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Chapter XI

Contents

CHAPTER XI

Strength and Distribution of Military Personnel

OVERALL STRENGTH

Overall strength of the Medical Department and its military components during the emergency and war periods, in comparison with the strength of the Army as a whole, is shown in table 1. The figures include a sizeable number of Medical and Dental Corps officers who, though placed on active duty in 1944, served in the Veterans' Administration and, therefore, were not available for Army duty (table 27).

DISTRIBUTION, OVERSEAS AND IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR

Prior to the passage of the Selective Service Act in September 1940 and the Federalization of the National Guard, approximately 16 to 17 percent of the Medical Department's personnel were serving overseas (table 28). With the expansion of the Army, large numbers of men were assigned to the Medical Department, but since the vast majority of these remained in the Zone of Interior for training purposes, the proportion of the medical strength in 

TABLE 27.-Number of Medical Department officers assigned to the Veterans' Administration, January 1944-June 1946

Month

1944

1945

1946

Medical Corps

Dental Corps

Medical Corps

Dental Corps

Medical Corps

Dental Corps

January

400

---

1,647

150

1,310

160

February

500

---

1,673

150

1,195

150

March

600

---

1,669

155

1,154

143

April

750

---

1,674

160

826

110

May

856

79

1,677

165

663

87

June

951

103

1,676

165

569

78

July

998

115

1,676

165

August

1,124

122

1,671

165

September

1,180

130

1,645

165

October

1,237

141

1,565

165

November

1,237

141

1,495

170

December

1,622

149

1,356

160


Source: "Time Series on Medical Department Personnel by Corps, 1942-46," furnished to Historical Division, Office of The Surgeon General, by Resources Analysis Division, Office of The Surgeon General, 24 January 1950.


340

oversea areas was considerably smaller in the months preceding Pearl Harbor than it had been a year earlier. The ration of medical troops, and of service troops, in general, to total oversea strength also was low (table 29). After 7 December 1941, the shipment of service troops abroad was accelerated, and the proportion of medical personnel to total oversea strength likewise increased very considerably (tables 29 and 30). When, in January 1944, major emphasis again was placed on provision of combat troops, the rate of augmentation of medical personnel, in contrast to the earlier period, generally exceeded that of service troops as a whole (table 29). The ratio of medical to general Army strength overseas declined only slightly prior to V-E Day (table 31). Once the initial lag in shipment of medical troops was overcome, the percentage of total Army strength and the percentage of total Medical Department strength stationed in oversea areas were fairly equal (table 31).

TABLE 28.-Oversea strength of the Medical Department, 30 June 1939 and 30 June 1940

Group

Oversea strength1

Percent of worldwide strength2

30 June 1939

30 June 1940

30 June 1939

30 June 1940

Medical Corps

183

229

16.7

14.5

Dental Corps

42

57

19.0

16.1

Veterinary Corps

17

18

13.5

10.5

Army Nurse Corps

110

138

16.4

14.6

Enlisted personnel

---

2,556

---

17.1


1Annual Reports of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1939 and 1940.
2For worldwide strength, see table 1. To enlisted strength as shown there, 310 Philippine Scouts have been added.


341

TABLE 29.-Development of Medical Department strength overseas, as compared with development of service strength, November 1941-September 19451

End of month

Total Army

Service strength

Medical Department2

Oversea strength3 (percent increase)

Number4

Percent of total oversea Army

Percent increase

Percent of total oversea Army

Percent increase

1941

November

---

40,234

24.4

---

4.8

---

1942

March

98.7

87,178

26.6

116.7

5.8

138.9

June

83.4

207,266

34.4

137.7

7.1

124.0

September

36.8

303,808

36.9

46.6

7.1

37.5

1943

January

36.1

462,049

41.3

52.1

7.9

49.7

April

25.0

618,398

44.2

33.8

8.1

28.6

July

27.2

822,167

46.2

33.0

7.8

23.3

October

20.1

1,059,839

49.6

28.9

8.4

28.9

1944

January

31.6

1,376,992

48.9

29.9

8.5

32.8

April

26.2

1,695,822

47.7

23.1

8.5

25.8

July

15.3

1,957,559

47.8

15.4

8.4

14.5

October

13.2

2,148,669

46.3

9.8

8.4

13.7

1945

January

10.5

2,366,840

46.2

10.2

8.4

9.9

April

5.9

2,463,761

45.4

4.1

8.3

4.5

July

-9.9

2,389,223

49.1

-2.7

8.4

-8.8

September

-15.5

2,044,607

49.5

-14.7

7.8

-21.7


1For purposes of comparability, all data for April, July, and September 1945 exclude personnel under the command of the Commanding General, Army Air Forces.
2For basic data, see table 31.
3For basic data, see table 31.
4Basic data for 30 November 1941 provided by The Adjutant General's Strength and Accounting Branch, June 1958. All other basic data from "Strength of the Army" for dates corresponding to those shown; includes, in addition to the Medical Department, the following categories as shown in the sources: Chemical Warfare Service; Corps of Engineers; Signal Corps, Adjutant General's Department; Chaplains Corps; Finance Department; Judge Advocate General's Department; Ordnance Department; Quartermaster Corps; Inspector General's Department; Military Intelligence; General Staff Corps; Warrant Officers; Transportation Corps (September 1942-September 1945); Military Police Corps (March 1942-September 1945); Specialists Reserve (June 1942-April 1945); Army Specialist Corps (September 1942); WAAC or WAC (January 1943-September 1945); Detached List and/or Detached Enlisted Men's List (November 1941-October 1944); Not Member of a Branch/or Branch Immaterial (June 1942-September 1945); unassigned and miscellaneous detachments (November 1941-March 1942). Personnel shown under "service strength" minus those in the Corps of Engineers, Signal Corps, and Chemical Warfare Service. These originally were grouped with the combat arms.


342-344

TABLE 30.-Movement of Medical Department troops overseas, compared with movement of all Army, all combat, and all service troops, July 1942-August 19451

Month and year

Army

Combat troops2

Service troops3

Total Army shipments

Total

Percent of total Army shipments

Percent increase4

Total including miscellaneous

Total excluding miscellaneous

Medical Department

Total

Nurses

Number

Percent increase4

Number

Percent of total Army shipments

Percent increase4

Number5

Percent of total Army shipments

Percent increase4

Number

Percent of total Army shipments

Percent increase4

Number

Percent increase4

Total, July 1942-August 1945

6,490,176

3,683,149

56.7

2,807,027

43.3

2,244,182

34.6

421,237

6.5

31,973

1942

Total, July-December

528,029

244,044

46.2

283,985

53.8

190,841

36.1

30,689

5.8

1,190

July

66,879

23,759

35.5

43,120

64.5

32,661

48.8

3,608

5.4

44

August

116,088

54,511

47.0

61,577

53.0

46,015

39.6

5,094

4.4

62

September

84,727

45,579

53.8

39,168

46.2

22,458

26.5

4,646

5.5

2

October

95,929

56,547

58.9

39,382

41.1

27,702

28.9

6,899

7.2

173

November

76,219

26,359

34.6

49,860

65.4

30,760

40.4

3,936

5.2

371

December

88,167

37,289

42.3

50,878

57.7

31,245

35.4

6,506

7.4

538

 

1943

Total, January-June

660,802

25.1

298,794

45.2

22.4

362,008

54.7

27.5

285,026

43.1

43.1

44,627

6.7

45.4

2,814

136.5

January

80,526

26,726

33.2

53,800

66.8

40,213

49.9

7,006

8.7

478

February

84,412

36,256

43.0

48,156

57.0

40,903

48.5

5,079

6.0

258

March

70,399

28,875

41.0

41,524

59.0

35,445

50.3

5,081

7.2

152

April

150,038

78,036

52.0

72,002

48.0

61,181

40.7

11,857

7.9

803

May

142,787

65,417

45.8

77,370

53.9

59,235

41.5

8,788

6.2

588

June

132,640

63,484

47.9

69,156

52.1

48,149

36.3

6,816

5.1

535

Total, July-December

1,120,376

69.5

550,364

49.1

84.2

570,012

50.9

57.5

464,549

41.5

63.0

86,562

7.7

94.0

7,297

159.3

July

159,904

72,126

45.5

87,178

54.5

59,243

37.0

10,111

6.3

701

August

154,489

66,021

42.7

88,468

57.3

70,556

45.7

15,070

9.8

1,699

September

159,755

87,215

54.6

72,540

47.0

61,914

38.6

14,574

9.1

1,409

October

229,787

129,546

56.4

100,241

43.6

84,807

36.9

13,578

5.9

962

November

152,483

63,700

41.8

88,783

58.2

79,327

52.0

11,082

7.3

1,162

December

263,958

131,156

49.7

132,802

50.3

108,702

41.2

22,147

8.4

1,364

1944

Total, January-June

1,428,115

27.5

787,239

55.1

43.0

640,876

44.9

12.4

533,440

37.4

14.8

108,537

7.6

25.4

7,163

-1.8

January

248,245

125,633

50.6

122,612

49.4

106,953

43.1

17,670

7.1

1,412

February

273,858

159,072

58.1

114,786

63.8

95,669

50.6

21,075

7.7

1,484

March

278,631

148,789

53.4

129,842

46.6

101,434

53.4

23,771

8.5

2,166

April

241,571

142,518

59.0

99,053

41.0

84,904

35.1

15,995

6.6

965

May

211,715

112,138

53.0

99,577

47.0

86,821

41.0

13,310

6.3

519

June

174,095

99,089

56.9

75,006

43.1

57,659

33.1

16,716

9.6

617

Total, July-December

1,471,015

3.0

941,826

64.0

19.6

529,189

36.0

-17.4

455,121

30.9

-14.7

91,210

6.2

-16.0

7,171

.1

July

269,384

181,303

67.3

88,081

32.7

75,342

28.0

18,509

6.9

1,582

August

238,160

158,745

66.7

79,415

33.3

67,336

28.3

11,081

4.7

682

September

235,025

153,955

65.5

81,070

34.5

64,516

27.5

13,068

5.6

649

October

268,858

152,338

64.8

116,520

43.3

106,532

39.6

20,876

7.8

2,059

November

234,568

168,821

70.3

69,747

29.7

57,577

24.5

10,257

4.4

507

December

225,020

130,664

58.1

94,356

41.9

83,818

37.2

17,419

7.7

1,692

1945

Total, January-June

1,043,377

-29.1

691,060

66.2

-26.6

352,317

33.8

-33.4

262,439

25.2

-42.3

49,671

4.8

-45.5

3,658

-49.0

January

278,852

202,727

72.7

76,125

27.3

60,769

21.8

12,381

4.4

285

February

225,562

133,204

59.1

92,358

40.9

69,189

30.7

12,145

5.4

404

March

199,660

136,159

68.2

63,501

31.8

39,471

19.8

8,313

4.2

836

April

134,803

89,601

66.5

45,202

33.5

31,442

23.3

5,691

4.2

418

May

88,519

60,260

68.1

28,259

31.9

21,150

23.9

4,464

5.0

959

June

115,981

69,109

59.6

46,872

40.4

40,417

34.8

6,677

5.8

756

Total, July-August

238,462

-77.1

169,822

71.2

-75.4

68,640

28.8

-80.1

52,766

22.1

-79.9

9,941

4.2

-80.0

2,680

-26.7

July

79,619

47,927

60.2

31,692

39.8

23,804

29.9

4,556

5.7

1,047

August

158,843

121,895

76.7

36,948

23.3

28,962

18.2

5,385

3.4

1,633


1Basic data from "Troops Embarked by Arms and Services," in Army Service Forces, Statistical Review, World War II, pp. 123-124. Includes troops embarked by the Transportation Corps only. Personnel shown for each arm or service is primarily the strength of the units belonging to these arms and services and therefore includes troops not assigned to the branch. In the case of the Medical Department, for example, the numbers shown do not include attached medical personnel in infantry and similar units; on the other hand, chaplains are included in the strength of the medical personnel. It is not known whether casuals are included.
2Air Corps, Coast Artillery, Armored Force, Field Artillery, and Infantry.
3Includes Chemical Warfare, Engineers, "Medical Corps" (that is, Medical Department other than nurses), Army Nurses Corps, Ordnance, Quartermaster Corps, Signal Corps, and Transportation Corps. A "miscellaneous" category also is included in the source, but its content is not known. If it includes all branches other than those specifically mentioned, it should be added to the service category since all the combat arms have been shown. On the other hand, if it also includes casuals, it may include combat troops. For this reason, the service troops are shown both with the miscellaneous category and without it.
4Percentage of increase over previous summary period shown.
5Includes Army Nurse as shown in column of this table so headed.


345-365

TABLE 31.-Oversea strength of the Medical Department and oversea Negro medical strength, by area,1 31 July 1941-30 September 1945

Area

Army

Medical Department

Negroes-Army

Negroes-Medical Department

Strength2

Percent of worldwide strength

Strength3

Percent of worldwide strength

Strength per 1,000 troops

Stength4

Percent of worldwide strength

Strength5

Percent of worldwide strength

Percent of Medical Department strength

31 July 1941

Worldwide

1,531,012

100.00

127,221

100.00

83

82,037

100.00

0

0

0

Overseas

135,722

8.86

5,276

4.15

39

0

0

0

0

0

 

En route

190

.01

0

0

0

259

.32

0

0

0

 

Foreign

135,532

8.85

5,276

4.15

39

0

0

0

0

0

North America

4,674

.31

172

.14

37

0

0

0

0

0

 

Alaska

9,946

.65

280

.22

28

0

0

0

0

0

 

Caribbean

58,534

3.82

2,121

1.67

36

259

.32

0

0

0

 

South Atlantic

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Europe

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

North Africa

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Africa-Middle East

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Persian Gulf

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

China-
Burma-India

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Total Pacific areas

62,378

4.07

2,703

2.12

43

0

0

0

0

0

Southwest Pacific Area

22,493

1.47

1,158

.91

51

0

0

0

0

0

Pacific Ocean Areas

40,214

2.63

1,545

1.21

38

0

0

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

30 November 1941

Worldwide

1,644,210

100.00

131,586

100.00

81

98,664

100.00

0

0

0

Overseas

165,155

10.04

7,992

7.36

48

939

.95

0

0

0

 

En route

904

.05

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Foreign

164,251

9.99

7,992

7.36

49

939

.95

0

0

0

 

North America

11,051

.67

1,352

1.03

122

0

0

0

0

0

 

Alaska

21,461

1.31

1,124

.85

52

0

0

0

0

0

 

Caribbean

57,467

3.50

2,379

1.81

41

939

.95

0

0

0

 

South Atlantic

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Europe

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

North Africa

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Africa-Middle East

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Persian Gulf

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

China-
Burma-India

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Total Pacific areas

74,272

4.52

3,137

2.38

42

0

0

0

0

0

Southwest Pacific Area

31,030

1.89

1,623

1.23

52

0

0

0

0

0

Pacific Ocean Areas

43,059

2.62

1,514

1.15

35

0

0

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

31 March 1942

Worldwide

2,386,138

100.00

201,162

100.00

84

143,556

100.00

3,812

100.00

1.89

Overseas

328,113

13.75

19,093

9.49

58

3,324

2.32

20

.52

.10

 

En route

4,306

.18

41

.02

10

0

0

0

0

0

 

Foreign

323,807

13.57

19,052

9.47

59

3,324

2.32

20

.52

.10

North America

23,261

.97

1,880

.93

81

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

33,221

1.39

1,364

.68

41

0

0

0

0

0

Caribbean

86,828

3.64

4,466

2.22

51

1,161

.81

0

0

0

South Atlantic

11,495

.06

119

.06

80

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

13,811

.58

1,624

.81

118

1

.00

0

0

0

North Africa

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Africa-Middle East

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Persian Gulf

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

China-
Burma-India

3,216

.13

119

.06

37

0

0

0

0

0

Total Pacific areas

161,875

6.78

9,480

4.71

59

---

---

---

---

---

 

Southwest Pacific Area

62,500

2.62

3,330

1.66

53

884

.62

0

0

0

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

97,970

4.11

6,150

3.06

63

1,278

.89

20

.52

.33

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

30 June 1942

Worldwide

3,074,184

100.00

253,707

100.00

83

178,708

100.00

5,939

100.00

2.95

Overseas

601,777

19.58

42,770

16.86

71

33,869

18.95

626

10.54

1.46

 

En route

81,056

2.64

4,536

1.79

56

10,254

5.74

201

3.38

4.43

 

Foreign

520,721

16.94

38,234

15.07

73

23,615

13.21

425

7.16

1.11

North America

45,573

1.48

2,702

1.07

59

3,685

2.06

77

1.30

2.85

Alaska

50,845

1.65

2,218

.87

44

1,159

.65

37

.62

1.67

Caribbean

103,403

3.36

5,726

2.26

55

3,631

2.03

95

1.60

1.66

South Atlantic

1,623

.05

117

.05

73

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

54,667

1.78

3,856

1.52

71

754

.42

0

0

0

North Africa

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Africa-Middle East

217

.01

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Persian Gulf

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

China-
Burma-India

7,474

.24

620

.24

82

439

.25

0

0

0

Total Pacific areas

256,929

8.36

22,995

9.06

89

13,947

7.80

216

3.64

.94

 

Southwest Pacific Area

92,668

3.01

10,238

4.04

110

6,944

3.89

78

1.31

.76

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

165,649

5.39

12,757

5.02

77

7,003

3.92

138

2.32

1.08

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

30 September 1942

Worldwide

3,971,016

100.00

349,253

100.00

88

255,545

100.00

---

---

---

Overseas

822,962

20.72

58,827

16.84

71

45,300

17.72

991

---

1.68

En route

52,719

1.33

3,926

1.12

74

1,431

.56

66

---

1.68

Foreign

770,243

19.40

54,901

15.72

71

43,869

17.16

925

---

1.69

 

North America

65,554

1.65

4,391

1.26

67

4,938

1.93

120

---

2.73

 

Alaska

76,005

1.91

3,010

.86

40

0

0

0

---

0

 

Caribbean

109,650

2.76

5,962

1.71

55

3,610

1.41

66

---

1.11

 

South Atlantic

2,012

.05

159

.05

79

0

0

0

---

0

 

Europe

186,195

4.69

13,031

3.73

70

11,406

4.46

156

---

1.20

 

North Africa

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

---

0

 

Africa-Middle East

9,273

.23

517

.15

56

1,376

.54

114

---

22.05

 

Persian Gulf

456

.01

21

.006

46

0

0

0

---

0

 

China-
Burma-India

13,453

.34

1,100

.31

82

2,434

.95

46

---

4.18

 

Total Pacific areas

307,421

7.74

26,707

7.64

87

20,105

7.87

423

---

1.58

Southwest Pacific Area

105,295

2.65

11,399

3.26

108

8,157

3.19

168

---

1.47

Pacific Ocean Areas

202,126

5.09

15,308

4.38

76

11,948

4.68

255

---

1.67

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

224

.06

3

0

13

0

0

0

---

0

31 January 1943

Worldwide

5,824,517

100.00

497,252

100.00

86

435,487

100.00

18,279

100.00

3.68

Overseas

1,119,903

19.23

88,041

17.71

79

63,357

14.55

1,311

7.17

1.49

 

En route

28,602

.49

3,703

.74

129

1,504

.35

38

.20

1.03

 

Foreign

1,091,301

18.73

84,338

16.96

77

61,853

14.20

1,273

6.97

1.51

North America

70,214

1.21

4,622

.93

66

3,995

.92

96

.53

2.08

Alaska

97,985

1.68

4,975

1.00

51

1,202

.28

0

0

0

Caribbean

118,829

2.04

6,583

1.32

55

2,335

.54

50

.27

.76

South Atlantic

3,270

.06

202

.04

62

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

120,372

2.07

10,738

2.16

89

9,541

2.19

114

.62

1.06

North Africa

260,771

4.48

20,836

4.19

80

10,697

2.46

245

1.34

1.18

Africa-Middle East

25,405

.44

2,506

.50

99

1,879

.43

204

1.12

8.14

Persian Gulf

10,949

.19

1,072

.22

98

2,559

.59

17

.09

1.59

China-
Burma-India

18,796

.32

1,276

.27

68

2,644

.61

12

.07

.94

Total Pacific areas

364,451

6.26

31,525

6.34

86

27,001

6.20

535

2.93

1.70

 

Southwest Pacific Area

118,005

2.03

12,994

2.61

110

7,884

1.81

137

.75

1.05

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

246,446

4.23

18,531

3.73

75

19,117

4.39

398

2.18

2.15

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

259

0

3

0

12

0

0

0

0

0

30 April 1943

Worldwide

6,719,827

100.00

588,330

100.00

87

534,496

100.00

26,330

100.00

4.48

Overseas

1,399,643

20.83

113,213

19.24

81

102,670

19.20

2,126

8.07

1.88

 

En route

100,648

1.50

9,080

1.54

90

9,953

1.86

238

.90

2.62

 

Foreign

1,298,995

19.33

104,133

17.70

80

92,717

17.33

1,888

7.17

1.81

North America

75,719

1.13

5,153

.88

68

2,707

.51

72

.27

1.40

Alaska

104,878

1.56

5,700

.97

54

1,888

.35

33

.13

.58

Caribbean

115,771

1.72

6,855

1.17

59

2,326

.43

47

.19

.69

South Atlantic

4,908

.07

453

.08

92

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

111,506

1.66

10,855

1.86

97

5,188

.97

57

.22

.53

North Africa

395,461

5.88

31,164

5.30

79

35,269

6.59

657

2.50

2.11

Africa-Middle East

37,272

.55

3,447

.59

92

2,099

.39

321

1.22

9.31

Persian Gulf

18,513

.28

1,812

.31

98

5,152

.96

55

.21

3.04

China-
Burma-India

30,110

.45

4,286

.73

142

4,143

.77

47

.19

1.09

Total Pacific areas

404,385

6.02

34,404

5.80

85

33,945

6.35

599

2.27

1.74

 

Southwest Pacific Area

140,577

2.09

14,276

2.43

101

9,148

1.71

159

.60

1.11

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

263,808

3.93

20,128

3.42

76

24,797

4.64

440

1.67

2.19

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

472

0

4

0

8

0

0

0

0

0

31 July 1943

Worldwide

7,126,818

100.00

628,360

100.00

88

576,886

100.00

29,403

100.00

4.68

Overseas

1,779,688

24.97

139,564

22.21

78

135,150

23.41

2,401

8.17

1.72

 

En route

50,925

.71

5,881

.94

115

6,670

1.16

116

.40

1.97

 

Foreign

1,728,763

24.26

133,683

21.27

77

128,480

22.25

2,285

7.77

1.71

North America

80,688

1.13

4,683

.75

58

2,766

.48

75

.26

1.60

Alaska

138,882

1.95

8,663

1.38

62

3,406

.59

36

.12

.42

Caribbean

114,191

1.60

6,063

.96

53

2,296

.40

48

.16

.79

South Atlantic

5,707

.08

452

.07

79

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

239,254

3.36

18,278

2.91

76

17,730

3.07

286

.97

1.56

North Africa

528,608

7.42

42,092

6.70

80

44,953

7.79

742

2.52

1.76

Africa-Middle East

39,163

.55

2,882

.46

74

2,240

.39

192

.65

6.66

Persian Gulf

27,320

.38

2,636

.42

96

5,246

.91

31

.11

1.18

China-
Burma-India

34,902

.54

4,999

.80

143

4,110

.71

57

.19

1.14

Total Pacific areas

519,514

7.29

42,929

6.80

83

45,733

7.92

818

2.78

1.91

 

Southwest Pacific Area

200,841

2.82

19,408

3.09

97

12,653

2.19

177

.60

.91

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

318,673

4.47

23,521

3.74

74

33,080

5.73

641

2.18

2.73

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

534

0

6

0

11

0

0

0

0

0

31 October 1943

Worldwide

7,333,474

100.00

615,102

100.00

84

610,687

100.00

25,976

100.00

4.22

Overseas

2,238,799

30.53

179,914

29.25

80

181,450

29.71

3,388

12.85

1.86

 

En route

100,589

1.37

5,474

.89

54

4,171

.68

115

.44

2.10

 

Foreign

2,138,210

29.16

174,440

28.36

82

177,279

29.03

3,273

12.60

1.88

North America

61,023

.83

3,867

.63

63

254

.04

0

0

0

Alaska

127,976

1.75

8,517

1.39

67

4,447

.73

36

.14

.42

Caribbean

106,953

1.46

5,562

.91

52

2,264

.37

41

.16

.74

South Atlantic

6,940

.09

453

.07

65

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

460,502

6.28

38,084

6.19

83

40,252

6.59

915

3.53

2.40

North Africa

632,744

8.63

54,425

8.85

86

56,448

9.24

867

3.35

1.59

Africa-Middle East

25,488

.35

2,490

.41

98

2,145

.35

223

.86

8.96

Persian Gulf

29,545

.40

2,774

.45

94

4,824

.79

55

.21

1.98

China-
Burma-India

70,661

.96

7,303

1.19

103

12,434

2.04

205

.79

2.81

Total Pacific areas

615,338

8.39

50,946

8.28

83

54,211

8.88

931

3.60

1.11

 

Southwest Pacific Area

263,120

3.59

25,034

4.07

95

18,485

3.03

279

1.08

2.52

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

352,218

4.80

25,912

4.21

74

35,726

5.85

652

2.52

1.83

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

1,040

.01

19

0

18

0

0

0

0

0

31 January 1944

Worldwide

7,556,157

100.00

628,758

100.00

83

646,800

100.00

26,229

100.00

4.17

Overseas

2,814,658

37.25

238,914

38.00

85

243,503

37.65

5,246

20.00

2.20

 

En route

84,435

1.12

5,730

.91

68

8,851

1.37

542

2.07

9.46

 

Foreign

2,730,223

36.13

233,184

37.08

85

234,652

36.28

4,704

17.93

0

North America

54,584

.72

3,264

.52

60

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

114,225

1.51

7,681

1.22

67

4,727

.73

71

.27

.92

Caribbean

89,727

1.19

5,266

.84

59

0

0

0

0

0

South Atlantic

7,890

.10

601

.09

76

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

935,346

12.38

81,616

12.98

87

77,580

11.99

1,586

6.05

1.94

North Africa

621,831

8.23

51,692

8.22

83

59,394

9.18

949

3.62

1.84

Africa-Middle East

16,411

.22

1,811

.29

110

788

.12

152

.58

8.39

Persian Gulf

29,445

.32

2,700

.43

92

4,020

.62

46

.18

1.70

China-
Burma-India

107,595

1.42

9,945

1.58

92

15,711

2.43

248

.95

2.49

Total Pacific areas

752,056

9.95

68,590

10.91

91

72,432

11.04

1,652

6.30

2.41

 

Southwest Pacific Area

329,372

4.36

33,186

5.28

100

27,695

4.28

395

1.51

1.19

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

422,684

5.59

35,404

5.63

84

44,737

6.92

1,257

4.79

3.55

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

1,113

.01

18

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

30 April 1944

Worldwide

7,848,172

100.00

651,162

100.00

83

686,220

100.00

25,556

100.00

3.92

Overseas

3,552,485

45.27

300,502

46.15

85

325,960

47.50

9,875

38.64

3.29

 

En route

78,664

1.00

4,916

.75

62

3,770

.55

672

2.63

13.29

 

Foreign

3,473,821

44.26

295,586

45.39

85

322,190

46.95

9,203

36.01

3.11

North America

47,908

.61

3,024

.46

63

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

91,546

1.17

4,762

.73

52

5,922

.86

143

.56

4.73

Caribbean

84,013

1.07

5,024

.77

60

0

0

0

0

0

South Atlantic

6,991

.09

567

.09

81

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

1,421,908

18.12

125,729

19.31

88

114,691

16.75

3,087

12.08

2.45

North Africa

697,785

8.89

55,211

8.48

79

77,686

11.32

1,506

5.89

2.73

Africa-Middle East

15,951

.20

1,396

.21

88

722

.11

83

.32

5.95

Persian Gulf

29,300

.37

2,468

.38

84

3,987

.58

45

.18

1.82

China-
Burma-India

150,101

1.91

11,344

1.74

76

16,910

2.46

270

1.06

2.38

Total Pacific areas

927,045

11.81

86,036

13.21

93

102,272

14.90

4,069

15.92

2.70

 

Southwest Pacific Area

448,165

5.71

47,259

7.26

105

37,781

5.51

1,277

5.00

4.73

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

478,880

6.10

38,777

5.96

81

64,491

9.40

2,792

10.93

7.20

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

1,273

.02

25

0

20

0

0

0

0

0

31 July 1944

Worldwide

8,049,770

100.00

679,561

100.00

84

699,666

100.00

21,902

100.00

3.22

Overseas

4,095,129

50.87

343,931

50.61

84

382,999

54.74

10,228

46.70

2.97

 

En route

107,716

1.34

6,301

.93

58

9,712

1.39

17

.07

.27

 

Foreign

3,987,413

49.53

337,630

49.68

85

373,287

53.35

10,211

46.62

3.02

North America

26,815

.33

1,696

.25

63

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

71,181

.88

4,055

.60

57

4,141

.59

98

.45

2.42

Caribbean

72,172

.90

4,265

.63

59

0

0

0

0

0

South Atlantic

3,462

.04

529

.08

153

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

1,770,614

22.00

159,282

23.40

90

154,157

22.03

3,510

16.03

2.20

North Africa

724,057

8.96

55,998

8.24

77

77,017

11.01

1,247

5.69

2.28

Africa-Middle East

9,603

.12

1,190

.18

124

752

.11

94

.43

7.90

Persian Gulf

28,296

.35

2,218

.33

78

3,998

.57

45

.21

2.03

China-
Burma-India

142,640

1.77

12,324

1.81

86

17,190

2.46

269

1.23

2.18

Total Pacific areas

1,056,804

13.13

94,437

13.90

89

114,282

16.33

4,948

22.59

5.24

 

Southwest Pacific Area

664,508

8.26

60,140

8.85

91

73,078

10.44

3,184

14.54

5.29

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

392,296

4.87

34,297

5.05

87

41,204

5.89

1,764

8.05

5.14

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

80,160

1.00

1,600

.24

20

1,750

.25

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

1,609

.02

36

0

22

0

0

0

0

0

31 October 1944

Worldwide

8,103,376

100.00

687,501

100.00

84

701,660

100.00

21,245

100.00

3.09

Overseas

4,635,763

57.21

391,120

56.89

84

438,407

62.48

12,742

59.98

3.26

 

En route

132,710

1.64

11,681

1.70

88

14,878

2.12

455

2.14

3.90

 

Foreign

4,503,053

55.57

379,439

55.19

84

423,529

60.36

12,287

57.83

3.24

North America

22,180

.27

1,254

.18

57

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

58,654

.72

3,523

.51

60

4,207

.60

106

.50

3.01

Caribbean

69,266

.85

3,720

.54

54

4,075

.58

34

.16

.91

South Atlantic

2,711

.03

458

.07

169

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

2,203,583

27.19

198,410

28.86

90

178,866

25.49

4,382

20.63

2.21

North Africa

712,218

8.79

55,500

8.07

80

85,306

12.16

1,922

9.05

3.46

Africa-Middle East

9,286

.11

1,156

.17

124

776

.11

92

.43

7.96

Persian Gulf

27,710

.34

2,031

.30

73

3,895

.56

61

.29

3.00

China-
Burma-India

159,414

1.97

15,275

2.22

96

18,502

2.64

384

1.81

2.51

Total Pacific areas

1,116,983

13.78

95,896

13.95

86

125,174

17.84

5,306

24.97

5.53

Southwest Pacific Areas

701,035

8.65

61,625

8.96

88

76,559

10.91

3,359

15.81

5.45

Pacific Ocean Areas

415,948

5.13

34,271

4.99

82

48,615

6.93

1,947

9.16

5.68

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

119,235

1.47

2,169

.32

18

2,728

.39

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

1,813

.02

47

.00

26

0

0

0

0

0

 31 January 1945

Worldwide

8,070,929

100.00

667,188

100.00

83

683,338

100.00

20,410

100.00

3.06

Overseas

5,122,748

63.47

429,823

64.42

84

481,092

70.40

14,150

69.33

3.29

 

En route

81,402

1.01

5,020

.75

62

7,419

1.09

140

.69

2.79

 

Foreign

5,041,346

62.46

424,803

63.67

84

473,673

69.32

14,010

68.64

3.30

North America

19,085

.24

1,108

.17

58

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

47,685

.59

2,652

.40

56

4,410

.65

100

.49

3.77

Caribbean

70,231

.87

3,828

.57

55

3,571

.52

28

.14

.73

South Atlantic

2,653

.03

369

.06

139

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

2,829,039

35.05

255,599

38.31

90

231,249

33.84

5,739

28.12

2.25

North Africa

507,668

6.29

38,539

5.78

76

70,996

10.39

1,982

9.71

5.14

Africa-Middle East

9,330

.12

1,147

.17

123

720

.11

91

.45

7.93

Persian Gulf

26,082

.32

1,958

.29

75

2,721

.40

25

.12

1.28

China-
Burma-India

187,256

2.32

18,095

2.71

97

23,380

3.42

715

3.50

3.95

Total Pacific areas

1,170,251

14.50

97,678

14.64

83

133,700

19.56

5,330

26.11

5.46

 

Southwest Pacific Area

749,454

9.29

62,662

9.39

84

81,261

11.89

3,444

16.87

5.50

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

420,797

5.21

35,016

5.25

83

52,439

7.67

1,886

9.24

5.39

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

165,468

2.05

3,781

.57

23

2,926

.43

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

War Department Groups

6,598

.08

49

0

74

0

0

0

0

0

30 April 1945

Worldwide

8,248,780

100.00

671,967

100.00

82

700,304

100.00

19,752

100.00

2.94

Overseas

5,455,076

66.13

463,488

68.97

85

511,493

73.04

13,429

67.99

2.90

 

En route

50,237

.61

3,392

.50

68

6,002

.86

62

.31

1.83

 

Foreign

5,404,839

65.52

460,096

68.47

85

505,491

72.18

13,367

67.67

2.92

North America

16,935

.20

1,014

.15

60

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

38,806

.47

2,177

.32

56

5,401

.77

118

.60

5.42

Caribbean

67,169

.81

3,706

.55

55

3,895

.56

28

.14

.76

South Atlantic

2,763

.03

372

.06

135

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

3,065,505

37.16

268,798

40.00

88

258,050

36.85

5,482

27.75

2.04

North Africa

493,876

5.99

37,704

5.61

76

68,458

9.78

1,943

9.84

5.15

Africa-Middle East

11,618

.14

1,634

.24

141

799

.11

107

.54

6.55

Persian Gulf

15,793

.19

974

.14

62

1,072

.15

8

.04

.82

China-
Burma-India

198,830

2.41

19,819

2.95

100

25,360

3.62

713

3.61

3.60

Total Pacific areas

1,257,098

15.24

105,022

15.63

84

139,450

19.91

4,947

25.04

4.71

 

Southwest Pacific Area

806,128

9.77

66,416

9.88

82

82,513

11.78

3,161

16.00

4.76

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

450,970

5.47

38,606

5.75

86

56,937

8.13

1,786

9.04

4.63

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

197,670

2.40

4,688

.70

24

3,006

.43

21

.10

.45

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

25

.00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

31,609

.38

14,121

2.10

446

0

0

0

0

0

War Department Groups

7,142

.09

67

0

94

0

0

0

0

0

31 May 1945

Worldwide

8,291,336

100.00

666,710

100.00

80

694,379

100.00

19,693

100.00

2.95

Overseas

5,406,779

65.21

455,068

68.26

84

510,326

73.49

13,426

68.11

2.95

 

En route

44,373

.54

1,367

.21

31

3,313

.48

62

.31

14.54

 

Foreign

5,362,406

64.67

453,701

68.05

85

507,013

73.02

13,364

67.80

2.95

North America

15,465

.19

872

.13

56

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

38,423

.46

2,008

.30

52

5,357

.77

116

.59

5.78

Caribbean

63,132

.76

3,499

.52

55

3,312

.48

26

.13

.74

South Atlantic

2,789

.03

369

.06

132

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

3,021,483

36.44

264,487

39.67

88

254,154

36.60

5,354

27.19

2.02

North Africa

445,373

5.37

34,729

5.21

78

64,807

9.33

1,858

9.43

5.35

Africa-Middle East

12,255

.15

1,565

.23

128

675

.10

92

.47

5.88

Persian Gulf

16,063

.19

975

.15

61

1,059

.15

10

0

1.03

China-
Burma-India

199,035

2.40

20,025

3.00

100

25,217

3.63

652

3.31

3.26

Total Pacific areas

1,296,005

15.63

106,270

15.94

82

148,711

21.42

5,233

25.57

4.92

 

Southwest Pacific Area

840,171

10.13

69,276

10.39

82

86,259

12.42

3,408

17.31

4.92

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

455,834

5.50

36,994

5.55

81

62,452

8.99

1,825

9.26

4.93

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

212,909

2.57

4,766

.71

22

3,714

.53

21

.11

.44

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

27

.00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

31,939

.39

14,057

2.11

440

7

0

2

0

.01

War Department Groups

7,508

.09

79

.01

11

0

0

0

0

0

30 June 1945

Worldwide

8,266,373

100.00

663,898

100.00

80

694,818

100.00

19,674

100.00

2.96

Overseas

5,239,722

63.38

443,696

66.83

85

510,376

73.45

12,803

65.08

2.89

 

En route

81,588

.99

5,301

.80

65

12,395

1.78

72

.37

1.36

 

Foreign

5,158,134

62.40

438,395

66.03

85

497,981

71.67

12,731

64.71

2.90

North America

12,211

.15

776

.12

64

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

37,923

.46

1,935

.29

51

5,247

.76

116

.59

5.99

Caribbean

64,343

.78

3,525

.53

55

3,580

.52

26

.13

.74

South Atlantic

2,816

.03

369

.06

131

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

2,811,820

34.02

250,280

37.70

89

242,412

34.89

4,712

23.95

1.88

North Africa

404,242

4.89

33,196

5.00

82

61,957

8.92

1,798

9.14

5.42

Africa-
Middle East

11,352

.14

1,385

.21

122

807

.12

84

.43

6.06

Persian Gulf

13,547

.16

698

.11

52

167

.02

1

0

.14

China-
Burma-India

194,558

2.35

19,424

2.93

100

23,369

3.36

573

2.91

2.95

Total Pacific areas

1,328,114

16.07

107,181

16.14

81

156,376

22.51

5,400

27.45

5.04

 

Southwest Pacific Area

866,214

10.48

69,665

10.49

80

89,587

12.89

3,692

18.77

5.30

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

461,900

5.59

37,516

5.65

81

66,789

9.61

1,708

8.68

4.55

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

237,386

2.87

5,345

.81

23

4,066

.59

21

.11

.39

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

29

.00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

32,694

.40

14,202

2.14

434

0

0

0

0

0

War Department Groups

7,099

.09

79

.01

11

0

0

0

0

0

31 July 1945

Worldwide

8,186,444

100.00

659,853

100.00

81

702,758

100.00

19,995

100.00

3.03

Overseas

4,922,309

60.13

423,120

64.12

86

505,279

71.90

13,028

65.16

3.07

 

En route

59,746

.73

4,260

.64

71

5,619

.80

206

1.03

4.84

 

Foreign

4,862,563

59.40

418,860

63.48

86

499,660

71.10

12,822

64.13

3.06

North America

9,952

.12

630

.10

63

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

39,022

.48

1,959

.30

50

4,780

.68

112

.56

5.72

Caribbean

66,873

.82

3,479

.53

52

3,431

.49

28

.14

.80

South Atlantic

2,753

.03

394

.06

143

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

2,509,719

30.66

230,058

34.87

92

229,050

32.59

4,730

23.66

2.06

North Africa

351,761

4.30

29,866

4.53

85

55,927

7.96

1,583

7.92

5.30

Africa-Middle East

11,086

.14

1,336

.20

121

770

.11

85

.43

6.36

Persian Gulf

9,173

.11

496

.08

54

134

.02

0

0

0

China-
Burma-India

189,223

2.31

18,678

2.83

99

23,778

3.38

575

2.88

3.08

Total Pacific areas

1,389,010

16.97

112,725

17.08

81

178,062

25.34

5,687

28.44

5.05

 

Southwest Pacific Area

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Pacific Ocean Areas

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

242,363

2.96

5,725

.87

24

3,728

.53

22

.11

.38

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

28

.00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

34,519

.42

13,441

2.04

389

0

0

0

0

0

War Department Groups

7,081

.09

73

.01

10

0

0

0

0

0

31 August 1945

Worldwide

8,023,304

100.00

637,684

100.00

79

695,264

100.00

20,285

100.00

3.18

Overseas

4,623,365

57.62

377,072

59.14

82

475,950

68.46

12,702

62.62

3.37

 

En route

134,054

1.67

5,444

.85

41

6,879

.99

150

.74

2.76

 

Foreign

4,489,311

55.95

371,628

58.28

83

469,071

67.47

12,552

61.88

3.38

North America

7,440

.09

450

.07

60

0

0

0

0

0

Alaska

37,785

.47

1,896

.30

50

4,726

.68

106

.52

5.59

Caribbean

63,992

.80

3,592

.56

56

2,763

.40

27

.13

.75

South Atlantic

2,866

.04

398

.06

139

0

0

0

0

0

Europe

2,164,161

26.97

188,488

29.56

87

181,620

26.12

4,131

20.36

2.19

North Africa

244,656

3.05

20,456

3.21

84

43,747

6.29

1,301

6.41

6.36

Africa-Middle East

11,103

.14

1,291

.20

116

585

.08

74

.36

5.73

Persian Gulf

6,922

.09

395

.06

57

80

.01

0

0

0

China-
Burma-India

195,840

2.44

19,642

3.08

100

23,892

3.44

552

2.72

2.81

Total Pacific areas

1,458,911

18.18

116,208

18.22

80

206,512

29.70

6,330

31.21

5.45

 

Southwest Pacific Area

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

---

---

---

--

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

253,949

3.17

5,805

.91

23

5,146

.74

31

.15

5.34

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

23

.00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

34,991

.44

12,939

2.03

369

0

0

0

0

0

War Department Groups

6,672

.08

68

0

10

0

0

0

0

0


30 September 1945

Worldwide

7,564,514

100.00

593,644

10.00

79

653,563

100.00

19,328

100.00

3.26

Overseas

4,158,810

54.98

331,261

55.80

80

417,947

63.95

11,411

59.04

3.44

En route

44,456

.59

2,205

.37

50

2,343

.36

147

.76

6.67

Foreign

4,114,354

54.39

329,056

55.43

80

415,605

63.59

11,264

58.28

3.42

 

North America

4,869

.06

335

.06

69

2

0

0

0

0

 

Alaska

36,345

.48

1,825

.31

50

4,774

.73

104

.54

5.70

 

Caribbean

62,580

.83

3,491

.59

56

2,763

.42

27

.14

.77

 

South Atlantic

1,748

.02

233

.04

133

0

0

0

0

0

 

Europe

1,790,817

23.67

152,700

25.72

86

137,428

21.03

3,783

19.57

2.48

 

North Africa

189,994

2.51

15,967

2.69

84

36,047

5.52

1,009

5.22

6.32

 

Africa-Middle East

10,734

.14

1,266

.21

118

591

.09

74

.38

5.85

 

Persian Gulf

6,922

.09

395

.07

57

80

.01

0

0

0

 

China-
Burma-India

181,338

2.40

16,865

2.84

93

21,874

3.35

350

1.81

2.08

 

Total Pacific areas

1,552,303

20.52

120,300

20.26

77

206,477

31.59

5,917

30.61

4.92

 

Southwest Pacific Area

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

 

Pacific Ocean Areas

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Commanding General, Army Air Forces

240,613

3.18

5,340

.90

22

5,540

.85

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Ground Forces

20

.00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Commanding General, Army Service Forces

29,641

.39

10,280

1.73

346

29

0

0

0

0

War Department Groups

6,430

.09

59

.00

9

0

0

0

0

0


1For a statement of the territory within the areas shown, see appendix to this table.
2For all dates other than 31 March 1942, area strengths are from "Monthly Foreign Strength of the Army by Command," in "Strength of the Army," 1 Oct. 1945, pp. 62-63, except for Southwest Pacific and Pacific Ocean Areas, which are from "Strength of the Army" for dates shown or dates approximate thereto. This accounts for such failure of the strength of these two areas to equal total Pacific strength as occurs. Strength on 31 March 1942 for the Pacific (including both areas) from "Areas of Strategic Responsibility and U.S. Army Overseas Deployment, 2 April 1942"-in Matloff, Maurice, and Snell, Edwin M.: The War Department: Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare. 1941-1942. United States Army in World War II: Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953. For other areas on the same date from "Strength of the Army" or strength returns (Strength Returns by Grade, WD AGO Form No. 323) from departments and bases for the same date (records of AGO Statistical and Control Branch). These have been used because of double counting of certain personnel and other errors in data for 31 March 1942 shown in the time series mentioned. Worldwide strength from "Monthly Strength of the Army Continental United States" and "Monthly Foreign Strength of the Army Foreign and In Route" in "Strength of the Army," 1 Oct. 1945, except for 31 March 1942 which has been corrected in accordance with the changes made with respect to oversea areas. (The strength on the same date as reported in "Strength of the Army," 1 Jan. 1947 was 2,387,746.)
3Worldwide strength for 31 July 1941 based on data of The Adjutant General's Office supplied by the Army Comptroller's Office, January 1956; based on table for 30 November 1941-30 September 1945, from table 1. Data for China-Burma-India for March 1942 represent the troop and Medical Department strength of the 7th Bombardment Group and the 51st Fighter Group, Army Air Forces, which arrived in Karachi on 12 March 1942; all other area strengths prior to October 1943 as well as, partly, for April 1944 from strength returns (Strength Returns by Grade, WD AGO Form No. 323, 1 July 1941, No. 323, 1 Nov. 1941, and No. 323A, 1 Jan. 1943) from departments and bases (records of the AGO Statistical and Control Branch) for corresponding dates; for October 1943-September 1945, except as noted, from "Strength of the Army." Since, in virtually all instances, the oversea strengths shown are those used by the Office of The Adjutant General in compiling its worldwide figures, the differences between the worldwide strengths of the Medical Department as stated by the Office of The Surgeon General and The Adjutant General's Office (table 1) are attributed almost exclusively to the Zone of Interior. This is justified by the fact that the variation between the two sets of figures arose primarily through differences in methods of recording movement in and out of the Army, a process which mainly affected the continental United States. It should be noted, nevertheless, that the medical strengths credited to the oversea areas by the Office of The Adjutant General rarely agreed with the strengths as stated by the oversea Medical Department authorities, who charged that the War Department was wont to credit them with a strength greater than that which they actually possessed. (Unrecorded interview, Medical Department historian with Ralph Casteel, Veterans' Administration, April 1953.)
4Worldwide strength for 31 July and 30 November 1941 from "Strength of the Army" for corresponding dates. Strengths for other dates from "Monthly Negro Strength of the Army," "Strength of the Army," 1 Jan. 1945, p. 47; and "Quarterly and Monthly Negro Strength of the Army," "Strength of the Army," 1 Jan. 1946. Area strengths from "Strength of the Army" and other sources of area strength shown in footnote 3.
5From sources of area strengths shown in footnote 3.


366

APPENDIX TO TABLE 31

From the geographic point of view, the data in this table are organized for the most part in accordance with the scheme used in the time series entitled "Monthly Foreign Strength of the Army by Command," in "Strength of the Army," 1 Oct. 1945, pp. 62-63. This time series purports to show the troop strength of each major geographic command, except the China and India-Burma theaters, existing at that time from a date which, in a number of cases, is as early as July 1941. This disregards the fact that some of the commands listed were not even in existence at certain periods in which a strength is attributed to them; in other words, the strength shown, with some exceptions, is that of the area later covered by the command in question. The Persian Gulf Command, although it was once part of the Middle East theater is always treated separately, and the strength of the Africa-Middle East theater is correspondingly reduced for the period when the Persian Gulf was within its jurisdiction. Similarly, Iceland is credited to the Eastern Service Command for all dates despite the fact that for a time it was in the European Theater of Operations. However, China and India-Burma, although separate commands at the time of publication of the time series, nevertheless are grouped together therein. Furthermore, the principle of geographic consistency had not been uniformly observed. For example, contrary to the practice adopted in the case of Iceland, southern France, although credited to the Mediterranean theater for the period prior to 1 November 1944, is subsequently allotted to the European theater. Similarly, North Africa is attributed to the North African-Mediterranean theater before 1 March 1945 and, thereafter, to the Africa-Middle East theater.

To the categories as established in the time series, a breakdown of the Pacific into Southwest Pacific Area and Pacific Ocean Areas has been added to take account of the fact that throughout almost the entire period covered, the Pacific area was divided among more than one command. As used in this and other tables, the Southwest Pacific Area includes the Philippines before the entrance of the United States into the war as well as the territory subject to the jurisdiction of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East subsequent to that event. The Pacific Ocean Areas include all commands of the Pacific independent of the Southwest Pacific Area. Under this arrangement, the strength of certain commands subject to the South Pacific command which were transferred to the Southwest Pacific in 1944 is first credited to the Pacific Ocean Areas and subsequently to the Southwest Pacific. In contrast to the handling of the Pacific, personnel in Iceland and areas subject to some commands in the Western Hemisphere have been combined into a North American group which contains, besides elements in the Northwest Service and Eastern Defense Commands not serving in the continental United States, personnel in every part of that hemisphere outside Alaska, the Caribbean, and the South Atlantic. (As used in the tables, the Caribbean comprehends the Antilles, Trinidad, Aruba, British Guiana, Panama, Venezuela, and Peru, and the South Atlantic includes not only Brazil but also Ascension. Both Bermuda and the Bahamas are counted as part of North America.)

In accordance with the time series noted above and other sources used in the preparation of table 40, certain of the personnel stationed in oversea areas are credited in the table to commands existing in the Zone of Interior; that is, the War Department as a whole, the Army Service Forces, the Army Air Forces. The War Department groups, consisting of members of military missions as well as other personnel, are so credited from the earliest date shown. In the case of the Air Forces, on the other hand, the practice was not adopted until May 1944. As a result of the change, some of the figures shown in the table for the for the period beginning with 31 July 1944 are not entirely comparable with corresponding figures for earlier dates. Beginning with that of the change, some of the figures shown in the table for the period beginning with 31 July 1944 are not entirely comparable with corresponding figures for earlier dates. Beginning with that date, the Air Transport  Command and a much smaller group of other personnel are charged to the Commanding General, Army Air Forces; whereas, at earlier dates, they are included in the strength of the areas where they were stationed. Their subtraction from the strength of these areas increases the medical troop ratios of each area, since Air Forces troops contained a lower proportion of medical troops than did the Army in general (see table 39). While the change has only a negligible effect on the rates of large theaters, it results in marked alterations of the rates of small theaters such as the South Atlantic and Africa-Middle East where the number of troops lost sometimes exceeds those that remain. Much can be done to restore the comparability of the data by adding for each date after April 1944 shown above the strength of the Air Transport Command in each area to the Army strength for that area. This has been done in the table entitled "Adjusted Medical Department Strength in Individual Oversea Areas" below, and the result is there referred to as "Adjusted Strength-Total." To compute a medical ratio for


367

this adjusted strength-total, the medical strength of each area as reported above also must be increased by the amount of medical personnel among the Air Transport Command troops. This in most cases is unknown. For the sake of adjustment, however, it has been assumed that it is the same proportion of the Air Transport Command strength as the medical strength under the Commanding General, Army Air Forces shown in the table above for the particular date is of the entire oversea personnel under his command. Considerable justification for this procedure exists in the fact that the Air Transport Command constituted a very substantial proportion of this strength. Although the proportion declined, the rate did not change materially. The percentages of the total strength held by the Air Transport Command were as follows: 

1944:

July

62

October

60

1945:

January

52

April

46

May

47

June

48

July

47

August

40

September

41


Based on data from "Strength of the Army" for relevant dates.

It is of course entirely arbitrary to assume that the ratio of medical personnel to Air Transport Command strength was the same in every area, but the fact that these rates were generally low reduces the amount of influence that errors arising as a result of the procedure followed may have on the adjusted rates shown below. Nevertheless, neither these rates nor the medical strengths on which they are based can be assumed to be more than approximations to the true ones. For example, the medical strength of the Air Transport Command in the South Atlantic on 31 August 1945 is known to have been 191, whereas the figure reached by the procedure described here is 140. The medical strength ratio of the area, using the figure 191, therefore is 66 per 1,000 troops rather than 60 per 1,000 as shown below. On 31 March 1945, the medical strength of the Air Transport Command in the same theater was 72 per 1,000, and if the same total existed on 30 April 1945, the strength ratio on that date was 88 per 1,000; the figure stated below is 84 per 1,000. (For the medical strength of the Air Transport Command in the South Atlantic see Medical History World War II, U.S. Army Forces, South Atlantic, p. 56. [official record.])

Personnel outside the Zone of Interior who were under the direct jurisdiction of the Commanding General of the Army Service Forces or the Army Ground Forces are reported separately beginning in April 1945. In the case of the former, at least, the personnel so reported were not hitherto reported as part of the strength of any oversea area. They consisted of the personnel operating hospital ships and troop transports navigating between oversea areas and the Zone of Interior. As may be seen, medical personnel constituted a very substantial proportion of this group. In order to make the oversea strength of the Army and the Medical Department for the period after March 1945 comparable with the strength prior to that time, the following adjustments of the percentages of each group overseas are necessary:

Date

Army

Medical Department

30 Apr. 1945

65.75

66.87

31 May 1945

64.82

66.15

30 June 1945

62.99

64.69

31 July 1945

59.71

62.09

31 Aug. 1945

57.19

57.10

30 Sept. 1945

54.59

54.07



368-370

Appendix to Table 31-Continued

Adjusted Medical Department strength in individual oversea areas, 31 July 1944-30 September 1945


371

Distribution by Corps and Groups

Overall percentage statistics for Medical Department personnel serving overseas in nowise give a true picture of Medical Department activities overseas inasmuch as percentages varied widely among corps and between officers and enlisted men (charts 5, 6, and 7, and tables 31 and 32). For example, enlisted men constituted more than 80 percent of the strength of the medical service overseas (table 5); whereas, the maximum percentage of Medical Department officers stationed overseas at any time was only about 56 percent, in January and April 1945, making the percentage of the entire Medical Department approximately 58 percent (April 1945). And in the officer corps, the percentage of medical officers and nurses was considerably higher than that of Medical Department officers as a whole, being 60.8 percent in the case of medical officers (April 1945) and 63.3 percent in case of nurses (January 1945). The corresponding percentage of the Medical Administrative Corps was about equal to that of the entire officer group, but in all the remaining officer components, the percentage was lower. In the Dental Corps, the maximum was 48.3 percent reached in May 1945, a percentage that reflected both an actual increase in the number of dentists overseas and a decline in their worldwide strength (tables 1 and 32). As for the Veterinary Corps, its oversea strength failed to reach 35 percent.

CHART 5.-Percent of total Army and Medical Department strength, in oversea areas, on selected dates, 1941-45


372

CHART 6.-Percent of total Army strength and Medical Department officers, by corps (Medical, Dental, Veterinary, and Medical Administrative), in oversea areas, on selected dates, 1941-45

CHART 7.-Percent of total Army strength and Medical Department officers, by corps (Sanitary and Army Nurse), and Hospital Dietitians and Physical Therapists, in oversea areas, on selected dates, 1941-45


373-379

TABLE 32.-Oversea strength of the Medical Department corps and other officer components, 31 July 1941-30 September 1945

Date

Strength1

Percent of worldwide corps strength2

Rate per 1,000 troops3

Medical Corps

1941

31 July

521

---

3.84

30 November

779

6.9

4.72

1942

31 March

1,804

14.5

5.50

30 June

3,611

20.1

6.00

30 September

4,945

15.8

6.01

1943

31 January

7,462

20.6

6.66

30 April

9,424

25.6

6.73

31 July

11,068

28.3

6.22

31 October

13,209

32.9

5.90

1944

31 January

16,631

39.7

5.91

30 April

20,393

47.0

5.74

31 July

22,648

51.4

5.53

31 October

24,835

54.1

5.36

1945

31 January

26,456

56.3

5.16

30 April

28,457

60.8

5.22

31 May

27,639

50.0

5.11

30 June

26,849

57.6

5.12

31 July

24,790

51.6

5.04

31 August

21,755

46.3

4.71

30 September

19,135

42.5

4.60

Dental Corps

1941

31 July

135

---

0.99

30 November

175

5.6

1.06

1942

31 March

286

8.3

.87

30 June

535

11.2

.89

30 September

798

9.5

.97

1943

31 January

1,273

12.8

1.14

30 April

1,642

15.3

1.17

31 July

1,910

15.0

1.07

31 October

2,556

18.5

1.14

1944

31 January

3,301

23.3

1.17

30 April

4,167

28.2

1.17

31 July

4,858

32.5

1.19

31 October

5,577

36.8

1.20

1945

31 January

6,264

42.0

1.22

30 April

7,080

48.0

1.30

31 May

7,103

48.3

1.31

30 June

6,919

46.8

1.32

31 July

6,576

45.9

1.34

31 August

6,190

43.9

1.34

30 September

5,334

38.8

1.28

Veterinary Corps

1941

31 July

38

---

0.30

30 November

37

5.3

.22

1942

31 March

45

5.6

.14

30 June

64

6.7

.11

30 September

97

6.9

.12

1943

31 January

152

9.7

.14

30 April

250

14.3

.18

31 July

298

16.0

.18

31 October

338

17.2

.15

1944

31 January

471

24.1

.17

30 April

542

26.9

.15

31 July

594

28.7

.15

31 October

602

30.2

.13

1945

31 January

675

33.0

.12

30 April

707

34.7

.12

31 May

705

34.4

.13

30 June

693

34.0

.13

31 July

657

32.0

.13

31 August

629

30.4

.14

30 September

594

29.1

.14

Sanitary Corps

1941

31 July

2

---

0.01

30 November

8

3.0

.05

1942

31 March

11

3.5

.03

30 June

25

3.9

.04

30 September

47

4.8

.06

1943

31 January

79

6.4

.07

30 April

167

10.7

.12

31 July

263

14.0

.15

31 October

394

18.7

.18

1944

31 January

538

23.9

.19

30 April

718

31.4

.20

31 July

1,080

42.9

.26

31 October

1,071

43.8

.23

1945

31 January

1,233

49.2

0.24

30 April

1,321

51.6

.24

31 May

1,288

50.3

.24

30 June

1,272

50.0

.24

31 July

1,253

49.7

.25

31 August

1,163

46.7

.25

30 September

1,039

43.4

.25

Medical Administrative Corps

1941

31 July

43

---

0.32

30 November

64

5.1

.39

1942

31 March

129

7.4

.39

30 June

403

18.4

.67

30 September

590

16.2

.72

1943

31 January

1,037

13.8

.93

30 April

1,539

15.0

1.10

31 July

2,003

15.9

1.13

31 October

2,921

21.1

1.30

1944

31 January

3,746

24.9

1.33

30 April

4,980

33.4

1.40

31 July

6,296

41.8

1.54

31 October

7,782

50.2

1.68

1945

31 January

9,250

51.5

1.81

30 April

10,768

56.5

1.97

31 May

10,936

56.4

2.02

30 June

10,828

55.3

2.07

31 July

10,426

52.5

2.12

31 August

9,708

48.9

2.10

30 September

8,692

44.4

2.09

Pharmacy Corps

1941

31 July

---

---

---

30 November

---

---

---

1942

31 March

---

---

---

30 June

---

---

---

30 September

---

---

---

1943

31 January

---

---

---

30 April

---

---

---

31 July

---

---

---

31 October

4

6.9

0.001

1944

31 January

6

10.3

.002

30 April

9

15.5

.002

31 July

6

10.7

.001

31 October

10

16.7

.002

1945

31 January

16

23.9

.003

30 April

25

35.7

.004

31 May

21

35.0

.003

30 June

22

37.9

.004

31 July

23

40.4

.004

31 August

22

32.4

.004

30 September

21

34.4

.005

Army Nurse Corps

1941

31 July

236

---

1.74

30 November

349

5.1

2.11

1942

31 March

1,306

10.2

3.98

30 June

2,880

16.7

4.79

30 September

3,803

19.0

4.62

1943

31 January

5,778

24.5

5.16

30 April

7,647

27.7

5.46

31 July

9,649

31.4

5.42

31 October

13,203

37.0

5.90

1944

31 January

16,958

44.3

6.02

30 April

20,958

51.1

5.90

31 July

22,735

56.8

5.55

31 October

25,433

61.5

5.49

1945

31 January

27,170

63.3

5.30

30 April

28,546

54.9

5.23

31 May

28,842

53.3

5.33

30 June

27,966

51.5

5.34

31 July

28,127

50.5

5.71

31 August

25,499

45.6

5.52

30 September

22,445

42.4

5.40

Hospital Dietitians

1941

31 July

---

---

---

30 November

---

---

---

1942

31 March

---

---

---

30 June

---

---

---

30 September

---

---

---

1943

31 January

---

---

---

30 April

64

11.2

0.05

31 July

117

15.9

.07

31 October

185

19.2

.08

1944

31 January

326

29.6

0.12

30 April

432

36.2

.12

31 July

552

43.0

.13

31 October

631

44.9

.14

1945

31 January

680

46.3

.13

30 April

749

49.3

.14

31 May

757

48.8

.14

30 June

782

50.3

.15

31 July

698

44.2

.14

31 August

628

39.7

.14

30 September

538

34.3

.13

Physical Therapists

1941

31 July

---

---

---

30 November

---

---

---

1942

31 March

---

---

---

31 June

---

---

---

30 September

---

---

---

1943

31 January

---

---

---

30 April

48

15.3

0.03

31 July

93

21.5

.05

31 October

145

29.2

.06

1944

31 January

241

43.1

.09

30 April

300

46.6

.08

31 July

371

47.4

.09

31 October

468

50.6

.10

1945

31 January

512

47.4

0.10

30 April

539

46.4

.10

31 May

546

45.9

.10

30 June

521

43.7

.10

31 July

514

40.2

.10

31 August

431

32.9

.09

30 September

414

32.4

.10


1From sources for oversea data shown in table 31, footnote 3. Revised oversea strength data for nurses published by the Office of The Adjutant General ("Monthly Strength of the Army Foreign and En Route," Strength of the Army, 1 Oct. 1945, p. 59) show the following variations from corresponding strengths stated here: July 1941, 253; November 1941, 463; March 1942, 2,689; June 1942, 4,406; and July 1944, 22,807. Since the same source reveals a decline between June 1942 and July 1942 to 2,608 and a failure to equal the June figure until 30 November 1942, at least some of these figures may be regarded with considerable skepticism.
2Worldwide corps strength on 31 July 1941 from "Strength of the Army"; available for nurses only. Worldwide strength for subsequent dates is strength stated in table 1.
3For troop strength, see table 31.


380

A major factor in the variation of oversea strength was the changing of requirements, both in the Zone of Interior and overseas, as the war progressed. During the middle part of the war, specifically, much of 1943, the proportion of Medical Department officers overseas was higher than the proportion of the Department strength as a whole. Toward the end of the conflict, when large numbers of battle casualties began to be concentrated in the Zone of Interior, this situation was reversed. This was particularly true after V-E Day as the numbers of bed patients overseas decreased rapidly.

In addition, the Zone of Interior was responsible for the final, definitive type of treatment for many patients which required highly trained professional personnel and for rendering the new inductees physically fit for military duty. Since the Zone of Interior was the source of most of the manpower supply, it presumably had more control over distribution, particularly the movement of Medical Department officers abroad. When the dental standards were lowered after Pearl Harbor, a higher proportion of its personnel was retained in the Zone of Interior.1 (See tables 1 and 32.)

The inspection activities pertinent to food procurement also were largely confined to the continental United States, this area being the major source of food for the Army. Although more animals were used overseas than in the Zone of Interior for transporting supplies, the theaters did not require enough veterinary officers for animal care to counterbalance the domestic need for these same officers in food inspection work.2 As a result, the oversea contingent of the Veterinary Corps, proportionately speaking, was smaller than that of any other Medical Department group.

The extent to which various elements could be sent overseas also was controlled to some degree by the number of replacements available. In the case of enlisted personnel, civilians, prisoners of war, and other military personnel could release many for oversea assignments. However, uncertainties in the supply of local extra-Army labor made it impossible to withhold shipments of enlisted men to the oversea areas to the extent that the actual use of substitute labor might have permitted. Furthermore, it is unlikely that savings in enlisted men would have redounded very much to the benefit of the Zone of Interior medical service; the men probably would have been transferred to other branches of the Army.

Civilian registered nurses, cadet nurses, nurses' aides, members of the Women's Army Corps, and enlisted personnel made possible the oversea shipments of nurses to care for the rapidly increasing number of bed patients. The availability of Medical Administrative Corps officers as battalion surgeon's assistants and executive officers for certain types of medical units and installa-

1Foster, William B.: History of the Medical Department, World War II, Physical Standards, 1946. [Official record.]
2Information from Lt. Col. E. B. Miller, VC, 22 Dec. 1953.


381

tions may explain similar phenomena in the Medical Corps.3 Medical Administrative Corps members, on the other hand, also were in demand in oversea areas, and when the Zone of Interior was unable to supply these areas with such officers late in the war, direct commissioning overseas proved to be one solution.

The groups which remained most closely bound to the Zone of Interior were those for which replacements probably were most difficult to find. This is perhaps especially true in the case of dentists and sanitary engineers. Yet, this is not the sole explanation for their failure to move abroad to a greater extent. The feasibility of utilizing female personnel in certain oversea areas was seriously questioned at times.4 In the European and North African theaters, nurses habitually moved with their units into forward areas. In certain others, however, the theater commanders were reluctant to permit women either in combat areas or in those wherein material comforts were few. Such opposition does not seem to have reduced the percentage of nurses overseas to a marked degree, for even if they did not accompany their units into the more forward positions, they generally were permitted to enter the theaters.

In the case of physical therapists and dietitians, the difficulties of getting overseas were greater. They were assigned mainly to rear areas (that is, in general and station hospitals and, in the case of dietitians, a few evacuation hospitals). Again, the utilization of this personnel overseas was questioned at times.

The buildup overseas of Sanitary Corps officers was slow in some theaters due to lack of appreciation of the need for men of their skills.5 About 60 percent of the entomologists and 50 percent of the sanitary engineers served in oversea theaters at sometime during the war.6

The inability of the Zone of Interior authorities to furnish medical officers in sufficient numbers forced table-of-organization changes which were mainly responsible for the increasing use of Medical Administrative Corps officers overseas during the course of the war.7 Although some opposition to such use

3The proportion of medical officers to troops in oversea areas began to exceed the corresponding worldwide ratio when Medical Administrative Corps officers emerged in great numbers from the officer candidate schools.
4
(1) Vogel, Emma E.: Physical Therapists of the Medical Department, United States Army. [Official record.] (2) Medical Department Dietitians, Middle Pacific and Pacific Ocean Areas. [Official record.] (3) Physical Therapy History of Pacific Ocean Areas and Middle Pacific. [Official record.] (4) Berger, Florence M.: History of the Medical Department Dietetics Service in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, 1942-45. [Official record.] (5) Stone, James H.: History of the Army Nurses, Physical Therapists, and Hospital Dietitians in India and Burma. [Official record.] (6) Letters, Col. Emma E. Vogel, USA (Ret.) to Col. John B. Coates, Jr., MC, Director, Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, 28 Mar. 1956, and November 1957.
5
(1) Annual Report, Surgeon, 1st Infantry Division, 1944. (2) Hardenbergh, William A.: Water Purification. In Medical Department, United States Army. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume II. Environmental Hygiene. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955.
6Hardenbergh, W. A.: Organization and Administration of Sanitary Engineering Division. [Official record.] (This may indicate a greater appreciation of the need for Sanitary Corps men in malaria control than in other phases of Medical Department work.)
7Letter, Col. David E. Liston, to Col. John B. Coates, Jr., MC, Director, Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, 5 Jan. 1956.


382 

was encountered, the employment of members of this corps in many positions, including that of battalion surgeon's assistant, gained widespread approbation in oversea areas.8 Indeed, the Fifth U.S. Army surgeon was instrumental in having the use of Medical Administrative Corps officers as battalion surgeon's assistants extended to infantry regimental medical detachments and to medical detachments of tank battalions, rather than confining the use of these officers to units less exposed to battle losses.9 The fact that commanders overseas were able to promote enlisted men to commissioned status in the corps also tended to increase the number of such officers overseas.

In the final analysis, therefore, it would appear that the strength overseas of these groups was largely limited by their basic overall numbers and by the fixed requirements in the Zone of Interior. The nonacceptance of certain groups, such as female personnel, was in all probability only a minor contributing factor to the size of the oversea shipments.

Regional Strength Overseas

By and large, Medical Department personnel were assigned overseas in the same proportion as Army personnel in general (table 31). In fact, the difference between the percentages of the total Army strength and the total Medical Department strength in an area rarely equaled 4 points and ordinarily was no more than 1 point. The largest concentration of Medical Department strength outside the continental United States existed in the great combat theaters-the North African-Mediterranean theater, the Central and South Pacific or Pacific Ocean Areas, the Southwest Pacific, and, above all, the European theater. Each of these major combat theaters had at least 5 percent of the entire Medical Department strength; in the case of the European theater, it was 40 percent. The China-Burma-India theater obtained no more than 3.08 percent, and no other region attained more than 2 percent. This was true even though that area as well as Alaska and the Africa-Middle East region had some combat history.

Respecting the relation of Medical Department strength to total troop strength, the pattern among the oversea areas was much less simple. Three small theaters, all in the Western Hemisphere-North America, Alaska, and the Caribbean-were consistently fairly low in the proportion of medical

8(1) Report, Lt. Col. Stewart F. Alexander, Personnel Officer, Surgeon's Office, Seventh U.S. Army, of Medical Department Activities in Mediterranean Theater of Operations, 14 July 1945. (2) See footnote 5(1), p. 381. (3) Annual Report, Surgeon, 44th Infantry Division, 1944. (4) Semiannual Report, 515th Clearing Company, January-June 1945. (5) Unfavorable reactions are contained in (a) Letter, Brig. Gen. F. A. Blesse, Surgeon, North African Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, to Maj. Gen. N. T. Kirk, The Surgeon General, 17 Nov. 1943; (b) Letter, Maj. Gen. M. C. Stayer, Surgeon, North African Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, to Maj. Gen. N. T. Kirk, The Surgeon General, 3 Sept. 1944; and (c) Annual Report, 54th Medical Battalion, 1944.
9Smith, Clarence McKittrick: The Medical Department: Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior. United States Army in World War II. The Technical Services. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1956.


383

personnel. On the other hand, the China-Burma-India region frequently maintained a high percentage during most of 1943, the proportion being far in excess of that characterizing any other area.10

In 1943 and the first part of 1944, the proportions in two other small theaters, that is, Africa-Middle East and the Persian Gulf, generally were among the higher ones, and in January 1944, the proportion in the former theater was highest among those in all theaters. Even the small South Atlantic theater attained high proportions of medical personnel at times; in mid-1944 it probably had a higher proportion than that of any other region. The major theaters seldom had the highest ratios of medical personnel to troop strength but the Southwest Pacific was an exception to this rule. For most of the earlier war period it held the leadership in this respect. In the earlier part of 1943 the proportion of medical troops in the European theater increased greatly as a result of the shipment of combat forces. This proportion was not long maintained but was approached again as the preparations for the invasion of the Continent were accelerated. After the middle of 1944, the European theater replaced the Southwest Pacific in having the highest ratio of medical personnel to troop strength in a major combat theater. This was the result not only of an increase in the European theater, but also of a decline in that of the Southwest Pacific. The primary reason for the decline in that theater was a shift in jurisdiction over personnel in the Northern Solomons and in Emirau from the South Pacific to the Southwest Pacific.11 The shift involved a much greater proportion of the general troop strength of the South Pacific than of the medical strength of that area.

The North African theater, except in the early stages of the Italian campaign, almost invariably had a lower proportion than the general oversea rate until after hostilities ceased in Europe. The shift of jurisdiction over southern France from the North African to the European theater in November 1944 helped to keep the proportion down, for it involved the transfer of a greater proportion of medical than of nonmedical personnel. On the other hand, the Mediterranean theater gained slightly when it lost control over North Africa to the Africa-Middle East theater as of 1 March 1945.12 At that time, it gave up proportionately more nonmedical than medical personnel with a resultant sharp decline in the proportion in the theater which acquired the most personnel.

Like the Mediterranean theater, the Pacific Ocean Areas rarely attained a proportion of medical troops which was as high as that maintained by the oversea regions combined. The proportion, however, was considerably greater in 1944 and in 1945 than it had been earlier, this partly resulted from the

10This percentage rate was in relation to the strength of U.S. troops alone. The American forces also were supporting a large body of Chinese troops.
11Monthly Summary of Operations, June 1944, General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area.
12Vickery, Eugene L.: History of the Medical Section, Africa-Middle East Theater, September 1941-September 1945.


384

TABLE 33.-Authorized allotment of Medical Department of officers to oversea areas (less Reserve officers assigned to duty with the Air Corps) for the fiscal year 1942

Area

Medical  
Corps

Dental  
Corps

Veterinary Corps

Sanitary  
Corps

Medical Administrative Corps

Alaska

124

20

2

0

2

Puerto Rico

76

20

4

2

2

Panama

176

37

9

2

6

Hawaii 

130

39

6

2

14

Philippines 

114

28

12

2

11


Source: Letter, The Adjutant General, War Department, to the Commanding Generals, All Overseas Departments and Alaskan Defense Command, 16 Aug. 1941, subject: Allotment of Officers for Overseas Departments and Alaska, Fiscal Year 1942.

transfer of some of its personnel to the jurisdiction of the Southwest Pacific already noted (table 31).13

At no time did anyone in the Zone of Interior or in the oversea areas either attempt to establish a quota for medical officers in the theaters or determine the proper proportion of medical strength to overall troop strength. Prior to Pearl Harbor, officers were assigned overseas by the War Department General Staff or, in the case of Air Corps personnel, by the Chief of the Army Air Corps.14 Throughout the war, Medical Department officers were assigned to the Panama Canal, Puerto Rican, Hawaiian, and Philippine Departments and the Alaskan Defense Command on much the same basis (table 33), but in the combat theaters, the strength of the Medical Department components was based directly on the number and types of table-of-organization units which in turn determined the overall strength of the theater. Basically, therefore, the medical strength of each theater depended on decisions of the Zone of Interior authorities and the theater commander as to how many units containing medical personnel should be allocated to it. These decisions were largely controlled by the demands of the missions of the armies in the areas and the medical needs created by the local environment in competition with requirements of other areas. To some extent, however, willingness of the War Department to provide units was dependent upon the arguments and powers of persuasion of the theater Medical Department authorities themselves.15

13The unadjusted rate of the Pacific Ocean Areas was 82 per 1,000 on 31 May 1944. (Basic data from "Strength of Foreign Commands by Arms and Services as of 31 May 1944," in "Strength of the Army," 31 May 1944, p. 15.) By 31 July 1944, it had increased to 87.
14Memorandum, War Department General Staff, G-1, for The Adjutant General, 28 July 1941, subject: Allotment of Officers for Oversea Departments and Alaska, Fiscal Year 1942.
15These factors are more germane to the volumes on oversea medical service now in preparation in the Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, than to the present work and will be scarcely more than alluded to here.


385

TABLE 34.-Estimated table-of-organization strength of attached medical personnel and divisional medical battalions in oversea areas, 30 September 19441

Area

Total

Ground Forces

Service Forces

Air Forces

Strength

Rate per 1,000 troops

Strength

Rate per 1,000 
troops

Strength

Rate per 1,000 
troops

Strength

Rate per 1,000 
troops

North America

172

5

0

0

55

2

117

3

Alaska

988

15

586

9

238

4

164

2

Caribbean

983

14

763

1

14

0.2

206

3

South Atlantic

15

3

0

0

15

3

0

0

Europe

41,507

20

29,560

14

5,088

2

6,859

3

North Africa

14,274

20

11,351

16

1,572

2

1,351

2

Africa-Middle East

30

2

0

0

0

0

30

2

Persian Gulf

199

7

23

0.8

176

6

0

0

China-Burma-India

2,376

14

669

4

260

2

1,447

8

Southwest Pacific Area

18,558

27

14,906

21

1,447

2

2,205

3

Pacific Ocean Areas

10,554

25

9,343

22

531

1

680

2

Total

89,656

21

67,201

16

9,396

2

13,059

3


1Data are based on the summaries of various types of units in the theaters on 30 September 1944 shown in "Troop List for Operations and Supply, 1 October 1944." In ascertaining the medical strength, it was not always possible to discover a table-of-organization corresponding to that shown on the list; therefore, another table (prior to 30 September 1944) was used in such cases. This probably resulted in some errors, but it is believed that the errors were on the side of conservatism. Rates are based on adjusted troop strength as shown in table 31.

The theater medical authorities had nothing to say about the nonmedical units having medical troops, that is, attached medical personnel and, in the case of combat divisions, organic medical battalions, as well as the attached medical personnel. Naturally, this element of strength was greatest in the combat zones (table 34), where ground force troops predominated (table 35).16 At the height of the war, this personnel constituted a quarter of the entire oversea medical strength.

The medical units that were not an organic part of the combat units accounted for the majority of the medical strength in virtually all theaters (table 36). In certain theaters, at times, these units were larger proportionately than all units containing medical personnel in other theaters.

While surgeons at various levels of command had considerable latitude in obtaining Medical Department personnel, they were influenced to a large extent by the requirements for medical service created by the mission of the

16As of 30 September 1944, in oversea areas, medical troops accounted for 15 per 1,000 Air Forces, 11 per 1,000 Service Forces, and 37 per 1,000 Ground Forces troops. (For the medical strength, see table 34; for the troop strength of the various major commands, see "Troop List for Operations and Supply, 1 Oct. 1945." The troop strengths exclude personnel of the Air Transport Command and other personnel not subject to the jurisdiction of the theater commanders.)


386

TABLE 35.-Percentage distribution of Army strength among ground-, air-, and service-type units and overhead in theaters of operations, 30 September 1944

Area

Air Forces

Ground Forces

Service Forces

Overhead

North America

24

30

24

23

Alaska

22

37

24

18

Caribbean

22

53

14

11

South Atlantic

35

12

16

37

Europe

22

50

22

6

North Africa

25

48

23

5

Middle East

24

11

49

17

Persian Gulf

2

30

63

5

China-Burma-India

45

23

23

9

Southwest Pacific Area

25

52

20

3

Pacific Ocean Areas

15

58

21

6


Source: Troop List for Operations and Supply, 1 Oct. 1944.

Army in each area and the environment of that area. In this connection, the amount of hospital service that the Medical Department was expected to provide in a particular region was of utmost importance. The personnel assigned to hospital establishments constituted the vast bulk of the strength of Medical Department units. This accounted for the high proportion of medical personnel in the South Atlantic and the China-Burma-India areas in the late war period, and for the increase in the proportion in the European theater (table 36).

Hospital strength was influenced in turn by such factors as combat missions, anticipated disease rates, and the presence of special groups for which the Medical Department was required to provide medical care. Hence, it is not difficult to see why most of the American theaters, with low disease rates and limited combat duties or none at all, were consistently low in their total medical strength.17 The high disease rates in the China-Burma-India area and the obligations of the Medical Department to personnel of the Chinese military forces also explain the high proportion in that region.18

17Although Alaska was a combat theater until the middle of 1943, both the preparations for combat in that region and the hospitalization of casualties were handled to a large extent in the Zone of Interior. See McNeil, Gordon H.: History of the Medical Department in Alaska in World War II. [Official record.] In September 1944, nevertheless, Alaska had an unusually large proportion of hospital personnel (table 36).
18(1) Smith, Robert S.: A History of the Attempt of the U.S. Army Medical Department To Improve the Efficiency of the Chinese Army Medical Service. [Official record.] (2) Medical Department, United States Army. Organization and Administration in World War II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963.

CHAPTER XI, PART II