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MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 
UNITED STATES ARMY
IN WORLD WAR II

BLOOD PROGRAM IN WORLD WAR II

by Brigadier General Douglas B. Kendrick, MC, USA

Administering plasma to wounded man at 7th Infantry aid station, Sant'Agata.

Contents

FOREWORD 

PREFACE 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter

I.     Historical Note 

                Transfusion Before World War I
                Blood Transfusion in World War I
                Spanish Civil War (1936-39)
                Blood for Britain
                The British Blood Program in World War II 
                The Soviet Union Blood Program in World War II 
                The German Experience in World War II 
                Other Sources of Blood 

II.     Shock

                Historical Note 
                Observations Between the World Wars 
                Initial Concepts of Shock and Shock Therapy in World War II 
                Studies on Shock, National Research Council 
                Evolution of the Concept and Therapy of Shock in the Mediterranean Theater
                Special Studies 
                The Board for the Study of the Severely Wounded 
                Ebert-Emerson Study 

III.    The Evolution of the Use of Whole Blood in Combat Casualties 

                Development of the Concept 
                The Role of the National Research Council 
                The Evolution of the Concept of Whole Blood Replacement in the Mediterranean Theater
                Comment

IV.    Administrative Considerations in the Zone of Interior 

                Army Medical School 
                Office of The Surgeon General 
                National Research Council 
                National Institute of Health 
                Legal Aspects of the Blood and Plasma Program 
                Training 
                Office of Civilian Defense 
                Plasma for Allied Nations 
                Offers From Other Countries 
                Supplies of Plasma for Zone of Interior Hospitals 
                Provision of Whole Blood in Zone of Interior Hospitals 
                Recommendations

V.    The American National Red Cross 

                The First Steps of the Program 
                Implementation of the Program 
                Organization and Personnel 
                Reorganization 
                Blood Donor Centers 
                Mobile Units 
                Conferences 
                Campaigns for Blood Donors 
                Other Aspects of the Program 
                The Total Program 
                The End Result 

VI.    Blood Donors and the Technique of Collection of Blood 

                Requirements for Blood Donors
                Donors With Special Diseases 
                Routine of Donation 
                Technique of Collection of Blood 
                Reactions to Donations 
                Regeneration of Hemoglobin 

VII.    Plasma Equipment and Packaging, and Transfusion Equipment 

Part I. Plasma Equipment and Packaging

Original Packages 
Development of Standard Package 
Components of the Plasma Package 
The Larger Plasma Package 
Packaging of Dried Plasma for Zone of Interior Use 
Proposed Changes 

Part II. Transfusion Equipment for the Oversea Program

General Considerations 
Development of Equipment 
Design of Field Transfusion Unit in European Theater 
Expendable Transfusion Equipment 

Part III. Albumin Packaging

VIII.    Transportation and Refrigeration 

Preliminary Specifications 
Transportation in the Zone of Interior 
Status of Refrigeration, 1943-August 1944 
The Airlift to the European Theater 
Studies on Unrefrigerated Blood Flown to the European Theater 
Expendable Refrigeration Containers for the Oversea Airlifts 

IX.    Preservative Solutions 

Definitions and Criteria 
Historical Note 
Transportability of Whole Blood 
Development of Preservative Solutions 
Tests of Efficiency of Preservative Solutions
Special Studies 

X.    Laboratory Techniques and Special Laboratory Studies 

Blood Typing of Military Personnel 
Development of Typing Sera 
Typing Errors 
The Rh Factor 
Screening Test for O Blood 
Hematocrit Determinations 
Dye Measurement of Blood Volume 
Titration of Blood 
Studies on A and B Substances 
Studies of Cell Survival After Transfusion 
Serologic Testing for Syphilis 

XI.    The Plasma Program 

Historical Note
General Considerations
Forms of Plasma 
Frozen Plasma 
Liquid Plasma 
Concentrated Plasma 
Dried Plasma 
Commercial Processing of Dried Plasma 
Additives 
Filters 
Mass Production of Dried Plasma 
Expansion of Requirements 
Equipment for the Plasma Program 
Other Production Difficulties 
Testing 
Inspection of Processing Laboratories 
Yields of Plasma From Blood 
Accounting Practices 
Losses 
Disposition of Surplus Plasma 
Offers and Proposals 
Red Blood Cell Residua 

XII. The Bovine and Human Albumin Programs

Part I. Bovine Albumin

Development of Program 
Progress of Program 
Clinical Testing 
Termination of Program 
Later Developments

Part II. Human Serum Albumin

Historical Note
Laboratory Development 
Clinical Testing
Recommendation of Serum Albumin to the Armed Forces 
Commercial Production 
Army Requisitions for Serum Albumin 
Techniques of Plasma Fractionation 
Refrigeration
Additives
Further Clinical Studies
Termination of Program

XIII.    Byproducts of Plasma Fractionation 

General Considerations
Hemoglobin 
Globin 
Immune Serum Globulin
Fibrin Foam and Fibrin Film 

XIV.    Blood Substitutes and Other Intravenous Fluids 

Part I. Blood Substitutes

General Considerations 
Gelatin
Pectin
Other Blood Substitutes

Part II. Other Intravenous Fluids

Salt Solution 
Gum Acacia 
Sodium Bicarbonate 
Complaints 

XV.    The Mediterranean (Formerly North African) Theater of Operations 

Part I. Fifth U.S. Army

Evolution of Policies
Early Experiences 
First Planning for a Theater Blood Bank 
Establishment of Blood Bank at 15th Medical General Laboratory 
The 6713th Blood Transfusion Unit (Overhead) 
Training 
Transportation and Refrigeration 
Air Transportation 
Distribution 
Donors 
Selection of Type O Blood 
Technique of Collection of Blood 
Laboratory Tests 
Facilities 
Equipment
Preservatives
Statistical Data
Hospital Experiences 
Survey of Blood Program
Comment

Part II. Seventh U.S. Army

Organization
Personnel 
Operations 
Air Transport 
Forward Distributing Section 
Base Bleeding Section 
Transfer to ETOUSA 
Donors 
Equipment
Refrigeration and Transportation 
Statistical Data
Clinical Considerations 

XVI.    The European Theater of Operations 

Part I. General Considerations

Special Circumstances in the European Theater 
Education and Indoctrination 

Part II. Initial Activities in the Zone of Interior for an Oversea Transfusion Service

Background of Project 
First Proposal, October 1943 
Actions on Proposal 
Revival of Proposal, April 1944 
Request for Oversea Mission 
Recommendations by Surgery Division, OTSG 

Part III. Initial Activities in the European Theater

Initial Provision of Blood and Plasma 
Training in British Blood Supply Depot 
Appointment of Consultant on Transfusion and Shock 
Hospital Blood Banks 
Increasing Awareness in the European Theater of the Need for Whole Blood
D-day and After 
Implementation of the Whole Blood Proposal 
Comment 

Part IV. Definitive Actions in the Zone of Interior for an Oversea Transfusion Service

Revival of Proposal for Airlift of Blood to Europe 
Preparations for Airlift 
First Shipments

Part V. The European Theater Blood Bank

Section I. Establishment

Preliminary Planning 
Organization and Function 

Section II. 152d Station Hospital Blood Bank, United Kingdom Section

Conversion of 152d Station Hospital to Blood Bank Purposes
Personnel
Operational Structure 
Progress Report 
Further Planning for Operation OVERLORD 
Major Elements of the Final Plan 
The Invasion 

Section III. 127th Station Hospital Blood Bank, United Kingdom Section

Authorization 
Conversion of Facilities and Personnel 
Training 
Operation 

Section IV. 152d Station Hospital Blood Bank, Continental Section

Movement to the Continent 
Permanent Location 
Operations 

Section V. Activities of the European Theater Blood Bank Detachments

152d Station Hospital Blood Bank 
127th Station Hospital Blood Bank 

Part VI. Blood Donors in the European Theater

First Provisions for Blood Donors 
Formal Planning for the Blood Supply 
Initial Results 
Postinvasion Donations 
Blood and Plasma Donations to British 
Prisoner-of-War Donors 
Payment of Donors 
Compensation for Accidents 

Part VII. Practical Considerations of the Blood Program in ETOUSA

Preliminary Planning for the Airlift to the Continent 
Airlift to the Continent After D-day 
Other Means of Transportation 
Airlift From the Zone of Interior 
Reports and Estimates 
Refrigeration and Transportation 
Field Transfusion Units
Role of the Supply Division in the Whole Blood Program 
Security Measures 
Housekeeping Arrangements
Early Operational Difficulties 
Inquiry Into Efficiency of Airlift to European Theater 
Clinical Problems

Part VIII. Statistical Data

Quantitative Use of Blood 
Critique on the Use of Blood on the Continent
Airlift to the European Theater 
Production of ETOUSA Blood Bank 
Use of Blood in Army Installations 
Losses of Preserved Blood 
Odd Bloods 
Serologically Positive Blood 
Summarized Statistical Experiences 

Part IX. Special Experiences

Field Hospitals 
General Hospitals 

Part X. Statement of the Theater General Board

Contents
Recommendations
Comment

XVII.    The Pacific Areas and the China-Burma-India Theater 

The New South Wales Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service
Planning for Local Supplies of Blood 
Blood Supply From Australia 
27th General Hospital Blood Bank 
Staff Visit to Pacific Areas by Army and Navy Consultants in Shock and Transfusion 
Donors
Equipment 
The Airlift of Blood to the Pacific 
Advance Base Blood Bank Facility No. 1 
Leyte 
Luzon 
Iwo Jima 
Okinawa 
Termination of Airlift 
Statistical Data 
Clinical Considerations 
Plasma 
Other Replacement Agents 
Conclusions 
Operation OLYMPIC 
China-Burma-India Theater 

XVIII.    Reactions to, and Complications of, Blood and Plasma Transfusions 

General Considerations 
Allergic Reactions 
Pyrogenic Reactions 
Hemolytic Reactions 
Special Theater Experiences 
Reactions From Contaminated Blood 
Lower Nephron Nephrosis 
Southwest Pacific Area 
Plasma Transfusion Reactions 
Homologous Serum Jaundice 

XIX.    General Considerations of Shock Therapy 

Principles of Resuscitation 
Resuscitation 
Technical Considerations 
Use of Blood in Zone of Interior Hospitals 
Plasma Therapy 
Serum Albumin Therapy 
Management of Special Types of Wounds 
Administrative Considerations 

XX.    The Blood, Plasma, and Related Programs in the Korean War 

Part I. Administrative Background

General Considerations 
The Interim Between the Wars 
Initial Steps in the National Blood Procurement Program 
Report of Task Group 
Implementation of Task Group Proposals 
National Research Council 
The American Red Cross Participation 

Part II. The Whole Blood Program

Section I. Blood Procurement in Japan

Initiation of Program 
Subsequent Developments 
Japanese Donors 
Publicity 
Statistical Data 

Section II. The Development of the Whole Blood Program in the Zone of Interior

The First Year
The Armed Forces Blood Donor Program 
The National Blood Program 

Section III. The Oversea Airlift to Korea

General Considerations 
Processing Laboratory, Travis Air Force Base 
Laboratory Routine
Statistical Data

Section IV. The Whole Blood Oversea Experience

Estimate of Needs
Distribution
Survey of Whole Blood Experience, Far East Command
Statistical Data

Section V. Equipment and Refrigeration for Airlift

Plastic Containers
Refrigerated Shipping Containers
Refrigeration Facilities in the Far East 

Section VI. Techniques of Preservation

Preservative Solutions
Red Blood Cell Preservation
Exchange Resins
Freezing 

Part III. The Plasma Program

Plasma Supplies Between the Wars 
Stockpiles and Future Requirements 
Procurement of Plasma
Serum Hepatitis 

Part IV. The Plasma Fractionation Program

Serum Albumin
Globin
Gamma Globulin
Red Blood Cells 
Cadaveric Blood

Part V. The Plasma-Expanders Program

Bibliography 
Gelatin and Oxypolygelatin 
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Periston, PVP) 
Dextran 
Fat Emulsions

Part VI. Clinical Considerations

Therapeutic Principles and Practices 
Investigations 

APPENDIXES

A    Circular Letters, Mediterranean Theater 
B    Circular Letters, European Theater 
C    Circular Letters, Pacific Areas

 

Illustrations

Figure

1     Experimental blood transfusion apparatus (Blundell), 1818 
2     Clinical transfusion with Blundell gravitator
3     World War I blood transfusion apparatus
4     British and Canadian equipment for replacement therapy
5     Plasma administration in the field
6     Brig. Gen. Charles C. Hillman, MC 
7     Col. (later Brig. Gen.) George R. Callender, MC 
8     Experimental blood studies, Army Medical School, 1941 
9     Exhibit by Blood Research Division, Army Medical School, 1941 
10   Preparation of liquid plasma, Army Medical School 
11   Lt. Col. (later Col.) B. Noland Carter, MC 
12   Army and Navy representatives, Blood and Plasma Program 
13   Laboratory technicians in training, Army Medical School 
14   Dried plasma arriving at emergency landing field during maneuvers, 1941
15   Dried plasma ready for immediate use during maneuvers, 1941 
16   Demonstration of plasma administration, 1943 
17   Dr. G. Canby Robinson 
18   Dr. (later Major, MC) Earl S. Taylor 
19   American Red Cross blood donor centers 
20   Committee room, Fort Worth Red Cross Blood Donor Center 
21   Red Cross mobile units 
22   Setup of Red Cross mobile units 
23   Red Cross recruiting posters 
24   Red Cross recruiting pamphlets 
25   Outdoor recruiting posters contributed by commercial firms
26   Cadets from Marquette University at Milwaukee Red Cross Blood Donor Center 
27   Release signed by blood donors 
28   Reception and registration rooms, Red Cross blood donor centers 
29   Registration card for blood donors 
30   Hemoglobin and blood pressure determinations 
31   Fileroom, San Antonio Red Cross Blood Donor Center 
32   Collection of blood, Red Cross blood donor centers 
33   Canteens, Red Cross blood donor centers 
34   Canteen kitchen, Fort Worth Red Cross Blood Donor Center 
35   Steps in collection of blood 
36   Final step in collection of blood 
37   Shipping room at a Red Cross blood donor center 
38   Dried plasma containers early in World War II 
39   Standard Army-Navy 250-cc. plasma package
40   Stoppers used in blood and plasma program
41   Filters used in plasma program 
42   Large plasma package, 1943 
43   Plasma package used in Zone of Interior hospitals 
44   Collecting and giving set devised at Army Medical School 
45   Improvised equipment for oversea collection of blood 
46   Maj. (later Lt. Col.) Richard V. Ebert, MC, and Maj. (later Lt. Col.) Charles P. Emerson, MC 
47   Evolution of donor bottle in Ebert-Emerson transfusion set 
48   Ebert-Emerson technique of collection and administration of blood
49   Improvised suction equipment in Ebert-Emerson technique 
50   Technique of cleansing Ebert-Emerson transfusion set 
51   Ebert-Emerson transfusion set packed for use 
52   Hose hub needle 
53   Disposable giving set standardized for Army-Navy use 
54   Standard Army-Navy albumin package 
55   Church container for transportation of blood 
56   Aluminum refrigerator (Chrysler) developed by Army Air Forces 
57   Preservation of blood with Alsever's solution 
58   Technique of testing for Rh factor 
59   Copper sulfate technique of measuring specific gravities of blood and plasma
60   Portable kit for copper sulfate technique of measuring specific gravities of blood and plasma 
61   Preparation of liquid plasma, 1942 
62   Equipment for cold-trap technique of drying plasma 
63   Shell-frozen plasma 
64   Plasma shell-freezing machine 
65   Equipment for freezing plasma 
66   Typical plasma shell-freezing tray 
67   Equipment for Emery technique of shell-freezing plasma 
68   Wyckoff-Lagsden technique of drying plasma 
69   Drying plasma at Army Medical School 
70   Vacuum diffusion process for drying plasma 
71   Diagrammatic sketch of plasma drying chamber 
72   Schematic drawing of plasma freeze-drying equipment 
73   Edwin J. Cohn, Ph. D 
74   Commercially prepared fibrin foam and thrombin 
75   Closures for bleeding, plasma, and intravenous solution bottles (Baxter) 
76   Col. Edward D. Churchill, MC 
77   Administration of blood plasma just behind frontlines, Sicily, 1943 
78   Administration of blood plasma to German casualty, Italy, 1945 
79   Administration of blood plasma after bomb hit, Italy, 1943 
80   Administration of blood plasma in open field, Italy 
81   Transfusion with British equipment and blood, Italy, 1944 
82   Sikh receiving British blood serum, Italy, 1944 
83   Col. Virgil H. Cornell, MC 
84   Maj. John J. McGraw, Jr., MC 
85   GI blood donors, Italy, 1944 
86   Taking blood for typing, Italy, 1944 
87   Postoperative transfusion, Italy, 1944 
88   Preparation of donor sets, Italy, 1944 
89   Laboratory examinations, Italy 
90   Blood typing, Italy, 1944 
91   Blood typing, Italy, 1944 
92   Reading Kahn tests, Italy 
93   Preparation of dried plasma for use in field, Italy, 1945 
94   Refrigerator truck for delivery of blood, Italy, 1944 
95   Insulated box for shipment of blood, devised in Italy 
96   Loading blood for shipment to Anzio beachhead 
97   Unloading blood plane, Italy, 1944 
98   Bleeding room, Italy, 1944 
99   Completion of individual donation, Italy, 1944 
100 Preparation of blood sample for laboratory studies, Italy 
101 Daily worksheet, Italy 
102 Blood donations, Italy 
103 Creation of slight negative pressure in blood bottle 
104 Introduction of glucose-saline solution into blood bottles 
105 Whole blood collections, Italy, 1944 
106 Arrival of DUKW with blood and penicillin, southern France 
107 Plasma transfusion during transportation from frontline, southern France, 1945
108 Transfusion in forward hospital, southern France, 1944 
109 Administration of albumin to wounded civilian, southern France 
110 Inventory of liquid plasma, England, 1943 
111 Col. (later Brig. Gen.) Elliott C. Cutler, MC, Lt. Col. (later Col.) Ralph S. Muckenfuss, MC, and Lt. Col. Robert C. Hardin, MC, summer, 1944 
112 Solutions room, European Theater Blood Bank 
113 Loading autoclave with materials for blood collection, European Theater Blood Bank, 1944 
114 Movement of blood from refrigerated storage via truck to waiting plane, United Kingdom, 1944 
115 Preparation of transfusion equipment for reuse, European Theater Blood Bank, 1944 
116 Labeling bottles of blood, European Theater Blood Bank, 1944 
117 Processing of blood donations, European Theater Blood Bank 
118 Shipment of blood from Continental Section, European Theater Blood Bank, 1944 
119 Loading blood for shipment to European Theater Blood Bank, 1944 
120 Blood packed in ice for shipment, 1944 
121 Plane loaded with whole blood in refrigerated cans for shipment to France, 1944 
122 Unloading of blood from plane, France, 1944
123 Blood plane returning wounded from Continent, 1944 
124 Delivery vehicle with refrigerator 
125 Refrigerator truck being loaded with blood at Continental Section, European Theater Blood Bank, 1944
126 Blood being unloaded from refrigerator truck, Belgium, 1944 
127 Preparation of plasma, Rendova, 1943 
128 Administration of plasma, Leyte, 1944 
129 Administration of plasma, Manila, 1945
130 Administration of plasma, Manila, 1945 
131 Administration of plasma, Luzon, 1945 
132 Blood bank in hospital dispensary, New Guinea, 1945 
133 Brig. Gen. Guy B. Denit, MC 
134 Blood transfusion, Leyte, 1944 
135 Blood donors, Biak Island, 1945
136 Navy processing laboratory for blood for Pacific, Oakland, Calif. 
137 Blood distribution center, Guam 
138 Movement of blood at distributing center, Guam 
139 Icing Navy shipping cases, Guam 
140 Loading Navy shipping containers, Guam 
141 Lt. Herbert R. Brown, Jr., MC, USNR 
142 Col. (later Brig. Gen.) William A. Hagins, MC 
143 Lt. Col. Frank Glenn, MC 
144 Blood distribution center, USN, Okinawa, 1945 
145 Administration of plasma, Okinawa, 1945
146 Administration of plasma, Okinawa, 1945
147 Administration of plasma, Okinawa, 1945 
148 Blood transfusion, Leyte, 1944 
149 Stored blood and plasma, Ledo, 1944 
150 Processed serum, Calcutta Blook Bank, 1944 
151 Lt. Gen. (later Gen.) Joseph W. Stilwell, USA, and Col. (later Brig. Gen.) Isidor S. Ravdin, MC, Assam Base Hospital, 1944 
152 Blood donors, K'un-ming, 1945 
153 Form used in hepatitis survey in Zone of Interior general hospitals, 1945
154 Administration of replacement therapy, France, 1944 
155 Transfusion in shock ward, Belgium, 1945 
156 Transfusion in shock ward, Germany 
157 Form used in shock ward 
158 Transfusion during operation, France, 1944 
159 Plasma administration on beach in Normandy, 1944 
160 Care of wounded in battalion aid station, France, 1944 
161 Plasma administration, Holland, 1944 
162 Care of civilian injured by landmine, Germany, 1944 
163 Reconstitution of dried plasma 
164 Administration of serum albumin 
165 Interior of shock ward 
166 Setup of shock ward 
167 Blood donors from U.S. Navy, Tokyo, 1950 
168 Japanese mothers giving blood, Tokyo, 1952 
169 Official poster of Armed Forces Blood Donor Program, 1951 
170 Shipments of blood from military installations in Zone of Interior 
171 Inspection of blood for transshipment from San Francisco Airport to Japan, 1950 
172 Collection of blood by mobile units from Louisville Regional Blood Donor Center, 1950 
173 Personnel of Travis Air Force Base Blood Processing Center 
174 Laboratories at Travis Air Force Base Blood Processing Center 
175 Whole blood ready for airlift to Korea from Travis Air Force Base Processing Center 
176 Blood being loaded on plane for airlift from Travis Air Force Base to Tokyo Blood Bank
177 Blood flown from Travis Air Force Base to Japan 
178 Blood flown from United States via Tokyo on arrival in Korea 
179 Transportation of blood by helicopter in Korea 
180 Standardized plastic equipment introduced during Korean War 
181 Demonstration of use of plastic equipment 
182 Insulated box used in early airlift to Korea 
183 Whole blood shipments arriving in Korea in insulated box originally used in airlift to Korea 
184 Trunk type of insulated container developed during Korean War 
185 Refrigerated container developed after Korean War 
186 Refrigerator units for storage of blood, Korea, 1951 
187 Refrigeration facilities for blood, Korea, 1953 
188 Refrigerator used in field hospitals in Korea 
189 Technique of plasma production during Korean War 
190 Administration of plasma in Korea 
191 Administration of albumin in Korea 
192 Withdrawal of stored blood for use at front, Korea, 1950 
193 Blood transfusion in Korea
194 Transfusion during operation in Korea 
195 Rapid blood transfusion, Korea, 1952 

Tables

Number

1    American Red Cross blood donor centers 
2    Summarized data on activities of American Red Cross blood donor centers 
3    Production report of American Red Cross blood donor centers, 1941-45
4    Production report of American Red Cross blood donor centers, 1941-43
5    Production report of American Red Cross blood donor centers, 1941-44
6    Errors in blood grouping determinations 
7    Results of testing commercially produced lots of plasma in Army Medical School 
8    Distribution of causes of losses in total bloods collected in World War II
9    Results of clinical testing of bovine albumin, 1941 
10  Accepted production of normal human serum albumin, 1942-43 
11  Summarized report of albumin production to 1945 
12  Effect of storage temperatures on stability of crystalline human albumin
13  Effect of storage temperatures on viscosity of crystalline human albumin 
14  Production of 6713th Blood Transfusion Unit (Ovhd.), 1944-45 
15  Distribution of bloods collected by 6713th Blood Transfusion Unit (Ovhd.), 1944-45
16  Blood shipments by 6825th Blood Transfusion Company (Non-T/O), 1944-45
17  Use of blood in Italy, 1943-44
18  Estimated demands for whole blood, April 1944 
19  Response to request for type O blood donors in United Kingdom, spring 1944 
20  Consolidated report of monthly shipments of blood to ETOUSA, Army Whole Blood Procurement Service, 1944-45 
21  Production and distribution of blood, ETOUSA Blood Bank, 1944-45 
22  Delivery of blood to using hospital units, ETOUSA, 1944-45
23  Ratios of bloods delivered to admissions to forward hospitals, First U.S. Army, 1944-45 
24  Ratios of bloods delivered to admissions to forward hospitals, Third U.S. Army, 1944-45
25  Ratios of bloods delivered to admissions to forward hospitals, Seventh U.S. Army, 1944-45 
26  Ratios of bloods delivered to admissions to forward hospitals, Ninth U.S. Army, 1944-45 
27  Ratios of blood delivered to admissions to forward hospitals, all U.S. Armies, ETOUSA, 1944-45
28  Reactions to transfusions in field hospitals, ETOUSA 
29  Reactions to transfusions in evacuation hospitals, ETOUSA 
30  Reactions to transfusions in general and station hospitals, ETOUSA 
31  Influence of local preparation of transfusion sets on pyrogenic reactions
32  Development of hepatitis in hospitalized patients, European and Mediterranean theaters, 1944 
33  Survey of hepatitis in Zone of Interior general hospitals, 1945 
34  Authorized collection of blood from Japanese nationals and other short donors 
35  Type distribution of blood collected in Japan, 1951
36  Receipts of blood, Tokyo Blood Depot, 1951-52
37  Ratio of blood issued to wounded in action, 1951-52
38  Remaining usable days of blood received from Zone of Interior and shipped to Korea, 1951
39  Distribution of blood by Tokyo Blood Depot, 1951-52 
40  Results of inoculation of volunteers with serum from six donors suspected of having hepatitis 
41  Results of ultraviolet irradiation of infected pooled plasma 
42  Results of heating infected pooled plasma at 60 C 

Charts

Number

1    Organization chart, Transfusion Branch, Surgical Consultants Division, Office of The Surgeon General, 1944
2    Organization chart, American Red Cross Blood Donor Service, 1941 
3    Organization chart, American Red Cross Blood Donor Service, 1942 
4    Line chart for calculating plasma proteins, hemoglobin and hematocrit from specific gravities of blood and plasma 
5    Line chart for calculating percentages of normal plasma proteins and hemoglobin from specific gravities of blood and plasma 
6    Hemolytic effect of various diluting solutions 
7    Fractionation of plasma 
8    Diagram of blood transfusion service for field army, North African theater, 1944
9    Operations chart, Whole Blood Service, European theater, 1943 
10  Procurement and distribution of whole blood, European theater, 1944-45 
11  Structural organization of blood and blood derivatives program, 1949 
12  Structural organization of blood and blood derivatives program, 1950 
13  Structural organization of blood and blood derivatives program, 1952 
14  Organization for distribution of whole blood for Korea 

Maps

Number

1    Movement of whole blood in Mediterranean theater 
2    Flight plan of airlift of blood from Zone of Interior to the European Continent
3    Operations map showing movement of ADSEC mobile blood depots on the European Continent
4    Distribution of blood in Southwest Pacific 
5    Itinerary of Army-Navy blood and plasma personnel in Pacific areas, 1944 
6    Flight plan for distribution of blood to Pacific from U.S. west coast 
7    Flight plan for airlift of blood from Zone of Interior to Korea


Prepared and published under the direction of
Lieutenant General Leonard D. Heaton
The Surgeon General, United States Army

 

Editor in Chief
Colonel John Boyd Coates, Jr., MC, USA

Associates Editor
Elizabeth M. McFetridge, M.A.

 

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1964


BLOOD PROGRAM IN WORLD WAR II

Supplemented by Experiences in the Korean War

The Historical United, United States Army Medical Service

Colonel John Boyd Coates, Jr., MC, USA, Director
Charles J. Simpson, Executive Director
Lieutenant Colonel William P. Chambers, MSC, USA, Special Assistant to Director
Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Bell, Jr., MSC, USA, Chief, Special Projects Branch
Charles M. Wiltse, Ph. D., Litt. D., Chief, Historians Branch
Ernest Elliott, Jr., Chief, Editorial Branch
Lieutenant Colonel Jerome Rudberg, MSC, USA, Chief, Information Activities Branch
Roderick M. Engert, Chief, General Reference and Research Branch
Hazel G. Hine, Chief, Administrative Branch

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 64-60006

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402