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Preface

Contents

This volume is an account of the activities of surgical consultants in over-sea theaters of operations excluding field armies. The experiences of surgical consultants attached to field armies and of those in the Zone of Interior were recorded earlier in volume I. The experiences recounted in this volume are both interesting and instructive and will undoubtedly be invaluable to those individuals who may be called upon at some future time to serve as oversea consultants. Two of the chapters consist of diaries of consultants who have died since the war. These diaries have been edited in an effort to preserve the more interesting portions and to delete personal and nonessential details. It is most unfortunate that an account of the experiences of the Chief Surgical Consultant to the North African (later Mediterranean) theater could not be obtained, since so many of the surgical concepts of the care of the wounded were developed in that theater. The chapters in volume I by Col. Frank B. Berry, MC, Consultant in Surgery to the Seventh U.S. Army, and by Col. Howard E. Snyder, MC, Consultant in Surgery to the Fifth U.S. Army, however, give an excellent account of the surgical problems encountered and of how they were met in portions of that theater.

It has been rightfully stated on many occasions that surgical consultants in theaters of operations were potent factors in reducing the mortality rate. Their services were invaluable and became increasingly appreciated as the war progressed. Consultants to the oversea theaters came from civilian life and, for the most part, had been connected with important teaching centers in the United States. They were untiring in their efforts, dedicated to their duties, and magnificent in their accomplishments. One is impressed, as one reads of their experiences, that all of them felt that they could have performed their duties more efficiently if they had had better indoctrination, if there had been a definite place for them in the organizations to which they were assigned, and if they had been given rank commensurate with the rank of their counterparts in the Allied Armies and with the responsibilities which they had assumed. The manner in which these men performed their duties has demonstrated to the Armed Forces the necessity for surgical consultants and, it is believed, has done much to establish them as important and permanent additions to the military effort.

In addition to acknowledgments appearing elsewhere to the various authors, deep appreciation is expressed to the following individuals who have contributed materially toward the compilation of this volume.

Mrs. Elliott C. Cutler, widow of the late Brig. Gen. Elliott C. Cutler, MC, AUS, made available her husband's personal diaries, without which the chapter


covering the activities of General Cutler could never have contained the personal insight it now has.

Dr. Bernard J. Pisani and Mrs. Pisani, to whom General Cutler's personal diary was entrusted, together accomplished the laborious task of extracting matters pertinent to this history from that handwritten diary. Dr. Pisani also reviewed in detail the entire chapter pertaining to General Cutler's activities and contributed one of the epilogues.

Maj. Gen. Paul R. Hawley, MC, USA (Retired), carefully reviewed the chapter concerning General Cutler; initiated inquiries on questionable matters to Dr. Loyal Davis, Sir Gordon Gordon-Taylor, and others; contributed the prologue; added annotations (now included as footnotes) which greatly amplify the text; and graciously and firmly insisted that General Cutler's remarks remain in the text, whether or not complimentary to the Chief Surgeon, ETOUSA (General Hawley).

Dr. Robert M. Zollinger, in addition to contributing his own chapter, reviewed the chapter pertaining to General Cutler's activities and wrote one of the epilogues.

The late Dr. Marion E. Howard (Mrs. Ashley W. Oughterson) gathered together the personal papers of Dr. Oughterson upon his untimely death in an airplane crash and presented them to The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service. She also loaned The Historical Unit the personal war journal of Dr. Oughterson. Without these contributions on Dr. Howard's part, the chapter pertaining to the wartime activities of Col. Ashley W. Oughterson, MC, could not have been compiled.

Maj. Gen. Guy B. Denit, MC, USA (Retired); Maj. Gen. John M. Willis, MC, USA (Retired); Brig. Gen. Earl Maxwell, USAF (MC, Retired); and Dr. Maurice C. Pincoffs reviewed the chapter pertaining to Colonel Oughterson's activities and made comments included as introductory matter and footnotes thereto.

Dr. Julian A. Sterling very generously reviewed the manuscript of chapter VI, which records the experiences of the consultants in orthopedic surgery and rehabilitation in the European theater.

Miss Elizabeth M. McFetridge provided invaluable advice and help in preparing portions of the chapter pertaining to surgical consultant activities in the Southwest Pacific Area.

Maj. James K. Arima, MSC, in addition to functioning in other capacities, searched out the photographs from which the illustrations for this book were selected. Sp4c. Jacques Kornberg also helped.

Mr. Melvin J. Hadden prepared the excellent layouts for the illustrations in this volume and handled the artwork and the preparation of the illustrations for printing.


Miss Elizabeth P. Mason, Chief, Cartographic Section, and Miss Jean A. Saffran, Cartographic Section, of the Special Projects Branch, The Historical Unit, prepared the maps.

Mrs. Claire M. Sorrell, Historian, of the General Reference and Research Branch, The Historical Unit, rendered research assistance.

Miss C. Louise Brady, Editor (Printed Media), Editorial Branch, The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, edited and prepared the manuscript for printing and prepared the index for this volume.

B. NOLAND CARTER, M.D.

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