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Contents

Books and Documents

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY
PERSONNEL IN WORLD WAR II

Insignia Picture

Contents

FOREWORD

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter

I. Composition of the Medical Department
Introduction
Military Components
Civilian Components

II. Organization and Administration
Zone of Interior
Theaters of Operations

III. Requirements: 1939-41
Strength of Medical Department Components
War Department Responsibilities
Factors Affecting Determination of Requirements

IV. Requirements: 1941-45
Medical Corps
Dental Corps
Veterinary Corps
Sanitary Corps
Pharmacy Corps
Medical Administrative Corps
Army Nurse Corps
Dietitians and Physical Therapists
Enlisted Men
Enlisted Women
Civilians
Additional Unit Requirements Overseas

V. Procurement During the Emergency Period
Preemergency Procedures
Early Reserve Measures
The Beginning of Mobilization
Deferment of Service for Reserve Officers
Extension of Reservists' Tour of Duty
Effect of Selective Service Legislation
Army Nurse Corps
Students in Professional Schools
Reserve Units
Other Sources of Officer Personnel
Contributions of Organized Medicine and Nursing
Procurement of Enlisted Men

VI. Procurement, 1941-45: Medical, Dental, and Veterinary Corps
Legislation
Medical Corps
Dental Corps
Veterinary Corps
Deferment of Professional Students
The Affiliated Units After Pearl Harbor

VII. Procurement, 1941-45: Other Military Components
Sanitary Corps
Pharmacy Corps
Medical Administrative Corps
Army Nurse Corps
Dietitians and Physical Therapists
Enlisted Personnel

VIII. Procurement of Civilian Personnel
Zone of Interior
Oversea Theaters

IX. Classification
Officers and Nurses, 1939-41
Officers and Nurses, 1941-43
Male and Female Officers, 1943-45
Enlisted Personnel, 1939-45

X. Utilization of Personnel
Assignment of Medical Department Personnel
The Replacement System
Organizational and Procedural Changes
Utilization of Negro Personnel
Utilization of Prisoners of War and Native Labor Troops
Morale Factors in Efficient Utilization of Personnel

XI. Strength and Distribution of Military Personnel
Overall Strength
Distribution, Overseas and in the Zone of Interior
Composition of the Medical Department Overseas
Permanent Losses of Personnel

XII. Rank, Promotion, and Pay
Zone of Interior
Promotion Overseas

XIII. Redeployment, Retraining, and Demobilization
Period of Partial Demobilization
Full-Scale Demobilization
Offsetting Factors
Professional Retraining
Postwar Planning

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

Illustrations

1. Maj. Gen. James C. Magee, USA, The Surgeon General, 1 June 1939-31 May 1943.

2. Brig. Gen. William L. Sheep, MC, prewar chief of Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

3. Brig. Gen. (later Maj. Gen.) George F. Lull, MC, first wartime chief of Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

4. Brig. Gen. Charles C. Hillman, MC, wartime chief of the Professional Service Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

5. Brig. Gen. Larry B. McAfee, MC, Chief, Administrative Division, Office of The Surgeon General, when the United States entered the war.

6. Col. Francis C. Tyng, MC, Chief, Finance and Supply Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

7. Brig. Gen. James S. Simmons, MC, Chief, Preventive Medicine Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

8. Col. James R. Hudnall, MC, Chief, Personnel Service, Office of The Surgeon General, 1943-44.

9. Col. Durward G. Hall, MC, Chief, Personnel Service, Office of The Surgeon General, 1944-46.

10. Brig. Gen. Albert W. Kenner, MC, being decorated by Gen. George C. Marshall.

11. Maj. Gen. Norman T. Kirk, USA, The Surgeon General, 1 June 1943-31 May 1947.

12. Col. Arthur B. Welsh, MC, wartime Deputy Chief, Operations Service, Office of The Surgeon General.

13. Eli Ginzberg, Ph. D., Resources Analysis Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

14. Maj. Gen. Raymond W. Bliss, MC, wartime Deputy Surgeon General, Office of The Surgeon General.

15. Lt. Col. Paul A. Paden, MC, of the Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

16. Representative theater chief surgeons. Picture 1.

16. Representative theater chief surgeons. Picture 2.

17. Maj. Gen. Charles R. Reynolds, The Surgeon General, 1935-39.

18. Representative Army surgeons. Picture 1.

18. Representative Army surgeons. Picture 2.

19. Brig. Gen. Robert Mills, DC, wartime director of the Dental Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

20. Brig. Gen. Edward Reynolds, MAC, Chief, Medical Administrative Corps.

21. Col. David E. Liston, MC, Deputy Chief Surgeon, European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army.

22. Col. Fred J. Fielding, MC, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army.

23. Col. Florence A. Blanchfield, ANC, Superintendent of the Army Nurse Corp.

24. Maj. Emma E. Vogel, WMSC, Superintendent of Physical Therapists.

25. Members of the Women's Army Corps learning from Army nurse how to change surgical dressing.

26. Nurses' aides, Camp Fannin, Tex.

27. Col. Richard H. Eanes, MC, Chief Medical Officer, Selective Service System.

28. Early appointments as commanders of affiliated units.

29. Lt. Col. Harold C. Lueth, MC, liaison officer from the Office of The Surgeon General, to American Medical Association, 1942-45.

30. Col. Sam F. Seeley, MC, Executive Officer, Directing Board, Procurement and Assignment Service.

31. Directing Board, Procurement and Assignment Service.

32. Col. George L. Caldwell, VC, Assistant Chief, Veterinary Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

33. Col. Francis M. Fitts, MC, Director of Military Training, Army Service Forces.

34. Nurses' duty uniform, 1943.

35. Nurses' dress uniforms, 1943.

36. Native litter bearers carrying a wounded American soldier from the frontlines, vicinity of Buna, New Guinea, November 1942.

37. Natives building a covered bomb shelter, under the direction of a medical technician, Southwest Pacific Area, January 1944.

38. Indian laundry workers, 371st Station Hospital, Rāmgarh, India, 28 February 1945.

39. German prisoners of war assist in unloading a hospital train. Liége, Belgium, 18 March 1945, Hospital Train No. 8.

40. Medical Department enlisted men awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, in World War II.

Tables

1. Strength of Medical Department by components (exclusive of general officers), 30 June 1939-30 June 1946.

2. Procurement objectives (10 July 1939), and actual strengths (30 June 1939), of Medical Department Officers Reserve Corps.

3. Numbers of Medical and Medical Administrative Corps officers suggested (1944) for Zone of Interior general hospitals of various sizes.

4. Proposed distribution of nurses, June 1945.

5. Medical Department enlisted strength, worldwide and overseas, 31 July 1941-30 September 1945.

6. Guide for utilization of personnel in named general hospitals, Zone of Interior.

7. Guide for utilization of personnel in convalescent hospitals, Zone of Interior.

8. Table-of-organization changes in certain types of hospitals, 1940-44.

9. Table-of-organization changes in the medical detachment of the infantry regiment (T/O 7-11),1938-45.

10. Medical Department overstrengths and understrengths in various oversea theaters or areas, 30 November 1943.

11. Authorized and actual strengths of medical personnel, Eighth U.S. Army, 31 May 1945.

12. Active-duty strength of Medical Department groups, by Army components, 30 June 1939-30. November 1941.

13. Strength of Medical Department Reserves (Regular Army Reserve and Reserve Corps),1939-41.

14. Strength of Medical Department Reserves (National Guard), 1939-41.

15. Medical Department officers of affiliated Reserve in affiliated medical units, February 1941.

16. Medical Department officers in affiliated units, 30 June 1941.

17. The Army Specialized Training Program: Students of medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine assigned, separated, and discharged and transferred through curtailment of the program.

18. Civilians employed by the Medical Department from various funds, March 1940-December 1941.

19. Economies in enlisted personnel through utilization of local labor, 815th Hospital Center, European theater, 1945.

20. Ratio of civilian hospital workers to military medical personnel, Persian Gulf Command, 30 April 1943-31 July 1945.

21. Utilization of civilian workers and Italian prisoners of war, by Medical Department service-type units, Mediterranean theater, 1 May 1945.

22. Medical Department civilian labor, Communications Zone, European theater (exclusive of headquarters), June-December 1945.

23. Geographic distribution of medical personnel, European Theater of Operations, Communications Zone, April to October 1945, inclusive.

24. Movement of Medical Department personnel in and out of Ground Forces Reinforcement Command, European Theater of Operations, D-day to V-E Day (6 June 1944-8 May 1945).

25. Monthly Medical Department strength in Services of Supply or Communications Zone, European Theater of Operations (exclusive of Iceland), 30 September 1942-31 October 1944.

26. Negroes in the Medical Department, 1943-45.

27. Number of Medical Department officers assigned to the Veterans' Administration, January 1944-June 1946.

28. Oversea strength of the Medical Department, 30 June 1939 and 30 June 1940.

29. Development of Medical Department strength overseas, as compared with development of service strength, November 1941-September 1945.

30. Movement of Medical Department troops overseas, compared with movement of all Army, all combat, and all service troops, July 1942-August 1945.

31. Oversea strength of the Medical Department and oversea Negro medical strength by area, 31 July 1941-30 September 1945.

32. Oversea strength of the Medical Department corps and other officer components, 31 July 1941-30 September 1945.

33. Authorized allotment of Medical Department officers to oversea areas (less Reserve officers assigned to duty with the Air Corps) for the fiscal year 1942.

34. Estimated table-of-organization strength of attached medical personnel and divisional medical battalions in oversea areas, 30 September 1944.

35. Percentage distribution of Army strength among ground-, air-, and service-type units and overhead in theaters of operations, 30 September 1944.

36. Operating strength of Medical Department units in oversea areas, 30 April 1943-31 August 1945.

37. Types of Medical Department units in use in the various theaters of operations, by area, 30 September 1944.

38. Estimated additions by Air Transport Command to theater medical strength per 1,000 troops, 1944.

39. Strength of Medical Department personnel assigned to Air Forces, 30 September 1942-31 May 1945.

40. Strength of Medical Department by Army components, worldwide and overseas, 31 January and 31 August 1942.

41. Strength of male personnel by Army components, worldwide and overseas, on 31 July 1941.

42. Negro Medical Department units overseas, Pearl Harbor to V-J Day.

43. Proportion of Army female personnel in the Medical Department.

44. Oversea strength of Medical Department, male and female officer components, 30 September 1942-30 September 1945.

45. Medical Department officer strength, worldwide and overseas, 30 November 1941-30 September 1945.

46. Strength and proficiency ratings of Medical Corps specialists, worldwide and overseas, 20 June 1945.

47. The American National Red Cross: Oversea hospital workers on duty and en route, 1942-45.

48. Battle casualties of the Medical Department, officers and enlisted men: Total battle casualties, deaths among battle casualties, and killed in action, 7 December 1941-31 December 1946.

49. Battle casualties of the Medical Department, officers and enlisted men: Wounded and injured in action, 7 December 1941-31 December 1946.

50. Battle casualties of the Medical Department, officers and enlisted men: Captured and interned, 7 December 1941-31 December 1946.

51. Battle casualties of the Medical Department, officers and enlisted men: Missing in action, 7 December 1941-31 December 1946.

52. Nonbattle deaths in the Medical Department: Actual, 7 December 1941-31 December 1946; estimated, 7 December 1941-30 September 1945.

53. Deaths from enemy action: Medical Department and Army as a whole, 7 December 1941-30 September 1945.

54. Returns to civil life: Officers of the Medical Department and of the Army as a whole, 7 December 1941-30 September 1945.

55. Returns of male Medical Department officers to civilian life, December 1941-September 1945.

56. Returns of Medical Department enlisted men to civilian life, October 1943-June 1945.

57. Returns to civil life: Enlisted men of the Medical Department and of the Army as a whole, October 1943-June 1945.

58. Rates of discharge for mental and physical disability: Male officers of the Medical Department and of the Army as a whole, December 1941-September 1945.

59. Disability-discharge rate: Enlisted men of the Medical Department and of the Army as a whole, October 1943-June 1945.

60. Discharges for disability: Army Nurse Corps, Dietitians, and Physical Therapists, 1 September 1944-30 September 1945.

61. Rank of Medical Department officers, 1939-45.

62. Army Nurse Corps first lieutenants and second lieutenants: Numbers in grade and numbers of promotions, September 1944-August 1945.

63. Rank of Medical Department officers overseas (excluding general officers), 31 July 1941-31 May 1944.

64. Temporary promotions of Medical Department officers, worldwide and overseas, January 1943-September 1945.

65. Temporary promotions of Medical Department officers by rank, by corps, and by other components, worldwide and overseas, November 1944 to June 1945, inclusive.

66. Rank of Medical Department enlisted men overseas, 31 July 1941-31 May 1944.

67. Medical Department officers separated, V-E Day-31 December 1946 (cumulative).

68. Civilians and prisoners of war employed in medical activities within Army Service Forces in the United States, 30 March 1945-30 April 1946.

Charts

1. Organization of the Surgeon General's Office for personnel administration, January 1939.

2. Organization of the Surgeon General's Office for personnel administration, August 1942.

3. Organization of the Surgeon General's Office for personnel administration, February 1944.

4. Organization of the Surgeon General's Office for personnel administration, May 1945.

5. Percent of total Army and Medical Department strength, in oversea areas, on selected dates, 1941-45.

6. Percent of total Army strength and Medical Department officers of Medical, Dental, Veterinary, and Medical Administrative Corps, in oversea areas, on selected dates, 1941-45.

7. Percent of total Army strength and Medical Department officers of Sanitary and Army Nurse Corps and Hospital Dietitians and Physical Therapists, in oversea areas, on selected dates, 1941-45.


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
UNITED STATES ARMY
IN WORLD WAR II


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

PERSONNEL IN WORLD WAR II

Prepared and published under the direction of

Lieutenant General LEONARD D. HEATON
The Surgeon General, United States Army

Editor in Chief
Colonel JOHN BOYD COATES, Jr., MC, USA

Editor for Personnel
CHARLES M. WILTSE, Ph. D., Litt. D.

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

WASHINGTON, D. C., 1963


PERSONNEL IN WORLD WAR II

The Historical Unit, United States Army Medical Service

Colonel JOHN BOYD COATES, Jr., MC, USA, Director
Colonel REX P. CLAYTON, MSC, USA,Executive Officer
Colonel R. L. PARKER, MSC, USA, Special Assistant to Director
Lieutenant Colonel R. J. BERNUCCI, MC, USA, Special Assistant to Director
Lieutenant Colonel DOUGLAS HESFORD, MSC, USA, Chief, Special Projects Branch
CHARLES M. WILTSE, Ph. D., Litt. D., Chief, Historians Branch
ERNEST ELLIOTT, Jr., Chief, Editorial Branch
Lieutenant Colonel LEONARD L. COLLIER, MSC, USA, Chief, Information Activities Branch
Major ALBERT C. RIGGS, Jr., MSC, USA, Chief, General Reference and Research Branch
HAZEL G. HINE, Chief, Administrative Branch

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 63-60001


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D.C. - Price $6 (Buckram)


PERSONNEL IN WORLD WAR II

by

JOHN H. MCMINN, Ph. D.

and

MAX LEVIN, A.M.


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

The volumes comprising the official history of the Medical Department of the U.S. Army in World War II are prepared by The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, and published under the direction of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army. These volumes are divided into two series: (1) The administrative or operational series; and (2) the professional, or clinical and technical, series. This is one of the volumes published in the former series.

VOLUMES PUBLISHED

ADMINISTRATIVE SERIES

Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior
Organization and Administration in World War II

CLINICAL SERIES

Internal Medicine in World War II:

Vol. I. Activities of Medical Consultants
Vol. II. Infectious Diseases

Preventive Medicine in World War II:

Vol. II. Environmental Hygiene
Vol. III. Personal Health Measures and Immunization
Vol. IV. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Chiefly Through Respiratory and
Alimentary Tracts
Vol. V. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Through Contact or By Unknown Means
Vol. VI. Communicable Diseases: Malaria

Surgery in World War II:

Activities of Surgical Consultants, vol. I
General Surgery, vol. II
Hand Surgery
Neurosurgery, vol. I
Neurosurgery, vol. II
Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
Orthopedic Surgery in the European Theater of Operations
Orthopedic Surgery in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations
The Physiologic Effects of Wounds
Thoracic Surgery, vol. I
Vascular Surgery

Miscellaneous:

Cold Injury, Ground Type
Dental Service in World War II
Veterinary Service in World War II
Wound Ballistics