U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History
Skip Navigation, go to content

HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL HISTORY

AMEDD BIOGRAPHIES

AMEDD CORPS HISTORY

BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS

HISTORICAL ART WORK & IMAGES

MEDICAL MEMOIRS

AMEDD MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS External Link, Opens in New Window

ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORIES

THE SURGEONS GENERAL

ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

AMEDD UNIT PATCHES AND LINEAGE

THE AMEDD HISTORIAN NEWSLETTER

Chapter II

Contents

CHAPTER II

Organization and Administration

Throughout World War II, the authority for all Army personnel matters rested with the Secretary of War and through him with the Chief of Staff. On these matters, the Chief of Staff was advised by the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1 (personnel), and acted through The Adjutant General. This procedure applied to all areas, but both organization for personnel administration and the actual operation of the system differed widely between the Zone of Interior and the oversea theaters. Briefly, as far as medical personnel were concerned, the oversea surgeons had far greater jurisdiction than did The Surgeon General in the Zone of Interior, particularly after the War Department reorganization in 1942. Following this latter event, The Surgeon General no longer had the authority derived from being the "immediate" adviser to the Chief of Staff on medical matters, whereas the theater and oversea command surgeons were virtually independent of further control by The Surgeon General or other authorities in the Zone of Interior.

ZONE OF INTERIOR

Early Organization for Personnel Administration

The Surgeon General's Office

As the Chief of Staffs immediate adviser on medical affairs, The Surgeon General was responsible for the overall administration of medical personnel affairs, although the Medical Division in the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps later achieved similar responsibility for medical personnel assigned to that corps.

According to Army regulations, The Surgeon General had "advisory supervision1 over (1) the appointment, classification, and assignment of Medical Department personnel; (2) the procurement, appointment, classification, assignment, promotion, and discharge of members of the Medical Department sections of the Reserve Corps." He had, in addition, full control over personnel matters within units under his own command. This is implied in the provision which gave him "direct supervision over * * * the administration of all establishments for the care, treatment, and transportation of the sick and wounded personnel and animals of the Military Establishment, under the

1This meant the supervision he exercised through his power to advise commanders not under his direct control on the enumerated matters.


22

FIGURE 2.-Brig. Gen. William L. Sheep, MC, prewar chief of 
Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

immediate direction of the War Department." He was also charged with preparing, and keeping up to date, plans for the mobilization of Medical Department personnel and material required in war, or in a major emergency.2

The Military Personnel Division of the Surgeon General's Office administered a large share of these functions through its Commissioned, Reserve, and Enlisted Subdivisions, the remainder being performed by other branches of the Office which will be discussed below. The Reserve Subdivision had jurisdiction over Reserve officers in the Arm and Service Assignment Group, which was administered by the chiefs of arms and services. Each chief of a technical service placed officers in this group whom he could assign to his own installations in case of mobilization.3 In 1939, the group contained only about 2 percent of the Reserve Corps of the Medical Department.4 The remaining officers in these corps were assigned to the Corps Area Assignment Group, which will be discussed later. The Commissioned Subdivision kept individual records of all Medical Department officers on active duty. Until

2Army Regulations No. 40-5, 15 Jan. 1926.
3Army Regulations No. 140-5, 16 June 1936.
4Annual Report of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1939, pp. 174-175.


23

FIGURE 3.-Brig. Gen. (later Maj. Gen.) George F. Lull, MC, first wartime chief of Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

some time after the United States entered the war, the Enlisted Subdivision kept similar records of enlisted men.5 Col. (later Brig. Gen.) William L. Sheep, MC (fig. 2), headed the Military Personnel Division, until June 1940, when Col. (later Maj. Gen.) George F. Lull, MC (fig. 3), became its chief.

The Nursing Division was responsible for personnel administration affecting Army nurses,6 the Dental and Veterinary Divisions each had certain personnel functions relating to those particular corps, while the Professional Service Division (fig. 4) furnished advice to the chief of personnel in the selection of medical officers to fill key professional assignments.

The Office Management Subdivision of the Administrative Division (fig. 5) handled personnel matters of all civilians employed in the Office of The Surgeon General. Personnel employed in field installations were dealt with by the Civilian Personnel (Field) Subdivision of the Finance and Supply Division (fig. 6). The personnel duties of this subdivision were defined as the "supervision and management of the employment of civilians for Field Service * * * including their appointment, promotion, demotion, transfer,

5Memorandum, Director, Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General, for Colonel Love, Historical Division, Surgeon General's Office, 14 Mar. 1944.
6Office Order No. 1, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 3 Jan. 1939.


24

FIGURE 4.-Brig. Gen. Charles C. Hillman, MC, wartime chief of the Professional 
Service Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

separation, classification, and retirement"; and the preparation of statistical reports concerning these functions and of estimates of appropriations required. The subdivision allotted funds to stations to pay civilians employed there.7 The organization for personnel administration in the Surgeon General's Office is shown in chart 1.

Corps areas

The medical personnel functions of the corps area commander were exercised by the corps area surgeon. The latter reported on, or reviewed reports on, the efficiency of Medical Department officers in the corps area for the action of the commander. The corps area surgeon also was responsible for maintaining his allotted quota of Medical Department enlisted men by encouraging recruitment. He could recommend the transfer of members of the Medical Department from station to station within the corps area and also the transfer of enlisted men within the area into or out of the Medical Department.8 He

7See footnote 6, p. 23.
8(1) See footnote 2, p. 22. (2) Army Regulations No. 615-200, 24 Nov. 1939.


25

FIGURE 5.-Brig. Gen. Larry B. McAfee, MC, Chief, Administrative Division, 
Office of The Surgeon General, when the United States entered the war.

could make permanent appointments to the grades of sergeant and corporal in the Medical Department, appointments of this kind in the higher grades-staff sergeant, technical and first sergeants, and master sergeant-being reserved for The Surgeon General. Like The Surgeon General, he could make temporary appointments to all enlisted grades.9 He distributed to the various stations within his jurisdiction the numbers and classes of enlisted specialist ratings allocated to the corps area by The Surgeon General. He could recommend enlisted men to The Surgeon General for ratings in the three higher classes and could himself give the lower ratings on the recommendation of the senior Medical Department officer concerned.10

Medical Department Reserve officers in the Corps Area Assignment Group fell under the jurisdiction of the corps area commander who, acting on the advice of his surgeon, placed such officers on active duty and made recom-

9Army Regulations No. 615-15, 25 May 1937. 
10
Army Regulations No. 615-20, 30 Nov. 1923.


26

FIGURE 6.-Col. Francis C. Tyng, MC, Chief, Finance and Supply Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

mendations for their assignment. This assignment group had a strength on 30 June 1939 of nearly 23,000, about 98 percent of the Reserve Corps of the Medical Department. Of these, almost 15,000 belonged to the Medical and 5,000 to the Dental Corps.11

Air Corps

In the Air Corps, the Personnel Subsection of the Medical Division (so designated on 1 April 1939) administered Medical Department personnel affairs.12 Prior to the creation of the Army Air Forces (June 1941), the Air Corps seems to have exercised much less control over Medical Department personnel assigned to it than it wielded later. The Surgeon General of the Army procured personnel, assigned them to the Air Corps, and acted on recommendations for promotions. Once the Air Corps received personnel from The Surgeon General, it apparently had freedom to assign individuals as it saw fit.

11See footnote 4, p. 22.
12Memorandum, Chief, Medical Division, Office of the Chief of Air Corps, for The Surgeon General, 25 July 1939, with enclosure thereto.


27

CHART 1.-Organization of the Surgeon General's Office for personnel administration, January 1939

In addition to the aforementioned offices, personnel sections and offices existed in hospitals, tactical organizations, and other units and installations of the Medical Department.

Changes in Organization, 1942

At the time of the reorganization of the War Department in March 1942, the Office of The Surgeon General also underwent reorganization. At that time, the Military Personnel Division was redesignated as the Personnel Service; Colonel Lull, who became its first chief, was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in March 1943. The former subdivisions (Commissioned, Enlisted, and Reserve) were renamed divisions. The Commissioned Division had three branches: Assignment, Classification, and Promotion; the Enlisted Division, two-Classification and Promotion. For some months, the Civilian Personnel Division remained separate from the Personnel Service, being placed under the Administrative Service. In August 1942, however, the administration of military and civilian personnel was united under the Personnel Service consisting of a Military Personnel Division and a Civilian Personnel Division.

The Military Personnel Division, as it was established in August 1942, had three branches: Commissioned, Nursing and Enlisted. The Reserve Division had been dropped; Reserve activities had all but ceased, as almost all qualified


28

Reserve officers (except those in affiliated units) were already on active duty. The Nursing Branch, according to the organization manual, "accomplishes the appointment of all Army nurses and recommends their assignments, transfers, and other changes in status," nominally superseding the Nursing Personnel Division of the Nursing Service which had had similar duties and which were now discontinued. Actually, however, the Nursing Service (or Division, as it was now called) retained most of its personnel functions even though its new Selection and Standards Branch was mentioned only as being responsible in that field for evaluating nurses' educational and professional qualifications.13 The announced functions of the Veterinary Division more obviously overlapped those of the Military Personnel Division, for the Miscellaneous Branch of the former (in the words of the same organization manual) "processes applications, makes recommendations as to appointments and assignments of veterinary personnel." The other professional divisions of the Surgeon General's Office-Medical Practice, Preventive Medicine (fig. 7), and Dental-likewise

CHART 2.-Organization of the Surgeon General's Office for personnel administration, August 1942

13(1) Blanchfield, Florence A., and Standlee, Mary W.: The Army Nurse Corps in World War II. [Official record.] (2) Services of Supply Organization Manual, 30 Sept. 1942.


29

FIGURE 7.-Brig. Gen. James S. Simmons, MC, Chief, Preventive Medicine Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

performed more or less extensive personnel work even though this aspect was not always mentioned in the official manual (chart 2).

The Civilian Personnel Division had four branches: Employment, Classification and Wage Administration, Training, and Employee Service. Since the reorganization of March 1942, it had been concerned not only with civilian employees of the Medical Department outside the Surgeon General's Office but with those in the Office as well, the latter function being taken over from the Office Management Subdivision of the former Administrative Division. The names of the branches reflected other new duties. At the direction of Services of Supply headquarters, the Civilian Personnel Division assumed training and employee-relations functions. The work of placement and classification was greatly expanded, and the Division laid more stress on the effective utilization of personnel with a view to reducing the number of employees.14 Until physical therapists and dietitians were given military status, their personnel administration was handled by the Civilian Personnel Division. Subsections were later established for them in the Procurement Section of the Commissioned Branch of the Military Personnel Division.

14Annual Report, Personnel Service, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 1943.


30

FIGURE 8.-Col. James R. Hudnall, MC, Chief, Personnel Service, Office of The Surgeon General, 1943-44.

Further Reorganizations, 1943-1945

In May 1943, General Lull, appointed Deputy Surgeon General, was succeeded by Col. James R. Hudnall, MC, as chief of the Personnel Service (fig. 8). Colonel Hudnall remained in that position until October 1944, after which Col. Durward G. Hall, MC (fig. 9), became acting chief and then chief, serving in that capacity until April 1946.

During the administrations of both Colonel Hudnall and Colonel Hall, steps were taken to revise personnel resources for planning purposes and to centralize in the Surgeon General's Office greater control over medical personnel. Consequently, several groups were appointed to study the problems and make recommendations. One such group was the so-called Kenner Board, whose chairman was Brig. Gen. (later Maj. Gen.) Albert W. Kenner, MC (fig. 10). Another, less formally constituted, consisted of the personnel directors of Standard Oil of New Jersey, Atlantic Refining Corporation, and E. I. Dupont de Nemours, who contributed 6 weeks of their time to review the personnel policies of the Surgeon General's Office.15

15(1) Report, Kenner Board, 28 Oct. 1943. (2) Statement of Durward G. Hall, M.D., to the editor, 27 May 1961.


31

FIGURE 9.-Col. Durward G. Hall, MC, Chief, Personnel Service, Office of The Surgeon General, 1944-46.

Personnel planning

Revision of The Surgeon General's organization for personnel administration, like other organizational changes in his Office at this time, was largely inspired by criticism from Army Service Forces headquarters directed at the procedures which Maj. Gen. Norman T. Kirk (fig. 11), installed as The Surgeon General on 1 June 1943, inherited from his predecessor.16 One of the critics was the newly established Control Division of Headquarters, Army Service Forces. In September 1943, that office suggested a survey of "the entire field of ZI hospitalization, to study possible savings in cost of operation, and in personnel, and as to the latter particularly in the scarce category of doctors and nurses."17 As this proposal indicates, a close relationship existed between personnel administration and the hospital system, changes in the latter being largely influenced by the effort to save personnel without lowering the standards of medical care-a saving which became particularly necessary during the later

16Medical Department, United States Army. Organization and Administration in World War II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963, pp. 182-185, 202-214. 
17Memorandum, Control Division, Office of The Surgeon General, (Col. Tracy S. Voorhees), for Col. A. H. Schwichtenberg, Chief, Liaison Branch, Operations Service, Office of The Surgeon General, 30 Sept. 1943.


32

FIGURE 10.-Brig. Gen. Albert W. Kenner, MC, being decorated by Gen. George C. Marshall.

war years when personnel resources were more strictly limited than formerly. Representatives of the Surgeon General's Office, the War Department Manpower Board, and the Army Service Forces, after making the proposed survey, concluded that "there is reason to believe that the present personnel system in TSGO needs revamping to insure that essential data requisite for staff planning are available in Washington and that proper guidance based upon such planning be given the service command surgeons. The Control Division, Headquarters, ASF, may be in a position to lend assistance in this matter."18

Some remodeling of The Surgeon General's organization for the purpose of obtaining fuller data as an essential of personnel planning had already begun. On 1 October 1943, a Personnel Planning and Placement Branch, to which was later added the former Records Branch, was formed in the Military Personnel Division. The new unit (later called the Records and Statistics Branch) kept individual records of all Medical Corps officers in the United

18Memorandum for Chief, Operations Service, Office of The Surgeon General (through Director, Control Division, ASF), 30 Nov. 1943, subject: Survey of General Hospitals.


33

FIGURE 11.-Maj. Gen. Norman T. Kirk, USA, The Surgeon General, 1 June 1943-31 May 1947.

States according to specialty, together with the requirements in these categories. It also developed statistics on medical officer oversea strength.19 The work of the branch proved very useful. For instance, it enabled The Surgeon General to demonstrate to Army Service Forces headquarters and to the War Department General Staff in the fall of 1943 that the Army Air Forces had a larger share of doctors, considering its workload, than the Army Service Forces had; as a result, several hundred Army Air Forces Medical Corps officers were transferred to the Army Service Forces.20

Another fruitful result of the studies made in this branch was The Surgeon General's ability to demonstrate that the machine records submitted by the theaters to The Adjutant General were inaccurate. It was these records that formed the basis of the figures published by The Adjutant General in "Strength of the Army." Whatever the reasons for such inaccuracy, The Surgeon General was able to point out that the names of more than 1,100

19(1) Memorandum, Chief, Personnel Service, Office of The Surgeon General, for Executive Officer (attention: Historical Division, SGO)., 15 June 1945, subject: Additional Material for Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1945. (2) Semiannual Report, Personnel Service, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 1 July-31 Dec. 1944.
20Annual Reports, Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 1944, 1945.


34

FIGURE 12.-Col. Arthur B. Welsh, MC, wartime Deputy Chief, 
Operations Service, Office of The Surgeon General.

Medical Corps officers were erroneously included in machine-records rosters while 2,000 others not so listed were actually on duty. In compiling its own figures, the Records and Statistics Branch relied heavily on rosters of Medical Department personnel sent to it by all types of units. The branch also obtained worldwide head counts of officers. Once it was acknowledged that discrepancies existed between The Adjutant General's and The Surgeon General's figures, representatives of their offices were able to set about reducing them and by V-E Day had brought the difference down to only about 100.21

While personnel administration became steadily more efficient, the manpower requirements of the combat theaters more than kept pace. In January 1944, The Surgeon General, at the direction of the Commanding General, Army Service Forces, appointed a board of officers, two from Headquarters,

21(1) Annual Report, Personnel Planning and Placement Branch, Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 1944. (2) Semiannual Report, Records and Statistics Branch, Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 1 July-31 Dec. 1944. (3) Quarterly Report, Records and Statistics Branch, Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 1 Jan.-31 Mar. 1945.


35

FIGURE 13.-Eli Ginzberg, Ph. D., Resources Analysis Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

Army Service Forces, and one from his own Personnel Division, to seek further improvements. The board recommended greater emphasis on overall, long-term planning and the transfer of this function to the Operations Service, although the Personnel Planning and Placement Branch of the Personnel Service could continue to supply the necessary data on availability of personnel. In the Operations Service, the staffing of oversea units was the direct responsibility of Col. Arthur B. Welsh, MC (fig. 12), Deputy Chief for Plans and Operations, while the continuous study of personnel resources for Zone of Interior hospitals was assigned to Eli Ginzberg, Ph. D. (fig. 13), recently obtained from the Army Service Forces to head the Facilities Utilization Branch under the Hospital Division. These two functions were merged later in the year, together with responsibility for personnel planning on a mass rather than an individual basis, in a new Resources Analysis Division, of which Ginzberg became the director. The unit received added status when Ginzberg was also named special assistant to Brig. Gen. (later Maj. Gen.)


36

FIGURE 14.-Maj. Gen. Raymond W. Bliss, MC, wartime Deputy Surgeon General, Office of The Surgeon General.

Raymond W. Bliss, MC (fig. 14), who served in the dual capacity of Chief, Operations Service, and Assistant Surgeon General.22

Meanwhile, demobilization and redeployment became an additional problem to the personnel planners of the Medical Department. The first office to be charged with planning for the reduction of operations as hostilities ceased was the Plans Coordination Branch, established within the Plans Division of the Operations Service, Office of The Surgeon General, in June 1943. The branch was renamed the Demobilization Branch and transferred to the Special Planning Division of the same service in February 1944. Its functions concerned not only planning for reduction in personnel, but in facilities and supplies, and it also worked on medical procedures to be used in demobilizing nonmedical personnel. Since demobilization affected almost every element of the Surgeon General's Office, the Resources Analysis Division was given the

22(1) Memorandum, Col. Charles D. Daniels, Lt. Col. Gerald H. Teasley, and Lt. Col. Hamilton Robinson, for The Surgeon General, 18 Feb. 1944, subject: Survey of the Handling of Medical Personnel in the Office of The Surgeon General. (2) Letter, Eli Ginzberg, to Col. John B. Coates, Jr., MC, Director, Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, 25 Jan. 1956. (3) Interview, Eli Ginzberg and Isaac Cogan with Col. J. B. Coates, Jr., Donald O. Wagner, and Maj. I. H. Ahlfeld, 29 Feb. 1956 (hereafter referred to as Ginzberg Interview), pp. 15-17 and 29. (4) Office Order No. 175, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 25 Aug. 1944. (5) Office Order No. 208, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 23 Oct. 1944.


37

further responsibility of coordinating all demobilization and redeployment planning and all matters pertaining to civil affairs.23

Only 8 days before the defeat of Germany, the Resources Analysis Division received the responsibility for unified personnel planning for redeployment and allied planning problems. The division could call upon any other elements of the Surgeon General's Office, including the Demobilization Branch, for aid in these matters.24 Dr. Ginzberg later stated that while The Surgeon General's previous planning for reduction of operations had probably been well coordinated with Army Service Forces headquarters and was satisfactory in evolving general principles, no adequate "logistical plan" for redeploying and reducing personnel had been worked out-a plan, namely, "for coping with the tremendous difficulty of which doctors and in what numbers you would be able to let out at what rate from which places."25 The assembly of detailed facts concerning the distribution and other aspects (age, efficiency, length of service, and so forth) of medical personnel, the estimating of future personnel needs as medical operations declined and shifted geographically or in relation to the type of patient care required, and the periodic setting and resetting of criteria for discharge in the light of these facts and estimates became the function primarily of the Resources Analysis Division. Action of this sort was of course closely related to the division's work in planning the reduction of hospital facilities.26 The organization of the Surgeon General's Office for personnel administration as it stood in the middle and latter part of the war is shown in charts 3 and 4.

The Personnel Control Branch

Besides the major changes in office organization which affected planning on a broad scale, another development, much more limited in scope, was taking place. This was the establishment of a means of controlling the allotment and distribution of personnel within The Surgeon General's installations to conform with directives from higher authority. As early as September 1942, General Magee, then The Surgeon General, had set up a board of officers for that purpose. General Kirk continued the board, with various changes of name and composition, and created the Personnel Control Branch in the Personnel Service (pursuant to an Army Service Forces directive of 30 July 1943) to supplement or assist its work.27

23Annual Report, Plans Coordination Branch, Plans Division, Operations Service, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 1944.
24Office Order No. 88, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 28 Apr. 1945. 
25
Ginzberg Interview, pp. 33-36.
26For this phase of the division's work see Smith, Clarence McKittrick: The Medical Department: Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior. United States Army in World War II. The Technical Services. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1956.
27(1) Office Orders No. 515, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 9 Dec. 1942; No. 109, 3 Mar. 1943; No. 1050, 24 Mar. 1943; No. 24, 28 Jan. 1944; No. 206, 24 Aug. 1945; and No. 344, 3 Dec. 1945. (2) Report, Personnel Control Branch, Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General, 28 Jan. 1945. (3) Memorandum, Director, Control Division, Office of The Surgeon General, for Executive Officer, Office of The Surgeon General, 15 Nov. 1945, subject: Personnel Control Unit.


38

CHART 3.-Organization of the Surgeon General's Office for personnel administration, February 1944

Organization of the Air Surgeon's Office

Since all medical personnel functions of the Air Corps had been handled by the Surgeon General's Office prior to February 1942, the Office of the Air Surgeon, which came into existence at that time, inherited a personnel unit of only limited authority.28 The business of the Air Surgeon's Personnel Division, however, increased with the mounting numbers of medical personnel assigned to the Air Forces. Its authority also widened in scope, generally because of the increased prestige of the Air Forces and specifically because of the transfer of the responsibility for the procurement of Air Forces medical officers from the Surgeon General's Office. Late in 1942, by agreement with The Surgeon General, the Air Surgeon also established a Nursing Section in his office, and it was understood that the Air Forces should have the power to procure and appoint its own nurses, assign and transfer them, and discharge them "for unsuitability and conduct prejudicial to the service." The move was intended to speed nurse recruitment, but lack of personnel in the Nursing Section caused the recruiting program to be turned over to the Air

28See footnote 16, p. 31.


39

CHART 4.-Organization of the Surgeon General's Office for personnel administration, May 1945


40

Surgeon's Personnel Division. The latter directed publicity, forwarded application blanks, and handled correspondence with applicants.29

Decentralization of Personnel Administration

Until almost the end of 1943, perhaps the most important change of responsibility for medical personnel administration was the loss of certain elements of control by the Surgeon General's Office and the corps area (or service command)30 surgeons' officers to certain other authorities, such as the commanding generals of the service commands, the Ground and Air Forces, and the commanders of local installations.

The 1942 reorganization of the War Department

The reorganization of the War Department in March 1942 created three separate Zone of Interior commands: Army Ground Forces; Services of Supply, later known as Army Service Forces; and Army Air Forces, with commanders responsible for administrative details.31 On paper, the General Staff was reduced in numbers and its functions limited to policymaking and supervision. Actually, the reorganization weakened the General Staff and caused unnecessary confusion because of the lack of clear-cut responsibility down through the major command channels of the Army. G-1, for example, was responsible for those duties "relating to the personnel of the Army as individuals, a function which * * * conflicted with the powers the same directive had delegated to the Army Service Forces."32

Under the new organization, The Surgeon General, though he remained chief of a technical service, was subordinate to the Commanding General, Services of Supply. He could not send supervisory instructions under his own name, directly and officially, to medical authorities in the Air and Ground Forces or the surgeons of the service commands, but unofficial channels were still open to him and he could issue official instructions concerning medical matters to the commanding officers of the service commands in the name of the Commanding General, Services of Supply.33

29(1) Memorandum, the Air Surgeon, for Col. Julia O. Flikke, Office of The Surgeon General, 22 Sept. 1942. (2) Memorandum, Col. Julia O. Flikke, for Col. W. F. Hall, Office of the Air Surgeon, 16 Nov. 1942.
30The corps areas were redesignated service commands on 22 July 1942. 
31
War Department Circular No. 59, 2 Mar. 1942.
32Lerwill, Leonard L.: The Personnel Replacement System, U.S. Army. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1954, p. 257. (DA Pamphlet 20-211.)
33Letter, Lt. Gen. Brehon Somervell, Commanding General, Services of Supply, to Commanding Generals, all Service Commands, 22 July 1942, with Service Command Organization Manual, 22 July 1942, enclosure 2 thereto.
On the other hand, according to a high ranking Medical Corps officer, this concession "as envisioned by regulation and the reorganization manual included only such things as broad policy concerning preventive medicine, evacuation, and similar subjects. By no stretch of the imagination, did they include utilization of personnel." Letter, Col. Paul A. Paden, to Col. C. H. Goddard, Office of The Surgeon General, 9 June 1952.


41

FIGURE 15.-Lt. Col. Paul A. Paden, MC, of the Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General.

Certain particular items of personnel control were redistributed in 1942 and early 1943 as a further expansion of the Services of Supply policy of decentralization.

For example, when The Surgeon General, acting through the Commanding General, Services of Supply, wished to transfer medical officers from one service command to another he might find himself hampered by the service command commanders involved; the latter did not complain too vigorously if officers were assigned to them, but did object if they were taken away. At first, the practice was to order an officer in or out and then, if complaint was forthcoming, to revoke the order. Lt. Col. (later Col.) Paul A. Paden, MC (fig. 15), an officer who served in The Surgeon General's Personnel Division during the war, wrote afterward that for some months after the reorganization of the War Department "we were often able to materially expedite the movement of personnel to all areas through good liaison with the Adjutant General's Sections * * * but as time went by we were no longer able to do this, as more and more staff sections had to process the papers. It was only by the most carefully guarded liaison with Medical Department officers, and other officers outside the ASF, as well


42

as within it, that we were able to accomplish the things we did, often despite 'the letter' of published directives."34

The doctrine of decentralization apparently proceeded so far that before undertaking to move a medical officer it became standard practice to obtain definite concurrence from the service command concerned. Moreover, this concurrence was obtained not from the chief of the service command's Medical Branch but from the director of personnel of that headquarters.35 The restrictions that The Surgeon General suffered in his relationship with service commands, particularly in the early war years, also applied generally to his relations with oversea commanders throughout the war.

Another phase of the 1942 reorganization was the subordination of the corps area commanders (later called service command commanders) to the Commanding General, Services of Supply, and the subsequent realinement of the service command commander's headquarters. The realinement of service command headquarters moved the medical adviser of the service command commander-the service command surgeon-one notch lower in the official organization by subordinating him in personnel matters to the director of personnel of the service command-a nonmedical officer. The director's office, however, was to obtain "recommendations from the technical (including the medical) branches * * * on matters relating to technical military personnel" and "technical civilian personnel."36 At the same time, physical therapists and dietitians who were still in civilian status, remained under control of the Medical Branch.

Still another phase of the reorganization was the transfer of installations from the direct command of The Surgeon General to the commanding generals of the service commands, which began in July 1942, thereby depriving the former of a very important share of personnel control. Included among these installations were medical training centers, certain schools, and all the general hospitals except Walter Reed. For a time, The Surgeon General kept some of his authority over all general hospitals, including the power to determine personnel allotments for their staffs-subject to Services of Supply headquarters approval-but this power was transferred to the service commands in April 1945.37 There were other shifts of command authority, and the personnel control involved in it, back and forth between The Surgeon General and the

34Letter, Col. Paul A. Paden, MC, to Col. J. H. McNinch, MC, Office of The Surgeon General, 17 Jan. 1950.
35Memorandum, Director, Military Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General, for Colonel Love, Historical Division, Office of The Surgeon General, 14 Mar. 1944.
36Services of Supply Organization Manual, 24 Dec. 1942. Before the issuance of this manual, however, some service command personnel officers were apparently shifting Medical Department personnel (including scarce specialists) around as they saw fit, even though they lacked knowledge of their special qualifications. Letter, Col. E. C. Jones, Ret., to Col. R. G. Prentiss, Jr., Office of The Surgeon General, 8 Sept. 1951. Later, apparently as a consequence of such actions, a provision was inserted in the Services of Supply Organization Manual requiring the personnel officers to consult with the medical branch on Medical Department personnel assignments.
Commenting on how the reorganization worked in practice, Colonel Paden, who served in the Surgeon General's Office from 1941 to 1944, stated that the inference that service command personnel directors were to obtain such recommendations "was actually farcical, for they seldom did at first." Letter, Col. Paul A. Paden, to Col. C. H. Goddard, Office of The Surgeon General, 9 June 1952.
37See footnote 26, p. 37.


43

service command commanders during the course of the war. The Surgeon General retained command of a number of installations such as the medical depots, the Army Medical Center (including Walter Reed General Hospital), and the Army Medical Museum.38 But he recovered control of a most important group of installations-the general hospitals-only after the end of the war.

Decentralization of personnel control within the Army Service Forces appears again in the direct transfer of authority over civilian personnel from The Surgeon General to the service commands during 1942; and in the transfers resulting from changes in the system of personnel authorizations.

Before 1 September 1942, the Surgeon General's Office, working partly through the corps area surgeons, had had virtually complete control of civilians employed in all Medical Department installations. On that date, however, Services of Supply headquarters transferred the administration of all civilian personnel except those employed in the installations directly under command of The Surgeon General (as well as in those under other chiefs of technical services) to the service command commanders. At first, there was some uncertainty as to where the 4,400 civilians employed in station hospitals at airbases belonged, and The Surgeon General kept them under his own jurisdiction. Within 2 months, however, Services of Supply headquarters directed him to transfer them to the Army Air Forces. These actions removed about 26,000 civilians from The Surgeon General's direct control, leaving him only about 9,500.39 About the same time, Services of Supply headquarters directed The Surgeon General to transfer some of his authority over civilian employees in installations under his direct command "down to the lowest possible echelon." For this purpose, the latter set up civilian personnel offices in each of these installations and gave them almost complete authority in their field.40

System of bulk authorizations

From the beginning of the war, responsibilities for personnel administration were affected by changes in the system of personnel allowances. One of the most important of these changes was the establishment of bulk authorizations by the Army Service Forces headquarters in June 1943.

The general purpose of such authorizations, according to the Army Service Forces circular that introduced them, was "to afford a commander the utmost latitude in the administration of his personnel, and at the same time establish an effective control over numbers of personnel employed. The new procedure * * * alters the control over personnel exercised by the Commanding

38Morgan, Edward J., and Wagner, Donald O.: The Organization of the Medical Department in the Zone of Interior (1946). [Official record.]
39(1) Annual Report, Personnel Service, Office of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 1943. (2) Services of Supply Organization Manual, 24 Dec. 1942. (3) Letter, Col. J. A. Rogers, to Commanding General, Services of Supply, 19 Sept. 1942, subject: Medical Department Civilian Personnel at Army Air Forces Stations. (4) Letter, Director, Civilian Personnel, Office of The Surgeon General, to Headquarters, Army Air Forces, 22 Oct. 1942, subject: Civilian Personnel of Station Hospitals.
40Letter, Commanding General, Services of Supply, to The Surgeon General, 31 Aug. 1942, subject: Responsibility for Civilian Personnel Programs.


44

General, Army Service Forces, from a 'retail' to a 'wholesale' basis, and places correspondingly greater responsibility upon subordinate commanders to exercise close control of sub-authorization."41

Under the new system, Army Service Forces continued to set personnel ceilings, changing these authorizations as conditions required, for all medical installations directly responsible to it. The ceilings authorized the maximum strength for the numerous categories of officer personnel, such as Medical Department, Quartermaster, and others. However, there was no limit on the number of rank within a specific category. Rather, the limitation on rank was a percentage of overall strength in all categories. In other words, a certain percentage of all officers, regardless of category, were authorized as colonels, lieutenant colonels, and so forth.

The authorization of enlisted men was not divided into categories indicating where they must be assigned (as so many in Medical Department installations, and so many in Quartermaster installations) but was set at a total figure with a maximum percentage in each grade (master sergeant, technical sergeant, and so forth). This method of allotting officers and enlisted men applied to personnel not in table-of-organization units. Many such units (medical and other) were assigned, as a rule temporarily and for training, to the Army Service Forces, but the size of each and the number of doctors, nurses, and enlisted men assigned to it were fixed by the provisions of its table of organization.

Under the new system, the commander's allowance for civilian employees was brought into direct relationship with the allowance for military personnel. Previously, the number of civilians who could be employed was unrestricted except through the allotment of funds. Now, however, the number varied according to the number of military personnel in service. If, for example, the total ceiling for civilian and military personnel was set at 30,000 for a service command and the military numbered 20,000, the service command could therefore employ a maximum of 10,000 civilians.

Army Service Forces headquarters required its commanders and their subordinates down to the lowest installation in the command structure to follow similar practices in subauthorizations of personnel. A commander might make subauthorizations totaling less than the authorization he received; in fact, he was encouraged to do so, since Army Service Forces headquarters emphasized economy in the use of personnel.

The bulk-authorization system was designed to give subordinate commanders greater freedom in personnel administration, especially in the assignment of numbers, types, and grades of personnel for or within service command installations, as well as to give service command commanders greater freedom from direction by the technical services. As Brig. Gen. (later Maj.

41Army Service Forces Circular No. 39, 11 June 1943. The description which follows is based on this document and on the "Manual of Instructions for Preparation of Personnel Control Forms," Headquarters, Army Service Forces, 11 June 1943.


45

Gen.) Joseph N. Dalton, AGD, director of the Army Service Forces Personnel Division at the time the new system was introduced, explained it:

We have done our utmost to free you from many burdensome rules and regulations under which you previously had to operate. No longer will some Headquarters Staff Officer tell you that you must have 120 enlisted men in a station hospital when you know from first hand experience that you could do the job with 100. No longer will you be prohibited from putting an intelligent captain in charge of a function because another Headquarters Staff Officer, in his great wisdom, decided that you must use a Major. No longer will you be hamstrung in assigning (enlisted) men according to their ability because they are ordnance men, or single men. Hereafter, the only consideration is, "Who is the best man for the job?"42

While there was no question that decentralization of control of personnel relieved The Surgeon General of much routine detail which could be handled more efficiently locally, it made the correction of inequities more difficult when these were found to exist, and restricted overall planning.

Partial Restoration of Authority

There was a growing awareness in the Army Service Forces headquarters that if the medical mission was to be accomplished a more centralized control of medical personnel should be reestablished in the Office of The Surgeon General and in the offices of the various service command surgeons. Consequently, personnel reports coming into the Office of The Surgeon General which had been considerably curtailed in the decentralization process were again authorized. These reports permitted an analysis of the personnel situation, both as to number and professional quality and made possible the operations of the control and planning branches in both Operations and Personnel Divisions.

In late 1943, the service command surgeons regained some of the power which they had lost as corps area surgeons through the reorganization of the service commands in August 1942. Now called service command surgeons, they were restored to their position of direct responsibility to the service command commander, as were the representatives of other technical services. The personnel division of the service command headquarters, while still charged with arranging for the selection and placement of all military personnel, was to make its assignments from then on "upon recommendation of service command Technical Services" (one of which was the surgeon's office).43

In a letter to the commanding generals of the service commands, Army Service Forces headquarters stated that the selection of Medical Department personnel for newly activated units had not been as successful as desired and gave directions concerning the new method of assignment. In each service command, a Medical Corps and a Medical Administrative Corps officer were to be placed on the staff of the Director of Personnel and put in charge of the Medical Department personnel records. Their office was to be convenient to

42Record of Proceedings, Personnel Conference, Army Service Forces, 21 June 1943.
43Letter, Headquarters, Army Service Forces, to Commanding Generals, all Service Commands, 12 Nov. 1943.


46

that of the service command surgeon. They would maintain necessary special records to assure adequate professional and technical evaluation and assignment of Medical Department personnel. The service command surgeon was empowered to initiate requests for assignment and reassignment of such personnel, and his recommendations were to be followed unless they were contrary to service command policies. The letter stated that continual supervision and control of assignments of medical personnel were necessary to prevent misassignments and to provide competent staffs for tactical units.44 The changes ordered were important steps in assisting the Medical Department to place its officers in appropriate assignments.

In May 1944, 6 months after the service command surgeons regained more complete control of personnel within their commands, The Surgeon General also acquired limited authority to move personnel from one service command to another. In early 1944 when there was difficulty in properly staffing both table-of-organization units and installations in this country, a committee appointed by Army Service Forces headquarters to study the administration of military personnel by the Surgeon General's Office made recommendations45 which when put into effect gave The Surgeon General a limited power of assignment. Under this arrangement, The Surgeon General had the responsibility for distributing Medical Corps officers and nurses within the Army Service Forces. He was to direct the transfer of doctors and nurses between service commands "to effect the indicated readjustment." In addition, he could transfer Medical Corps officers returning from overseas who were under the jurisdiction of Army Service Forces if officers having their particular qualifications were needed more in one place than in another. He was also empowered to request the transfer by name of certain key Medical Corps specialists, but he could not effect their transfer without the concurrence of the receiving commander under Army Service Forces jurisdiction.46 Hence, The Surgeon General's authority to assign personnel, although increased, was not complete even for Medical Corps officers, and members of other Medical Department corps were not included in the new grant of authority. At the same time, The Surgeon General could review the rosters of commanding officers and Medical Corps specialists assigned to table-of-organization units then in the United States, and to fixed installations, and direct the commanders to make changes when the staff did not meet required standards or was not being properly utilized.

The control of The Surgeon General, and also of the service command surgeons, over the assignment and utilization of personnel was made more effective by the operation of the consultant system, which will be discussed in considerable detail in another chapter of this volume.

44Letter, Headquarters, Army Service Forces, to Commanding Generals, all Service Commands, 26 Nov. 1943, subject: Classification and Assignment of Medical Department Personnel.
45Memorandum, Lt. Col. Gerald H. Teasley, Office of The Surgeon General, and others, for The Surgeon General, 18 Feb. 1944, subject: Survey of the Handling of Military Personnel in SGO.
46Army Service Forces Circular No. 138, 12 May 1944.


47

THEATERS OF OPERATIONS

Personnel Functions of the Theater Commander

As early as 1940, the War Department declared that the Chief of Staff of the Army possessed the duty of specifying the personnel required for the field forces and establishing policies and priorities for its distribution. Preparation of the replacement plan, including determination of the number of replacements estimated to be necessary, was classified as a function of the War Department in the Zone of Interior,47 a function that was extended in April 1942 to include estimating the number of replacements needed in oversea theaters. War Department policies relating to appointment, assignment, transfer, promotion, demotion, and elimination of personnel by discharge or retirement, likewise were expected, as early as 1940, to govern theater practice, as were, insofar as feasible, policies relating to promotion of morale authorized by the Department for the Zone of Interior. Nevertheless, broad powers over personnel matters were delegated to commanders of oversea theaters. Field service regulations issued before Pearl Harbor stated that such commanders were to control assignment and rank as well as discharge and retirement of personnel within their areas of operations. Their responsibility for proper functioning of both classification and assignment throughout their commands was emphasized in 1944. One exception to this rule was the granting of ratings as aviation medical examiner and flight surgeon, which was the function, at least until the end of September 1943, of the Commanding General, Army Air Forces.48 During the latter half of 1944, however, this authority appears to have been delegated to the commanders of the air forces in the individual theaters. This was true, at least, in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations.49 As early as 1942, the War Department granted individual theater commanders special authority to commission warrant officers and enlisted men in the Army of the United States. The authority was restricted during the course of the war, but throughout the period, a considerable number of Medical Department soldiers overseas received commissions in the Medical Administrative Corps.

Throughout the period of American participation in the war, it was the duty of these commanders to prescribe the system of leaves of absence and furloughs to be observed within their areas of jurisdiction and to establish uniform practices in the award of decorations. Mobilization Regulations 1-10, section 6, of 5 March 1943, permitted them to modify War Department regulations concerning the maintenance of good morale; field service regulations issued some months later empowered them to promote various welfare and other activities having that object. Under field service regulations in effect as early

47The following section is based largely on material incorporated in War Department Field Manual 100-10, "Field Service Regulations," 9 Dec. 1940 and 15 Nov. 1943 and the changes to them.
48Army Regulations No. 350-500, 11 Aug. 1942; 7 July 1943, and Changes No. 1, 30 Sept. 1943. 
49History of Twelfth Air Force Medical Section, 1 June-31 Dec. 1944, p. 13. [Official record.]


48

as 1940, the theater commander was to inform the War Department as to his replacement requirements. He was also to give directions to his subordinate echelons concerning the submission of periodic replacement requisitions and was to make allotments of replacement personnel to the various armies in the theater. A War Department order of 19 June 1943 delegated to the commanding generals of theaters of operations, oversea departments, and defense commands outside of the United States the authority "for all phases of civilian personnel administration with respect to civilian personnel under their respective jurisdiction who are paid from funds appropriated to the War Department."

In turn, the theater commander delegated to his G-1 section the responsibility for formulating policies and supervising the execution of administrative matters pertaining to personnel. This extended to civilians under the supervision or control of the command and to prisoners of war.50

Replacement systems overseas were established as early as the spring of 1942, but each theater developed its own replacement policies largely by a trial and error method. It will not until after the G-1 conference in April 1944, which was attended by officers from the North African and European Theaters of Operations, that there was any uniformity in oversea replacement systems. As a result of the conference, on 4 May 1944, the War Department directed "all theaters to establish theater replacement and training commands which were to operate replacement installations and exercise control over casual personnel. These commands were to be responsible for the receipt, classification and training of all personnel in the replacement system * * *." It further directed each field force commander "to designate an adjutant general from his command for service at the headquarters of the theater replacement training command * * *."51

The adjutant general of the theater was also responsible for the classification of all individuals joining the command; their subsequent assignment, reclassification, and reassignment; their promotion, transfer, retirement, and discharge; actions for the procurement and replacement of personnel; bestowal of decorations, citations, honors, and awards; grants of leaves of absence and furloughs; measures for recreation and welfare and all other morale matters not specifically charged to other agencies. In addition, he was given custody of the records of all personnel belonging to the command which were not kept in subordinate units.52

Commanders directly or indirectly subordinate to the theater headquarters also exercised personnel functions within their jurisdictions that were comparable to those of the theater commander, subject, of course, to his authority, and they performed these functions through staff representatives similar to those of the theater commander. Adjustments of classification or assignment, although the responsibility of the theater commander, were to be decentralized as much as

50War Department Field Manual 101-5, "Staff Officers' Field Manual," 19 Aug. 1940. 
51See footnote 32, p. 40.
52See footnote 50.


49

possible. This was especially the case with respect to enlisted personnel, in regard to which final authority usually was vested in regimental or separate unit commanders.

Medical Department Personnel Functions

As has been pointed out previously in this chapter, although the theater commanders were responsible for all matters pertaining to personnel, they delegated to the theater chief surgeons most of their authority for Medical Department personnel. The oversea department surgeons had been given responsibility for certain problems as early as 1942 when Army regulations had made it the responsibility of the department surgeon, as a staff officer of the oversea commander, to submit to the latter "such recommendations as to training, instruction, and utilization of Medical Department personnel belonging to the command, including those not under his personal orders, as he may (might) deem advisable * * *."53 In December 1940, the preparation of estimates of personnel requirements that a theater technical service might develop was expressly stated to be the function of the chief of that service.

Within their own, more limited, spheres of jurisdiction, the surgeons on lower levels of command down to the lowest echelon possessed similar functions. In the European theater, the personnel functions of base section surgeons extended not only to medical personnel permanently assigned to the base section and to patients in base medical facilities, but also to that of units staging in the area so far as the balancing of their professional staffs was concerned.54

Medical Department authorities therefore might intervene in a great variety of matters affecting the personnel of their service, including assignment and rank, but the extent to which they could make their intervention effective varied, and depended, frequently, on the ability of the officer concerned to establish good working relations with those staffs of the theater or lower commands-including the air forces-that had the decisive authority in such matters.

Medical Department Personnel Offices

As the burden of duties increased for the various theater chief surgeons (fig. 16), they devolved some of their personnel functions, particularly the "paper work," on assistants by setting up personnel sections in their offices. Since the theater chief surgeon was also at times Services of Supply or Communications Zone surgeon, a single personnel section might serve him in both capacities. The War Department offered some guidance as to how a theater medical personnel section should be constituted by including such a unit in the table of organization for a headquarters, medical service, communications zone. The table provided for a personnel section headed by a major of the

53Army Regulations No. 40-10, 6 June 1924, par. 2b(5), and 17 Nov. 1940, par. 2b(5).
54Annual Report, Surgeon, Channel Base Section, Communications Zone, European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, 22 Aug.-31 Dec. 1944, pp. 79-84.


50

FIGURE 16.-Representative theater chief surgeons. Upper left: Maj. Gen. Paul R. Hawley, MC, European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army. Upper right: Brig. Gen. Frederick A. Blesse, MC, North African Theater of Operations, U.S. Army. Lower left: Maj. Gen. Guy B. Denit, MC, Southwest Pacific Area. Lower right: Brig. Gen. Edgar King, MC, Pacific Ocean Areas.


51

FIGURE 16.-Continued. Upper left: Maj. Gen. Morrison C. Stayer, MC, Mediterranean Theater of Operations, U.S. Army. Upper right: Brig. Gen. Robert P. Williams, MC, China-Burma-India theater. Lower left: Col. George E. Armstrong, MC, China theater. Lower right: Brig. Gen. Crawford F. Sams, MC, U.S. Army Forces in the Middle East.


52 

Medical Corps, with a first lieutenant, who might be an officer of the Medical Administrative Corps, and four enlisted men.55

The largest and most elaborate organization for the administration of matters pertaining to medical personnel in any oversea area was the Personnel Division in the Office of the Chief Surgeon of the European theater, who was also surgeon of the Services of Supply or Communications Zone. Its preeminence was natural in view of the strength of the Medical Department in that theater. The division originally consisted of but one second lieutenant of the Medical Administrative Corps, but grew from 3 officers and 9 enlisted men at the end of August 1942 to 9 officers, 29 enlisted men, and 2 British civilians in September 1944 when the office began to function in Paris.56

Generally speaking, however, Medical Department personnel offices at theater, army, or base section headquarters were staffed by relatively small numbers of officer and enlisted personnel. In the Southwest Pacific at the beginning of 1945, when the Services of Supply headquarters was located in Hollandia, New Guinea, the staff assigned to the Personnel Division of the Surgeon's Office comprised three officers and nine enlisted men. Heading the division was a lieutenant colonel of the Medical Corps; the Medical Administrative Corps provided the other two officers.57 When the Medical Section of the Mediterranean theater was at its peak strength (April 1945), the personnel subsection consisted of one officer and two enlisted men. Similarly, during the combat operations of the Third U.S. Army in the European theater, its Headquarters Medical Section handled personnel matters through two Medical Administrative Corps officers and two enlisted men.58

In base sections and like jurisdictions, one officer ordinarily was assigned to personnel duties in the corresponding surgeon's office, often combining these with other functions. One or two enlisted men also were assigned to personnel activities.59 As might be expected, the medical personnel officers in the base sections of the European Theater of Operations had somewhat larger staffs than were common elsewhere. In fact, the Personnel Division of the Surgeon's Office, United Kingdom Base, was a sizable organization. As of 1 January 1945, the staff comprised 6 officers and 13 enlisted men.60

55Table of Organization 8-500-1, 1 Nov. 1940.
56(1) Administrative and Logistical History of the Medical Service, Communications Zone-European Theater of Operations (1945), ch. III, p. 63. [Official record.] (2) Annual Report, Chief Surgeon, European Theater of Operations, 1944, pp. 3-5. (3) History of Medical Service, Services of Supply, European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, From Inception to 31 Dec. 1943 (1944).
57Annual Report, Surgeon, U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific, 1945, pt. I-U.S. Army Services of Supply, p. 72.
58(1) Munden, Kenneth W.: Administration of the Medical Department in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, 1945, vol. I, chart p. 153. [Official record.] (2) Statement of Col. John Boyd Coates, Jr., MC, to the editor, 27 May 1961.
59(1) Annual Report, Surgeon, Base R, U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific, 12 Feb.-30 June 1945, pp. 3-4. (2) Annual Report, Surgeon, Base K, U.S. Army Services of Supply, 1944-45. (3) Annual Report, Surgeon, Base K, U.S. Army Services of Supply, 1945, p. 2.
60Annual Report, Surgeon, Channel Base Section, Communications Zone, European Theater of Operations, August-December 1944, January-July 1945. (2) Annual Report, Surgeon, Seine Base Section, Communications Zone, European Theater of Operations, January-June 1945.

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS