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Books and Documents

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
UNITED STATES ARMY
IN WORLD WAR II


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN WORLD WAR II

Volume VIII

CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT
PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIVITIES

Prepared and published under the direction of
Lieutenant General RICHARD R. TAYLOR
The Surgeon General, United States Army

Editor in Chief
Colonel JOHN LADA, MSC, USA

Editor forPreventive Medicine
EBBE CURTISS HOFF, Ph. D., M.D.

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1976


PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN WORLD WAR II

Advisory Editorial Board

Brigadier General JAMES STEVENS SIMMONS, USA (dec.), Chairman, 1948-54
Brigadier General STANHOPE BAYNE-JONES, USAR (Ret.) (dec.), Chairman, 1955-70
THOMAS B. TURNER, M.D., Chairman

JOHN E. GORDON, M.D.                                                         ELLIOTT S. A. ROBINSON, M.D. (dec.)
WILLIAM A. HARDENBERGH, B.E. (dec).                         PAUL F. RUSSELL, M.D.
ANTHONY J. LANZA, M.D. (dec.)                                       DOUGLASS W. WALKER, M.D.

Colonel TOM F. WHAYNE, MC, USA (Ret.)
EBBE CURTIS HOFF, Ph. D., M.D., Editorial Director (ex officio)
Colonel JOHN LADA, MSC, USA (ex officio)

The Historical Unit, United States Army Medical Department

Colonel JOHN LADA, MSC, USA, Director
CHARLES J. SIMPSON, Deputy Director
MARY C. EFDIMIS, Chief, Administrative Branch
MARTHA R. STEPHENS, Chief, Editorial Branch
RODERICK M. ENGERT, Chief, General Reference and Research Branch
ROSE C. ENGELMAN, Ph. D., Chief, Historians Branch
GERALDINE B. SITES, Public Affairs Officer

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 75-600082


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $15
Stock Number 008-023-00050-6


CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIVITIES


Contents

FOREWORD
PREFACE
AUTHORS PAGE

Part I.     PURPOSE AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANS

Chapter I.     Problems of Civilian Health Under War Conditions-General Concepts and Origins (Thomas B. Turner, M.D., and Ira V. Hiscock, M.P.H., M.D.)

Section I.     Concept and Development

                Definition
                Role of Public Health
                Genesis of Civil Affairs Health Activities in World War II
                Extent of Civil Public Health Activities
                Phases of Military Government and Civil Affairs
                General Features of the Civilian Health Programs

Section II.     Development and Organization of Civil Public Health at War Department Level

               Liaison With the Provost Marshal General's Office
                Civil Affairs Division, War Department Special Staff
                Civil Affairs Division Supply Board, Surgeon General's Office
                Civil Public Health Division, Preventive Medicine Service
                Summary

Chapter II.     Selection and Training of Civil Public Health Personnel (Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

                Special Training
                Civil Affairs Training Schools
                Precombat Training in Theaters of Operations
                Personnel Shortages in the European Theater
                Selection and Assignment of Personnel for Military  Government in Germany
                Personnel for the Far East
                Civil Affairs Holding and Staging Area
                Summary

Chapter III.    Medical Supplies for Civil Health Programs (Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

                General Considerations
                Early Planning
                Storage and Distribution in Italy
                Establishment of ENDIMEA
                Control of Narcotic Drugs
                Summary

Part II.     THE AMERICAS

Chapter IV.     The United States, Its Territories and Possessions, and the PanamaCanal Zone (Stanhope Bayne-Jones, M.D., Ira V. Hiscock, M.P.H., M.D., and Major General Morrison C. Stayer, MC, USA (Ret.))

Section I.     The United States

                Sanitation and Disease Control Outside Military Areas
                Maneuvers
                Evacuation of the Japanese From the West Coast, 1942

Section II.     Alaska

                Historical Note
                The Army Buildup and Its Responsibilities for Public Health
                War-Period Activities and Disaster Relief Plans and Preparations

Section III.     Hawaii

                Defense Preparations and Public Health
                Attack on Pearl Harbor
                Summary

Section IV.     U.S. Possessions and Bases in the Caribbean Area

                Historical Note
                General Characteristics of Civil Affairs and Military Government Public Health Activities
                The Caribbean Defense Command
                The Panama Canal Department and the Health Department of the Panama Canal
                The Puerto Rican Department
                The Antilles Department
                Communicable Diseases and Their Control
                Cooperating Organizations
                Summary

Chapter V.     The South Atlantic Area (Colonel George E. Leone, MC, USA (Ret.))

                Establishment of the Theater
                Civil Public Health
                Foreign Quarantine
                Summary

Chapter VI.     The North Atlantic Area (Captain William D. Church, MSC)

                Canada
                Newfoundland
                Greenland
                Iceland
                Summary

Part III.     THE MEDITERRANEAN

Chapter VII.     The Middle East Countries (Brigadier General Crawford F. Sams, MC, USA (Ret.))

                Historical Note
                Relationships With Health Agencies
                Special Problems and Their Management
                Summary

Chapter VIII.     French North Africa (1942-44) (First Lieutenant Raymond E. Finocchiaro, MSC)

                The Civil Affairs Problem
                The Role of Civil Public Health
                Public Health and Sanitation
                Communicable Diseases
               Summary

Chapter IX.     Sicily and Italy (Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

Section I.     The Italian Campaign

                Background
                Planning for the Occupation of Italy
                Invasion of Sicily-Region I
                Invasion of the Mainland-Region II
                Naples and Region III
                The Anzio Beachhead
                Foggia and Region IV
                Sardinia-Region VI
                Northern Italy

Section II.     Problems and Lessons of the Italian Campaign

                Transportation
                Personnel
                Communicable Diseases
                Civilian Health Activities

Chapter X.     The Balkans and Hungary (Richard T. Shackelford, M.D.)

                Functions of U.S. Army Medical Officers on Allied Control Commissions
                Bulgaria
                Romania
                Hungary
                Summary

Part IV.     EUROPE

Chapter XI.     The United Kingdom (Pauline B. Vivette)

                Historical Note
                Progression of Events
                Problems of the Civil-Military Public Health Activity
                Summary

Chapter XII.     Planning and Preparations for the European Theater of Operations (Stanhope Bayne-Jones, M.D., and Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

                Early Planning
                Establishment of G-5 SHAEF
                General and Special Staffs for Civil Affairs
                Medical and Sanitation Supply
                The SHAEF Missions

Chapter XIII.     The European Theater of Operations (1944-45) (Stanhope Bayne-Jones, M.D., and Colonel Edward J. Dehné, MC, USA)

                The Campaign in Northwest Europe
                Public Health Organizations
                The German Counteroffensive in the Ardennes
                The SHAEF Missions
                The Rhineland Campaign
                The Defeat of Germany
                The Occupation of Germany
                Summary

Chapter XIV.     Austria (Colonel Charles J. Farinacci, MC, USA (Ret.))

                Political and Military Background
                Organization and Planning for Civil Public Health
                Special Problems of Civil Public Health
                Summary

Part V.     THE PACIFIC

Chapter XV.     Australia and New Zealand (Lieutenant Colonel Eugene T. Lyons, MSC)

Section I.     Australia

                Introduction
                The Land and the People
                U.S. Army Command Structure
                Communicable Diseases
                Sanitation
                Food Inspection
                Miscellaneous Civil Affairs
                Summary

Section II.     New Zealand

                Introduction
                The Nation
                U.S. Army Command Structure
                Communicable Diseases and Sanitation
                Food Procurement and Inspection
                Miscellaneous Civil Affairs

Chapter XVI.     The Philippines and Okinawa (Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

Section I.     The Philippine Islands

                Background
                Philippine Civil Affairs Units
                The Leyte Campaign
                Medical Care of Civilians in U.S. Army Installations
                The Luzon Campaign
                Manila

Section II.     Okinawa

                Background
                Combat Phase

Part VI.     ASIA

Chapter XVII.     China-Burma-India Theater (Kirk T. Mosley, M.D., and Captain Darrell G. McPherson, MSC, AUS)

                Organizational Background
                Civil Public Health Problems
                Disease Problems
                Closing of the Theaters
                Summary

Chapter XVIII.     Japan and Korea (Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

Section I.     Japan

                Plans for Invasion of Japan
                Personnel Planning
                The Unopposed Occupation of Japan-Military Government Aspects
                Broad Health Programs Developed Under SCAP Direction
                Specific Health Problems
                Medical Care Problems
                Conclusions Regarding Japan

Section II.     Korea

                Civil Public Health
                Health Problems and Programs
                Evaluation of Personnel and Administrative Problems
 
 

Illustrations

Figure

 1.     Col. Ira V. Hiscock, SnC
 2.     Thomas B. Turner, M.D., formerly Colonel, Medical Corps
 3.     Students at the School of Military Government, Charlottesville, Va., August 1943
 4.    American School Center, Shrivenham, England, 1944
 5.    Regional medical supply warehouse, Rome, Italy, 1944
 6.    Brig. Gen. James Stevens Simmons, USA
 7.    Maj. Gen. George C. Dunham, USA
 8.    Brig. Gen. Condon C. McCornack, USA
 9.    Brig. Gen. Edgar King, USA
10.    Maj. Gen. Morrison C. Stayer, USA
11.    Medical personnel involved in malaria control on the Madden Road, Canal Zone, December 1942
12.    Military hospital, Borinquen Field, P.R.
13.    Col. George E. Leone, MC
14.    Laboratory technician at work, 200th Station Hospital, Recife, Brazil, 1944
15.    Brazilian civilians spray mosquito-infested area as precaution against malaria, September 1944
16.    Members of the 648th Engineer Battalion working on the Alaska Highway in -37° weather, March 1942
17.    Eskimo patients at the 191st Station Hospital, Angmagssalik, Greenland
18.    Maj. Frank A. Todd, VC, obtaining a sample of milk for laboratory analysis
19.    Army veterinarians examining a sheep suffering from jagziekte, a chronic lung disease
20.    Maj. Frank A. Todd, VC, receiving Legion of Merit from Brig. Gen. Paul R. Hawley, Chief Surgeon, European theater, February 1944
21.    Cairo, Egypt, November 1941
22.    Air view of the 2748th Station Hospital, Iran, 1943
23.    Tel Aviv, Palestine, a modern Jewish city near the U.S. base at Tel Litwinsky
24.    Street scene in Teheran, Iran, 1943
25.    Egyptian lemonade peddler or "sherbulli" in Cairo, 1943, illustrates the unsanitary methods of food handling encountered by the Allies
26.    U.S. Army medical personnel inoculate Egyptian civilians for typhus
27.    Brig. Gen. Stanhope Bayne-Jones, MC, in 1944
28.    A native youth suffering from right cervical and submental plague, Jaffa, 1943
29.    Native vegetable market stall in Cairo, 1943
30.    An Arab hut for sorting tobacco in the Algiers area, 1943
31.    Col. William S. Stone, MC, Preventive Medicine Officer, North African theater, inspects a louse-infested native in Algeria in 1943
32.    Col. Howard J. Hutter, MC, Surgeon, Mediterranean Base Section, Oran, Algeria, 1943
33.    An Arab family sit on the doorstep of their home near Algiers, 1943
34.    Arab laborer distributes fertilizer on a potato crop on a farm near Algiers, November 1943
35.    Col. Perrin H. Long, MC, Consultant in Medicine, Allied Force Headquarters
36.    Work party of Italian prisoners of war digs a drainage ditch for malaria control, Mediterranean Base Section, 1943
37.    Medical Section personnel of the Mediterranean Base Section in Algiers treat Arab children with new insecticide powder designed to kill typhus lice
38.    Military Police patrol an "off limits" area of Algiers
39.    Brig. Gen. Leon A. Fox, MC
40.    Civilian girl, shot by Germans while trying to warn Americans of German positions, is carried to an ambulance for evacuation to the rear
41.    Four Italians carry a wounded civilian refugee to a nearby hospital
42.    An Italian child, wounded in a forward war area, is treated at a Fifth U.S. Army Refugee Center aid station in the Florence area
43.    Col. Paul F. Russell, MC
44.    Col. John E. Gordon, MC
45.    American Red Cross-Harvard Field Hospital Unit, assembled in Salisbury, England
46.    Brig. Gen. Paul R. Hawley, MC
47.    An old mansion served as quarters for the 2d Infantry Regiment, 5th Infantry Division, at County Down, Northern Ireland
48.    The "kitchen" during routine meal preparation at the 10th Station Hospital in Musgrave Park, Belfast, Northern Ireland 49.    Field demonstration of pump and filter units of portable water purification apparatus in England, 1943
50.    Medical ward, 110th Station Hospital at Warrington, England, in July 1943
51.    Two Army posters warning of the danger of venereal disease infection
52.    Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur Edward Grasett, KBE, CB, DSO, MC (British), Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 SHAEF
53.    Maj. Gen. Warren F. Draper, USPHS, Chief, Public Health Branch, G-5 SHAEF
54.    Col. William L. Wilson, MC, USA, Deputy Chief, Administrative Office, Public Health Branch, G-5 SHAEF
55.    Brigadier Thomas F. Kennedy (British), Deputy Chief, Public Health Branch, G-5 SHAEF
56.    Capt. Edward J. Dehné, MC, USA
57.    Saint-Lô, a key city of France, reduced by Allied and German shelling to rubble
58.    Belgian refugee casualty receives treatment at U.S. Army aid station, Ottré, Belgium
59.    Col. James P. Pappas, MC, USA
60.    Cathedral at Cologne, Germany, stands among ruins on the banks of the Rhine
61.    Bombed-out underground reservoir at Cologne, Germany
62.    Lt. Col. William H. Riheldaffer, MC, USA
63.    Lt. Col. Charles D. Shields, MC, USA
64.    Lt. Col. John T. Morrison, MC, USA
65.    American and German health officials meet in Wiesbaden, Germany, to discuss health conditions in the American Zone
66.    German nutrition survey team from the Württemberg-Baden Public Health Office conducts nutrition examinations at Ulm, Germany
67.    Border control post established to insure that all persons entering the American Zone by rail, road, or water were dusted with DDT powder to control typhus
68.    Power spray of DDT is applied at displaced persons' camp in Linz, Austria, July 1945
69.    Liquid spraying of bedding to improve sanitation at displaced persons' camp near Linz, Austria, July 1945
70.    The Allgemeines Krankenhaus (general hospital), Vienna, affiliated with the University of Vienna Medical School
71.    Military personnel conduct tests and spray for mosquitoes, Queensland, Australia, August 1942
72.    Army preventive medicine personnel spray a stagnant pond with kerosene guns to destroy mosquito larvae.
73.    Identifying breeds of mosquitoes, Brisbane, Australia, January 1943
74.    Laboratory technicians at the 3d Medical Laboratory, Brisbane, Australia, determine the results of a Kahn test
75.    Aerial view of the 39th General Hospital, near Auckland, New Zealand
76.    Brig. Gen. Guy B. Denit, MC
77.    Members of a Philippine Civil Affairs Unit at work in a medical laboratory, Leyte, December 1944
78.    The 6th Malaria Control Unit, Tanauan, Leyte, Philippine Islands, December 1944
79.    Filipino civilian receives instruction from a medical technician, Leyte, P.I., December 1944
80.    Drainage ditch constructed at Cantaoloopan, Luzon, P.I., by Malaria Control Unit, May 1945
81.    Civilians of Okinawa, casualties from the battle areas, at the military government medical aid station, Gushikhan, Okinawa, June 1945
82.    Curious Okinawan children watch an American medical aidman take a blood smear from a native girl at the Military Government Internment Camp, Taira, Okinawa, May 1945
83.    Maj. Seldon O. Baggett, MC, examines natives typical of those who flocked daily to the 46th Portable Hospital in Hsipaw, Burma, in April 1946
84.    Rats, caught alive in Nantien, China, for examination and experimentation, February 1945
85.    Natives in Calcutta sweep the water's surface clear of vegetation before spreading oil to kill larvae
86.    Capt. Lyle Smith at a demonstration and lecture, 6 November 1945, at the Shanghai Detention Prison
87.    Brig. Gen. Crawford F. Sams, MC
88.    Japanese civilian receives typhoid inoculation, Tokyo, 1946
89.    American military personnel of the 601st Malaria Control Unit search for signs of mosquitoes in rice paddies just outside Seoul, Korea

Maps

Number

 1.    Antilles Department, 1944
 2.    Location of departments and major U.S. Army bases, Caribbean Defense Command
 3.    South Atlantic air routes between Brazil and West Africa
 4.    U.S. Army hospitals in Northwest Canada, 1943-45
 5.    U.S. Army hospitals supporting North Atlantic bases, 1 June 1943
 6.    Service Commands, U.S. Army Forces in the Middle East, 15 May 1943
 7.    French North Africa areas
 8.    Original division of Italy into Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories Regions, 1943
 9.    Allied Control Commission regional organization, Italy, 1 April 1944
10.    Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria
11.    United Kingdom base sections and surgeons' offices, December 1943
12.    Breakthrough, advance, and rapid enlargement of Civil Affairs Public Health operations, 24 July-15 September 1944
13.    Allied Occupation Zones in Germany
14.    Austria and adjacent countries from 1919 to 13 March 1938
15.    Allied Zones of Occupation in Austria, 22 April 1946
16.    Routes of communications in Australia
17.    Allied shipping and airlines from the United States to Australia and New Zealand
18.    Leyte, Philippine Islands
19.    Luzon, Philippine Islands
20.    Okinawa
21.    China-Burma-India Theater
22.    Occupation of Japan by the Sixth and Eighth U.S. Armies, fall 1945
23.    Quarantine stations at principal South Korean ports, fall 1945

Tables

Number

1.    Enrollment in the School of Military Government, Charlottesville, Va.,1942-43
2.    Brazilian civilians employed by the U.S. Government and hospitalized in U.S. Army hospitals, September 1944-July 1945
3.    Number of aircraft disinsectized and number of Anopheles gambiae recovered at major U.S. airbases upon arrival in Brazil from Africa, 1943-45
4.    Typical personnel complement, Philippine Civil Affairs Unit
5.    Estimated animal population in South Korea, 1938, 1943, and 1947

Charts

Number

1.    Organization of U.S. Army responsibility for Civil Public Health, 1943
2.    Medical Civil Affairs relationships and functions, European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, 1944
3.    Organization of the Health Department, Panama Canal, 1940
4.    Organization of the Office of the Surgeon, Panama Canal Department, 1944


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

The volumes comprising the official history of the Medical Department of the United States Army in World War II are prepared by The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Department, and published under the direction of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army. These volumes are divided into two series: (1) The administrative or operational series; and (2) the professional, or clinical and technical, series. This is one of the volumes published in the latter series.

VOLUMES PUBLISHED

ADMINISTRATIVE SERIES

Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior
Medical Service in the Mediterranean and Minor Theaters
Medical Supply in World War II
Medical Training in World War II
Organization and Administration in World War II
Personnel in World War II

CLINICAL SERIES

Internal Medicine in World War II:

Vol. I. Activities of Medical Consultants
Vol. II. Infectious Diseases
Vol. III. Infectious Diseases and General Medicine

Neuropsychiatry in World War II:

Vol. I. Zone of Interior
Vol. II. Overseas Theaters

Preventive Medicine in World War II:

Vol. II. Environmental Hygiene
Vol. III. Personal Health Measures and Immunization


Vol. IV. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Chiefly Through Respiratory and Alimentary Tracts
Vol. V. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Through Contact or by Unknown Means
Vol. VI. Communicable Diseases: Malaria
Vol. VII. Communicable Diseases: Arthropodborne Diseases Other Than Malaria
Vol. IX. Special Fields

Surgery in World War II:

Activities of Surgical Consultants, vol. I
Activities of Surgical Consultants, vol. II
General Surgery, vol. II
Hand Surgery
Neurosurgery, vol. I
Neurosurgery, vol. II
Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
Orthopedic Surgery in the European Theater of Operations
Orthopedic Surgery in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations
Orthopedic Surgery in the Zone of Interior
The Physiologic Effects of Wounds
Thoracic Surgery, vol. I
Thoracic Surgery, vol. II
Vascular Surgery

Miscellaneous:

Blood Program in World War II
Cold Injury, Ground Type
Dental Service in World War II
Physical Standards in World War II
Radiology in World War II
Veterinary Service in World War II
Wound Ballistics