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Contents

Books and Documents

UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II

The Technical Services

THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT:

MEDICAL SERVICE IN THE

MEDITERRANEAN AND

MINOR THEATERS

by

Charles M. Wiltse

OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF MILITARY HISTORY

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

WASHINGTON, D.C., 1965


This volume, one of the series UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II, is the second to be published in the group of Medical Department volumes in the subseries THE TECHNICAL SERVICES. The volumes in the over-all series will be closely related and will present a comprehensive account of the activities of the Military Establishment during World War II. A list of subseries is appended at the end of this volume.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 64-60004


. . . The Unsung Heroes of the War . . . 


UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II

Stetson Conn, General Editor

Advisory Committee
(As of 15 September 1968)

Fred C. Cole
Washington and Lee University

William R. Emerson
Yale University

Earl Pomeroy
University of Oregon

Theodore Ropp
Duke University

Bell I. Wiley
Emory University

Maj. Gen. Hugh M. Exton
U.S. Continental Army Command

Maj. Gen. Tom R. Stoughton
Industrial College of the Armed Forces

Brig. Gen. Ward S. Ryan
U.S. Army War College

Col. Elias C. Townsend
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

Col. Vincent J. Esposito
United States Military Academy

Office of the Chief of Military History
Brig. Gen. Hal C. Pattison, Chief of Military History

Stetson Conn
Chief Historian

Col. Albert W. Jones
Chief, Histories Division

Col. Walter B. MacKenzie
Chief, Editorial and Graphics Division

Joseph R. Friedman
Editor in Chief


History of

THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT

prepared under the direction of Lt. Gen. Leonard D. Heaton, The Surgeon General, U.S. Army

Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior

Medical Service in the Mediterranean and Minor Theaters

Medical Service in the European Theater

Medical Service in the Asiatic--Pacific Theater

The Historical Unit, United States Army Medical Service

Col. John Boyd Coates, Jr., MC, USA
Director

Charles J. Simpson
Executive Officer

Charles M. Wiltse, Ph. D., Litt. D.
Chief Historian

Lt. Col. Frederick Bell, Jr., MSC, USA
Chief, Special Projects Branch

Ernest Elliott, Jr.
Chief, Editorial Branch

Lt. Col. Jerome Rudberg, MSC, USA
Chief, Information Activities Branch

Roderick M. Engert
Chief, General Reference and Research Branch

Hazel G. Hine
Chief, Administrative Branch


. . . to Those Who Served



Table of Contents

FOREWORD, PREFACE, INTRODUCTORY NOTE

PROLOGUE: THE GIFT OF LIFE

I. MEDICAL SERVICE IN THE ATLANTIC DEFENSE AREAS

The Atlantic Approaches to War
The North Atlantic Bases
Bermuda Base Command
U.S. Army Forces in the Azores
U.S. Army Forces in Eastern and Central Canada
The Caribbean Defense Command
The South Atlantic Theater

II. ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE IN AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST

The Beginnings of Medical Service in the Middle East
The Middle East as an Active Theater of Operations, 1942-43
The Middle East as a Supply and Service Theater, 1944-45
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services
Decline of Medical Activities in the Demobilization Period

III. CONQUEST OF NORTH AFRICA

Prelude to Invasion
Medical Support in the Landing Phase
Medical Support of II Corps in the Tunisia Campaign
Evacuation From II Corps
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services

IV. SICILY AND THE MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS

Medical Preparations for Operation HUSKY
Medical Support of Seventh Army in the Field
Hospitalization and Evacuation
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services
Medical Support in the Seizure of Sardinia and Corsica

V. THE NORTH AFRICAN COMMUNICATIONS ZONE

Theater Organization
Hospitalization in the Communications Zone
Evacuation in the Communications Zone
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services
Army Public Health Activities

VI. SALERNO TO THE GUSTAV LINE

Medical Plans for AVALANCHE
Medical Support in the Conquest of Southern
Hospitalization in the Army Area
Evacuation From Fifth Army
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services in the Army Area

VII. ANZIO BEACHHEAD

Medical Planning for Operation SHINGLE
Combat Medical Service
Hospitalization on Anzio Beachhead
Evacuation From the Beachhead
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services on the Beachhead

VIII. FROM THE GARIGLIANO TO THE ARNO

Preparations for the Offensive
Combat Medical Service
Hospitalization in the Army Area
Evacuation From Fifth Army
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services in the Army Area
Medical Support for the Eastern Command

IX. THE ITALIAN COMMUNICATIONS ZONE: SOUTHERN PHASE

Changes in Theater Organization
Hospitalization in the Communications Zone
Evacuation
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services
Army Public Health Activities

X. INVASION OF SOUTHERN FRANCE

Preparations for the Invasion
Medical Support of Seventh Army in the Field
Hospitalization in the Army Area
Evacuation From Seventh Army
Extension of the Communications Zone
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services in Southern France

XI. THE NORTHERN APENNINES

Preparations for the Offensive
Combat Operations
Medical Support in the Field
Hospitalization in the Army Area
Evacuation From Fifth Army
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services in the Army Area

XII. ADVANCE TO THE ALPS

Preparations for the Final Drive
The Po Valley Campaign
Hospitalization in the Army Area
Evacuation From Fifth Army
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services in the Army Area

XIII. THE ITALIAN COMMUNICATIONS ZONE: NORTHERN PHASE

Organizational Changes Affecting the Medical Service
Hospitalization in the Communications Zone
Evacuation
Medical Supplies and Equipment
Professional Services
Army Civil Public Health Activities

XIV. CONTRACTION AND REDEPLOYMENT

Redeployment Policies and Plans
Medical Support of Fifth Army
Hospitalization and Evacuation
Hospitalization and Repatriation of Prisoners of War
Redeployment and Inactivation of Medical Units
Close-out in the MTO

XV. THE MEDITERRANEAN IN RETROSPECT
 


Appendix

A. HOSPITAL STATISTICS

1. Fixed Beds and Bed Ratios, Atlantic Defense Areas, July 1941-December 1945
2. Fixed Beds and Bed Ratios, Africa and the Middle East (Includes Persian Gulf Command), June 1942-December 1945
3. Bed Strength and Bed Occupancy, North African Communications Zone, November 1942-February 1945
4. Bed Strength and Bed Occupancy, Mediterranean Islands August 1943-April 1945
5. Bed Strength and Bed Occupancy, Italian Communications Zone, October 1943-September 1945
6. Fixed Bed Strength and Bed Occupancy, Mediterranean Theater, November 1942 September 1945

B. PRINCIPAL MEDICAL UNITS ACTIVE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS, THE ATLANTIC DEFENSE AREAS, AFRICA, AND THE MIDDLE EAST

C. OBSERVATIONS ON HOSPITALIZATION AND EVACUATION SYSTEM, FRENCH EXPEDITIONARY CORPS, ASSIGNED FIFTH ARMY

D. THE GERMAN MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENT
 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

GLOSSARY

BASIC MILITARY MAP SYMBOLS

Tables

1. Hospital Admissions and Dispositions, II Corps, 1 January-15 May 1943
2. Air Evacuation From Tunisia, 16 January-23 May 1943
3. Intratheater Evacuation by Air, North Africa, 16 January-23 May 1943
4. U.S. Army Patients Evacuated by Sea From North Africa to the Zone of Interior, 1943
5. Hospital Admissions From Fifth Army, 9 September 1943-30 April 1944
6. Disposition of Neuropsychiatric Cases in Fifth Army, September 1943- April 1944
7. Venereal Disease Rate per Thousand per Annum, by Divisions, September 1943-April 1944
8. Disposition of Patients, Fifth Army Venereal Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Center, January-April 1944
9. Dental Service in Fifth Army, September 1943-April 1944
10. Disposition of Problem Cases in the 3d Division, 4 March-30 April 1944
11. Admissions to Hospital and Quarters From Fifth Army, May-August1944
12. Air Evacuation From Fifth Army Hospitals, 26 May-31 August 1944
13. Evacuation From Fifth Army to PBS Hospitals, 1 January-31 August 1944
14. Disposition of Neuropsychiatric Cases in Fifth Army, May-August 1944
15. Venereal Disease Rates by Divisions, Fifth Army, May-August 1944
16. Dental Service in Fifth Army, May-August 1944
17. Admissions to PBS Hospitals, 14 October 1943-31 August 1944
18. Disposition of Patients in PBS Hospitals, 14 October 1943-31 August 1944
19. Evacuation From Italy to North Africa, 9 September 1943-21 January 1944
20. Evacuation From Italy to North Africa, January-August 1944
21. Evacuation From the Mediterranean to the Zone of Interior, January- August 1944
22. Venereal Disease Rates, NATOUSA, January-August 1944
23. Admissions and Dispositions, Seventh Army Medical Installations, 15-l8August 1944
24. Admissions and Dispositions, Seventh Army Medical Installations, 15 August-29 September 1944
25. Air Evacuation From Seventh Army and Delta Base Section, 22 August-7 November 1944
26. Summary of Evacuation to the Communications Zone, 15 August-3 November 1944
27. Establishment in Southern France of Fixed Hospitals From North Africa, Italy, and Corsica
28. Requisitions and Tonnage, 7th Medical Depot Company, August- November 1944
29. Receipts and Issues, 231st Medical Composite Battalion, September- November 1944
30. Venereal Disease Rates, Seventh Army, July-September 1944
31. Disposition of Neuropsychiatric Cases, Fifth Army, September 1944-March 1945
32. Dental Service in Fifth Army, September 1944-March 1945
33. Wounded in Action in the Po Valley Campaign, Fifth Army, April-15 May 1945
34. Evacuation From MTOUSA to the Zone of Interior, September1944-April 1945
35. Evacuation of Brazilian Patients to Brazil, September 1944-April 1945
36. Medical Supplies on Hand in PBS Depots, September 1944-April 1945
37. Noneffective Rates per Thousand of Troop Strength per Annum, September 1944-April 1945
38. Intratheater Evacuation: U.S. and Allied Personnel, May-September 1945
39. Evacuation From MTOUSA to the Zone of Interior, May-December 1945

Maps

1. U.S. Army Hospitals Supporting North Atlantic Bases, 1 June 1943
2. U.S. Army Hospitals in the Caribbean
3. U.S. Army Hospitals Supporting South Atlantic Bases, 1943-45
4. U.S. Army Hospitals in USAFIME, 1 July 1943
5. U.S. Army Hospitals in the Persian Gulf Service Command, 1 July 1943
6. Medical Support of Eastern Task Force
7. Medical Support of Center Task Force
8. Medical Support of Western Task Force
9. II Corps Medical Installations, 14 February 1943
10. II Corps Medical Installations, 24 February 1943
11. II Corps Medical Installations, 11 April 1943
12. II Corps Medical Installations, 23 April 1943
13. II Corps Medical Installations, 12 May 1943
14. Seventh Army Hospitals, 16 July 1943
15. Seventh Army Hospitals, 26 July 1943
16. Seventh Army Hospitals, 5 August 1943
17. Seventh Army Hospitals, 15 August 1943
18. a. Fixed Hospitals and Base Medical Supply Depots in North Africa, November 1942-February 1945
      b. Fixed Hospitals and Base Medical Supply Depots in North Africa, November 1942-February 1945
19. Fixed Hospitals and Base Medical Supply Depots on Sicily, August 1943-July 1944
20. Fixed Hospitals and Base Medical Supply Depots on Sardinia and Corsica, November 1943-May 1945
21. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 9 October 1943
22. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 15 November 1943
23. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 15 February 1944
24. Anzio Beachhead and Surrounding Areas
25. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps on the Cassino Front, 11 May 1944
26. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 10 June 1944
27. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 15 July 1944
28. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 15 August 1944
29. Fixed Hospitals in Southern Italy, October 1943-October 1947
30. Seventh Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 20 August 1944
31. Seventh Army Hospitals anti Medical Supply Dumps, 1 September 1944
32. Seventh Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 15 September 1944
33. Seventh Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 30 September 1944
34. Fixed Hospitals Transferred From MTO to ETO, 20 November 1944
35. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 18 September 1944
36. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps Supporting II Corps, 25 October 1944
37. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps on the IV Corps and 92d Division Fronts, 15 January 1945
38. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps on the II Corps Front, 15 January 1945
39. Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps Supporting the Fifth Army Offensive, 18 April 1945
40. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 26 April 1945
41. Fifth Army Hospitals and Medical Supply Dumps, 2 May 1945
42. Fixed Hospitals in Northern Italy, July 1944-October 1947
43. Medical Installations Supporting Fifth Army, 1 June 1945

Illustrations

Lt. Col. Charles H. Beasley
167th Station Hospital, Iceland
BLUIE WEST 1, Greenland
308th Station Hospital, Fort Pepperrell, Newfoundland
Convalescent Patients, Bermuda
Col. Gordon G. Bulla
Brig. Gen. Morrison C. Stayer
Air Evacuation, Panama
Col. George E. Leone
Malaria Control Unit, Brazil
Col. Crawford F. Sams
Col. Hall G. Van Vlack
DC-3 Over Pyramids
King George of Greece at 38th General Hospital, Heliopolis
Hospital Train, Benghasi Area
Partially Dug-In Hospital Tents Near Tripoli
113th General Hospital at Ahwaz, Iran
167th Station Hospital at Accra, Gold Coast
Loading a Patient by Fork Lift, Casablanca
Brig. Gen. Leon A. Fox
Dental Clinic at Khorramshahr, Iran
Brig. Gen. Albert W. Kenner and General George C. Marshall
Col. Richard T. Arnest
Nurses Arriving in Arzew, Algeria
Soldier Being Evacuated at Fedala, French Morocco
Camouflaged Aid Station, Algeria
Mobile Surgical Truck, Tunisia
Wrecked Ambulance, Tunisia
2d Lt. Aleda E. Lutz in Converted C-47
Medical Supplies on Beach, Algeria
Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, Jr., and Brig. Gen. Theodore Roosevelt
Col. Daniel Franklin
Col. L. Holmes Ginn, Jr.
Evacuating Wounded to Landing Craft, Sicily
Administering Plasma, Sicily
Evacuation by Muleback
Holding Hospital, Termini Airfield, Sicily
Forward Surgical Unit, Sicily
Pack Train in Sicily
Maj. Gen. Ernest M. Cowell
Brig. Gen. Frederick A. Blesse
6th General Hospital, Casablanca
26th General Hospital Near Constantine, Algeria
Aerial View of Hospital Groupment, Algeria
Prison Stockade of the 180th Station Hospital Near Oran
Interior View of Hospital Train
Col. William S. Stone
Malaria Control Measures Near Algiers
Brig. Gen. Joseph I. Martin
Litter Bearers Wading to Landing Craft, Salerno
Planners of the Invasion of Italy
Medics Treating Italian Girl, Volturno Area
Rough Going
Digging Out Wounded Man, Cassino
Casualties From Rapido Crossing
Aid Station in Sant'Elia Area
Wounded German Soldier at 94th Evacuation Hospital
Treating Moroccan Mountain Troops, Venafro Area
Col. Rollin L. Bauchspies
Evacuation of Wounded, Anzio
Pfc. Lloyd C. Hawks
Hospital Area, Anzio
Brig. Gen. Frederick A. Blesse Congratulating Col Henry S. Blesse
Anzio Hospitals Digging In
Protecting Operating Tents, Anzio
56th Evacuation Hospital After Bombing
Treating Casualty at Forward Aid Station
Italian Civilians Help Carry Casualty Down Mountain
Half-Track Ambulance
German POW Giving First Aid
Wheeled Litter
Administering Plasma in Jeep Ambulance
Institute of the Good Shepherd, Rome
Ambulance Plane, Nettuno Airstrip
Field Unit of Dental Clinic
Col. Charles F. Shook
Medical Section of NATOUSA at Caserta, 26 July 1944
Medical Center at Mostra Fairgrounds
Repatriating Wounded German POWs
41st Hospital Train
Storing Medical Supplies
Blood Donors, Naples
Dusting for Mosquitoes, Cassino
Brig. Gen. Edgar Erskine Hume
Delousing Station, Naples
Lt. Gen. Alexander M. Patch and Col. Frank B. Berry
Lt. Col. Robert Goldson, Col. Myron R. Rudolph, and Col. Joseph Rich
Medics on Beach, Southern France
Ambulance in Wrecked Village
Jeep Ambulance Crossing the Moselle
Evacuating Wounded, Southern France Beaches
Evacuating Southern France Casualties by Sea
Last Stages of Whole Blood Pipeline
General Martin Receiving ORE From Gen. Sir Harold R.L. G.Alexander
Collecting Point, Mt. Altuzzo
317th Medical Battalion Collecting Station
Aid Station on Mt. Belvedere
Tramway, Mt. Mancinello-Pizzo di Campiano Ridge
38th Evacuation Hospital Flooded
Brazilian Nurses
8th Evacuation Hospital, Pietramala
Ambulance on Icy Road
Treating a Wounded Mule
Lt. Gens. Mark W. Clark and Lucian K. Truscott, Jr
"Ohio Ridge"
Medics Evacuating Wounded by jeep
Medics at Pianoro
German Receiving Plasma
German Clearing Station
Lake Garda
Ambulances Fording Reno River
Maj. Gen. Morrison C. Stayer
12th General Hospital, Leghorn
70th General Hospital, Pistoia
Italian Partisans at Bari
37th General Hospital on the Move
Loading Patients, Leghorn
Storage Area, Leghorn
Captured Horse at Veterinary Hospital
Col. Charles O. Bruce
7029th Station Hospital (Italian) at Pisa
German Medical Center in the Alps
Hotel-Hospital at Merano
German POW Ward Tents, Ghedi
POW Ward, Aversa
Readying Medical Supplies for the Southwest Pacific
Col. Earle Standlee

All photographs are from the Department of Defense files.