surrender terms, an agreement on control machinery for Germany, and an agreement on zones of occupation. In January 1944, COSSAC was absorbed into the newly organized SHEAF, and General Dwight D. Eisenhower was chosen as Supreme Commander. The G-5 division was continued in SHEAF and was the hub of all military government planning for Germany.
A German County Unit was formed in March 1944 and prepared a Handbook for Military Government in Germany which became a basic guide for early occupation. In the summer of 1944, the German Country Unit was absorbed into the USGCC (U.S. Group Control Council)-a new planning agency created to prepare for the American component of a future Allied Control Group for Germany. (The Allied Control Council was approved at the Yalta Conference in February 1945 and activated in June 1945.) Operation ECLIPSE was formulated as the plan to be put into effect as areas of Germany were uncovered and at the final surrender. The plan dealt with such matters as terms of surrender, the application of sanctions, the disarmament and disbandment of the German armed forces, the disarmament and control of paramilitary organizations, the safeguarding and disposal of captured enemy material, the trial of war criminals, the control of transportation and communications, the disarming and control of police, the establishment of law and order, the control of governments and military organizations, the institution of military government, the execution of intelligence functions, the control of public information media, the care of displaced persons, and the repatriation of Allied prisoners of war.
While planning for occupation was in progress, experience in military government operations was being gained during combat in Germany. The
MAP 10.-Occupied areas of Germany and Austria.
German frontier was crossed on 11 September 1944, and, by mid-December, elements of the First, Seventh, and Ninth U.S. Armies were holding a narrow strip along the western border. Then, after a temporary setback in mid-December 1944 by the German counteroffensive in the Ardennes, the Allies pushed across Germany until she surrendered on 8 May 1945. American forces were scattered over Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia but
were soon deployed to the U.S. Zone of Occupation (map 10). All types of CA/MG functions were in operation during combat.
As hostilities on the European Continent drew to a close, arrangements were made to separate the combined headquarters of SHAEF and prepare for unilateral zone command. SHAEF was dissolved on 14 July 1945, and American combat troops were placed under operational control of USFET (U.S. Forces, European Theater). All but the Third and Seventh U.S. Armies were redeployed or made nonoperational. The Third U.S. Army was assigned jurisdiction of the eastern part of the U.S. Zone of Occupation and the Seventh U.S. Army the western part. The Seventh U.S. Army was inactivated in March 1946 and the Third U.S. Army in March 1947. After this time, the American forces designated to preserve order were the U.S. Constabulary.
In accord with the Yalta Agreement, the ACA (Allied Control Authority) was established in June 1945; its executive organ was the ACC (Allied Control Council), made up of the commanders of the four occupying military forces who first met on 30 July 1945. The original U.S. element of ACA was the USGCC, later (on 1 October 1945) redesignated as OMGUS (Office of Military Government, United States). The ACC formed directorates covering broad areas of civilian activity (such as Directorate of Economies). Functioning under the directorates were many technical committees and working groups. Such committees covered every important area of German civilian matters. The general policy of ACA was to consider those matters that had application throughout the country as a whole or which had international aspects. When a decision for action was reached by the ACA, unilateral action was then taken by each of the powers in its zone. In the U.S. Zone, this action was assumed by the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5, USFET.
By 1 January 1946, military government activities were generally centralized and removed from the occupational activities. Offices of Military Government were created to administer all military government in three military government areas: Bavaria, Württemberg-Baden, and Greater Hesse into which the U.S. Zone had now been divided, and in the Bremen Enclave and the U.S. Sector of Berlin (map 10).
Since V-E Day and before the advent of the top-level administrative agencies, military government control was carried on at Kreis (county), Regierungsbezirke (district), and Land (province) levels by military government detachments which-though operating under the general supervision of ECAD (European Civil Affairs Division) of SHAEF-were attached to tactical divisions. As there was no central German Government left to do the task, the main functions of these detachments were to restore local German governments and to aid them in reviving their general utility and other municipal services. The Germans were very energetic so that the more urgent rehabilitation was accomplished with remarkable speed. As the occupation proceeded, control by military government detachments was increas-
ingly shifted to higher levels of German government, and the type of control was moved from specific matters to broad guidance.1
Civil Affairs and Military Government During Combat
Since Germany had overrun all of Western Europe, the Allies were obligated to pay attention to civil matters in these countries during the combat and immediate postcombat phases. Skeleton governments-in-exile for France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Poland, and Czechoslovakia had been formed in England between 1940 and 1944. SHAEF now created military missions for these governments, each comprised of approximately equal members of British and American military personnel. The missions were organized into sections corresponding to the ministerial elements of the country concerned; they studied the countries and maintained liaison with the governments-in-exile to obtain military intelligence on the conditions under Nazi domination. A Civil Affairs Handbook also was prepared for use of the Allied military forces during the period of administration immediately following liberation of each country. Then, after the Allies invaded the European Continent and pushed eastward into Germany, control by each SHAEF mission was turned over to the respective governments as soon as the country was liberated. All of the missions functioned very effectively both before and after liberation of the countries they represented.
Veterinary civil affairs and military government personnel.-Planning for veterinary CA/MG in the European theater started when six specially trained Veterinary Corps officers from the Zone of Interior arrived in England early in 1944 for assignment to CA/MG duties (6). The senior officer of this group was assigned to SHAEF G-5 and for the duration of the war was the nominal chief of veterinary CA/MG activities in the European theater. The remaining five officers were assigned to various SHAEF military missions. Initially, requisitions had been made for 15 veterinary officers for assignment to CA/MG duties at SHAEF, each SHAEF mission, the German Country Unit, ETOUSA Headquarters, Communications Zone Headquarters, UNRRA, 12th Army Group, the field armies, the Army Air Forces Headquarters, and ECAD. Requisitions for these officers, however, were not filled. After D-day, when the field forces requested assistance of CA/MG veterinarians, four of the officers originally assigned to the SHAEF
missions were transferred to the field forces. As a result of this redistribution of veterinary officers during the combat period, the single SHAEFassigned officer had to assume full responsibility for giving whatever advisory services he could to the various organizations in that area.
While the foregoing officers had been oriented in general military government affairs, they had almost no information on European veterinary activities at the time of their arrival in England. Therefore, they took steps to gain such information by reading library material, by talking to English veterinarians, by visiting English veterinary installations (which were fairly representative of continental places), and by talking with exiled European veterinarians. These officers also underwent the minimum general combat training required for all CA/MG personnel.
Veterinary CA/MG operations will be described hereafter from the viewpoint of the organizations to which the officers were assigned. The officer assigned to SHAEF, G-5 Division, directed the technical activities of all veterinary military government officers in the theater. In addition, liaison was maintained with other SHAEF organizations, with the U.S. embassies of Allied countries, with Headquarters, ETOUSA, with Communications Zone, with the three army groups (U.S. 6th, U.S. 12th, and British 21st), with the four U.S. field armies (First, Third, Seventh, and Ninth), with the U.S. Army Air Forces (8th and 9th), and with UNRRA. After arrival on the Continent, the chief military government veterinary officer established contact with the veterinary officials of Allied countries and gave needed assistance and advice.
Because of the limited numbers of personnel available, veterinary officers were assigned only to the SHAEF military missions for France, Belgium, and Holland, and the German Country Unit during the pre-D-day period in England. These officers made plans for administering the civilian veterinary service in the respective countries upon their liberation. Such plans were prepared in the form of civil affairs handbooks. Because of the change of personnel assignments noted above, only the Holland Mission retained its veterinary officer. Holland remained partly occupied by the Germans until almost the end of combat so that there were more serious problems from the lack of a national government. France and Belgium were quickly liberated, and the native governments soon assumed their own administration. The officer assigned to the Holland Mission carried out operations as planned, restoring local veterinary administration, reestablishing temporary national administration, animal disease control, food inspection services, and obtaining emergency veterinary supplies.
The veterinary CA/MG officers helped with the planning while they were in England and assisted in determining requirements and in distributing of veterinary supplies after they arrived on the Continent. Belgium and Holland used more of the supplies than the other countries of northwest Europe. Stocks of captured German army veterinary supplies were
frequently turned over to CA/MG for distribution to Allied and German civilian veterinary service. Close liaison was maintained with UNRRA before and after the invasion to coordinate supplies.
Experiences in combat units.-The single veterinary officer assigned to CA/MG duties with the Communications Zone coordinated various veterinary CA/MG activities in that area. In the conduct of his mission, he was assisted by the Zone's base section-assigned veterinary personnel who reported outbreaks of animal disease, sources of veterinary supplies, and gathered information about civilian veterinary officials. The Army Air Forces veterinarians also were helpful in CA/MG liaison. When the foregoing veterinary CA/MG officer was transferred to Headquarters, 12th Army Group, he directed his efforts toward coordinating the operations of the three veterinary CA/MG officers who were assigned to the field armies of that army group (namely, the First, Third, and Ninth U.S. Armies). He also conducted many field investigations to augment Army personnel.
Those officers assigned to the field armies were in the most forward areas. One of their primary functions was intelligence because they had first contact with the civilian veterinary service, both in Allied countries and in Germany. Information on all aspects of veterinary functions thus obtained was passed to the next higher echelons. Some information, such as presence of animal diseases, was passed to adjacent armies to assist in control measures. The kinds of activities covered every type of CA/MG functions. During the lull along the German border in late 1944, it was possible to complete some operations, but then, in the spring of 1945, when the armies advanced so rapidly, their activities were mostly that of gaining military intelligence. A typical activity of each major function will be cited as an example.
Intelligence.-In the First U.S. Army area, the veterinary officer obtained a Directory of German Veterinarians published in 1939. This gave also the administrative organization of all levels from Reich down to the Kreis, a description of veterinary colleges, listing of veterinary laboratories, livestock census data, military veterinary service, manufacturers of veterinary supplies, and so forth. While some changes had taken place in 5 years, most of the data were still valid. This booklet was soon obtained by the other veterinary officers and served as an important guide for operations in Germany.
Local veterinary administration.-During the German Ardennes counteroffensive, the veterinary administration of Luxembourg collapsed. Veterinarians sympathetic with the Germans had gone over to Germany, while those who opposed the Germans had fled to Brussels. Foot-and-mouth disease was present in the area and it was imperative that control measures be reestablished. The veterinary military government officer with the Third U.S. Army traveled to Brussels, located five refugee veterinarians, and assisted them to return to Luxembourg to control the outbreak.
Disease control.-On 26 October 1944, an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease was reported on the Holland-German border north of Aachen, then in the combat area of the First U.S. Army. The latter's veterinary CA/MG officer investigated and verified the report. One complication of control was that the site of the outbreak was just behind the front line. German minefields had not been cleared. Many animals were loose. The SHAEF veterinary officer went to the area to direct operations. He first contacted the Holland district veterinarian who, fortunately, was still on the job. Working together, and mindful of combat dangers, they planned and executed the following operations: All Dutch and German veterinarians in the vicinity were assembled with the aid of military commanders and local burgermeisters and directed to evacuate the cattle westward into Holland. Upon arrival at the border, veterinary examinations for disease were made. Diseased animals were destroyed, whereas the remainder were grouped into those suitable for breeding and milking and those suitable for slaughter to feed the civilian population. The breeding and milking animals were kept under observation of Dutch veterinarians who conducted the usual measures for handling communicable diseases. Extensive spread of disease was prevented, and valuable food resources were preserved.
Food inspection.-Slaughterhouses and milk plants frequently showed serious war damage because of their location near railroad yards. Veterinary CA/MG officers assisted in rehabilitating these establishments by supporting actions for the release of needed repair materiel and labor, by contacting local veterinary meat and milk inspectors, and by liaison with other CA/MG officers.
Animal husbandry.-The veterinary CA/MG officers actively cooperated with food and agriculture CA/MG officers in reassembling livestock, controlling the hygiene of livestock sales, reestablishing normal veterinary practice, and advising on hygienic aspects of animal foods and animal breeding problems.
Indigenous veterinary supplies.-During the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the Luxembourg area, as previously noted, the local supply of the specific vaccinal agent used in controlling the disease was soon exhausted. This was reported to the SHAEF G-5 veterinary officer who learned that the nearest source of vaccine was a veterinary laboratory in Switzerland. After clearances were obtained from military and civilian officials, the veterinary CA/MG officer with the Third U.S. Army and a Luxembourg veterinarian traveled to the laboratory in a truck and returned with a new supply of vaccine.
Veterinary education.-The first German veterinary college was visited by the veterinary military government officer, Ninth U.S. Army, at Hannover a few days after the city was captured. While the school was badly damaged and classes were not in session, it was found that animal clinics could be operated for treatment of community animals and laboratories could
be used for disease diagnosis and vaccine production. Authority was obtained through CA/MG to continue these types of services.
International Institute of Epizootics.-Mention also must be made of the International Institute of Epizootics. This organization, located in Paris, France, was created in 1927 to collect and disseminate information on animal diseases throughout the world. During the Nazi occupation of France, it had continued to operate on a restricted scale. Soon after Paris was liberated, the SHAEF G-5 veterinary officer visited the Institute and learned that it was prepared to operate on prewar level. Prior to D-day, UNRRA had proposed the organization of a veterinary group in Europe to aid in the rehabilitation of veterinary services, especially animal disease control. When the Institute was found to be intact, it was supported by both UNRRA and SHAEF in the continuance of its mission. After the start of occupation of Germany, the chief veterinary CA/MG officer, now assigned to OMGUS, continued to assist the Institute by forwarding German animal disease data.
Civil Affairs and Military Government During Occupation
Upon the collapse of Germany, steps were taken to acquire additional Army veterinary officers for CA/MG. Several officers were reassigned from combat units, from supply units, from the Mediterranean theater, and from the Zone of Interior. Each new officer was given a briefing and a short on-the-job training before taking over his new duties. A total of 31 officers and 1 civilian veterinary consultant from the United States were assigned to military government in ETOUSA. The peak strength was reached in October 1945 when personnel were distributed from the ACA down to the Regierungsbezirke level (charts 7 and 8). Late in 1945, it became obvious that the German veterinary administration would and could carry out the wishes of CA/MG. Thus, a phase-out of veterinary officers-as well as other CA/MG personnel-was instituted over the next few months, starting with reductions from the lower echelons. By June 1946, only three officers remained-two assigned to OMGUS in Berlin and one at the Behringwerk plant. By November 1947, only the senior veterinary CA/MG officer remained. He stayed on until July 1947 when plans for transfer of OMGUS to HICOG were finalized.
Due to the limited numbers of available veterinary CA/MG officers and to the rapid reestablishment of the civilian veterinary service, the functions of the veterinary CA/MG officers soon became essentially liaison between the German veterinary service and CA/MG. Almost all civilian veterinary functions were desirable, so that the liaison was directed toward rehabilitation rather than revision of them. The officers were assigned as individual specialists in field operations and functioned usually under the public health CA/MG officer. Much liaison was, of course, maintained with other CA/MG officers, especially food and agriculture, education, and general administration. Direct
technical contact between veterinary CA/MG officers at various echelons was encouraged and freely used. Reports on the veterinary activities were prepared in all organizations where veterinary personnel were assigned. These were forwarded through CA/MG channels to OMGUS, where summary reports were prepared for publication.
Allied Control Authority.-Mention has previously been made of the CA/MG policy for occupied territory to maintain the structure of government as little changed as possible. While the national veterinary administration ceased functioning at surrender, two of its technical organizations were permitted to continue: The Reichsgesundheitsant (National Health Institute) in Berlin, and the Paul Ehrlich Institut in Frankfurt am Main used for standardization of biologicals.
In lieu of the national veterinary service there was set up a veterinary group in ACA. This group, called the Veterinary Subcommittee, was originally activated under the Public Health and Welfare Committee of the Directorate of Internal Affairs and Communications, first meeting in session on 17 December 1945. Later (or in February 1946), because so much of the early rehabilitation dealt with agricultural matters, the Subcommittee was transferred to the Food and Agriculture Committee of the Directorate of Economies. Such arrangement continued until the dissolution of the Subcommittee in 1948. Regular meetings were held, monthly and special meetings as required. The Subcommittee was composed of the chief veterinary CA/MG officer of each of the four Allied zones; alternate members sat in the absence of the regular member. The chairmanship was rotated monthly among the delegates, and each delegate had a secretary, interpreters, and advisers, as required. Terms of reference for operation of the Subcommittee were prepared and amended from time to time. While most of the activities were conducted in Berlin, the members occasionally made trips into the field to observe operations at first hand. Activities of the Subcommittee involved all aspects of the German veterinary service; the following are cited as examples:
1. Preparation of special veterinary health certificate for interzonal movement of livestock.
2. Preparation of a dictionary of animal diseases in Latin, English, French, Russian, and German.
3. Collection and consolidation of animal disease statistics.
4. Promoting standardization of veterinary biologicals.
5. Survey of needs, current availability, and production facilities for veterinary supplies (drugs, instruments, biologicals, and so forth).
6. Survey of German veterinary laws to check influence of Nazism.
7. Survey of bovine tuberculosis and control measures.
8. Survey of brucellosis and control measures.
While it was never possible during the military government phase to set up a central veterinary service, the Subcommittee helped to point the way. For example, it arranged for central meetings in Berlin of the chief civil veterinary officials of the four zones. These meetings started in October 1947 and continued until the breakup of quadripartite control in 1948. When Bizonia was formed, it included a German veterinary official who coordinated veterinary activities in the U.S. and British zones.
German Veterinary Service Before Surrender
Before the war, Germany had one of the outstanding veterinary services of the world. The administrative organization was very complete, with official offices at Reich, Land, Regierungsbezirke, and Kreis levels. Before 1934 the national veterinary office was in the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, and Forests, but in 1934, this office was moved to the Ministry of Interior and designated as Department III. Then, in early 1945, a governmental reorganization saw the veterinary, public health, and public welfare services grouped under a State Secretary in the Ministry of the Interior; however, this organization had little time to function before the collapse of Germany. There were eight sections in the Reich veterinary office, covering major functions. The provincial veterinary office was also located in the Province Ministry of Interior. The Regierungsbezirke veterinary official worked directly under the principal administrator. At the Kreis level, the official veterinarian was called the Kreistierarzt or Veterinærrat. There was usually one official to a Kreis, but larger Kreise sometimes had two or more, and, infrequently, only one would cover two or more Kreise. The Kreis official was the mainstay of the veterinary service since he was responsible for the execution of all major functions.
General veterinary laws were made by the Reichschancelor, and executive regulations were prepared by the Minister of the Interior's Veterinary Department. Lower echelons were not permitted to deviate from the national laws and regulations, except in special circumstances.
As in other countries, the two major activities of the veterinary service dealt with animal health and food hygiene. The former was mainly economic since it dealt with the preservation of livestock resources through animal disease control and related animal health and welfare matters. The latter was mainly human health since it dealt with meat and milk hygiene as related to human food. The two areas frequently overlapped. The principal functions of the German veterinary service, as specified in the Reich laws, dealt with official administration; animal disease control; veterinary police at border stations; veterinary aspects of animal husbandry; administration of animal indemnity funds; knackery service (carcass disposal); animal slaughter and meat inspection; milk hygiene; hygiene of other foods; animal protective service (human matters); examination and appointment of public veterinary officials; examination and licensing of veterinary practitioners; administration of the veterinary professional association; veterinary education; supervision of horseshoeing; operation of provincial veterinary laboratories; operation of special laboratories for research, vaccine production, and so forth; administration of the veterinary drug dispensing laws; and collecting, evaluating, and reporting of veterinary statistics. Some of the more important of these functions will be discussed in the next topic, together with their relation to CA/MG operations.
German Veterinary Service During Occupation
In accord with general CA/MG policy, the German veterinary administration was continued at Province, Regierungsbezirke, and Kreis levels. If the presurrender official was present, he was continued in office; otherwise, the best available substitute was designated. A serious barrier in obtaining officials was the denazification program. At first, the very strict interpretation of Nazi party affiliation caused great difficulty in obtaining cleared personnel because nearly all governmental officials at all levels had been required to join the party by 1939. Later, ACA made a distinction between simple membership and extensive activity in the party. This permitted most veterinary officials to occupy offices. The denazification program did not affect practitioners very much. All Reich veterinary laws were continued as far as practicable in each zone. In the U.S. zone, the officials were very energetic and cooperative in getting the veterinary service reestablished.
It is not practicable to discuss all of the activities of the German veterinary service during the occupation. The following have been selected as the more important and typical ones.
Veterinary personnel.-There were some 7,600 civilian veterinarians in Germany before the war, employed as follows:
These numbers were reduced somewhat during the war due to combat casualties and to smaller output of the colleges. In late 1945, the ACA made an agreement in which some 6½ million persons of German blood would be transferred from Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland into the four zones of occupied Germany. Some of these people were veterinarians; thus, there was no shortage of veterinary personnel during occupation.
The public service operated through a well-organized civil-service system. Before approval for a regular position, the applicant must have graduated from a veterinary college, must have been in general practice for several months, and must have been an assistant in public veterinary service for at least 2 years. Before receiving a license to practice, the graduate must have spent at least 3 months in slaughterhouse inspection and 3 months as an assistant to a practitioner. Licenses were valid throughout Germany.
All veterinarians were required by law to belong to the national veterinary chamber (or union). There were 16 regional chambers and 57 district chambers. The functions of these included investigating legal liability cases, advising on veterinary education, operating courts for alleged veterinary mal-
practice, administering welfare funds and health insurance for veterinarians and their families, and allocating practice areas. During the occupation, all chambers except that at the national level were kept in operation. Only rarely did their activities conflict with CA/MG policies and practices.
Animal disease control.-Animal disease control was based on the Reich animal disease law of 26 June 1909, and amendments. This law covered the usual control measures such as diagnosis; reporting of animal diseases; quarantine; destruction of infected animals; indemnity payments; hygienic disposal of animal products such as meat, milk, and hides; vaccination; hygiene of animal shipments; hygiene of animal markets; and disinfection of premises. At the time of the German collapse, there were interruptions in the normal disease control measures due to lack of a national government, lack of communications, lack of supplies, and displacement of officials. Before long, however, fairly normal measures were in effect.
Many reports and records were used by the Germans in disease control work. All those originating below national level were continued in the occupation. The only one required to be submitted to ACA was the semimonthly communicable disease report. This had been formerly submitted directly to the Reich veterinary office from each Kreis veterinarian. Procedure was now altered to have the Kreis report sent to the Regierungsbezirke veterinarian who prepared a consolidated report. This report was then sent to the Province (Land) veterinarian who transmitted it to the Zone veterinary CA/MG officer. The ACA Veterinary Subcommittee received the Zone reports and prepared a grand summary report somewhat like the former Reich report. The ACA report was sent back to Land veterinarians, to the International Epizootics Institute in Paris, and to the chief veterinary officials of the European countries.
The veterinary border police continued their duties as well as possible, carrying out the former laws. There were great difficulties in view of the free movements of military organizations and materiel and large movements of displaced persons.
While some animal diseases had increased during the war, the quick reestablishment of the German veterinary service after V-E Day brought them under reasonable control. Anthrax appeared in isolated cases but caused no serious problem. Brucellosis of cattle continued to be an endemic disease. Through the efforts of OMGUS, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the newly developed strain-19 brucella vaccine was made available to the Germans. This enabled them to start a long-range control program. Dourine and glanders of horses were introduced late in the war, when German army horses and captured animals were brought from areas in North Africa, Italy, Poland, and the Balkans. Upon the collapse of Germany, these animals were demobilized and distributed to the civilians. A vigorous testing and examination program prevented spread of the diseases and finally resulted in their eradication. Infectious anemia of horses per-
sisted throughout the occupation despite control efforts. Swine erysipelas increased greatly in the summer of 1945 because combat conditions had prevented the conduct of the recurring spring vaccination program. Through the direct assistance of veterinary military government officers, vaccine and sera were obtained early after V-E Day and greatly assisted in bringing this disease under control. In 1947, an infectious anemia outbreak among the Behringwerke horses caused a temporary loss in the principal source of erysipelas serum. Foot-and-mouth disease continued to plague all of Europe after the war. Intensive control measures by the Germans and CA/MG veterinarians kept reducing the disease, but small outbreaks occurred throughout the occupation from time to time. Germany was more fortunate than some other European countries where the disease was more prevalent. Rabies was not prevalent during the occupation, probably due to general good control of dogs in Germany. Scabies of horses was very prevalent at the end of the war and continued during the first year of occupation before intensive measures brought the disease under control. Hog cholera continued to be mildly prevalent during the occupation. Through the efforts of the OMGUS veterinary officer, techniques for manufacture of crystal violet-attenuated cholera vaccine were introduced into Germany. This new immunization method was used especially in Bavaria. Tuberculosis of cattle in Germany at the end of the war was estimated as high as 30 percent, with certain areas almost 100 percent infected. Immediate widespread test-and-slaughter methods were impracticable. Thus, long-range eradication programs were prepared by the Germans, with the full support of the ACA. Considerable progress for its eradication had been accomplished by the end of occupation. Emphasis was placed upon the pasteurization of milk and inspection of meat as measures for preventing human infection.
Meat inspection.-The inspection of slaughter animals and meat was highly organized and was based on the Reich law of 3 June 1900, as amended. There were some 500 slaughterhouses in Germany before the war, almost all being city owned. The law required that a specially trained veterinarian be the director; this was in addition to the usual veterinary and lay meat inspectors. The law covered the customary functions such as organization, qualification and appointment of personnel, slaughter permits, ante mortem and post mortem inspection procedures, inspection of meat outside of regular slaughterhouses, laboratory examination of meat, inspection of import and export meat, transportation and storage of meat, records and reports, control of Freibank meat, handling of glands used for pharmaceuticals, and supervision of public sale of meat. While the higher echelons exercised general supervision, the Kreis veterinarians and slaughterhouse directors were responsible for routine meat inspection service. In rural areas, where there were no public slaughterhouses, certain butchers were licensed to slaughter animals under the inspection of trained lay inspectors.
Slaughterhouses sustained considerable aerial-bombing damage during the war because of their usual location near railroad yards. Early occupation efforts were directed toward minimum rehabilitation to get plants in operation. One problem arose in connection with slaughter methods. The law required that large animals be stunned by a captive-bolt pistol, using a blank cartridge. At the beginning of occupation, the ACA prohibited the manufacture of explosives as a part of the demilitarization program. The pistol method requirement of the law was, therefore, overlooked temporarily, and stunning by hand methods was authorized. The OMGUS veterinary officer appealed successfully to the ACA to permit limited and controlled manufacture of the required ammunition.
After a few difficult months early in the occupation, adequate numbers of veterinary and lay meat inspectors became available and were able to carry on relatively normal inspection operations. OMGUS required the submission of monthly meat inspection reports to CA/MG veterinary offices for general information on this activity.
Milk inspection.-Milk inspection was based on the Reich law of 31 July 1930, as amended. Veterinary inspection was limited to health examination of cows, laboratory examination for pathogenic bacteria (tuberculosis), and sanitary inspection of milk pasteurizing plants. The Kreis veterinarian did most of the milk inspection work personally. There were some 8,000 dairy plants in Germany before the war.
Milk plants sustained some war damage, especially in larger cities. Equipment was in poor repair due to wartime shortage of material. Fuel was in short supply. The danger from tuberculosis-infected raw milk made proper pasteurization imperative. Thus CA/MG gave high priority to the rehabilitation and operation of milk plants early in the occupation. Veterinary service as related to milk inspection was soon reinstated to a satisfactory degree. A monthly summary report of veterinary milk inspection from each Kreis veterinarian was required by CA/MG in the early months of the occupation.
Other food inspection.-Various Reich laws required veterinarians to take part in inspection of fish, eggs, game, food plant hygiene, and so forth. Such activities continued in the occupation, with difficulties similar to other control work.
Carcass disposal.-Plants (knackeries) for the disposal of animal carcasses and similar materials were located throughout the country. Products derived were hides, fat for soapmaking, and meat meal for animal feeding and fertilizer. The veterinary service was involved in these operations as a part of the disease control program. The knackeries posed no special problems except for fuel needs in early occupation. Since the products from them were in short supply, priority was given to their operation.
Veterinary laboratories.-Veterinary laboratories were provided for disease diagnosis, food testing, and research and production of biological prod-
ucts. Most of the research and specialized laboratories were operated by the Reich government. Routine disease diagnosis and food testing were done in the provincial laboratories. Veterinary and agricultural colleges also had laboratories for special problems, as did the larger slaughterhouses. Before the war there were 10 national and 34 provincial laboratories.
Despite some war damage, most laboratories were operative. They, too, suffered from short supply of fuel, old equipment in need of repair or replacement, and lack of enough technically trained personnel. Thus, ACA and the German veterinary service gave considerable priority to rehabilitation of the laboratories. In the beginning, most attention was given to the most important functions of the laboratories such as disease diagnosis, food testing, and certain biological production. All research work was deferred.
Veterinary education.-Veterinary colleges were located at Hannover, Berlin, Leipzig, Giessen, and Munich. The schools had excellent facilities and faculties. Admission requirements and curriculums were similar to those in other modern countries. In line with the general CA/MG policy, all schools were closed temporarily at the collapse of Germany in order to survey the influence of Nazi teaching materials and instructors. First attention was given to elementary education and last to universities. Soon after the beginning of occupation, CA/MG surveys were made of the veterinary schools and plans made for their reopening. The policy of the ACA was soon changed to permit full operation of higher technical schools (including veterinary) within a few months. The Munich school had been closed by the Germans in 1939. All of the schools, except Leipzig, had suffered heavy war damage both to buildings and equipment. Because of the very widespread destruction everywhere, there was great competition for repair materials and labor. After some months, however, the schools were repaired for limited operations. During the first year or two, one of the requirements for the students was the donation of labor time for repair work. Many members of the prewar faculties had gone into military service and had been killed or injured. The Nazi influence had been pushed deeply into all educational levels; thus, many instructors were unacceptable to CA/MG. As in the United States, the Germans soon established a policy of giving priority to education of war veterans. Thus there were large numbers of applicants to the veterinary schools but inadequate facilities.
During the war years, world veterinary literature had almost ceased to enter Germany, partly because of lack of outside communication and partly because of Nazi attempts to keep out non-German literature. When the Allied armies entered Germany, a great desire among professional people for outside literature was encountered. In the case of veterinary operations, the OMGUS veterinary officer arranged with the American Veterinary Medical Association, American veterinary schools, U.S. Government agencies, and other organizations to send to Germany large quantities of textbooks, magazines, and so forth. There had been great war damage to German publish-
ing houses and stocks of books. CA/MG gave considerable priority to rehabilitating publishing facilities after several months. The Germans reopened the Munich school later in the occupation.
Veterinary supplies.-Prior to the war, Germany was not only selfsupporting in veterinary supplies, but exported considerable amounts. The large chemical industry easily supplied veterinary drugs. The extensive metal industry furnished veterinary instruments. Several large commercial biological manufacturers and some government laboratories furnished necessary biologicals. There was a national biological certification laboratory.
German army veterinary supplies remaining at V-E Day were soon turned over for civilian veterinary use. These provided for minimum requirements during the first few months when industrial production facilities were being rehabilitated. The ACA Veterinary Subcommittee assisted in rehabilitation of veterinary supply production and shipping from production areas to using areas.
Fortunately, biologicals were in ample supply. Before the entrance into Germany, it was learned that a very large commercial vaccine and serum production plant (the Behringwerke) was located at the small city of Marburg in the area to be a part of the U.S. Zone of Occupation. This plant supplied some 80 percent of the medical and veterinary biologicals in prewar Germany. Instructions were given to the combat commanders in the Marburg area to prevent damage to the plant. The plant was captured intact, but several hundred serum-producing horses were killed for food by displaced persons liberated from a nearby detention camp by U.S. troops. A veterinary CA/MG officer was placed in complete control of the plant soon after occupation began, partly because of its medical supply importance and partly because it belonged to the I. G. Farben cartel which was being broken up by ACA policy. This firm, together with smaller commercial biological laboratories and the Land veterinary laboratories, supplied all needed veterinary biologicals except foot-and-mouth disease vaccine. This vaccine had been produced at the Reich Institute on the island of Riems, now in the Russian Zone of Occupation. The Russians had partially dismantled the plant after the German collapse but later permitted the Germans to rehabilitate it to a limited extent. Because of the cutting off of this source of supply, the Behringwerke, with the aid of CA/MG, soon constructed a foot-and-mouth disease vaccine producing department.
Animal husbandry.-The German veterinary service had many activities in connection with livestock raising and care. Some of these were advice and assistance in animal hygiene, feeding, stabling, horseshoeing, artificial insemination, and prevention of cruelty.
All types of livestock decreased during the war years (table 36). This was due to interference of all aspects of animal husbandry activities, although considerable numbers were killed during the bombing and land combat in Germany. The decrease was particularly noticeable in swine and poultry.
The early policy of CA/MG and the German Food and Agriculture officials was to stimulate an increase to approximately the prewar level. This increase was evident even by late 1946.
Source: Official German censuses.
Military Government in Austria
Austria, occupied and integrated into Germany by the Nazis in their Anschluss of 1938, was overrun and liberated by the Allied military forces during the last week of April 1945. Soon after V-E Day, the American combat units that had begun the early restoration of law and order were reorganized under control of the European theater as United States Forces in Austria, with headquarters at Salzburg in the American Zone of Occupied Austria. Austrian civil matters, as contrasted to military occupational activities, now became the responsibility of a quadripartite Allied Control Commission comprised of representative members from Britain, France, Soviet Union, and the United States. The last-named representative, the U.S. Commissioner, Austria, reported direct to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C. Aside from the four zones of military occupation, quadripartite control was set up in Austria's capital city under the organization of the Vienna Area Command (map 10). Within the organization of the U.S. element, or civil affairs section of the Allied Commission, Austria, matters relating to the sanitary situation among the Austrian meat and dairy industries and the country's animal disease controls were handled by one or more Veterinary Corps officers who were assigned to the Public Health Branch, Internal Affairs Division, and in cooperation with the Agriculture and Forestry Branch, Economic Division. In mid-1946, when military government activities at the level of political states (or Laender) were withdrawn in favor of only a limited, or central, direction of the Austrian Government-pursuant to a new Allied control agreement-the foregoing organization was revised to better conform to the Austrian civil government; public health activities were transferred to the control of the Labor Division, which was redesignated Social Administration Division. At about this time, the Army Veterinary Service with the civil affairs organization in Austria ended.
In the U.S. area of occupied Austria, the civil veterinary profession administered the sanitary operations of abattoirs and the production of milk. As of December 1945-January 1946, the area animal population approximated 73,000 horses, 551,000 cattle, 117,000 sheep and goats, 197,000 pigs, 729,000 poultry (chickens), and 77,000 beehives. Due to shortages of cereals arising as these were diverted to feeding the human population, animals were required to be moved out of the American Zone; in Vienna, the shortages of animal feed became especially critical.
Rabies occurred sporadically for the first time since 1926, and horse scabies-newly introduced-reached enzootic proportions during the first winter months of occupation. Other diseases reported in the Austrian animal population as of June 1946 were foot-and-mouth disease, glanders, swine erysipelas, foul pest, bovine tuberculosis, and a so-called poliomyelitis of swine. Biologicals for controlling these diseases were generally obtainable from a plant in the Russian Zone; other supplies and veterinary equipment were provided through Army supply channels. It may be mentioned, also, that the veterinary profession in the American Zone was numerically a half of that reported in 1939.
Central Pacific Area
In the Central Pacific Area, CA/MG activities first were experienced by the Army Veterinary Service when, following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Territory of Hawaii was declared under the rule of the Commanding General, Hawaiian Department, as the Military Governor (7). The degree of military government over the Hawaiian Islands was greatly lessened as the war progressed, and, without a doubt, this was not the same kind of military government operation as applied to any other area which was liberated or occupied by the Army. However, one of the first activities undertaken by the Army Veterinary Service following the Japanese aerial attack was the testing of fresh milk supplies in Honolulu for detection of possible sabotage by the addition of bacterial or chemical poisons. This testing was accomplished on request of the Department Surgeon for the purpose of protecting the civil population against mass infection, which necessarily would have involved the utilization of the existent, but limited, Army hospitals and other medical treatment facilities. What occurred thereafter was more descriptive of the antibiological warfare program that soon saw the integration of military veterinary personnel as civilian laborers in key points within the island's dairy plants, ice cream factories, sandwich assembly shops, and soda bottling plants. This veterinary activity, coming into operation on all of the Hawaiian Islands for the remainder of the following period, sufficiently accomplished the primary mission to safeguard the local food supply but also did much more than that. It aided the civilian indus-
tries in keeping their labor, obtaining critically needed equipment and supplies, and adding improvements (some being greatly needed) in sanitary and other quality production techniques. In addition to this, in the capacity of military assistant and adviser to the Office of the Military Governor, the Hawaiian Department veterinarian aided in the maintenance of the civilian food supplies that were now being stored as "reserve," and cooperated with territorial governmental agencies and the civilian veterinary profession in the operation of agricultural quarantines against the introduction of diseases by indiscriminate importations of animals into the Hawaiian Islands. The veterinary officers with the Army garrison commands on Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and Hawaii Islands also cooperated with local veterinarians and government authorities in matters concerning civilian food supplies and animal quarantine, and all Army veterinary personnel and supplies would have been made available in the event of need to control any disease enzootic among the civilian livestock population.
Outside of the Hawaiian Islands and until after the assault landings were made on Okinawa (on 1 April 1945), CA/MG operations in the islands of the Central Pacific Area were administered by the Navy. Though there was no central planning for the use of the Army veterinary personnel in such operations, each naval civil affairs administrator or military governor seemed to have requested the assistance of the veterinary officer(s) who accompanied the Army garrison force command which established itself on an island following recapture or seizure from the Japanese enemy. This occurred when the Marshall Islands (Kwajalein, Majuro, and Eniwetok atolls) were seized, after the summer of 1944 when the Marianas (Guam, Saipan, and Tinian) were invaded, and then on Angaur in the Palau groups. Earlier experiences, rather than official information, on Navy planning for the occupation of the Marianas were causes for the Army Veterinary Service to informally prepare to assist the Navy in its CA/MG there. In fact, the Veterinarian, USAF, Central Pacific Area, successfully obtained personnel space authorizations and materiel in the Army garrison force commands for these islands such as were believed needed to satisfy the more urgent demands for Army veterinary assistance. Also, limited quantities of various veterinary supplies and equipment, including some few selected biologicals for the control of animal diseases, were procured from the Zone of Interior and stockpiled by the Army Medical Department, but it was intended that the Navy would procure these for the Army Veterinary Service if the initial Army supply should be depleted in the naval activities. It may be noted that no Veterinary Corps officer was expressly assigned with primary duty in CA/MG in the Central Pacific Area, or even for the Okinawa campaign, so that these CA/MG activities, as well as all military matters within the geological limitation of each island, were conducted under the singular supervision of the headquarters veterinarian of the respective Army garrison force or Armyadministered island command. This joining of the two activities was an
exception to basic Army policy that they would be the separate Army responsibilities of two staff groups of personnel (2), but the nature of joint Army-Navy operations in the theater and the extent of CA/MG activities, together with numerous shortages of Army veterinary officers, necessitated that veterinary officers be utilized in this dual capacity.
Army Veterinary Corps officers usually were the only veterinarians available after the Army-Navy-Marine Corps task forces landed in the MarshallGilbert, Marianas, and Palau groups. Two civilian Japanese veterinarians were captured on Saipan-formerly Japanese-mandated island-but these were not released from the internment camps for use in CA/MG operations. On Guam, following V-J Day, a veterinarian was brought in from the United States as a civilian employee to supervise the development of a local dairy herd and operation of a milk plant as part of a project of the Federal Economics Administration. On Kwajalein, Guam, Saipan, and Tinian, the Army garrison force veterinarians surveyed the local animal situation, usually supervised the handling of the livestock for the Navy, and treated the animals which were sick, injured, or wounded. In the combat areas, animals frequently were targets of small arms and artillery fire, proved especially troublesome to patrols and guards at night, tangled in the communications wires lying on the ground, and, if confined, were unwatered and nearly starved. They were assembled as soon as the frontline combat situation permitted, examined for physical condition and health, treated as required, and then disposed of in a variety of ways. They were slaughtered for supplying meat to interned civilians and prisoners of war, redistributed to the native civilian population, or established in animal farms. Actually, the animals were so disposed of without, reference to any particular policy because military priorities both for new airfield construction and for shipping troops and supplies had reduced the available grazing areas and had prevented the importation of animal feeds; further, base development plans for the postwar civilian economy in these islands were unknown. The inspection and supervision over reclamation of captured Japanese foods comprised another veterinary CA/MG activity, and, on some islands, the native fishing industry was reestablished as soon as problems of military security and facilities, including ice refrigeration, were met.
As might be expected, the livestock populations in the islands of the Central Pacific Area were numerically small, and there were no major meat and dairy industries. In fact, neither the natives nor the Japanese were consumers of much meat (except fish), and the islands were unsuited to support many more animals than were found there after the American landings. Frequently, many animals on the islands were slaughtered by the Japanese military forces during the last few months of their occupancy. For example, on Guam-United States territory which was occupied by the Japanese in December 1941 and then recaptured in 1944-the cattle population had decreased from 4,000 to 1,776, and that of carabao from 900 to 429.
FIGURE 46.-Hog farm belonging to the U.S. Navy-administered civil affairs and military government on Saipan was established and operated under the supervision of the Veterinarian, Army Garrison Force.
As of January 1945, there were also on Guam 69 goats, 688 swine, and 2,512 poultry. The former Japanese mandate islands of Saipan and Tinian each had 500-700 cattle, 300-500 boats, 100-300 swine, and more than a thousand poultry, when they were captured (fig. 46). On Kwajalein, 50 swine and some few chickens, which had belonged to the Japanese military forces there, were transferred to the native Marshallese, and on Angaur, much the same disposition to the native population was made of few pigs, chickens, and many boats which were captured. In regard to horses, only two were captured on Saipan and three on Angaur.
In addition to the veterinary CA/MG activities concerning livestock and the feeding of interned personnel and prisoners of war, the Army Veterinary Service investigated the local animal disease situation and developed plans for rabies control and the operation of quarantine procedures. Actually, the animals on most islands were shown to be free of diseases that were common to Japan and which might have been introduced by the enemy. Unfortunately, shortly following V-J Day, Guam was selected as the offshore quarantine station to process and test a shipment of Brahma cattle of Indian origin being brought into the United States by the U.S. Department of Agriculture; on request, the local Army veterinary officer supervised the receipt, processing, and shipment of these animals. On Saipan, an enzootic of erysipelas occurred in August-September 1944 and resulted in the loss of
70 swine among a group of 120 before the disease could be controlled. A professional team from the 18th Medical General Laboratory and a U.S. Navy laboratory unit completed an animal disease survey on the same island. Bovine brucellosis was uncovered among native cattle, and liver fluke (Fasciola gigantica), tick (Boophilus sp.), and common ectoparasites and endoparasites were demonstrated in the various animal species; however, the more serious animal diseases, such as anaplasmosis, glanders, Johne's disease, piroplasmosis, and tuberculosis, were not demonstrated in the animals which were examined.
At about the time the active fighting in the Marianas was over, the Army Veterinary Service in the Central Pacific Area (after 1 August 1944, designated as U.S. Army Forces, Pacific Ocean Areas) was well prepared to assist in nearly any CA/MG activity which would arise in forthcoming campaigns. For the planning of Operation ICEBERG, the Army and Navy assault on the Ryukyu Islands (including Okinawa and Ie Shima) in April 1945, the Navy had transferred its CA/MG to the jurisdiction of the Army. Thus, before the invasion, Headquarters, Tenth U.S. Army, established its own civil affairs staff section, later renamed Military Government Section. The latter was the nucleus of Military Government Headquarters, Island Command, that was formed during January 1945 in the Hawaiian Islands where most of the ground forces were. Military Government Headquarters for Okinawa was assigned responsibility for all civil matters on Okinawa, even in the combat divisional areas of the Tenth U.S. Army. A Veterinary Corps officer was not assigned to this military government organization, however, because its veterinary activities were to be integrated into the overall military veterinary service on Okinawa that would be conducted under the singular supervision of the Veterinarian, Headquarters, Island Command (8).
The Headquarters, Island Command, had the personnel and was provided with the equipment such as were needed to meet the needs of all military government activities on the island. In the beginning of the campaign, the Tenth U.S. Army veterinarian cooperated with the Island Command's veterinary organization in caring for and treating captured animals and in inspecting the foods and food animals which were used in the feeding of civilians who were interned. Furthermore, in June 1945, a Tenth U.S. Army veterinary officer was placed on temporary duty with Military Government Headquarters, with station at Ishikawa, to serve as attending veterinarian to the internment camps in the area and certain Okinawan district headquarters. Simultaneously, Headquarters, Island Command, deployed the 145th Veterinary Food Inspection Detachment to military government activities in the Taira district to cooperate in the military government operations of the 6th Marine Division in Tag o, P.I. The Okinawa
campaign ended on 22 June 1945, and the number of Okinawans under immediate military control then approximated 200,000.
The functional organization and activities of the civil veterinary profession on Okinawa before the American landings apparently compared with that observed later in the occupation of Japan-the latter having annexed Okinawa in the late 1800's. Only six Japanese-educated veterinarians came under the jurisdiction of military government, and these, in August 1945, were utilized to care for the animals which were assembled and maintained in the internment camps. Interrogations of these personnel indicated that the animal disease situation on Okinawa was better than might have been expected and confirmed the results of preliminary investigations which were made by the Army Veterinary Service. The mallein test of 835 horses showed glanders not to be present, and tuberculin test of 90 cattle and goats showed no tuberculosis although the captured veterinarians had indicated that the two diseases were present-of course, many of the 40,000 cattle that were once present were killed for food by the Japanese during the last year of their occupancy. Boynton-tissue vaccine of U.S. origin was used to vaccinate the local swine population against hog cholera. Anthrax, equine infectious anemia, and rabies were nonexistent, but there were a number of equally serious contagions that were reportedly present, including equine encephalomyelitis, piroplasmosis, scabies, swine erysipelas, bovine brucellosis, and liver fluke infestation.
Ie Shima-another island of the Ryukyu group and situated northwest of Okinawa-was invaded by a divisional element of the Tenth U.S. Army in mid-April 1945, and, before the end of the next month, the Army garrison force veterinarian there had 375 horses, 30 cattle, 60 swine, and 100 goats under his supervision.
Southwest Pacific Area
Generally, the Army Veterinary Service had little or nothing to do with CA/MG operations in the Southwest Pacific Area. In August 1944, GHQ, SWPA (General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area), which was an Allied command, added a Civil Affairs Section to its organization which included a health and sanitation component and five other components but nothing directly relative to agriculture or veterinary matters. Similar staff sections were soon established in the field armies headquarters (namely, that of the Sixth and Eighth U.S. Armies) and in Headquarters, USAFFE (U.S. Army Forces in the Far East). In the next month, on New Guinea, the USAFFE command established a parent organizational unit, the Philippine Civil Affairs Division; this division was to organize, train, and otherwise administer Philippine Civil Affairs Units, each with 10 officers and 39 enlisted personnel, such as were to be attached to field armies and the service or base commands. Eight such units accompanied the Sixth U.S. Army in the landings and campaign on Leyte, on 20 October 1944. Eventually, 30
units were organized before the Philippine Islands were completely retaken from the Japanese. These units established civil administration and provided relief supplies to civilians, but as soon as the local combat situation permitted, the civil administration was given up to representatives of the Commonwealth of the Philippines; assistance was provided when requested, but there was no interference with civil operations. The supplies of food provided by the Army were inspected, but beyond this there was no professional activity undertaken by the Army Veterinary Service, such as rehabilitation of the civil veterinary organization or the food and livestock industries in the Philippines. At least one veterinary officer, arriving in New Guinea for eventual assignment in civil affairs duties-pursuant to War Department orders-was ordered into a Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (the 21st) but was utilized as the unit supply officer when the unit was deployed to the Philippines. It was observed that the organization of Philippine Civil Affairs Units was too fixed to permit the integration of veterinary officers, and that: "Nowhere in the SOP (Standing Operating Procedure) of Philippine Civil Affairs has provision been made for rendering to the livestock industry a service similar in nature to what the medical officer will render to the civilian population nor could any high staff officers give * * * any assurance that such consideration was contemplated" (9).
As the postwar occupation of Japan got underway, the responsibility for the U.S. program of supply assistance in the area was transferred from the Army to U.S. civil agencies.
As this was taking place, or in August 1945, the Philippine civil affairs organization of Headquarters, USAFFE (now called Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces, Pacific) was abolished, and the concerned personnel were transferred to, or came under control of, the newly created Military Government Section, GHQ, USAFPAC (General Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces in the Pacific). The section included a Public Health and Welfare Division, to which a Veterinary Corps officer was assigned following his arrival, in that month, at Manila, P.I., from the Zone of Interior. Preparations now were well underway for early military occupation of Japan.
The Army Veterinary Service with military government in Japan and Korea had its start on 7 August 1945, when, in connection with the planning for Operations OLYMPIC and CORONET (or the assault and landings on Kysuhu and on the Tokyo Plain of Honshu), a Veterinary Corps officer reported for duty in the War Department's Civil Affairs Division (10). Later in the month, this officer was transferred to, and included in, the Military Government Section, GHQ, USAFPAC, that-as was mentioned in the preceding paragraph-was now being organized at Manila. Of course, the sudden capitulation of Japan (on 14 August 1945) saw major changes in the foregoing plans which had contemplated a kind of military
government operation as was experienced in Italy and continental Europe. As the new Operation BLACKLIST, which established the pattern of the military occupation, got underway, USAFPAC's Public Health and Welfare Division lost its personnel, including the aforementioned veterinary officer (who arrived in Japan on 23 September), to the newly organized GHQ, SCAP (General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers). These personnel now comprised a newly formed Public Health and Welfare Section which acted as adviser to the Supreme Commander for all nonmilitary medical activities in occupied Japan. The section was headed by a Medical Corps officer as chief of section and was internally organized to include several divisions, one being the Veterinary Affairs Division.
Under the direction of the chief of the Public Health and Welfare Section, the chief of the Veterinary Affairs Division functioned as adviser on veterinary matters which would prevent disease and unrest among the Japanese civilian population; protect the health and further the accomplishment of the mission of the occupation forces; satisfy the minimal or essential humanitarian, public health, and welfare requirements of the civil population; and aid in the repatriation of displaced Japanese. More specifically, veterinary professional and technical recommendations were made (1) with respect to the adequacy of the controls over animal diseases transmissible to man that threatened the military occupation troops and civil populations or that might impair the Japanese livestock and transport animal industries, and (2) as to the efficacy of the country's sanitary control over its meat, dairy, and fish industries. Liaison was maintained with, and professional assistance was provided to, the General Headquarters' Natural Resources, and Economic and Scientific Sections and, within the Public Health and Welfare Section, to the Medical Supply Division. Essentially, only recommendations were made by these headquarters sections to SCAP who alone could order compliance by the Japanese Government; in practice, the Japanese Government was allowed to continue the governing of Japan because, unlike in Occupied Germany, the central government was not abolished nor the country's laws discarded and replaced by true military government by Army personnel; SCAP was established as superior to the Emperor of Japan and the Imperial Japanese Government. This was commonly referred to as indirect military government. The staff's Veterinary Affairs Division was augmented by another officer in November 1945, but the latter was replaced in the summer of 1946 by an American veterinarian employed in a civilian capacity.
Below the level of GHQ, SCAP, there were military government teams which observed or acted as surveillance inspectors of the Japanese Government organizations at the regional level and in the prefectures, including the Tokyo-Kanagawa District. The teams were administered by Headquarters, Eighth U.S. Army (located at Yokohama) or the latter's IX Corps (with headquarters at Sendai) and I Corps (with headquarters at Kyoto),
each having its own military government staff section. (USAFPAC comprised the truly military occupational troops, but it had nothing to do with military government over the Japanese.) A veterinary officer was assigned to the Eighth U.S. Army's military government section in November 1945, and during June 1946, others came on duty with two military government teams, now called the 105th Military Government Group, at Sendai and the 74th Military Government Company, at Sapporo. The SCAP veterinary officer had requested one officer for each of the eight regional military government teams, but this request was denied due to the policy of reducing military government personnel.
The duties and functions of military government veterinary officers in Japan were expressly defined by GHQ, SCAP, as being those "of surveillance of Japanese veterinary and livestock officials to ascertain if the directives of the Supreme Commander are being complied with" and "of giving professional guidance to the Japanese" (9). In regard to the first-named function and duty, the following summary notes were added:
The surveillance responsibility of Military Government Veterinary Officers will require frequent detailed investigations at local levels to determine status of compliance by local Japanese veterinary and livestock officials with the instructions of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers to the Imperial Japanese Government. Control of epidemic animal diseases is of primary importance. Personal investigation of significant outbreaks accompanied by civilian officials is necessary in order to determine the efficacy of control measures in effect and the rendition of required reports.
Slaughterhouses, milk plants and dairy farms must be visited in order to determine the existence and adequacy of inspections. The frequency and adequacy of reports must be investigated in order to insure authentic statistical data. Any failure on the part of the Japanese agencies to carry out adequately all instructions will be reported immediately through channels whenever the irregularities cannot be corrected locally.
The basic document relating to civil veterinary organization and activities in occupied Japan was promulgated by GHQ, SCAP, on 30 October 1945 (12). By memorandum to the Imperial Japanese Government, the latter was directed to: (1) Inaugurate or reestablish measures for the control of animal diseases and the inspection of meat and dairy products; (2) preserve statistical records relating to animal diseases and to meat and dairy hygiene inspections; (3) prepare and submit special periodic reports on certain contagious diseases, monthly reports on meat and dairy hygiene inspections, and an annual report on the production of veterinary biologicals; and (4) report by the end of the next month on those steps which the Japanese Government had taken to comply. This directive was followed on 18 March 1945, by another to the Commanding General, Eighth U.S. Army, and to military government personnel concerning their supervisory actions and surveillance over the Japanese, who now were to "promptly reestablish a self-sufficient, indigenous veterinary service in occupied areas (13, 14). In so doing, the Japanese veterinary service was to accomplish four objects: "(1) Prevention and control of animal diseases transmissible
to man which might seriously affect the health of the Occupation Forces or the civil population; (2) prevention and control of animal diseases which might interfere with indigenous food supplies or draft animals; (3) inspection of foods of animal origin in an efficient manner; (4) rendition of reports containing reliable statistical data concerning veterinary affairs." In the accomplishment of these objectives, the Japanese activities were only to be under the surveillance of the military government teams who would collect, analyze, and act as field agencies reporting through military channels to General Headquarters; the teams also were to stimulate or insure that the Japanese officials were rendering an efficient service and enforcing the provisions of the directives of SCAP and of their own laws and regulations. Of course, key points and special areas of disease control, meat and dairy hygiene inspections, and veterinary laboratory service and research were described as requiring surveillance. Later in that year (1946), new regulations relating to meat inspection and dairy hygiene that had been adopted by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Social Affairs-on recommendation by the Army Veterinary Service-were promulgated in two Public Health and Welfare Technical Bulletins and set forth as a guide to military government personnel to stimulate the sanitary improvement in Japan's meat and dairy industries (15, 16).
Military government terminated in Japan soon after the signing of a peace treaty on 8 September 1951.
Civil veterinary services.-The functional organization of Japanese veterinary affairs at the level of national government was divided among three ministries: Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (or Welfare), Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and Ministry of Education. Also, there was the Japanese army veterinary service, with approximately 5,000 veterinarians, but this was demobilized. At the onset of the occupation, the first-named ministry included a Sanitary Bureau, and the latter, the Veterinary Hygiene Section which regulated the country's meat and dairy hygiene inspection services and conducted laboratory examinations and analyses of food. On the other hand, animal disease control, port quarantine, and licensing of veterinary personnel were handled by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry through its Animal Hygiene Section, and its Laboratory Section administered clinicodiagnostic laboratories, animal disease research, and the production of veterinary biologicals. The Japanese Ministry of Education controlled the school or educational phase of veterinary medicine. Below the level of the national government, there were more than 40 prefectures (or kens); the prefecture veterinary service organization was similar to the national organization with its health and welfare section controlling the local meat and dairy hygiene services and the prefecture agricultural section in charge of animal disease control.
Japan's veterinary profession numbered 21,000 members at the start of the occupation period and were regulated as regards their licensure by the
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. A license was granted without examination to graduates from universities or colleges approved by and functioning under control of the Ministry of Education, whereas nongraduates could gain license by examination. However, this procedure was being changed, on recommendation of the Japanese Council on Veterinary Education-which was created by direction of military government-so that only graduates would be examined and licensed. There were 23 educational institutions, having a normal student body of 4,000. Two of these institutions were the Tokyo Imperial University and the Hokkaido Imperial University which were the best of their kind in regard to veterinary education in Japan. The others included national and prefecture colleges of agriculture and forestry, private colleges, and a number of prefecture "middle" agricultural schools-the last having minimal entrance requirements and operating an Americantype high school course mostly in agriculture. Steps were undertaken to raise the level of veterinary education to more closely parallel that of the Imperial universities and to revise the regular 3-year courses by adding a fourth year in the professional veterinary college curriculum. Many of the graduates were employed on governmental work or by private agricultural groups and conducted private practice in addition to other employment. About a fourth of the licensed veterinarians were members of the Japanese Veterinary Medical Association, which functioned under the control of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; it, as well as professional journals, had become inoperative during the war period, but efforts were undertaken early during the occupation for their revival.
Though Japan is an agrarian country, its livestock industry was relatively a small one. Actually, the Japanese are not consumers of much meat (except fish), probably because the Buddhist religion discourages the killing of animals, and the amount and nature of tillable soil is not adequate to support the pasturage or the raising of cereals for feeding animals. The Japanese requirements and the national interest in sports stimulated the breeding and raising of horses, but, for the most part, horses and cattle were used for draft purposes on the small Japanese farms. There were not many dairy-type cows or meat-producing-type animals, although some few goats, swine, poultry, and rabbits were raised to augment the food supply in certain areas. The war did not result in any serious depletion of the number of animals in Japan except possibly of poultry and swine. The Japanese estimated the livestock population for 1945 as including 1,250,000 horses, 2,320,000 cattle, 180,000 sheep, 250,000 goats, 250,000 swine, 23,000,000 chickens and ducks, and 3,200,000 rabbits. It may be noted that 67,000 to 80,000 horses belonging to the former Japanese army were disposed of by sale to civilians soon after military occupation got underway; however, 30,000 of these were slaughtered (outside of legitimate supply channels) because of the existent shortages in food supplies. Also, the horses were of unsuitable type or in poor physical condition for use on the farms. The
animal disease situation had not reached a critical point when the Allied forces began the military occupation of Japan, even though the normal regulatory controls over animals were curtailed or disrupted by the wartime shortages in facilities and number of personnel. Of course, it must be emphasized that the Japanese islands were not subjected to concerted aerial attacks until after the winter of 1944-45, which ended when the atomic bombs were dropped over Hiroshima, and Nagasaki.
The control of animal diseases was the subject of a number of Japanese laws and regulations which were administered by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; however, responsibility for actual law enforcement was decentralized to the prefectural governments. The military occupational forces concerned with military government made no changes in the laws but only conducted a surveillance of each Japanese prefecture official in his manner of performing the prescribed regulatory activities. The most important of the Japanese legal documents was the Law for the Prevention of Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals, which provided for the actions to be taken when a disease appeared, including quarantine, immunization, sanitation and disinfection, disposal of infected animals and carcasses, reporting, reimbursement to owners of the affected animals, and penalties if the law's provisions were violated. Two other laws expressly concerned the control of equine infectious anemia and bovine tuberculosis, and a Japanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry regulation (in effect since 1923) governed the performance of port quarantine of animals at 12 locations. GHQ, SCAP, assumed responsibility to limit any postwar importations of animals in view of the hazards of introducing diseases into Japan and the inability of the Japanese economy to support them. Also, there was an Imperial ordinance for collecting money from the national and prefecture governments and individual owners to pay for these animal disease controls. The principal, or reportable, diseases of animals reported in Japan were anthrax, blackleg, brucellosis (or bovine infectious abortion), equine encephalomyelitis, equine infectious anemia, erysipelas, fowl cholera, fowl pest, glanders, pullorum disease (or white diarrhea of chickens), rabies, scabies, swine cholera, swine plague, Texas fever, and trichomoniasis.
Regulatory sanitary controls over the Japanese meat and milk industries were maintained by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, but the actual supervision of the country's meat inspection law (or slaughterhouse law, which was originally promulgated in the 1870's and revised in 1906) and the dairy hygiene regulations (or milk code, which was adopted in 1933) were the responsibility of the local prefecture government. The latter employed the milk inspectors and as many as 625 inspectors who worked in the 712 slaughterhouses throughout Japan. The two industries were made up of a great number of small slaughterhouses and of dairy farms and milk plants, but their total output was relatively small for feeding the Japanese population as compared to the production of the same industries to satisfy
consumer demands in the United States. The estimated output of the Japanese meat industry for 1945 covered the slaughter of 70,000 horses, 120,000 cattle, 30,000 calves, 1,000 sheep and goats, and 40,000 swine, but this was only a quarter of the total number of these animals slaughtered in prewar Japan (in 1941); the country's milk production dropped to 43,000,000 gallons of fresh milk, or less than 50 percent of the quantity recorded 4 years earlier. Usually, the establishments had the facilities to produce satisfactory products, but the state of repair in equipment and the nature of processing procedures were such that the output frequently failed to meet minimal modern sanitary requirements. In the slaughterhouses and meat plants, the Japanese veterinary ante mortem and post mortem inspections were conducted efficiently, but there was no inspection in subsequent meat processing procedures nor were refrigerated facilities available. The cattle slaughter included large numbers of animals that had outlived their usefulness on the farms for draft purposes or as milk producers. Diseases causing condemnations of slaughter animals included actinomycosis, cysticercosis, and distomatosis. In regard to the milk plants, only a small part of their production was pasteurized-or actually boiled-and there was little laboratory control over the product or during its production. The raw milk supply was required to originate from cattle tested and found free of tuberculosis, but the herds, including goats, were not tested for brucellosis unless such tests were requested by the herd owner concerned. Official bacterial standards and butter fat content were prescribed for four types of fresh milk: special, ordinary, manufacturing, and goat milk.
The Japanese veterinary laboratory service was found to be adequate, with greater part of it under government control. There were only a few privately owned laboratories. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry operated clinicodiagnostic and biologic-producing laboratories in the prefectures, while the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs controlled the food analytical laboratories. The former agency, through its own Veterinary Laboratory Section, also established research programs on the diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures of animal diseases, whereas a similar program relating to the sanitary control of foods was conducted in the Laboratory of Veterinary Hygiene, Institute of Infectious Diseases, which operated under the supervision of the Tokyo Imperial University.
Postwar Korea, or Chosen, as this country was called in 1910 when annexed by Japan, was planned by the Allies for development into an independent sovereign state. Its Allied military occupation was begun in September 1945 when Russian troops entered Korea above the 38th Parallel and American occupational troops under control of the XXIV Corps entered Seoul and the southern area of Korea. The XXIV Corps, later becoming the U.S. Army Forces in Korea, was responsible to GHQ, SCAP. This
occupation of South Korea was terminated soon after the new Republic of Korea was proclaimed (in August 1948), but the Soviet occupation zone developed another political entity at about this late date so that the wartime Allies' objective for a postwar, single Korean state was not reached.
At the start of the American occupation, Headquarters, XXIV Corps, had its own military government staff section which became the Office of Military Governor, U.S. Army Forces in Korea; by January 1946, CA/MG operations were centered in the newly organized U.S. Army Military Government in Korea, with headquarters located at Seoul (10, 17, 18). The XXIV Corps Veterinarian originally acted as military government adviser on veterinary affairs in Korea, but, by December 1945, five veterinary officers had arrived for primary duty assignment with the military government organization; other officers were added later. This personnel comprised the Veterinary Department, which was established within the organization of the Public Health and Welfare Bureau, Headquarters, U.S. Army Military Government in Korea, and those who were placed on duty with the eight provincial military government organizations. They were concerned with the control of animal diseases, meat and dairy hygiene inspections, civil veterinary education, laboratory activities and research, and the supply of professional materiel. These civil affairs activities were directly controlled and supervised by Veterinary Corps officers during the early occupation period because the Japanese veterinarians who had once occupied key positions in the Korean veterinary organization now were being repatriated or returned to Japan. Summarizing, the veterinary situation here more or less paralleled that observed in the occupation of Germany where denazification procedures had removed the principal veterinarians from the German civil administration, but it was materially different from that in Japan where military government operated through the existent Japanese civil administration. Later, of course, as Korean veterinarians were brought into a training program and assumed self-governing responsibilities, the Army veterinary officers gradually changed their duties to that of only advising and assisting in Korean veterinary civilian affairs.
Civil veterinary services.-The civilian veterinary profession in Korea at the start of the occupation approximated a thousand members, but many of these were graduates of the 10 or more agricultural schools having veterinary departments that lacked the facilities and faculties necessary for the proper education of veterinarians. The profession's efficiency was further reduced by the shortages in supplies and the losses of Japanese veterinarians who were being repatriated by Japan. In the early civil affairs programs for South Korea, the Army Veterinary Service sought to improve the veterinary educational activities, particularly at the new Seoul National University where Army Veterinary Corps officers were assigned as instructors (fig. 47). Also, Korean veterinarians were trained at various echelons of civil government to replace the Japanese who had once controlled almost
FIGURE 47.-Veterinary officers with U.S. Army Military Government in Korea pioneered and provided clinical instructional services to students in the new postwar veterinary college at Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
all veterinary affairs in Korea. Before these programs got underway, however, the American military governor provided for the organization of a provincial national government and the reestablishment of governmental veterinary services under a new Korean Bureau of Public Health.
Korea's livestock population, in 1943, totaled 35,000 to 50,000 cattle (of which only 2,000 were of the dairy type), one-half million each of sheep and goats, more than a million hogs, and several million chickens and rabbits. No animal census regarding South Korea was reported, although it may be noted that the Japanese had slaughtered many animals during the last few years of the war. Dogs, once important in the supply of food and fur clothing, were totally destroyed, pursuant to a Japanese directive of 1945; also, the former Japanese-owned poultry raising centers about Seoul and Pusan were now practically nonexistent. In the regulation of animal diseases, Japanese laws and regulations were used throughout Korea; in the military occupation period, the Koreans were directed to continue
them. The more serious animal diseases in Korea included actinomycosis, anthrax, blackleg, fowl pest, glanders, rabies, rinderpest, and tuberculosis. Anthrax and blackleg were controlled by the conduct of annual vaccination programs in the enzootic areas, and fowl pest was controlled to a moderate extent by the use of a locally developed chicken-tissue vaccine, administered intravenously. Glanders and rinderpest-normally present in North Korea-were more or less avoided in the American zone of occupation by the initiation of energetic controls. In the instance of rinderpest, the threatened movement of cattle across rivers, when frozen over, at points where there were no regularly operating quarantine stations, brought recognition to this as a wintertime disease. In the period from November 1945 through January 1946, all cattle located in a geographic area, 10-15 miles wide, immediately below the 38th Parallel were vaccinated with a killed tissue vaccine produced in a laboratory at Pusan. Research studies on a new rinderpest vaccine of rabbit-tissue origin were well advanced. Rabies unfortunately appeared and became widespread during 1946, but the shortages in the supply of rabies vaccine made impossible the reinstitution of disease controls at the time. In fact, this as well as certain other biologicals and general veterinary supplies were difficult to obtain because the Japanese sources were no longer available. Considerable efforts were directed toward locating and distributing captured Japanese military stockpiles and for obtaining an early delivery of U.S. Army civil affairs materiel.
In regard to the Korean meat and dairy industries, such sanitary controls as existed were enforced by police authorities with the technical assistance of veterinarians, pursuant to outdated laws and regulations. Approximately a tenth of the 1,500 abattoirs in Korea were city or provincial owned and were operated under the supervision of veterinarians. There were only two milk pasteurizing plants (at Seoul and Pusan) in South Korea; but, other than the periodic testing of cattle for tuberculosis, there was no real sanitary control over the production from dairy farms and goat dairies. During the war years, 10 to 15 percent of the cattle, except native cattle which were not required by law to be tested, were shown to be infected with tuberculosis.