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MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY 

INTERNAL MEDICINE IN WORLD WAR II

Volume II

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Prepared and published under the direction of 

Lieutenant General LEONARD D. HEATON
The Surgeon General, United States Army

Editor in Chief 

Colonel JOHN BOYD COATES, Jr., MC, USA

Editor for Internal Medicine 

W. PAUL HAVENS, Jr., M.D.

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1963

Contents

FOREWORD

PREFACE

Chapter

I.    Respiratory Diseases (Yale Kneeland, Jr., M.D.)
        General Considerations

Part I. Acute Respiratory Diseases

        Common Upper Respiratory Infection
        Influenza
        Primary Atypical Pneumonia
        Bacterial Pneumonia
        Measles
        Mumps
        Infectious Mononucleosis
        Rubella

Part II. Chronic Respiratory Diseases

        Chronic Bronchitis
        Bronchiectasis
        Lung Abscess
        Spontaneous Pneumothorax
        Pulmonary Fibrosis
        Pulmonary Emphysema
        Malignant Disease of the Lungs

II.    Sandfly Fever (William A. Reilly, M.D., Roberto F. Escamilla, M.D., and Perrin H. Long, M.D.)

        Etiology
        Epidemiology
        Immunity
        Clinical Course and Diagnosis
        Treatment and Prevention
        Summary

III.    Dengue (Richard B. Capps, M.D.)

        Introduction
        Incidence
        Specific Outbreaks
        Clinical Manifestations
        Scientific Investigations

IV.    Neurotropic Virus Diseases (John R. Paul, M.D.)

        The Arthropodborne Virus Encephalitides
        Poliomyelitits
        Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis
        Rabies

V.    Q Fever (Charles A. Ragan, Jr., M.D.)

        Occurrence
        Clinical Features
        Epidemiology

VI.    Scrub Typhus(Chris J. D. Zarafonetis, M.D., and Myles P. Baker, M.D.)

        Clinical Experience
        Pathology 
        Laboratory Aids in Diagnosis 
        Specific Treatment 
        Postwar Studies 
        Summary 

VII.   The Typhus Fevers (Chris J. D. Zarafonetis, M.D.)

Part I. Epidemic Typhus

        Epidemiology
        Clinical Experience
        Pathology 
        Development and Use of Laboratory Aids in Diagnosis 
        Treatment 

Part II. Brill's Disease

        Historical Note 
        Epidemiology
        Clinical Picture
        Diagnosis

Part III. Endemic (Murine) Typhus

        Epidemiology
        Clinical Experience 
        Laboratory Aids in Diagnosis 

Part IV. Summary

        Epidemic Typhus 
        Endemic (Murine) Typhus 
        Epilogue 

VIII.    Rheumatic Fever (Lowell A. Rantz, M.D.) 

        Epidemiology and Statistics 
        Clinical Picture     
        Early Treatment and Course
        Late Treatment and Results 
        Reconditioning 
        Disposition 
        Control
        Research
        Summary

IX.    Meningococcal Infections (Worth B. Daniels, M.D.)

        Historical Note
        Incidence During World War II
        Pathogenesis
        Meningococcal Bacteremia
        Fulminant Meningococcal Bacteremia
        Meningococcal Meningitis
        Complications
        Other Meningococcal Infections
        Laboratory Diagnosis
        Treatment
        Pathological Findings
        Treatment of Meningococcal Infections
        Discussion

X.    Cutaneous and Other Aspects of Diphtheria (Averill A. Liebow, M.D., and John H. Bumstead, M.D.)

Part I.    General Aspects of the Military Problem

        Incidence
        Immunization

Part II. Tropical Ulcers and Diphtheria

        Sources and Dissemination of Information
        Morphology
        Morphology in Relation to the Bacteriology of the Lesions
        Methods of Diagnosis
        Associated Clinical Findings
        Relation to the Schick Reaction
        Cutaneous and Extracutaneous Diphtheria
        Complications
        Treatment of Cutaneous Diphtheria
        Cost of Cutaneous Diphtheria to the Army
        Role of Cutaneous Lesions in the Spread of Diphtheria
        General Considerations of Diphtheria in the Tropics
        Association of Cutaneous and Nasopharyngeal Diphtheria in Military Units in the Tropics
        Diphtheria Transmitted From Military To Civilian Populations

Part III. A New Hemolytic Corynebacterium in Man 

Part IV. Use of Penicillin in Treatment of Diphtheria 

Part V. Problems Remaining for Investigation 

Part VI. Summary

XI.    Tuberculosis (Esmond R. Long, M.D.)

Part I. Tuberculosis in the Army

        Historical Perspective 
        Discovery of Tuberculosis Before Induction 
        Discovery of Tuberculosis in the Army
        Incidence and Discharge Rates

Part II. Occurrence in Oversea Areas

        European Theater of Operations
        North African and Mediterranean Theaters of Operation
        South Pacific Area 
        Southwest Pacific Area 
        Western Pacific Base Command    
        Middle Pacific 
        China-Burma-India Theater
        Alaskan Department
        Latin American Area
        Middle East
        Far East

Part III. Particular Aspects of the Disease

        Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis
        Pleurisy With Effusion 
        Spontaneous Pneumothorax 
        Mortality From Tuberculosis 

Part IV. Hospitalization and Treatment in the Zone of Interior

        General Principles of Evacuation 
        Specialty Centers for Treatment
        Orientation and Rehabilitation 

Part V. Care of Recovered and Captured Prisoners of War

        Recovered Prisoners of War
        Captured Prisoners of War 
        Treatment Under the Military Government in Germany 

Part VI. Tuberculosis in British and Canadian Military Forces

        Royal Navy 
        Royal Air Force
        Canadian Army 

Part VII. Significance of Army Experience for Control of Tuberculosis

XII.    Diagnosis and Treatment of the Venereal Diseases (Paul Padget, M.D.)

        Historical Note
        Gonorrhea
        Nonspecific Urethritis
        Syphilis
        The Minor Venereal Diseases
        Induction of Individuals With Venereal Disease
        The Results

XIII.     Fort Bragg Fever (Worth B. Daniels, M.D.) 

         Recognition of a New Disease 
         Differential Diagnosis 
         Epidemiological Aspects 
         Special Investigation
        Addendum 

XIV.    Statistics of Malaria (Fred H. Mowrey, M.D.) 

        Historical Note 
        World War II
        Types of Malaria
        Relapse in Malaria
        Duration of Hospitalization
        Deaths Due To Malaria
        Summary

XV.     The Suppression of Malaria (Benjamin M. Baker, M. D.) 

        Factors in Early Failures in Suppression of Malaria 
        Effects of Atabrine Withdrawal 
        Effect of Suppressive Therapy on Parasite Species 
        Long-Term Clinical Experience With Atabrine Suppression
        Concentration of Atabrine in the Blood at Levels Effective for Suppression 
        Undesirable Effects of Atabrine 

XVI.     Clinical Aspects of Malaria (Harold D. Levine, M.D.) 

        Predisposing Factors 
        Prodromal Symptoms 
        Clinical Symptoms of the Acute Attack
        Complications of Malaria 
        Chronic Malaria 
        Relapses in Malaria 
        Supporting Evidence From the Laboratory
        Differential Diagnosis
        Summary

XVII.    Treatment of Malaria (Perrin H. Long, M.D.)

        Introduction
        Experience in the Pacific
        Experience in the India-Burma Theater
        Experience in the Mediterranean (formerly North African) Theater of Operations

XVIII.    Clinical Trials of Antimalarial Drugs (Harry Most, M.D.)

        Penicillin
        Heavy Metals
        Sulfonamides
        Cinchona Alkaloids
        Quinacrine Hydrochloride (Atrabrine)
        4-Aminoquinoline Compounds
        8-Aminoquinoline Compounds
        Summary

Illustrations

Figure:

1. Male and female of Phlebotomus papatasii 
2. Medical officers inspect water for mosquito breeding patches, Queensland, Australia
3.  Enlisted men spray stagnant pond with kerosene guns to destroy larvae in mosquito control, Rockhampton, Australia
4.  Conditions which favor mosquito breeding
5.  Aerial view of Manila being sprayed against mosquitoes and flies with DDT insecticide by C-47's
6.  Medical officer distributing mosquito repellent
7.  Rash of dengue fever 
8.  "Ulcer" eschar in tsutsugamushi fever
9.  Eschar on ankle in tsutsugamushi disease
10. Rash of tsutsugamushi disease 
11. Maculopapular rash on third day of disease
12. Capillary in derma showing swelling and proliferation of endothelium to point of occlusion
13.  Finely granular capillary thrombus, with pericapillary collection of mononuclear cells in derma
14.  Necrosis and thrombosis of dermal capillary
15.  Swelling and proliferation of endothelium of capillary in tongue
16.  Occlusion of capillary in tongue by swelling and necrosis of endothelium
17.  Myocardium
18.  Large cerebral nodule showing its relation to a capillary
19.  Mural thrombus in subendocardial arteriole
20.  Granular thrombus in arteriole in submucosa of trachea and cellular infiltrate beneath basement membrane of mucosa
21.  Cellular thrombus in arteriole of testis
22.  Point of attachment of base of mitral valve, with disruption of elastica, edema (mucoid), infiltration of mononuclear cells, and production of fibroblasts
23.  Acute interstitial myocarditis, with diffuse infiltration of mononuclear cells
24.  Acute interstitial myositis of tongue, with infiltration of mononuclear cells
25.  Small nodule of mononuclear cells in skeletal muscle attached to thyroid gland
26.  Mononuclear infiltrate in corticomedullary junction of kidney
27.  Focal interstitial orchitis about a dilated capillary
28.  Mononuclear cells forming interstitial exudate in acute myocarditis
29.  Nodules in posterior lobe of pituitary identical with those in the brain and spinal cord
30.  Hyperplasia of sinusoidal endothelium of the liver and infiltration of mononuclear cells
31.  Lung, alveolar exudate showing many rickettsia-like bodies in cytoplasm of polymorphonuclear leukocytes
32.  Pancreas, infiltration of mononuclear cells in the interlobular septum, dilatation of acini, and inspissation of secretion
33.  Counties in 11 Southern States reporting cases of endemic typhus fever, 1922-39 and 1943-45   
34.  Typhus fever patient in U.S.A. Typhus Commission Ward, Fever Hospital, Cairo, Egypt
34b. Typhus fever patient on U.S.A. Typhus Commission Ward, Fever Hospital, Cairo, Egypt (cont.)

35.  Rash in meningococcal bacteremia 
36.  Widespread ecchymotic rash in a patient with fulminating bacteremia and hemorrhages into the adrenals 
37.  Multiple diphtheritic ulcers of lower extremity acquired in New Zealand
38.  Typical chronic ulcer of 4 weeks' duration 
39.  Diphtheritic skin ulcers
40.  Penile ulcers
41.  Epidermophytosis superinfected with Corynebacterium diphtheriae
42.  Moist, desquamative, and ulcerative dermatitis
43.  Cutaneous diphtheria as seen in the India-Burma Theater
44.  Diphtheritic paronychiae
45.  Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in skin of palms and multiple paronychiae, acquired in the Solomon Islands
46.  Exudate from diphtheritic ulcer
47.  Exudate from ulcer in lesion
48.  Chronic ulcer of ankle containing Corynebacterium diphtheriae
49.  Diphtheritic ulcers in children
50.  Corynebacterium hemolyticum colonies on blood agar
51.  Corynebacterium diphtheriae on human blood agar
52.  Corynebacterium hemolyticum on human blood agar
53.  Corynebacterium hemolyticum colony as seen under low power, split lens of microscope
54.  Corynebacterium hemolyticum on Löffler's serum
55.  Corynebacterium diphtheriae on Löffler's serum
56.  Poisoning by Mapharsen in treatment of syphilis
57.  Erythematous skin lesions over the pretibial regions
58.  Generalized form of skin eruption
59.  Lt. Col. Garfield G. Duncan, MC, explaining malaria suppressive therapy charts to Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Queensland, Australia
60.  Brig. Gen. James S. Simmons and Col. Arthur Fischer, GSC, inspect cinchona seedlings

Charts

Number

1.  Incidence of sandfly fever and fever of undetermined origin in the North African-Mediterranean Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, 1943-45
2.  Seasonal incidence of poliomyelitis in the Army in the continental United States compared with contemporaneous civilian rates, 1943-46
3.  Incidence of poliomyelitis in the U.S. Army, by selected area and year, 1940-48
4.  Clinical and laboratory findings in patient with "E" severity typhus fever
5.  Clinical and laboratory findings in a fatal case of epidemic typhus fever
6.  Clinical course and early serological findings in a moderately severe case of epidemic typhus in a vaccinated individual
7.  Clinical comparison of vaccinated and unvaccinated groups of typhus fever cases among employees of the Cairo Fever Hospital, El Abbasa, Egypt
8.  Temperature chart and pertinent laboratory findings of the only known case of typhus fever occurring among U.S. Army troops in Sicily, 1943
9.  Effect of para-aminobenzoic acid on time of death in chick embryos infected with Rickettsia prowazeki
10.  Comparison of temperatures of 20 para-aminobenzoic acid treated patients and 19 alternate control patients, Cairo, Egypt, 1944 and 1945
11.  Total reported cases of murine (fleaborne) typhus in the United States, 1931-45
12.  Admissions to U.S. Army hospitals for meningococcal infections among troops in the continental United States, by month, World War I and World War II 
13.  Case fatality ratios for meningococcal infections, by months, in the continental United States during World War I and World War II
14.  Number of cases of skin diseases and diphtheria and tonsillitis in the Afrika Korps, 1942
15.  Diphtheria in Germany, Norway, and the Netherlands, 1939-44
16.  Diphtheria in France, Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland, 1939-45
17.  Incidence of tuberculosis in the U.S. Army in the continental United States, World War I and World War II
18.  Incidence of tuberculosis among U.S. Army troops in the United States and overseas, January 1942 to June 1946
19.  Withdrawals from separation processing for pulmonary tuberculosis in U.S. Army separation centers, July 1945 to August 1946
20.  Disability discharges for tuberculosis among enlisted men in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
21.  Incidence of tuberculosis in the U.S. Army, by theater and year, 1942-45
22.  A comparison of computed and actual rates reflecting savings attributed to improved treatment of venereal disease, Army in the United States, June 1942 to August 1945
23.  Changes in therapy, incidence, and duration of treatment of venereal disease, Army in the United States, June 1942 to August 1945
24.  Temperature, pulse, and leukocyte count of patient
25.  Malaria experience of an infantry regiment carefully followed for 34 months, South Pacific Area, December 1942-August 1945
26.  Penicillin studies in three patients with vivax malaria
27.  Rate of disappearance of parasites during treatment of 497 acute attacks of vivax malaria with quinacrine hydrochloride or quinine
28.  Relapse rates and intervals to relapse following treatment, by days, with quinacrine hydrochloride or quinine of 250 acute attacks of vivax malaria of Pacific origin
29.  Malaria rates in an infantry regiment under various schedules of suppression with quinacrine hydrochloride, by week
30.  Distribution of relapses in two groups of patients after treatment for acute attacks of vivax malaria of Pacific origin
31.  Comparative rate of disappearance of parasites from peripheral blood during treatment of vivax malaria with quinine, quinacrine hydrochloride, and chloroquine
32.  Comparative efficiency of quinine, quinacrine hydrochloride, and chloroquine in controlling fever during treatment of delayed primary attacks of relapses of vivax malaria
33. Cumulative rates of relapses during a minimum of 120 days following treatment of acute attacks of vivax malaria with quinine, quinacrine hydrochloride, and chloroquine
34. Comparison of distribution of relapses occurring during the first 60 days after treatment of acute attacks of vivax malaria of Pacific origin with quinine, quinacrine hydrochloride, and chloroquine
35.  Average plasma levels of chloroquine during and after treatment under plans A, B, and C
36.  Relapse rates and intervals to relapse after treatment of acute attacks of vivax malaria of Pacific origin with various drugs

Tables

1.  Admission rates for the various designations of Vincent's infection in the U.S. Army during World War I and World War II
2.  Admissions for primary atypical pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, and other pneumonia, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
3.  Incidence of dengue in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
4.  Incidence rates for dengue in U.S. Army personnel in New Caledonia and Espíritu Santo, from January to August, 1943 and 1944
5.  Breeding index of Aedes mosquitoes in Honolulu, T.H., from August 1943 to August 1944
6.  Incidence of dengue in U.S. Army personnel in New Guinea and adjacent islands, January 1944 to August 1945
7.  Incidence of dengue in U.S. Army personnel in the Philippine Islands, November 1944 to December 1945
8.  Daily report of new cases of dengue at height of the epidemic in Saipan, 14 September to 6 October 1944
9.   Physical signs and symptoms of 418 cases of dengue in two groups in U.S. Army patients, 1944
10.  Admissions for encephalitis in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
11.  Deaths due to encephalitis in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
12.  Number of cases and deaths due to scrub typhus in the Southwest Pacific Area, U.S. Army, January 1943 to August 1945
13.  Epidemic typhus in French North Africa, Egypt, and Iran, 1930-44
14.  Incidence of epidemic typhus fever (louseborne) in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
15.  Serological findings and immunization record in three cases of epidemic typhus incurred subsequent to immunization with typhus fever vaccine
16.  Clinical summary of five cases of epidemic typhus fever incurred subsequent to immunization with typhus fever vaccine
17.  Comparison of typhus in three groups at Belsen Concentration Camp, Belsen, Germany
18.  Weil-Felix Proteus agglutination tests in epidemic typhus (case 1344)
19.  Weil-Felix Proteus OX-19 agglutination results on 1,002 sera from 203 patients with typhus fever
20.  Serological findings in three typhus cases with negative Weil-Felix OX-19 agglutination results
21.  The usual Weil-Felix reactions in rickettsial diseases
22.  Complement fixation test results in case 1344, epidemic typhus fever
23.  Complement fixation results on 1,002 sera from 203 patients with typhus fever
24.  Serological findings in two cases of typhus fever with negative results in complement fixation tests
25.  Serological findings in a patient with epidemic typhus fever contracted after receiving 5.0 cc. of Cox-type vaccine
26.  Rickettsial agglutination test results in case 1344
27.  Epidemic neutralizing antibody findings in case 1344
28.  Incidence of endemic typhus fever (fleaborne) in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
29.  Serological studies on an American soldier with murine typhus
30.  Serological results found in individuals immunized with epidemic typhus vaccine and who subsequently contracted murine typhus
31.  Serological findings in two cases of probable murine typhus fever occurring in vaccinated individuals at Dakar, French West Africa
32.  Serological results in an unvaccinated individual infected with murine typhus fever (case 1)
33.  Clinical and historical information on rheumatic fever as observed in three U.S. Army general hospitals
34.  Incidence and deaths due to meningococcal infections, U.S. Army, World War I and World War II
35.  Comparative mortality of certain infectious diseases in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
36.  Cause of death in 300 cases of meningococcal infection reviewed at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
37.  Severity of adrenal hemorrhage and duration of life in 126 of 300 fatal cases of meningococcal infection
38.  Duration of life in relation to severity of illness in 118 of 144 cases of meningitis studied at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
39.  Distribution of types of meningococci in 1,436 cases of meningococcal infection, Fourth Service Command Laboratory, August 1942-December 1945
40.  Incidence of diphtheria in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
41.  Deaths due to diphtheria in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
42.  Incidence of cutaneous diphtheria in the U.S. Army, 1944-45
43.  Schick reactions of individuals with diphtheritic tropical ulcers in 3 infantry divisions in the South Pacific Area
44.  Study of influence of antitoxin on incidence of complications in diphtheria, 20th General Hospital, India-Burma Theater
45. Cases of diphtheria in the 27th Infantry Division in rest area in the New Hebrides, 16 September-29 October 1944
46.  Admissions, deaths, and disability separations due to tubercular diseases in the U.S. Army (Union only), May 1861-June 1866
47.  Incidence rates for tuberculosis in the Army in the European theater of operations and in the continental United States, 1942-45
48.  Prevalence of tuberculosis, all forms, in U.S. Army nurses in the European theater of operations, 1942-45
49.  Incidence of nonpulmonary tuberculosis (excludes pleural tuberculosis) in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
50.  Incidence of tuberculosis of pleura and serofibrinous pleuritis in the U.S. Army, 1944-45
51.  Admissions and readmissions for spontaneous pneumothorax in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
52.  Deaths due to tuberculosis in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
53.  Total attack rate for malaria in the U.S. Army, by type of plasmodium, 1942-45
54.  Attack rates of malaria, all forms, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
55.  Attack rates of vivax (tertian) malaria, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45 
56.  Attack rates of falciparum (estivo-autumnal) malaria, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
57.  Attack rates of malariae (quartan) malaria, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45 
58.  Attack rates of mixed malarial infections, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45 
59.  Attack rates of other and unspecified forms of malaria, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
60.  Average number of days in hospital and quarters for admissions and readmissions due to malaria and fever of undetermined origin, in the U.S. Army, 1942, 1943, and 1945 
61.  Deaths due to malaria, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
62.  Deaths due to vivax (tertian) malaria, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
63.  Deaths due to falciparum (estivo-autumnal) malaria, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
64.  Deaths due to malaria, mixed type, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45 
65.  Deaths due to malaria, unclassified and other, in the U.S. Army, 1942-45
66.  Malaria cases in the Mediterranean (formerly North African) Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, 1942-45 
67.  Experience of 32 hospitals with malaria during the entire period of operation in the Mediterranean (formerly North African) Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, to August 1944 
68.  Malaria cases discharged from all hospitals in the Mediterranean (formerly North African) Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, 15 September 1944 to 11 May 1945 
69.  Results of study of duration of fever after start of treatment in 28 quinine-treated cases and 24 Atabrine-treated cases of malaria
70.  Incidence of attacks of malaria reported by 27 hospitals in the Mediterranean (formerly North African) Theater of Operations, U.S. Army 
71.  Incidence of relapses due to malaria reported by 18 hospitals in the Mediterranean (formerly North African) Theater of Operations, U.S. Army 
72.  Malaria patients evacuated to the Zone of Interior from the Mediterranean (formerly North African) Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, 25 hospitals reporting
73.  Experimental field tests with sulfamerazine, Atabrine, and sulfapyrazine
74.  Representative treatment schedules for chloroquine 
75.  Relative efficiency of quinine, quinacrine hydrochloride, and chloroquine in treatment of acute attacks of vivax malaria 
76.  Results of treatment in four groups of patients administered antimalarial drugs for acute attacks of vivax malaria of Pacific origin


INTERNAL MEDICINE IN WORLD WAR II

Advisory Editorial Board on the History of Internal Medicine

GARFIELD G. DUNCAN, M.D., Chairman 
W. PAUL HAVENS, Jr., M.D., Editorial Director

WALTER BAUER, M.D.                                            HOWARD P. LEWIS, M.D. 
HERRMAN L. BLUMGART, M.D.                            ESMOND R. LONG, M.D.
WORTH B. DANIELS, M.D.                                     PERRIN H. LONG, M.D. 
EUGENE C. EPPINGER, M.D.                                 WILLIAM S. MIDDLETON, M.D. 
JOSEPH M. HAYMAN, M.D.                                   DONALD M. PILLSBURY, M.D. 
YALE KNEELAND, Jr., M.D.                                   MAURICE C. PINCOFFS, M.D. (deceased) HENRY M. THOMAS, Jr., M.D.

Colonel DAN CROZIER, MC, USA (ex officio) 
Colonel JOHN BOYD COATES, Jr., MC, USA (ex officio)

The Historical Unit, United States Army Medical Service

Colonel JOHN BOYD COATES, Jr., MC, USA, Director
Colonel REX P. CLAYTON, MSC, USA, Executive Officer 
Colonel R. L. PARKER, MSC, USA, Special Assistant to Director 
Lieutenant Colonel R. J. BERNUCCI, MC, USA, Special Assistant to Director 
Major WARREN W. DABOLL, MSC, USA, Special Assistant to Director 
Lieutenant Colonel DOUGLAS HESFORD, MSC, USA, Chief, Special Projects Branch
CHARLES M. WILTSE, Ph. D., Litt. D., Chief, Historians Branch 
ERNEST ELLIOTT, Jr., Chief, Editorial Branch 
Lieutenant Colonel LEONARD L. COLLIER. MSC, USA, Chief, Information Activities Branch Major ALBERT C. RIGGS, Jr., MSC, USA, Chief, General Reference and Research Branch HAZEL G. HINE, Chief, Administrative Branch

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 61-60042


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. - Price $6.75 (Buckram)


Volume II

INFECTIOUS DISEASES


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

The volumes comprising the official history of the Medical Department of the U.S. Army in World War II are prepared by The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, and published under the direction of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army. These volumes are divided into two series: (1) The administrative or operational series; and (2) the professional, or clinical and technical, series. This is one of the volumes published in the latter series.

VOLUMES PUBLISHED

ADMINISTRATIVE SERIES

Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior

CLINICAL SERIES

Internal Medicine in World War II:

Vol. I.     Activities of Medical Consultants

Preventive Medicine in World War II:

Vol. II.     Environmental Hygiene
Vol. III.    Personal Health Measures and Immunization
Vol. IV.    Communicable Diseases Transmitted Chiefly Through Respiratory and Alimentary Tracts
Vol. V.     Communicable Diseases Transmitted Through Contact Or By Unknown Means

Surgery in World War II:

Activities of Surgical Consultants, vol. I 
General Surgery, vol. II
Hand Surgery 
Neurosurgery, vol. I 
Neurosurgery, vol. II 
Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology 
Orthopedic Surgery in the European Theater of Operations 
Orthopedic Surgery in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations 
The Physiologic Effects of Wounds
Vascular Surgery

Miscellaneous:

Cold Injury, Ground Type 
Dental Service in World War II 
Veterinary Service in World War II 
Wound Ballistics