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Preface

Contents

Preface

The complexities of the theory and practice of military preventive medicine were well demonstrated during World War II. It was learned and relearned during that period that effective prevention and control of disease and injury depends upon the judicious, timely, and vigorous application of the basic truths and principles developed in the various disciplines involved. That so much re-learning of this apparently elementary concept was required was unfortunate, if for no other reason than that it was wasteful of time and energy. It is principally this that demands the study, evaluation, and recording of the experiences of that time. These experiences arranged themselves generally and quite naturally into the triad of epidemiology, environmental sanitation, and personal health measures.

It is with the last of the triad that this volume is concerned. Grouped within it are the accounts of the policies and practices concerned with the various direct personal aspects of preventive medicine as it was applied for the United States Army during the war period. It is hoped that this concentration of these highly personalized procedures-ranging from personnel selection through nutrition and clothing to the stimulation of specific individual immunity through immunization-emphasizes that preventive medicine is more than the sanitation of the environment and that the prevention of the disease is more to be desired than the nice description of the epidemic and its control. This volume will serve a useful purpose if those who need to learn will read it and if those who read are willing to benefit from the experiences, mistakes, and repetitive efforts of the past.

The authors of the various chapters were chosen because of their peculiar qualifications to deal with their allotted subjects. They need no introduction here. They alone, however, did not nor could they have accomplished this work unaided. Much credit and appreciation are due to the many others who through their advice, guidance, and reviews helped materially in the preparation of this work. If any of these are not named here, apologies as well as thanks are due. Specifically, the most sincere thanks and appreciation of the authors and editors are due to the following reviewers: Lt. Col. William H. Anderson, MC, USA; Dr. William Ashe; Dr. Stanhope Bayne-Jones; Prof. Georges F. Doriot; Dr. John E. Gordon; Dr. Wendell Griffith; Dr. Anthony J. Lanza; Dr. Karl R. Lundeberg; Col. Clark B. Meador, MC, USA; Dr. Herbert Pollack; Dr. Elliott S. A. Robinson; Dr. Harvey J. Tompkins; Dr. Douglass W. Walker; and Col. Tom F. Whayne, MC, USA.

The editorial office at the Medical College of Virginia was provided with the facilities and staff necessary for carrying out this project through the wholehearted cooperation of Dr. William T. Sanger, President, and Maj. Gen. William F. Tompkins, Comptroller. Their great interest and encouragement have been warmly appreciated. Thanks also are due to Mrs. Jacqueline Pate, Mrs. Geraldine Glick, Mrs. Jeannette Martin, and Mrs. Virginia Wilson for their secretarial work in the editorial office.

All of the statistical data in this volume, except as otherwise indicated, were provided or reviewed by Mr. E. L. Hamilton, Chief, Mr. A. J. McDowell, Assistant Chief, Mr. M. C. Rossoff, and members of the staff of Medical Statistics Division, Office of The Surgeon General. All photographs were obtained from Department of Defense files and were prepared for publication by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology under the direction of Mr. Herman Van Cott, Chief, Medical Illustration Service.

The advice of members of the Preventive Medicine Division, Office of The Surgeon General, who willingly gave their professional help throughout the many stages of processing these manuscripts has been most valuable. The staff of the Archives and Research Branch, Historical Unit, Army Medical Service, who screened the voluminous wartime records, supplied much of the source material and references to authors. General administrative support and final typing was performed in the Administrative Branch of the Historical Unit under supervision of Mrs. Catherine F. Marshall. Mrs. Hazel G. Hine served as editorial clerk for this volume.

ARTHUR P. LONG
Colonel, MC, USA

26 April 1955

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