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Chapter IX

Contents

CHAPTER IX

Further Changes in Organization and Responsibilities for Hospitalization

Relationship of The Surgeon General With Other War Department Agencies

With the emergence of problems created by a shift from the defensive to the offensive phase of the war, changes occurred in the organization for hospitalization. One of the most fundamental was implicit in a gradual change in the relationship of The Surgeon General with ASF headquarters and the General Staff. Although The Surgeon General remained under the jurisdiction of ASF headquarters until after the end of the war, there was a growing trend in 1944 and 1945 toward his restoration to a position of direct contact with the General Staff. This trend resulted from efforts made by General Kirk to regain authority for his office commensurate with its responsibilities and from gradual resumption by the General Staff of some of the functions assumed earlier by the Army Service Forces.1

In the last half of 1943 the authority and responsibility of OPD for logistic matters as well as the strategic direction of theater forces were confirmed and strengthened. G-1 became concerned about allocation of personnel for medical service throughout the world, and G-4 devoted growing attention to bed requirements and the hospital system in general. In addition, two Special Staff units, the War Department Manpower Board and the Inspector General's Office, took a hand in such matters.

As this happened ASF headquarters lost some of its former authority and tended to become in some matters merely a formal channel of communication. Finally, early in 1945 this trend culminated in a War Department circular which, while not removing him from ASF jurisdiction, affirmed The Surgeon General's position as the chief medical officer of the Army and officially authorized him to deal directly with the Chief of Staff and

1For full information on this development see John D. Millett, The Organization and Role of the Army Service Forces (Washington, 1954), Chs. IX and X; and Ray S. Cline, Washington Command Post: The Operations Division (Washington, 1951), Ch. XIV; both in UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II.


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the General Staff, without interference by ASF headquarters, on matters affecting the health of the Army.2 In approving the publication of this circular the Secretary of War announced that it should be further interpreted as also giving The Surgeon General direct access to the Secretary himself.3

A change in the organization of ASF headquarters reflected both its decrease of authority in phases of hospitalization in which the General Staff took a more active interest as well as a gradual return to the Surgeon General's Office of certain functions connected with hospitalization and evacuation. In April 1943 the ASF Hospitalization and Evacuation Branch, whose head after February 1943 was Col. Robert C. McDonald, was reduced to a section of the Zone of Interior Branch of the Planning Division. In the following November the statement of this section's functions was revised to eliminate wording that could be interpreted as giving it operational responsibilities for any aspect of hospitalization. Meanwhile, Medical Department officers who had been assigned there in 1942 were transferred to other posts, two of them to the Surgeon General's Office. In February 1944 the entire section was abolished and its remaining functions were transferred to other units of the ASF Planning Division.4 This Division, along with others such as the Mobilization and Control Divisions, continued to exercise considerable authority over hospitals at ASF installations and over ASF hospital units being prepared for overseas service.5

Another aspect of General Kirk's drive to regain authority with which to discharge responsibilities of his office was his effort to increase control by the Medical Department in general and by his Office in particular over medical installations, including hospitals, in service commands. Soon after he took office, General Kirk tried to have service command surgeons recognized as staff officers of service commanders rather than as chiefs of medical branches under the intermediate control of supply divisions. His efforts were not at first successful, but toward the end of 1943 General Somervell directed service command headquarters to conform as closely as practical to ASF headquarters. In most service commands the surgeon was then elevated, as were other technical service heads in the service commands, to a position as staff officer directly under the service commander himself.6 After that, the Surgeon General's Office began to achieve closer co-ordination with service command surgeons and, through them, to exercise closer supervision over hospitalization.

Early in 1944 comparative studies of matters affecting the operation and administration of hospitals, such as the amount of personnel assigned to them, the efficiency with which they treated and disposed of patients, and the number of beds which they set up for use, were made by the Surgeon General's Office, and letters calling attention to the implications of these studies were sent to service command surgeons monthly.7 Also, in 1944

2(1) WD Cir 120, 18 Apr 45. (2) Millett, op. cit., pp. 298-310.
3Memo, SecWar for [CofSA], 6 Apr 45. HRS: G-1 file, 020 "SGO (10 Feb 45) 20 Apr 45."
4History of Planning Div, ASF, vol. I, pp. 33, 40-45, 61, 67, 78, 79, 80, 81. HRS. Officers transferred from ASF headquarters to SGO were Lt. Col. John C. Fitzpatrick and Maj. Henry McC. Greenleaf.
5(1) ASF Manual M 301, ASF Orgn, 15 Aug 44.
6Edward J. Morgan and Donald O. Wagner, The Organization of the Medical Department in the Zone of the Interior (1946), HD., pp. 97-99.
7Such letters are filed in SG: 323.7-5 for each service command.


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the Surgeon General's Office adopted the "flying circus" method of inspection for hospitals. Representatives of such segments of the Office as the Professional Consultants Divisions, the Nursing Division, the Supply Service, the Personnel Service, and the Construction Branch, under the leadership of the chief of the Hospital Division and accompanied by service command surgeons or their representatives, flew from one hospital to another making thorough inspections of their operations. Such inspections achieved closer co-ordination between offices of The Surgeon General and service command surgeons and reduced confusion in the field which had formerly resulted from successive inspections by separate individuals and from the receipt of instructions from different staff officers.8 

Only minor changes were made in the division of responsibility for numbered hospital units between the Ground and Service Forces. Upon recommendation of AGF headquarters and the Surgeon General's Office, responsibility for portable surgical hospitals was lodged with the Ground Forces in the winter of 1943-44.9 In the middle of the next year the Ground Surgeon concurred in a recommendation of the Surgeon General's Office for transfer of responsibility for convalescent hospitals (units designed for the care of short-term patients in combat zones) from the Service to the Ground Forces.10 Whereas both the Surgeon General's Office and ASF headquarters joined with the General Staff and the Ground Forces in establishing a general basis for the allotment of mobile hospital units to theaters, AGF headquarters was primarily responsible for the more detailed preparation of mobile hospitalization for separate theaters. Planning for fixed hospitalization in theaters for troops of all major commands-Air, Ground, and Service Forces-continued to be, but not without opposition by the Air Forces, a responsibility of the Surgeon General's Office and ASF headquarters.11

Uncertainty about the extent of the Air Forces' authority over hospitalization continued. Surgeon General Kirk believed that all hospitals in the United States should be combined into one system under his supervision,12 but the Air Surgeon renewed his efforts to establish a separate and complete hospital system for the Air Forces. Activities in this connection caused a major change in the zone of interior hospital system.13 Attempts to establish separate AAF hospitals in theaters of operations, though less successful, exemplified the Air Surgeon's drive for a completely separate medical service.

8Tab F, sub: Dev of a New Syst of Hosp Insp, to Memo, Dir Hosp Div SGO and Resources Anal Div SGO for Dir HD SGO thru Chief Oprs Serv SGO, 18 Jun 45, sub: Add Mat for An Rpt for FY 1945. HD: 319.1-2. Examples of reports of flying circus inspections are found in SG: 333.1 for each service command.
9(1) Memo for Record, by [Col] R. B. S[kinner], 26 Aug 43. Ground Med files: Transfer Binder Journal, 1943. (2) 6th ind SPMCP 322.15-17 (Cp Mackall)C, Chief Oprs Serv SGO to SG, 11 Nov 43, on Ltr, CG Airborne Comd AGF to CG AGF, 4 Sep 43, sub: Ptbl Surg Hosp. AGF: 321 No 5. (3) Memo 353-GNGPS (4 Sep 43), CofS AGF for CofSA attn ACofS G-3 WDGS, 29 Nov 43, sub: Ptbl Surg Hosp. AGF: 321 No 5. (4) Memo, ACofS G-3 WDGS to CG ASF, 1 Dec 43, sub: Ptbl Surg Hosp. AGF: 321 No 5.
10(1) Memo SPMOO 400.34 (24 Jul 44), CG ASF for CG AGF thru SG, 25 Jul 44, sub: Present Status of Certain MAC Offs with Conv Hosps, with inds and incls. (2) DF 320.3 (24 Feb 44), Dep ACofS G-3 WDGS to CG ASF, 22 Jul 44, same sub. Both in SG: 320.3-1.
11Interv, MD Historian with Col Arthur B. Welsh, 27 Dec 50. HD: 000.71.
12Rpt, SGs Conf with Chiefs Med Br SvCs, 14-17 Jun 43, p. 7. HD: 337. 
13See below, pp. 182-85.


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Efforts of the Air Surgeon To Get Separate Hospitals for Theater Air Commands

Under the War Department reorganization and policies established early in 1942, theater air commands, unlike ground commands, had no authority or control over hospital units used in support of troops in combat zones. Like ground forces, on the other hand, they were dependent upon service forces hospitals for the care of personnel in communications zones. In some theaters local air and theater surgeons arranged for the attachment, but not the assignment, of a limited number of either mobile or fixed hospitals to theater air commands,14 but the Air Surgeon considered this arrangement unsatisfactory. He wanted theater air commands to have complete control of their own hospitals. The reasons he most often gave for this position were the loss of control by air commands of personnel sent to service forces hospitals, the loss of man-days caused by transferring patients to service forces hospitals and awaiting their return to duty through the replacement system, the lowered morale of air forces personnel which resulted from their temporary absence from air commands, and the need of air forces men for professional care that was "directed from an aero-medical viewpoint."15 The Surgeon General, on the other hand, believed that supplying fixed hospitals to overseas areas on a theater basis, rather than on a major command basis, achieved a more effective use of available resources.

In the fall of 1943 the Air Surgeon attempted to get numbered hospital units included in the War Department troop basis as AAF units. Success would have meant that such units would be activated and trained by the Air Forces and would be sent to theaters as air units for use by air commanders and not by theater or communications zone commanders. This attempt failed because of lack of support by the Air Staff and opposition of the Surgeon General's Office and ASF headquarters.16 To secure data for use in winning greater support from the Air Staff and in countering ASF arguments, the Air Surgeon in March 1944 sent to surgeons of all theater air commands a questionnaire about the desirability of separate hospitals for air forces personnel.17

Meanwhile there arose the question of the assignment to air commands of hospitals located in Newfoundland at bases transferred in the fall of 1943 from the Newfoundland Base Command to the Air Transport Command. After several months of negotiations, AAF headquarters, ASF headquarters, the Surgeon Gen-

14(1) Air Evaluation Board, SWPA, The Medical Support of Air Warfare in the South and Southwest Pacific, 7 December 1941-15 August 1945, pp. 431ff. HD. (2) Ltr, Surg 9th AF to Air Surg, 20 Aug 44. HD: TAS, "9th AF (Col Kendricks)."
15Study, unsigned, n d [1944], sub: Study of Overseas Hosp. HD: TAS, "Hosp for AAF Units Overseas." Also see Ltrs from Air Surg, cited below.
16(1) Memo, Air Surg for C of Air Staff, 29 Nov 43. (2) Comment 2, Col H. C. Chenault, MC, Air Surg Off to AC of Air Staff, Personnel, 6 Dec 43, on above. (3) Comment 1, Col H. C. Chenault, MC to AC of Air Staff OC & R, 13 Dec 43, sub: Air Base Hosps for Overseas Air Bases in 1944 AAF Trp Basis, on unknown basic memo. (4) Memo, unsigned [CG AAF] for CofSA, n d, sub: Hosp at AF Bases and Stas Outside Continental Limits of US. (5) Memo, CG AAF for CG ASF, 16 Feb 44, sub: Med Care of AAF Pers, with incl. All in HD: TAS, "Hosp for AAF Units Overseas." A full discussion of the Air Surgeon's attempts to get separate hospitals for theater air commands is in Hubert A. Coleman, Organization and Administration, AAF Medical Services in the Zone of the Interior (1948), pp. 409-32. HD.
17Study, unsigned, n d [1944], sub: Study of Overseas Hosp. HD: TAS, "Hosp for AAF Units Overseas."


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eral's Office, and the General Staff agreed that the numbered hospitals at such bases would be returned to the United States and that the North Atlantic Wing of the Air Transport Command would operate dispensaries in their place. While such installations were in reality small hospitals, use of the term "dispensaries" kept nominally intact the War Department policy of having service forces provide fixed hospitalization for all forces in theaters of operations.18

Before this decision had been reached the President received complaints about the hospitalization of air troops in the United Kingdom, and in March 1944 he sent a committee composed of Surgeon General Kirk, Air Surgeon Grant, and Dr. Edward A. Strecker, a prominent civilian physician, to investigate the hospital situation there. They found insufficient cause for complaints and in April the President approved their recommendation that no change be made in the hospital system in the European Theater.19

Planning for the B-29 very-long-range-bomber program in April 1944 presented a favorable opportunity for pressing for separate air forces hospitals in the Pacific. When an OPD representative stated that ASF hospital units were not available for assignment to the Central Pacific area for the XXI Bomber Command, AAF headquarters offered to furnish them. OPD was on the verge of authorizing it to do so when the Surgeon General's Office proposed instead the transfer of certain hospital units from the less active South Pacific to the Central Pacific.20

The Air Surgeon then urged the Air Staff to take such "drastic" action that the Army Chief of Staff would be forced to make a decision as to whether or not theater air forces could have separate hospitals.21 To support his position the Air Surgeon used replies which he had received from his March questionnaire. While they did not show a unanimous desire among air command surgeons for separate hospitals, they gave the Air Surgeon substantiating data for his position. The Air Staff remained nonetheless unconvinced of the wisdom or desirability of pressing for separate air forces hospitals generally. Instead, the Air Staff directed the Air Surgeon to prepare a study showing the need of the XX Bomber command, at that time located in India, for separate hospitals. Because he found it hard to divorce a desire for separate hospitals in all theaters from the question of separate hospitals for the XX Bomber Command, the Air Surgeon had difficulty preparing a study which the Air Staff would approve. He finally succeeded, only to be turned down by the commanding general of the Air Forces, who knew, according to officers in

18(1) Diary, Hosp Div SGO, 4 Apr 44. HD: 024.7-3. (2) 1st ind, SG to ACofS OPD WDGS, thru CG ASF, 5 Sep 44, on DF OPD 320.2 (30 Aug 44), ACofS OPD WDGS to CG ASF, 30 Aug 44, sub: Designation of Certain AAF Sta Hosps. SG: 322 "Hosp Misc 1944."
19(1) Memo, F. D. R[oosevelt] for Gen Marshall, 26 Feb 44. (2) Memo WDCSA 632 (28 Feb 44), CofSA for The President, 29 Feb 44. (3) Memo, Air Surg, and Dr. Edward A. Strecker for CofSA thru Dep Theater Comdr ETOUSA, 20 Mar 44. (4) Ltr, SecWar to The President, 29 Mar 44. (5) Memo, Sec WDGS for CG ASF, CG AAF, SG, and Air Surg, 10 Apr 44. All in AG: CofS files 632, 1944-46.
20(1) Comment 1, Air Surg to AC of Air Staff OC & R, 5 May 44, sub: Med Serv for XXI Bomber Comd. HD: TAS, "Hosp for AAF Units Overseas." (2) Memo, Dep Dir MOOD SGO for Record, 15 May 44. HD: MOOD "Pacific." (3) Memo OPD 320.3 PTO (17 May 44), ACofS OPD WDGS for CG ASF and CG AAF, 17 May 44, sub: Air Base Hosps in Support of VLR, with Memo for Record. HD: TAS, "Hosp for AAF Units Overseas."
21Memo, Air Surg for C of Air Staff, 26 Jun 44, sub: AAF Med Serv and Hosp Overseas. HD: TAS, "Hosp for AAF Units Overseas."


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AAF headquarters, that the Army Chief of Staff opposed "duplicate medical services."22 Thus, overseas air forces never received official authority to establish separate hospitals. In some theaters they set up hospitals under the guise of dispensaries, while in others they operated hospitals that were loaned to them by theater commanders.23

Expanding and Strengthening the Surgeon General's Office

Correlative to General Kirk's attempts to gain greater authority and higher status for The Surgeon General was the expansion and strengthening of his own Office.24

In July 1943 The Surgeon General combined his Hospitalization and Evacuation Division with his Hospital Construction Division to form a single unit: the Hospital Administration Division. Proposed by ASF headquarters as a means of simplifying the organization of the Surgeon General's Office,25 this step concentrated related functions-hospital construction, hospital administration, and evacuation-under one officer, who was subordinate in turn to the new chief of the Operations Service, Col. (later Brig. Gen.) Raymond W. Bliss. The new Division, whose director from August 1943 to August 1945 was Col. Albert H. Schwichtenberg, had four branches. The Policies Branch, under Lt. Col. Basil C. MacLean until he was succeeded by Lt. Col. James T. McGibony in the fall of 1944, was responsible for establishing and publishing policies on hospital administration. The Evacuation Branch was in charge of the bed-credit system in general hospitals. The Construction Branch, whose new chief after 5 October 1943 was Lt. Col. (later Col.) Achilles L. Tynes, was responsible for co-ordinating the work of the Surgeon General's Office with the Engineers in the construction and maintenance of hospital plants. The fourth branch, the Liaison Branch, was new and was established to meet needs that had developed in the course of the war. It was charged with maintaining liaison with the Transportation Corps in the movement of patients, with The Provost Marshal General in the hospitalization of prisoners of war, and with the Women's Army Corps in the hospitalization and employment of Wacs.26

During the winter of 1943-44 a major expansion and reorganization occurred. Personnel limitations and prospective combat-casualty loads complicated problems of planning and providing hospitalization for the Army. Furthermore, there was some belief in both ASF headquarters and the Surgeon General's Office that the latter should be more active than in the past in planning hospitalization and in

22(1) Comments 1 to 12, on Memo, Air Surg for C of Air Staff, 26 Jun 44, sub: AAF Med Serv and Hosp Overseas. (2) Memo, unsigned [CG AAF] for CofSA, 23 Jul 44, sub: Twentieth AF Responsibilities. (3) Comments 13 to 16, on Memo, unsigned [CG AAF] for CofSA, n d, sub: XX Bomber Comd. All in HD: TAS, "Hosp for AAF Units Overseas."
23This statement is based upon numerous letters between Col. Walter S. Jensen, MC, Chief Surgeon of Hq. AAF, Pacific Ocean Area, and Maj. Gen. David N. W. Grant, USA, Air Surgeon. HD: TAS, "20th AAF/POA (Col Jensen)."
24Although reorganizations that were made were general and affected many units of his Office, only those concerned with hospitalization and evacuation will be considered here. For a discussion of the general reorganization, see Blanche B. Armfield, Organization and Administration (MS for companion vol. in Medical Dept. series), HD.
25Memo, SG for CG ASF, 18 Jun 43, sub: Orgn of SGO, with 1st ind, CG ASF to SG, 1 Jul 43, and 2d ind, SG to CG ASF, 7 Jul 43. SG: 024.-1.
26Morgan and Wagner, op. cit., pp. 28-33. Information about personnel assignments was taken from SG office orders and personnel records on file in SGO.


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supervising hospital operations.27 Perhaps with tongue in cheek, the director of The Surgeon General's Control Division proposed in September 1943 that this should be considered a "new activity."28 At any rate, early the next year the Surgeon General's Office began to negotiate with ASF headquarters for the transfer of personnel to establish a "Facilities and Personnel Utilization Branch" in the Hospital Administration Division. Organized by Dr. Eli Ginzberg, an economist and statistician on loan from the ASF Control Division, this Branch was charged in February 1944 with making comprehensive hospitalization plans, including the calculation of bed and personnel requirements, the utilization of available buildings and personnel, and the modification of the hospital system to achieve greater efficiency and economy in operations.29 Soon afterward, in an attempt to achieve greater co-ordination among operational segments of his Office, The Surgeon General reorganized his entire Operations Service.30 The revamped Service had two deputy chiefs. One was responsible, among other things, for the provision of hospitals for theaters of operations, while the other dealt with hospitalization and evacuation in the zone of interior.

Under the Deputy Chief for Hospitals and Domestic Operations were a Hospital Division and four liaison units. Three of the latter had previously existed as sections of the Liaison Branch of the Hospital Administration Division: the Prisoner-of-War Liaison Unit, the Women's Medical Unit, and the Transportation Liaison Unit. The fourth, the Army Air Forces Liaison Unit, was mainly a paper unit, for it was headed by the Hospital Division director who was already charged with maintaining liaison with the Air Surgeon's Office. Like the Hospital Administration Division which it succeeded, the Hospital Division had four branches. The Evacuation and Construction Branches continued without change; the Policies Branch was renamed the Administration Branch; and there was the newly created Facilities Utilization Branch.31

These changes were more apparent than real because Colonel Schwichtenberg, who was already serving as chief of the Hospital Division, continued in that post and became also the Deputy Chief for Hospitals and Domestic Operations. Thus, chiefs of the branches of the Hospital Division and heads of the liaison units continued under his supervision in much the same relationship as before. The changes were significant, however, in that (1) the person responsible for hospital activities was given higher status than formerly, (2) the new branch of the Hospital Division, the Facilities Utilization Branch, was charged with making comprehensive plans for hospitalization in the United States and with arranging for the execution of those plans with other interested units in the Surgeon General's Office, and (3) the amount of personnel available for work on hospital plans and operations was increased until there were twenty-three officers and thirty-six civilians un-

27(1) Memo, Dir Control Div SGO for [Maj] Gen [Norman T.] Kirk, 13 Jan 44, sub: Proposal for Overall Plan for Most Effective Util of Off Almt, Civ Pers, and Space in the SGO and for Modifications in Present Orgn. SG: 320.3 GG. (2) Tab A, sub: Estab of a Statistical Management Unit in the Oprs Serv, to Memo cited n. 8.
28Memo, Dir Control Div SGO for Chief Liaison Br Oprs Serv SGO, 30 Sep 43. Off file, Gen Bliss' Off SGO,"Util of MCs in ZI" (19) #l.
29Diary, Hosp Admin Div SGO, 3 and 8 Jan 44; and Diary, Fac Util Br (later Resources Anal Div) SGO, [7 Feb 44]. HD: 024.7-3.
30Morgan and Wagner, op. cit., pp. 44-51.
31Ibid.


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der the supervision of the Deputy Chief for Hospitals and Domestic Operations in July 1944.32

The Office of the Deputy Chief for Plans and Operations replaced the old Plans Division, which had been headed since July 1943 by Col. Arthur B. Welsh. In this Office were three divisions: the Mobilization and Overseas Operations Division, the Technical Division, and the Special Planning Division.

The Mobilization and Overseas Operations Division, developed from a branch of the same name in the former Plans Division, had three branches. Its Theater Branch maintained current information on the status of Medical Department units in each overseas theater; made studies of bed requirements of the several theaters; formulated plans for the employment of Medical Department units, personnel, and equipment in each theater; and prepared recommendations to higher commands on changes in the status or organization of medical services overseas. In this work it maintained close liaison with the ASF Planning Division. The Troop Units Branch planned and recommended the types and numbers of ASF medical units required under current authorizations for each theater; planned the activation, reorganization, shipment, disbandment and inactivation of such units; and maintained liaison with the ASF Mobilization Division. The Inspection Branch, formerly a branch of the Plans Division, continued to receive and review reports from theaters of operations, such as the reports of essential technical medical data (ETMD's); maintained records of trips of inspection made by representatives of the Surgeon General's Office; and interviewed and circulated reports of interviews with medical personnel returned from overseas areas.

The Technical Division included among its many duties the preparation and revision of tables of organization and equipment, Medical Department equipment lists, and tables of allowances.

The Special Planning Division was responsible for plans for the demobilization of the Medical Department and for the medical care of civilians in occupied countries.33

A separate unit of the Operations Service, the Strategic and Logistic Planning Unit, was responsible for determining "the adequacy of all phases of Medical Department operations, and plans therefor, to the extent necessary to insure timely placing of sufficient personnel, equipment and supplies to meet all authorized requirements,"34 from March to November 1944. On the latter date it was absorbed by the Mobilization and Overseas Operations Division.35

This multiplicity of offices might give an erroneous impression of division of responsibility were it not pointed out that one man, Colonel Welsh, served at the same time as Deputy Chief of the entire Operations Service, Deputy Chief for Plans and Operations, and Director of the Mobilization and Overseas Operations Division.36 (Chart 7.)

Further changes, representing perhaps a logical extension of those already made, occurred during the remainder of the war.

32An Rpt, FY 1944, Hosp and Dom Oprs SGO. HD.
33(1) Morgan and Wagner, op. cit., pp. 44-51. (2) An Rpts, MOOD SGO, FY 1944 and 1945. (3) An Rpt, Spec Planning Div SGO, FY 1944. (4) An Rpt, Tec Div SGO, FY 1945. All in HD. 
34Memo, Dir Strategic and Logistic Planning Unit SGO for Chief Oprs Serv SGO, 6 Jun 44, sub: Rpt of Accomplishments of the SGO. HD: 319.1-2 (MOOD Oprs Serv SGO).
35An Rpt, MOOD SGO, FY 1945. HD.
36Orgn Directory, SGO, 20 Mar 44. HD: 461.


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CHART 7-ORGANIZATION OF THE SGO FOR HOSPITALIZATION AND EVACUATION, 1943-45


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In May 1944 the Evacuation Branch was removed from the Hospital Division and was merged with the Transportation Liaison Unit to form a Medical Regulating Unit under Lt. Col. John C. Fitzpatrick.37 This step combined under one head the control of the use of beds in general hospitals and the movement of patients to those beds. In August 1944 the Women's Medical Liaison Unit, whose function was more advisory than operational, was transferred from the office of the Deputy Chief for Hospitals and Domestic Operations to the new Professional Administrative Service. In October 1944 the Facilities Utilization Branch was removed from the Hospital Division and given higher status and responsibility, as the Resources Analysis Division, under the direct supervision of the chief of the Operations Service. Its head was Doctor Ginzberg, who by this time had been formally transferred from ASF headquarters to the Surgeon General's Office.38 Continuing the trend of centralizing operational activities and separating administrative from advisory functions, responsibility for the operation of the reconditioning program was transferred in April 1945 to the Hospital Division, leaving the Reconditioning Consultants Division free to concentrate in an advisory capacity on matters of policy.39

Other units in the Surgeon General's Office continued to contribute, in varying degrees, to hospital operations. Among them, the Personnel and Supply Services were perhaps the most important. As increasing attention was given to management techniques, the Control Division entered the hospital operations field and, in co-operation with the Hospital Division, attempted to standardize and simplify hospital administrative procedures.40

37Memo for Record, by Col Tracy S. Voorhees, Dir Control Div SGO, 3 May 44, sub: The MRO Set-up. SG: 024.-l.
38An Rpt, Resources Anal Div SGO, FY 1945. HD.
39(1) Morgan and Wagner, op. cit., pp. 49, 50, and 69.
40See below, pp. 261-65.

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