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Contents

Books and Documents

Contents

PART ONE

Hospitalization during the Emergency Period, 
8 September 1939-7 December 1941

FRONTMATTER

FOREWORD
INTRODUCTORY NOTE
PREFACE

INTRODUCTION 

The State of Army Hospitalization, 1939 
Effect of the War in Europe 

Chapter

I. ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HOSPITALIZATION 

The Surgeon General's Position in the War Department 
The Surgeon General's Office 
The Surgeon General's Control Over Hospitals and Hospital Units 

II. PLANNING FOR AND EXPANDING HOSPITALS IN THE UNITED STATES 

Hospital Construction 
Hospital Administration 

III. PLANS AND PREPARATIONS FOR HOSPITALIZATION IN OVERSEAS AREAS 

Mobilization Planning 
Preparing Hospitalization for Overseas Areas During a Peacetime Mobilization 

PART TWO

Hospitalization in the Early War Years, 7 December 1941-Mid-1943

INTRODUCTION 

IV. CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HOSPITALIZATION 

Reorganization of the War Department 
The Surgeon General's New Position 
The Wadhams Committee 
Changes in the Surgeon General's Office 
A Dispute About General Planning for Hospitalization and Evacuation

V. HOSPITAL PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES 

Types of Construction 
Estimates of Hospital Capacity Needed 
Location, Siting, and Internal Arrangement of Hospital Plants 
Maintenance of Hospital Plants 
Conformity of Hospital Construction to Needs 

VI. EARLY ADJUSTMENTS IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR HOSPITAL SYSTEM 

Command Relationships of Hospitals 
Special Types of ASF Station Hospitals 
Port and Debarkation Hospitals 
Designation of General Hospitals for Specialized Treatment 
The Question of Establishing Convalescent Hospitals 

VII. MINOR CHANGES IN HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION 

Question of Simplified Organization and Internal Administrative Procedures 
Efforts To Shorten the Average Period of Hospitalization 
Early Changes in the Size and Composition of Hospital Staffs 
Problem of Furnishing Supplies and Equipment for Hospitals 

VIII. PROVIDING HOSPITALIZATION FOR THEATERS OF OPERATIONS 

Meeting Early Emergency Needs 
Modification of Hospitals for Overseas Areas 
Hospital Units in the Troop Basis 
The Question of Equipping and Using Numbered Hospitals in the Zone of Interior 
Preparing for the Support of Offensive Warfare 

PART THREE

Hospitalization in the Later War Years, Mid-1943-l946

INTRODUCTION 

IX. FURTHER CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HOSPITALIZATION 

Relationship of The Surgeon General With Other War Department Agencies 
Expanding and Strengthening the Surgeon General's Office 

X. ADJUSTMENTS AND CHANGES IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR HOSPITAL SYSTEM 

Closure of Surplus Station Hospital Facilities 
Establishment of Regional Hospitals 
Development of Convalescent Hospitals 
Merger of Adjacent Hospitals 
Attempts To Limit the Use of General Hospitals as Debarkation Hospitals 
Extension of the Practice of Establishing Specialized Centers 
General Hospitals for Prisoners of War 
Establishment of Hospital Centers 

XI. BED REQUIREMENTS IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR

First Attempts To Base Requirements on an Estimate of the Patient Load 
Movement To Reduce the Number of Hospital Beds in the United States 
Changes in the Manner of Reporting Beds 
Meeting Increased Requirements for the Peak Patient Load 

XII. ESTIMATING AND MEETING REQUIREMENTS OF THEATERS FOR HOSPITAL BEDS 

Factors Influencing Bed Requirements 
Establishment of Bed Ratios for Theaters of Operations 
Efforts To Provide Theaters With Authorized Quotas of Beds 
Estimating Requirements for Major Combat Operations 
Movement To Reduce Authorized Bed Ratios 
The Problem of the European Theater in the Winter of 1944-45 

XIII. CHANGES IN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES AFFECTING THE OCCUPANCY OF HOSPITAL BEDS IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR 

Problem of Limiting Hospital Admissions 
Measures To Shorten the Length of Patient-Stay 

XIV. CHANGES IN SIZE AND MAKE-UP OF THE STAFFS OF ZONE OF INTERIOR HOSPITALS 

General Nature of Changes 
Wider Use of Administrative Officers 
Alleviation of the "Shortage" of Army Nurses 
Greater Use of Limited Service Men 
Replacement of Military by Civilian Employees 
Use of Wacs in Army Hospitals 
Use of Prisoners of War in Army Hospitals 

XV. IMPROVEMENTS IN THE INTERNAL ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF HOSPITALS IN THE UNITED STATES 

Simplification of Administrative Procedures 
Work-Measurement and Work-Simplification Programs 
Additional Activities and Their Place in The Organizational Structure of Hospitals 
Effect on Hospitals of the ASF Standard Plan for Post Organization 
Emergence of Standard Plans for Hospitals 
Details of the Medical Department's Standard Plans 

XVI. CHANGES IN THE ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT OF HOSPITAL UNITS PREPARED FOR OVERSEAS SERVICE 

Trend Toward Use of Larger Units 
Cuts in Personnel of Hospital Units 
New Hospital Units 
Changes in Supplies and Equipment 

XVII. HOSPITAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE

Providing Housing for Additional Beds in General and Convalescent Hospitals in the United States Construction of Additional Facilities at Existing Hospital Plants 
Improvements in Existing Hospital Plants 
Housing for Hospitals in Theaters of Operations 

XVIII. RETURN TO A PEACETIME BASIS 

Redeployment and Demobilization of Numbered Hospital Units 
Contraction of the Zone of Interior Hospital System 

PART FOUR

Evacuation to and in the Zone of Interior

INTRODUCTION 

XIX. ESTIMATED AND ACTUAL REQUIREMENTS FOR EVACUATION FROM THEATERS OF OPERATIONS 

XX. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCEDURES FOR EVACUATION FROM THEATERS TO THE ZONE OF INTERIOR 

Procedures for Sea Evacuation 
Procedures for Air Evacuation 
Procedures for Debarkation 

XXI. MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

Regulating the Flow of Patients 
Procedures for Rail Evacuation 
Procedures for Air Evacuation 

XXII. PROVIDING THE MEANS FOR EVACUATION BY LAND

Motor Ambulances 
Hospital Trains 
Problems in Manning Hospital Trains 
Supplies and Equipment for Hospital Trains 

XXIII. PROVIDING THE MEANS FOR EVACUATION BY SEA

Ships' Hospitals and Hospital Ships 
Medical Attendants for Service on Transports 
Hospital Ship Complements 
Problems in Providing Supplies and Equipment for Hospital Ships and Transports 

XXIV. PROVIDING THE MEANS FOR EVACUATION BY AIR

Aircraft 
Medical Flight Attendants 
Efforts To Supply Appropriate Equipment for Air Evacuation 

XXV. EVACUATION UNITS FOR THEATERS OF OPERATIONS 

Organization, Personnel, and Equipment 
Activation, Training, and Use in the United States 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

Tables

No.

1. Comparison of the War Department's Plan and The Surgeon General's Recommendation for Fixed Beds for Theaters of Operations 
2. Army Hospitals Established in Converted Civilian Buildings by End of 1943 
3. Building Schedule for Type-A Hospital, General Hospital Plan 
4. Positions and Ranks in Zone of Interior Hospitals Permitted but not Required To Be Filled by Medical Administrative Corps Officers, 9 April 1941 
5. Hospital Units Shipped Overseas, 7 December 1941 to 1 July 1942 
6. Affiliated General Hospital Units
7. Affiliated Evacuation Hospital Units 
8. Use of Nonaffiliated General Hospital Units Activated during 1941
9. Use of Nonaffiliated Station Hospital Units Activated during 1941
10. Use of Nonaffiliated Evacuation Hospital Units Activated during 1940 and 1941 
11. Use of Nonaffiliated Surgical Hospital Units Activated during 1940 and 1941 
12. ASF Debarkation Hospitals 
13. Hospitalization Data as of 29 June 1945 
14. Evacuation Policies and Authorized Bed Ratios, Major Theaters of Operations 
15. U. S. Army General Hospitals in the United States during World War II 
16. Patients Debarked in the United States, 1920-45 
17. Hospital Car Procurement Program, 1940-45 
18. United States Army Hospital Ships in World War II 


Charts

No.

1. Status of Station and General Hospital Beds in Continental United States: August 1940-December 1941
2. Hospital Organization as Suggested by TM 8-260, July 1941
3. Organization of Lawson General Hospital, 1941 
4. The Surgeon General's Estimates in 1941-42 of Bed Requirements in General Hospitals in Continental United States and Actual Beds Reported January 1942-July 1944
5. Status of Station and General Hospital Beds in Continental United States: December 1941-June 1943 
6. Organization of Baxter General Hospital Compared With Standard Plan for SOS Post Organization, 1942-43 
7. Organization of the SGO for Hospitalization and Evacuation, 1943-45 
8. Hospital Beds Authorized and Occupied by Type of Hospital in Continental United States: 1943 and 1944 
9. Hospital Beds Authorized and Occupied, and Patients Reported in all Hospitals in the Continental United States: June 1944-December 1946 
10. Hospital Beds Authorized and Occupied, and Patients Reported by Convalescent, Regional, General, and Station Hospitals in Continental United States: June 1944-December 1946 
11. Fixed Hospital Bed Capacity and Occupancy in Overseas Theaters: March 1943-December 1945 
12. Organization of Mayo General Hospital, 1944 
13. Comparison of Standard Plans for Organization of ASF Posts and ASF General Hospitals, 1945 
14. Standard Plan for Organization of ASF Convalescent Hospitals, 1945
15. Organization of Percy Jones Hospital Center, 1945 
16. Standard Plan for Organization of a Hospital Center (ZI), 1945

Illustrations

Plan for Cantonment-type Hospital 
Lawson General, a Cantonment-type Hospital 
Valley Forge General, a Semipermanent-type Hospital 
Plan for Theater-of-Operations-Type Hospital 
Oliver General Hospital 
Plan for Type A Hospital 
Birmingham General, a Type A Hospital 
McGuire General, a VA-Type Hospital 
Location of General, Convalescent, and Regional Hospitals During World War II 
Placing the Fourth Litter Patient in a Field Ambulance 
Field and Metropolitan Ambulances Used in 1942 
Motor Ambulances 
Exterior View of Multipatient Metropolitan Ambulance, 1945 
Interior of the Multipatient Metropolitan Ambulance 
Stationary Beds in Hospital Ward Car, 1941 
Dressing Room in Hospital Ward Dressing Car, 1942 
Plans for Hospital Cars, 1941-42 
Plans for Rail Ambulance Car and New Hospital Unit Car 
Ward in New Hospital Unit Car, 1944 
Receiving Room in New Hospital Unit Car, 1944 
Surgical Ward on USAHS Shamrock 
Surgical Ward on USAHS Louis A. Milne 
Dressing Station on USAHS Louis A. Milne 
The USAHS Larkspur 
C-46 Transport Plane Ready To Unload Patients 
Interior of C-46 Transport Plane 
Interior of C-54 Transport Plane 
Loading a Patient on an L-5 Plane 

All illustrations are from the files of the Department of Defense except those on pp. 386, 387 which were obtained from American Car and Foundry Co.