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MEDICAL DEPARTMENT UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

INTERNAL MEDICINE IN WORLD WAR II

Volume I

ACTIVITIES OF MEDICAL CONSULTANTS

Prepared and published under the direction of Lieutenant General LEONARD D. HEATON

The Surgeon General, United States Army

Editor in Chief

Colonel JOHN BOYD COATES, Jr., MC

Editor for Internal Medicine

W. PAUL HAVENS, Jr., M.D.

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

WASHINGTON, D.C., 1961

INTERNAL MEDICINE IN WORLD WAR II

Advisory Editorial Board

GARFIELD G. DUNCAN, M.D., Chairman

W.PAUL HAVENS, Jr., M.D., Editorial Director

WALTER BAUER, M.D.

HERRMAN L. BLUMGART, M.D.

WORTH B. DANIELS, M.D.

EUGENE C. EPPINGER, M.D.
JOSEPH M. HAYMAN, M.D.

YALE KNEELAND, Jr., M.D.

HOWARD P. LEWIS, M.D.

ESMOND R. LONG, M.D.

PERRIN H. LONG, M.D.

WILLIAM S. MIDDLETON, M.D.

DONALD M. PILLSBURY, M.D.

MAURICE C. PINCOFFS, M.D. (dec.)

HENRY M. THOMAS, Jr., M.D.

Colonel DAN CROZIER, MC (ex officio)

Colonel JOHN BOYD COATES, Jr., MC (ex officio)

The Historical Unit, United States Army Medical Service

Colonel JOHN BOYD COATES, Jr., MC, Director

Colonel OTHMAR F. GORIUP, MSC, Executive Officer

Colonel R. L. PARKER, MSC, Special Assistant to Director

Lieutenant Colonel R. J. BERNUCCI, MC, Special Assistant to Director

Lieutenant Colonel MATTHEW GINALICK, MSC, Chief, Special Projects Branch

CHARLES M. WILTSE, Ph. D., Litt. D., Chief, Historians Branch

ERNEST ELLIOTT, Jr., Chief, Editorial Branch

Lieutenant Colonel LEONARD L. COLLIER, MSC, Chief, Promotion Branch

Lieutenant Major ALBERT C. RIGGS, Jr., MSC, Chief, General Reference and Research Branch

HAZEL G. HINE, Chief, Administrative Branch

Volume I ACTIVITIES OF MEDICAL CONSULTANTS

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

  The volumes comprising the official history of the Medical Department of the U.S. Army in World War II are prepared by The Historical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Service, and published under the direction of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army. These volumes are divided into two series: (1) The administrative or operational series; and (2) the professional, or clinical and technical, series. This is one of the volumes published in the latter series.

VOLUMES PUBLISHED

ADMINISTRATIVE SERIES

Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior

CLINICAL SERIES

Preventive Medicine in World War II:

Vol. II. Environmental Hygiene

Vol. III. Personal Health Measures and Immunization

Vol. IV. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Chiefly Through Respiratory and Alimentary Tracts

Vol. V. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Through Contact Or By Unknown Means

Surgery in World War II:

General Surgery, vol. II

Hand Surgery

Neurosurgery, vol. I

Neurosurgery, vol. II

Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology

Orthopedic Surgery in the European Theater of Operations

Orthopedic Surgery in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations

The Physiologic Effects of Wounds

Vascular Surgery

Miscellaneous:

Cold Injury, Ground Type

United States Army Dental Service in World War II
Contributors


Contents

FOREWORD

PREFACE

PROLOGUE

Chapter

I Medical Consultants Division, Office of the Surgeon General (Hugh J. Morgan, M.D.)


  Beginning of the Consultant System

  Evolution of Medical Consultants Division

  Classification and Assignment of Personnel

  Clinical Services in Army Hospitals

  Administrative and Clinical Advances During World War II

  Specialization in Zone of Interior Hospitals

  Exchange of Professional Information

  Intraoffice and Interoffice Relationships

  Research

  Visits to Service and Oversea Commands

  Civilian Consultants in Medicine

  Plans for the Postwar Army

  Role of the Internist in World War II

II Service Commands (Hugh J. Morgan, M.D.)

 
  Duties of Medical Consultants

  Personnel Management

  Clinical Problems

  Laboratory Activities

  Autopsy Protocols

  Postgraduate Educational and Training Programs

  Adequacy of Medical Care in Army Hospitals

  Clinical Research

  Reconditioning

  Dietetics

  Medical Supplies

  Nursing Care

  Coordination With Other Consultants

  Service Command Installations Other Than Station and General Hospitals.

  Consultants Evaluation of the Consultant System

III Mediterranean (Formerly North African) Theater of Operations (Perrin H. Long, M.D.)

 
  Function and Duties of a Medical Consultant in an Oversea Theater of Operations

  Organization

  Consultant Activities in Various Types of Medical Installations

  Personnel Management

  Medical Supplies

  Diseases of Medical Interest

  Penicillin

  Disposition of Patients to Zone of Interior

  Laboratory Services

  Problems of Evacuation and Hospitalization

  Medical Care of Prisoners of War

  Nutrition

  Reconditioning

  Professional Education

  Research Problems

  Editorial Duties

  Medical Intelligence

IV European Theater of Operations (William S. Middleton, M.D.)


Part I. Chief Consultant in Medicine

  Historical Note

  Evolution of Medical Consultation Service

  General Morgan s Visit to European Theater

  Conferences of Chiefs of Medical Services

  Inter-Allied Relationships

  Function of Medical Consultant

  Personnel Management

  Educational Programs

  Professional Meetings

  Supply and Use of Drugs

  Hospital Facilities

  Evacuation Policies

  Clinical Studies

  Physical Standards

  Redeployment

  Summary

Part II. Senior Consultant in Dermatology and Syphilology

  Evaluation of the Situation

  Formulation of Policies and Procedures

  Full-Scale Operations

  Summary in Retrospect

Part III. Senior Consultant in Neuropsychiatry

  Arrival and Evaluation

  From Buildup and Invasion to Victory

  Summary in Retrospect

Part IV. Senior Consultants in Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, and Medical Consultation in Subordinate Commands

  Buildup in the United Kingdom

  Normandy Invasion and Campaigns in Northern France

  Final Operations

  From V-E Day to V-J Day

  Summaries in Retrospect

V Southwest Pacific Area (Henry M. Thomas, Jr., M.D.)

Part I. Administrative Considerations

  Organization of the Medical Department

  Functions of the Medical Consultant

  Activities of the Medical Consultant

  Hospitals and Medical Service

  Laboratories

  Convalescent Care in New Guinea

  Evacuation

  Nurses

  Visitors to the Area

  Blood Bank

  Supplies

  Clinical Investigation

Part II. Clinical Considerations

  General Observations

  Malaria

  Dysentery

  Dengue

  Scrub Typhus

  Differential Diagnosis of Acute Fevers

  Infectious Hepatitis

  Amebiasis

  Diphtheria

  Poliomyelitis

  Dermatological Conditions

  Filariasis

  Schistosomiasis

  Psychoneuroses

Part III. Conclusions and Recommendations

  Analysis and Conclusions

  Recommendations

VI South Pacific Area (Benjamin M. Baker, M.D.)

 
  Factors in Medical Care

  Consultant Activities at Headquarters

  Consultant Activities in the Field

  Medicine in the Forward Area

  Diagnostic Difficulties

  Morbidity Statistics

  Malaria

  Other Diseases

VII Central Pacific Area (Verne R. Mason, M.D.)


  Expansion and Organization of the Medical Service

  The Medical Consultant s Field

  Medical Problems

  The Assault on Okinawa

  Clinical Aspects of the War

  Military Occupational Specialty Ratings

VIII India-Burma Theater of Operations (Herrman L. Blumgart, M.D., and George M. Pike, M.D.)

 
  Scope of Consultant Activities

  Considerations in Diagnosis of Disease

  Military Importance of Diseases Encountered

  Evaluation of Consultant System

IX Field Armies (Garfield G. Duncan, M.D.)

 
  Internal Medicine at the Front

  Medical Service in Forward Areas

  Scope of Consultant Activities

  Summary and Comment

APPENDIXES


  A Consultants in Medicine in the Various Commands of the U.S. Army in World War II

  B Programs of Conferences of Medical Consultants in the Zone of Interior

  C Civilian Consultants in Medicine During World War II

  D Program of Conference on Internal Medicine in the Ninth Service Command

Illustrations

Number

1 Brig. Gen. Charles C. Hillman

2 Brig. Gen. W. Lee Hart and members of his staff

3 Areas served by part-time medical consultants

3 Continued -Areas served by part-time medical consultants

4 Consultants in medicine, Office of the Surgeon General

5 Mobile and fixed hospitals overseas

5 Continued - Mobile hospitals overseas

5 Continued - Mobile hospitals overseas

6 Cardiac clinic, Lawson General Hospital

7 Patient on neuropsychiatry ward, Percy Jones General Hospital

8 Scene on wards at neurology center, Ashburn General Hospital

9 Clinical laboratories overseas

9 Continued - Clinical laboratories overseas

10 Convalescence and reconditioning in hospitals

11 Specialty centers in general medicine

12 Fitzsimons General Hospital

13 Moore General Hospital

14 Therapy used in treatment of arthritic patients

15 Conference of consultants in medicine, Office of the Surgeon General

16 Conference of military and civilian consultants in medicine, Ashford General Hospital

17 Collecting mosquito larvae in the field for study

18 Environmental conditions for Allied soldiers at prisoners-of-war camps in Japan

18 Continued - Environmental conditions for Allied soldiers at prisoners-of-war camps in Japan

18 Continued - Environmental conditions for Allied soldiers at prisoners-of-war camps in Japan

19 Typical picture of malnutrition in American prisoner of war recovered in Japan

20 Processing recovered Allied prisoners of war, 42d General Hospital, Japan

20 Continued - Processing recovered Allied prisoners of war, 42d General Hospital, Japan

21 Training in triage and evacuation of wounded

22 Performing operation under field conditions in a mobile hospital unit, Lawson General Hospital

23 Brig. Gen. Hugh J. Morgan visiting Col. Frank W. Wilson, MC, Moore General Hospital

24 Maneuvers in California desert

25 Medical installation, Ninth Service Command

26 Consultants in medicine, service commands

27 Consultants in medicine, service commands

28 Typical scene at a port of embarkation

29 Gardner General Hospital

30 Allergy program, Fourth Service Command

31 Patient brought to admission tent during Second U.S. Army maneuvers.

32 Occupational therapy, Madigan General Hospital

33 American Red Cross arts and crafts program, Fort Hayes

34 Training volunteer as laboratory technician

35 Section of Fourth Service Command Laboratory

36 Reconditioning, Percy Jones General Hospital

36 Continued - Reconditioning, Percy Jones General Hospital

37 Food service, Madigan General Hospital

37 Continued - Food service, Madigan General Hospital

38 Well-stocked pharmacy, Percy Jones General Hospital

39 Senior cadet nurses in training

40 Newly inducted soldiers giving data for personnel and classification records

41 New Picker portable X-ray equipment in the outpatient service, Camp Rucker

42 Separation Center, Fort Dix

43 Ambulances awaiting docking of hospital ship

44 Col. Perrin H. Long, MC, Consultant in Medicine, Medical Section, NATOUSA-MTOUSA

45 Open storage of medical supplies, Naples, Italy

46 British hospital ship, Algiers, North Africa

47 Battle of El Guettar, 1943

48 Admission of  exhaustion casualties to clearing station

49 Treatment of neuropsychiatric casualty under supervision of psychiatrist

50 Brig. Gen. Frederick A. BlessÚ

51 Reghaia swamp, Algiers area, North Africa, 1943

52 Malaria control, Algiers area, North Africa, 1943

53 Making a blood smear for early recognition of malaria, North Africa, 1943

54 23d General Hospital situated between Bagnoli and Naples

55 Winter in Italy

56 Trenchfoot, Fifth U.S. Army, 1943

57 64th General Hospital, Leghorn, 1945

58 Air evacuation from Italy to North Africa

58 Continued - Air evacuation from Italy to North Africa

59 Hospital laboratory activities

60 Mobile laboratory, Florence area, 1945

61 German and Italian prisoners of war, North Africa, 1943

62 Delousing of prisoners of war

63 Prisoners of war, Tunisia, 1943

64 U.S. Army truck loaded with German prisoners arriving at prisoner-of-war camp, near Mateur, Tunisia, 1943

65 German medical officers in hospital of U.S. prisoner-of-war stockade, Scandicci area, 1945

66 German prisoners of war, Italy, 1945

67 Amphibious training

68 U.S. Army Field Ration K and British Ration

69 Medical Department soldiers of 10th Infantry Division

70 Fresh bread from 110th Quartermaster Bakery Co., January 1945

71 Occupational therapy, 21st General Hospital, Italy, 1944

72 Reconditioning, 21st General Hospital, Italy, 1944

73 Weekly meeting of Fifth U.S. Army medical officers at 38th Evacuation Hospital, February 1944

74 8th Evacuation Hospital, Italy, January 1945

75 Brig. Gen. Frederick A. BlessÚ and U.S. Army and Navy medical officers examining Tobruk splints, North Africa, 1943

76 15th Medical General Laboratory, Italy, 1945

77 Col. William S. Middleton, MC, Chief Consultant in Medicine, ETOUSA

78 Col. James C. Kimbrough, MC, and Col. William S. Middleton, MC

79 Col. Charles B. Spruit, MC

80 ETO gas casualty treatment kit

81 Col. Ralph S. Muckenfuss, MC

82 Staff of the Medical Section, Headquarters, United Kingdom Base

83 Avenue Kieber, Paris, France, showing buildings occupied by Chief Surgeon, ETOUSA

84 Brig. Gen. Hugh J. Morgan on visit to ETO

85 Convalescent patient undergoing obstacle course training, 203d Station Hospital, England

86 Col. Edward M. Curley, VC, and Col. William S. Middleton, MC

87 British guests at regular series of banquets held by the Chief Surgeon, ETOUSA

88 30th General Hospital, England

89 Army Medical Field Service School, Shrivenham Barracks, England

90 Medical Field Service School, France

91 Lt. Col. James B. Mason, MC

92 Maj. Bernard J. Pisani, MC

93 Maj. Gen. Sir Henry Letheby Tidy, President, Royal Society of Medicine, meets with medical consultants

94 Rear view of 108th General Hospital, France

95 Participants at Inter-Allied Consultants Conference, 1944

96 Col. William S. Middleton, MC, presiding, Inter-Allied Consultants Conference, 1944

97 Debility and malnutrition, characteristic of many recovered Allied personnel

98 Lt. Col. John Douglas, RAMC

99 Typical examples of hospital construction in United Kingdom for U.S. Army.

100 Provision of heat in Nissen-hut wards by two coal stoves

101 Long, open corridors at hospital of temporary Nissen-hut construction

102 38th Station Hospital, England

103 Establishment of an ideal, tented hospital facility

104 Troops of First Allied Airborne Army in glider during Arnhem operation

105 Col. James C. Kimbrough s farewell party on the eve of his departure

106 Col. Donald M. Pillsbury, MC

107 Medical officers viewing display of benzyl benzoate preparations

108 Serology Section, 1st Medical General Laboratory, England

109 Venereal disease ward, 2d General Hospital, England

110 10th Medical Laboratory, First U.S. Army, France, 1944

111 Col. David E. Liston, MC, Col. Angvald C. Vickoren, MC, Col. Donald M. Pillsbury, MC, and Col. Howard W. Doan, MC

112 Standard preparation of penicillin

113 Consultants in medicine, European theater

114 36th Station Hospital, England

115 Training section, 36th Station Hospital

116 Closed ward, 36th Station Hospital

117 Evacuation in United Kingdom in support of Normandy invasion

117 Continued - Evacuation in United Kingdom in support of Normandy invasion

118 130th General Hospital, Belgium

119 Medical ward, 130th General Hospital

120 Psychiatric service, 130th General Hospital

121 Headquarters, Rehabilitation Section, 130th General Hospital

122 Surgical ward, 130th General Hospital

123 Buildings and grounds, 818th Hospital Center, Belgium

124 Neuropsychiatric program, 130th General Hospital

124 Continued - Neuropsychiatric program, 130th General Hospital

125 Activities at the Rehabilitation (training ) Section, 130th General Hospital.

125 Continued - Activities at the Rehabilitation (Training) Section, 130th General Hospital

125 Continued - Activities at the Rehabilitation (Training) Section, 130th General Hospital

125 Continued - Activities at the Rehabilitation (Training) Section, 130th General Hospital

125 Continued - Activities at the Rehabilitation (Training) Section, 130th General Hospital

126 91st Medical Gas Treatment Battalion, Germany

127 Rest center for divisions of VI and XV Corps, Seventh U.S. Army, France

127 Continued - Rest center for divisions of VI and XV Corps, Seventh U.S. Army, France

128 Dr. Edward A. Strecker viewing the monuments at Stonehenge, England

129 Enlisted clinical psychologist working with patient, 130th General Hospital, Belgium

130 Psychiatric treatment, 130th General Hospital

130 Continued - Psychiatric treatment, 130th General Hospital

131 Maj. Howard D. Fabing, MC

132 Col. Lloyd J. Thompson, MC, meets with distinguished neuropsychiatric consultants at the Inter-Allied Consultants Conference

133 Stanbridge Earls, England, rest home for officers suffering from flying fatigue

134 Consultants in medicine, European theater

135 1st Medical General Laboratory, England, 1944

136 The Washington Club, premier American Red Cross club, London, July 1942

137 Demonstration of mobile X-ray unit assembled at 5th General Hospital

138 Col. Theodore L. Badger, MC, examining chest X-ray films, 5th General Hospital, England

139 Col. Kenneth D. A. Allen s mobile auxiliary X-ray unit set up in the field

140 Type of shock ward envisioned by Colonel Middleton in operation in the 110th Evacuation Hospital, Luxembourg

141 Receiving area, 58th Field Hospital near Weymouth, 1944

142 Reception of hospital trains and convoys, England

142 Continued - Reception of hospital trains and convoys, England

143  Wet casualties of Normandy invasion reach English shore, 7 June 1944

144 Typical shipload of walking wounded and nonbattle casualties arriving at Weymouth, June 1944

145 Normandy beachhead at time of Colonel Middleton s visit, 1 July 1944

146 Breakthrough at St. L˘, medical personnel and equipment move through ruins

147 Aidmen of 94th Division treating injured soldier on typical cold and dreary day, near Tittingen, January 1945

148 Chest respirator used in treatment of cold injury

149 Soviet soldiers, freed by Third U.S. Army, partaking of emergency rations, Sarreguemines area

150 Recovered French personnel flying the Tricolor as elements of U.S. Army prepare them for return to France

151 Care of recovered Allied personnel, 46th General Hospital

151 Continued - Care of recovered Allied personnel, 46th General Hospital

152 Routine control measures at 46th General Hospital

153 Notorious Buchenwald

154 American and British prisoners recovered at a German brick factory

154 Continued - American and British prisoners recovered at a German brick factory

155 Malnutrition in a recovered Allied soldier

156 Typical assembly area conditions, Le Havre

157 Nurses undergoing medical processing for redeployment, Camp Carlisle, France, July 1945

158 U.S.A.H.S. Mactan upon her return to the Philippine Islands

159 Consultants in medicine, SWPA

160 Brig. Gen. Guy B. Denit

161 Consultants at medical section, Headquarters, USASOS

162 117th Station Hospital, New Guinea

163 5th Station Hospital, Australia

164 124th Station Hospital, New Guinea

165 Office of the Surgeon, Base K, Philippine Islands

166 DDT dusting of Manila by C-47 aircraft

167 49th General Hospital at the Jockey Club, Manila

168 Santo Tomas University, Manila

169 Lt. Col. Homer K. Nicoll, MC, Commanding Officer, 13th General Hospital, New Guinea

170 98th Evacuation Hospital, Philippine Islands

171 Dispensary No. 2 operated by Philippine Civil Affairs Unit 21, Manila

172 Collecting station near front lines, Philippine Islands

173 Natives receiving treatment in hospitals operated by ANGAU

174 8th Medical Laboratory, Australia

174 Continued - Natives receiving treatment in hospitals operated by ANGUA

175 139th Station Hospital, New Guinea

176 Nurses from 251st Station Hospital, first to reach New Britain

177 Nurses at 30th Evacuation Hospital, Parang, Mindanao

178 Maj. Gen. Norman T. Kirk, The Surgeon General, and Brig. Gen. John M Willis, Chief Surgeon, USAFPOA

179 Brig. Gen. James S. Simmons, visiting 19th Medical Laboratory

180 Whole blood in refrigerated container is delivered to Parang by L5B light aircraft

181 A medical supply depot in the Philippine Islands

182 Elevated native house in the Philippine Islands

183 Pushing back the jungle

184 Atabrine publicity campaign, 363d Station Hospital

185 Instruction at Malaria Control School, 8th Medical Laboratory, Australia

185 Continued - Instruction at Malaria Control School, 8th Medical Laboratory, Australia

186 Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger s Sixth U.S. Army Headquarters, Goodenough Island

187 Bandicoot rat, host of mites transmitting scrub typhus

188 Scrub typhus control, 360th Station Hospital, Goodenough Island

189 Members of U.S.A. Typhus Commission in New Guinea

190 Facilities of U.S.A. Typhus Commission

191 Testing mite repellents

192 Troops of 1st Cavalry Division impregnate their clothing

193 Poster urging preventive measures against scrub typhus

194 Consultants in medicine, SWPA

195 Snails of the type harboring cercariae, transmitters of schistosomiasis

196 Schistosomiasis exhibit and demonstration on Leyte

197 Prevalence of snails in Philippine streams and ponds

198 Rest after three continuous days in battle without relief, Los Negros

199 Geographic and climatic diversification, SPA

200 Chain of medical evacuation, New Georgia Island, July 1943

201 142d General Hospital area, Fiji Islands

202 Consultants in medicine, SPA

202 Continued - Consultants in medicine, SPA

203 Malaria control on New Georgia Island, October 1944

204 Laboratory, 48th Station Hospital, Guadalcanal December 1944

205 Capt. Max Michael showing his underground incubator on Bougainville

206  Pasteur Institute, Bougainville Branch

207 Transfer of wounded from Higgins boat to Navy seaplane, Solomon Islands, July 1943

208 Forward area medical treatment facilities, Solomon Islands

209 Troops of the 37th Division passing vehicles stalled in the muddy roads, Bougainville, November 1943

210 Patrol shown 25 miles beyond the American lines, Bougainville, December,1944

211 Ward tents, casual convalescent company, Bougainville, December 1943

212 Psychological effects of island warfare seen on the weary and harassed face of one American soldier, New Georgia Island, July 1943

213 Men washing up in jungle waters after a four-day march, New Georgia Island

214 9th Station Hospital, New Caledonia, September 1943

215 Malaria control, Bougainville December 1943

216 Troops of the American Division embarking, Fiji Islands

217 25th Infantry Division on Guadalcanal January 1943

218 Underground ward, 21st Evacuation Hospital, Bougainville, April 1944

219 37th Infantry Division, Bougainville

220 Destruction at Hickam Field, Hawaii, 7 December 1941

221 Consultants in medicine, Central Pacific

221 Continued - Consultants in medicine, Central Pacific

222 Expansion of Tripler General Hospital

223 Medical Department ambulances awaiting the removal of casualties from the U.S.A.T. William S. Clark

224 U.S. Army Hospital Ship Mercy
224 Continued - U.S. Army Hospital Ship Mercy

225 Occupational therapy, 204th General Hospital

226 Medical Ward, 148th General Hospital, Saipan

227 39th General Hospital Saipan

227 Continued - 39th General Hospital Saipan

228 Medical officers on Okinawa, meeting to exchange ideas and discuss problems

229 Experiment conducted with mosquitoes, 219th Malaria Survey Detachment

230 Transfusion of whole blood during application of a transportation plaster cast

231 69th Field Hospital

232 Landing operations on Okinawa

233 Clearing station, 102d Medical Battalion

234 Men and tanks, 7th Infantry Division, burning out enemy cave defenses

235 Engineers constructing bridge across jungle stream

236 Native child with encephalitis

237 Troops of 27th Division first to receive passive immunization of Japanese B encephalitis

238 Member of malaria control unit spraying weeds at edge of pond

239 Col. Herrman L. Blumgart, MC, Consultant in Medicine, CBI

240 Recreation hall, 20th General Hospital

241 Col. Isidor S. Ravdin, MC, inspecting vegetables grown under sanitary condition s, 20th General Hospital

242 Water purification plant, 18th General Hospital

243 20th General Hospital

244 Outdoor fireplaces, 69th General Hospital

245 Medical ward, 20th General Hospital

246 Malaria control

246 Continued - Malaria control

247 Receiving office and medical wards, 73d Evacuation Hospital

247 Continued - Receiving office and medical wards, 73d Evacuation Hospital

248 Tick. infested jungle along Ledo Road

249 Brig. Gen. Frank Merrill, USA, with interpreters

250 Bivouac area along Ledo Road

251 Scrub typhus, typical eschar

252 Scrub typhus, macular eruption

253 Air-conditioned typhus wards, 20th General hospital

253 Continued - Air-conditioned typhus wards, 20th General hospital

254 Typical tropical ulcer

255 Petroleum pumping station, 708th Engineer Petroleum Distribution Company

256 Burmese nurse bandaging infected leg of Chinese soldier

257 Maj. Clarence S. Livingood, MC, studing flora, 20th General Hospital

258 Atypical lichen planus of foot observed at 20th General Hospital

259 Litter jeep, early link in chain of medical evacuation, Philippine Islands,1945

260 First echelon medical service

261 110th Evacuation Hospital, Germany, 1945

262 Processing liberated Soviet prisoners of war, Germany, 1945

263 41st Infantry Division, Australia

264 Consultants in medicine, field armies

265 4th Casual Company, 32d Division, marching to beach for supervised swimming, Australia, 1943

266 Intensive military training for 3d Casual Company, 32d Division, Australia, 1943

267 Col. John R. Hall, MC, Surgeon, N Corps, demonstrating effects of atomic bomb, Hiroshima, 1946

268 Shock tent in a forward medical unit, Fifth U.S. Army, Italy, 1944

269 Use of blood and blood substitutes in field armies

270 Clinical laboratory, 8th Evacuation Hospital

271 Crowded facilities, 49th General Hospital

272 Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger, USA, visiting clearing station of 7th Infantry Division

273 Extremely busy 24th Field Hospital at recaptured Fort Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands

274 Consultants in medicine, field armies

275 Officers of the medical sections of the Third and Eighth U.S. Armies

275 Continued - Officers of the medical sections of the Third and Eighth U.S. Armies

276 Army headquarters area, Sixth U.S. Army, Philippine Islands, 1945

277 Medical supply services in a field army

Charts

1 Organization of Medical Section, North African theater

2 Organization of Medical Section, Mediterranean theater

3 Flow chart of patients at 130th General Hospital from admission to disposition

4 Simplified organization chart, SWPA, 1942-45

5 Monthly admission rates, all causes, India-Burma theater, January 1943-August 1945

6 Monthly admission rates, all disease, India-Burma theater, January 1943-August 1945

7 Monthly incidence rates, diarrhea and dysentery, India-Burma theater, January l943-August 1945

8 Noneffectiveness from all causes, from all diarrhea and dysentery, and from amebic dysentery, India-Burma theater, 1 January 1944-15 July 1945

9 Noneffectiveness for diarrhea and dysentery and for malaria, India-Burma theater, 1944

10 Monthly attack rate for malaria, India-Burma theater, January 1943-August 1945

11 Incidence and deaths due to scrub typhus fever, India-Burma theater, 1 December 1943-31 July 1945

12 Monthly incidence rates, undiagnosed fever, India-Burma theater, January l943-August 1945

13 Monthly incidence rates of common respiratory disease, India-Burma theater, January 1943-August 1945

14 Noneffective rates for common respiratory disease, India-Burma theater, January l943-July 1945

15 Monthly incidence rates for primary atypical pneumonia, India-Burma theater, January 1944- July 1945

16 Incidence of infectious hepatitis, India-Burma theater, January l943-August 1945

17 Incidence and deaths due to poliomyelitis, India-Burma theater, January l943-August 1945

Maps

1 Service Commands, Zone of Interior

2 Campaigns in North African and Mediterranean theaters, 1942-45

3 Base Sections, North African theater, July 1944

4 South Pacific Area

5 Central Pacific Area

6 U.S. Army hospitals in India

7 U.S. Army hospitals in Assam, India and northern Burma

Tables

1 Publications prepared by Medical Consultants Division

1 Continued - Publications prepared by Medical Consultants Division

2 Autopsy reports-100 casualties dying from battle wounds or severe injuries

2 Continued - Autopsy reports-100 casualties dying from battle wounds or severe injuries

2 Continued - Autopsy reports-100 casualties dying from battle wounds or severe injuries

3 Weight of lungs and liver in 100 autopsied wounded

4 Disease and battle casualty rates, Okinawa, 6 April through 22 June 1945

5 Total cases and attack rate for malaria, India-Burma theater, 1 September-30 June 1945

6 Types of malaria observed in 20th General Hospital and in 73d Evacuation Hospital, April to December 1943

7 Types of malaria observed in 20th General Hospital, April 1943-March 1945

8 Symptoms observed among cases of hookworm infestation, 20th General Hospital, 1945

9 Total cases, incidence rates, and noneffective rates, diseases of respiratory tract, India-Burma theater, 1944-45

10 Incidence of infectious hepatitis, India-Burma theater, January 1943-July 1945

11 Incidence of poliomyelitis, India-Burma theater, 1942-45

12 Incidence of typhoid fever, India-Burma theater, 1942-45

13 Incidence of paratyphoid fever, India-Burma theater, 1942-45

14 Incidence of smallpox, India-Burma theater, 1944-45