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Preface

Contents

Preface

This is the second volume of the history of internal medicine in World War II. In the preface of the first volume, which contains the reports of the medical consultants, is recounted the story of the development of the organization that ultimately produced the history. Attention was called to the early enthusiastic efforts of Brig. Gen. Hugh J. Morgan and Colonels Walter Bauer, John S. Hunt, and Francis R. Dieuaide to implement its writing and to the subsequent formation of the Advisory Editorial Board, early in 1952, under the chairmanship of Dr. Garfield G. Duncan and under the overall direction of Col. Calvin H. Goddard, MC, then Editor in Chief of the history of the "Medical Department, U.S. Army, in World War II" and Director, The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service. An editorial office was established at The Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, and Dr. W. Paul Havens, Jr., of that institution, was made Editorial Director. Col. John Boyd Coates, Jr., MC, succeeded Colonel Goddard as Editor in Chief of the history and Director of The Historical Unit.

This volume is concerned with the clinical descriptions of certain infectious diseases and brings into sharp focus their impacts on military activities under a variety of circumstances in many different parts of the world. Viral, rickettsial, bacterial, and protozoal infections are discussed, and these chapters constitute a record of the great and unique experience of our Armed Forces with a variety of infectious diseases in a small block of time. The chemotherapeutic triumph of the sulfonamides in meningococcal infections is recorded here. The great diversity of effects of various infections on military activities is described, ranging from the relatively unimportant role of neurotropic virus diseases to the vast loss of time caused by respiratory diseases, sandfly fever, and malaria. Again and again, in almost every chapter in this volume, appear the results of investigations initiated either by the Armed Forces or by the various commissions working under their aegis.

Of necessity, there is overlapping of the material contained in this book and in volume I. However, in contrast to the more general aspects of various medical problems described by the consultants in the first volume, the chapters in this book were based on the observations of many medical officers and were written by physicians directly concerned with the responsibilities for the care of patients and the clinical investigations of their diseases. These men, peers in their fields, were able to combine insight, judgment, and experience in such a way that the chapters in this book rank as outstanding records of clinical achievement. The lapse of more than 15 years between the experiences recounted here and their publication in this volume does not detract from their value or interest. Actually, much of this material has


long since appeared in our medical journals, but this book serves to bring it together in its proper relationship with place and time in history. The delay in publication is not unprecedented, since both the "Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion" and "The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War" appeared several years after the termination of the Civil War and World War I.

For those who are concerned with military medical history, it is of interest to note that World War II was the first great conflict in which fewer of our troops died of disease than of battle injuries and wounds. In the Civil War, there were among Union troops approximately 360,000 deaths, and of these, about 225,000 were caused by various diseases. Among the Confederate troops, it was estimated that there were not less than 200,000 deaths, and of these, 150,000 were estimated to be due to diseases. Of further interest to the medical historian is the changing importance of various infections in military activity. Of the three volumes comprising the "Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion," one of them was devoted solely to the subject of the alvine fluxes while the other two were devoted, respectively, to statistics and clinical descriptions of malaria, typhoid fever, cerebrospinal fever, smallpox, and a number of other acute infections. This is also illustrated by comparison of the mortality recorded for respiratory diseases in "The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War" and in this volume dealing with World War II.

The editor wishes to express his sincere thanks to the countless medical officers who made the material for these chapters available and to the distinguished authors who have written them. In addition, thanks are due to Dr. Duncan and the entire Advisory Editorial Board for their constant support and to Colonel Coates for his many courtesies and vigorous assistance. In particular, appreciation is expressed to Miss Eleanor S. Cooper, whose tireless and painstaking attention to the preparation and editing of these manuscripts was an invaluable aid in the compilation of this history.

The editor and the authors are also greatly indebted to Mr. E. L. Hamilton, Chief, Medical Statistics Division, Office of the Surgeon General, Mr. A. J. McDowell, Assistant Chief, and Mr. M. C. Rossoff, Assistant Chief, Statistical Analysis Branch, who not only provided essential data but also checked and reviewed all statistical information contained herein.

Finally, grateful acknowledgment is made to Miss Janie W. Williams, Chief, Publication Section, Editorial Branch, The Historical Unit, for performing the final publications editing and to Miss Rebecca L. Duberstein, Chief, Editorial Section, Editorial Branch, The Historical Unit, for preparing the index for this volume.

W. PAUL HAVENS, Jr., M.D.

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