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Book 1

Contents

Book One

NORTH TIRAP LOG

A Record of Patience


NORTH TIRAP LOG

Robert W. Fromant, John L. Savage, Paul E. Lotze, and
Donald C. Everingham
1

A first aid station on a minor trail in North Burma in 1943 is beneath the notice of medical or military science. Nothing of clinical importance happened there. A few men from an idle medical battalion kept busy until more worthy enterprises were afoot. Indeed, the ways in which the station operated vaguely foreshadowed the means whereby medical support would be provided next year in the Second Burma Campaign. But at the time no one clearly foresaw the nature of the task ahead. No one was clever enough to experiment with methods of accomplishing it.

What makes the aid station live is North Tirap Log. Experience undistinguished and unrecorded is simply indistinguishable. But give experience a voice, however plain and unselfconscious a voice, and experience acquires life, form, value--the qualities of civilization and meaning. Of it one no longer says, "It was, it went." One must say, "It is." If the voice is steady, coherent, tuned to truth, if it re-presents experience and gives it unity and self-reflecting depth, it transcends particulars. It transforms events into humane knowledge. The word connects the log-house to the castle, the Burma jungle to Birnam wood.

North Tirap Log was composed between 19 April and 20 December 1943. It is the diary of Aid Station Number 2, which Company B, 151st Medical Battalion, established where what was called the West Axis Trail crossed the Tirap River in Burma. The trail was one of two leading from Assam Province, India, through steep, heavily forested hills into the Hukawng Valley of Burma. There such tributaries as the Tirap River join to form the Chindwin. Small motor vehicles could barely traverse the 15 miles between Ledo and Tirap, but trucks could not. Foot travel was slow and arduous. What with the rigors of the terrain and the discomforts of the forest, Aid Station Number 2 was a lonely long way from civilization.

Yet as the dry season of 1943 advanced, several hundreds of engineer, quartermaster, signal, medical, and Chinese infantry troops straggled into Northwest Burma. Along the eastern trail, they clawed out a new road aimed toward the old Burma Road to China. The Tenth Air Force in India, heir to Chennault's "Flying Tigers," hid signal centers on the hilltops to observe enemy activity in time to send up its fighters. Quartermaster troops cleared sites for supply depots, and cargo planes and native porter convoys shuttled to and fro between them and the base at Ledo. The Chinese 38th Division, newly

    1Originally edited by Floyd T. Romberger, Jr., M.D.


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equipped and retrained by Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell's Chinese Army in India Headquarters, drifted to final martialing camps on the northern rim of the Hukawng Valley. In it, below Shingbwiyang, the enemy lay on guard in fortified advanced positions.

Almost a year had passed since the Japanese briskly scattered the Chinese, British, and American forces in Burma. The intervening months were dreary. The British warily opposed any plans which might weaken their defenses in India. They dreamed of someday launching a dramatic assault by land, sea, and air to restore the empire in Burma and Southeast Asia. The Chinese needed to protect the political and military centers in the Southwest to which they had been driven. Now the enemy menaced them from the Burma rear as well as from the eastern front. Until the United States could fulfill its promises of political, military, and financial reinforcement, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek was dubious about risking any more of his slender resources. A waiting, hoping defense of what remained to the Nationalist government seemed safest.

The United States, though anxious about China and more than a little committed to a rescue effort, realistically gave precedence to Europe, where it could mass its air and ground forces effectively, and to the Pacific, where the Navy could be used offensively. The physical barriers between beleaguered China and her allies were formidable, almost impassable. But supposing them to be overcome, obvious strategic and economic principles gave first consideration to Eisenhower and MacArthur rather than to Stilwell and Chiang.

With vacillation, frustration, suspicion, and reluctant compromise during the summer of 1942, allied diplomats and commanders slowly formed their plans for a counteroffensive. They agreed that a land-line of communications must replace the costly and perilous air route from India to China. Since there was no early prospect of regaining control of the Burma Road, someone must build a new one. Whoever did so must drive the Japanese below the projected route through North Burma, and hold them off until the allies were ready for a major attack.

Agreements were made, unmade, made again. The British offered hospitality to the Americans in India, civilian laborers and local material, advice, skepticism, and ill-concealed impatience with American ambition and Chinese lethargy. The remnants of two Chinese divisions were already in India, escapees from the First Burma Campaign. Up to 28 others were promised by the Generalissimo for modernization under American auspices. He was willing that they fight in Burma to open the land route to China, providing that the United States rapidly enlarged the Tenth and Fourteenth Air Forces and the Air Transport Command cargo carrier fleet. The bargain was a favorable one for


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China. For the questionable values of the Chinese infantry in their existing state of preparation, China gained an air arm.2

In the autumn of 1942, Stilwell began to train the Chinese infantry at his disposal. His Services of Supply opened the Ledo construction base and scattered its troops from the ports of Karachi and Calcutta to the depots in upper Assam. In 1943, after a futile winter, the engineers began their tedious progress into Burma. Welcome shipments of additional troops appeared in March. Among them were several medical units--a 1,000-bed general hospital, the 20th; two 750-bed semimobile evacuation hospitals, the 48th and 73d; the 151st Medical Battalion; the 1st Veterinary Company; and a section of the 7th Medical Depot Company. A third evacuation hospital, the 14th, arrived in midsummer. So did the 21st and 22d Field Hospitals, mobile 400-bed units with Chinese-American enlisted men.

The types and sizes of the units revealed the Army's plan for medical service. Each battalion and regiment possessed its own first-aid men. The hospitals were in the rear, the smallest and most mobile ones nearest the combat zone, the largest further back. Between the aidmen and the hospitals was the medical battalion. Composed of 34 officers and 476 enlisted men, its ambulances were to clear out casualties from frontline aid stations and collect them in its small tent hospitals just out of the line of direct fire. There it would provide emergency treatment. It would keep those needing but a day or two of care and then return them to duty. The rest it would send to a hospital as soon as possible. Thus, as the honest broker of the medical service, the battalion balanced the need to keep men close to the front if they were lightly sick or wounded, and the ideal of applying the best and fullest measures of medical science to all who needed them. The system was both utilitarian and humanitarian. It was fantastically successful. Any man whom the medical troops could reach had a 96 percent chance of surviving whatever injury he suffered.

But all this is merely by way of the plan. These units were human societies--doctors, nurses, technicians, drivers, mechanics, cooks and bakers, common laborers, clerks, litter bearers, orderlies. The 151st, three collecting companies, a clearing company, and a headquarters detachment, came from the Ohio National Guard. Training on the Mojave Desert prepared it for tropical conditions, although the mobility it had practiced with armored forces would have little application in a slow-moving roadbuilding operation. It was in Burma mainly because, as a separate battalion not yet an integral part of any combat division, it was "available."

As the construction, quartermaster, and signal troops disappeared into North Burma, then, the 151st Medical Battalion teams went after them along the road trace and on the trails. At Aid Stations spaced

    2See Craven and Cate, IV; Feis; Romanus and Sunderland, I; U.S., Foreign Relations, 1942, 1943; Relations with China; and Stilwell Papers.


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about a day's hard march apart, a few soldiers and sometimes a doctor settled down for an unpredictable length of time. Most of the battalion remained in the Ledo area, employed in housekeeping for itself and in minor medical chores at the base.

Few of the men on the trails knew much about the general situation. The sense of isolation was profound, as the mind's eye traced the appalling distance from their jungle outposts, across a continent, across an ocean, and across half another continent to some such place as Bedford, Ohio. The worst enemy was boredom. The next was the friction and austerity of garrison life in a poverty-stricken land. After that were heat, rain, insects, filth, and sickness. No one escaped or expected to. If there was little doubt that all would live, there also was the prospect that they would live monotonously, suspended between misery and ease. Every want satisfied could only excite wants unfulfilled. No vivid sense of sacrifice could relieve the sense of slackness. But neither was there so clear a lack of purpose that a spirit of martyrdom could arise.

North Tirap Log can tell little about the tortuous struggles to wrestle three giant nations into a posture of attack upon a determined and victorious enemy. Perhaps the first important point about it is that anyone bothered to keep the diary, let alone keep it faithfully. What could it possibly record that could be significant? Who in the midtwentieth century had the habits of a diarist? Certainly not the men of the 151st, plain fellows, average youths, unheroic heroes. For them, no tragedy, no triumph, no rebellion, no defeat. But also, no despairing theologians, guilt-haunted psychiatrists, howling poets, or orgiastic novelists.

Thus the Log is a record of a curious kind of courage, the courage of patience. When neither the best nor the worst of life are possible, the courage to withstand discouragement is all that is left to give dignity to the common lot. An account of it is of interest not only in what it says, but in the silence, the space of possibility and alternative around. What does not happen at North Tirap is as significant as what does. What is not said is as meaningful as what is. What the men who kept the Log were not reveals what they were or would be.

I. "MORALE IS VERY HIGH"

19 April-12 June 1943

On 19 April, Sgt. Robert W. Fromant began to keep the Log at Aid Station Number 2, and he and his team of five3 had the absurd inspiration to start building a log cabin. After a few days the pattern of their lives emerged. In an entirely unsophisticated way, they began

    3Pfc. Stanley B. Craig, Pfc. Russell A. Massarra, T5c. Dean W. Phillips, Pfc. Clarence B. Price, and Pfc. Arthur G. Seith.


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to reproduce a major theme in American cultural history: the escape to Nature and the establishment of a society of comrades free from the constraints of institutional authority. Hard work and the company they kept, more than the medical tasks they performed or an occasional spree, guarded them from ennui or self-pity. With unflagging curiosity and hospitality they welcomed Nagas, Indian porters, signalmen from a warning post up the line, quartermaster troops, friends from the base, Chinese infantry--all colors, all creeds, all ranks. Days of inactivity, or the sight of the cabin only halfway finished after a month--these checked their spirits far more than heat, rain, or inadequate rations. But not until the original team was broken up in the second month, and several members were replaced, did the Sergeant become depressed. What had been counting, after all, was the community of effort.

April 19. Arrived destination about 11004 moved in good shelter. Capt [Hubert T.] Short & Lt [William R.] O'dahl5 left 1230. Lt. [Kenneth J.] Denys brought [Dean W.] Philips6 & supplies. Capt Short, Lt O'Dahl, and others brought more supplies & [Clarence B.] Price. Everyone well pleased with Area.

[April] 20. Little rain & a lot of sunshine. Broke ground for cottage. Capt Short & Col. [York N.] Pitkin7 brought more supplies about 1130 left 1300. Morale fine, food fair, Russ [Russell A. Massarra] doing a good job.

[April] 21. Have been arising around 0630. Little rain in the morning sunshine all day. Cut & hauled nine logs; started foundation. Col. Pitkin & party arrived 1000 with the last of ration & medical supplies. Took a good river shower. Moral[e] fine. "Corn Willie"8 made in various forms. Twenty-two Punjab soldiers arrived for rest on their way to Dig-Boi.9 Came from Burma. A few casualties, but were being taken care of by their own doctor. Gave them a few Iodine swabs.

[April] 22. Weather was good all day. Punjab soldiers left camp about 0700. Two Gurka soldiers stopped over nite headed down trail.10 Progress on cabin is fine. Sgt. Langevin11 has made a bet that we don't finish the cabin

    4The military "clock" runs from 0001--one minute after midnight--through 1200--midday--to 2400 midnight.
    5151st Medical Battalion. "Odahl" is consistently misspelled. Errors in grammar, spelling, the use of the inverted comma, and punctuation have usually been left without correction or editorial markings. Where confusion might occur, editorial amplification has been introduced. First names are supplied in brackets when the individual is first mentioned. The names of men stationed at North Tirap have been italicized throughout to facilitate identification. When the text uses nicknames, the full name is entered in brackets on the first occasion. At the end of this diary are a list of names of the men mentioned in the text, and a list of names of the men stationed at North Tirap.
    6Phillips--the name is occasionally misspelled in the Log.
    7Commanding Officer, 151st Medical Battalion.
    8Corn beef hash.
    9Digboi, about 25 miles northwest of North Tirap, via Ledo.
    10That is, back toward India and the base camps. "Up trail" is into Burma.
    11From a detachment of the 679th Signal Air Warning Company, whose observation post was at Ujon. Efforts to establish the full identity of those who are mentioned in the Log have not been successful. The Fourth Platoon occupied the post between 10 and 14 October 1942, relieving a detachment of the 51st Fighter Control Squadron. Radar equipment did not work effectively in the hilly terrain, and visual observation supplanted it. The 679th did yeoman work in North Burma, supporting not only the air operations in Assam but, later, those covering the Chinese, British, and American infantry in Burma. One of its detachments flew in with Wingate's long range penetration group in March 1944 and operated on the landing ground "Broadway" until the end of the month. Another was with the Fourteenth Army during the furious fight to repulse the Japanese when they invaded India in the spring of 1944. See the company's official history, which is included among the Stilwell Papers, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Folders 166 and 167, as a sample and exemplary unit report; also, Craven and Cate, IV, pp. 415-416.


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in 30 days. We are very confident that we will. Moral[e] is very high. Russ & I counted rations and found the 10 day to be shorter than 7 day.12 If it wasn't for Shorty [Langevin] we would be eating very little.

[April] 23. Weather was cloudy & rain pratically all day. Shortys coolies left on convoy up trail about 0745. An English Capt. arrived at 1200 with 60 Punjab soldiers from up trail. We held sick call at 1600 for 15 of them. The nature of the call was mostly infected bites & cuts. Stoney [Stanley B. Craig] & Phillips did a good job. Two radio teams with two officers arrived about 1400 headed up trail.13 Their total was 12. Lodging in camp was over 100 counting coolies. At 2100 a peep14 arrived with two Lt's & friends who stayed until 2230. As they were leaving they shot a dynamite cap which was against our rule of night firing. The cottage is really going up fast.

[April] 24. The fellows were up at 0545 but I shared the wealth until 0630. We did some work on the cabin plus carrying an ungodly heavy log before breakfast. After breakfast carried more logs and changed beds from previous basha to present basha. Russ & I seperated rations. About 1200 Capt [Edward N.] Schwartz15 & Lt. O'dahl arrived with men for 3rd and 4th basha [station].16 The 14 ate our ration for dinner & supper. Lt. O'dahl caught two good sized fish. The Punjab soldiers left at 0700. We are buying a collection of chickens for a good meal, the total now is 5.17

[April] 25. We were up at 0630 mainly because the fellows were preparing to leave and sleep was impossible. It started to rain at breakfast and continued the rest of the day. Capt Schwartz had a hell of a time getting his convoy started. The Auboy [Abor] coolies wouldn't carry some of the boxes because they were too heavy. Finally after much arguing & changing of boxes the convoy left, but not in full. Shortly after the convoy was gone, we saw several coolies come from their hiding places. The results of the arguing was 15 loads left behind. Those will have to go sometime. The mayor18 declared today a legal holiday, so we took it easy. Jit [Bahardu]19 hasn't been feeling good the last few days. Stoney & Phillips are taking care of him. Had two good meals today, one meal was the fish. Everyone is in fine shape & happy.

    12Standard balanced food units--one man for 7 days, or one man for 10 days multiplied by the number of men--issued according to prescribed Quartermaster tables. Onsite supplements might be added (see entry for 28 April).
    13To the air-warning station.
    14Military vehicle ("command car"), larger than the workhorse jeep but also open and designed for rough going.
    15Schwartz established the West Axis Trail stations, such as that at North Tirap. See also Tamraz Diary, p. 149.
    16The 3d and 4th Aid Stations were to be located at the village sites of Rema and Ujon, respectively, 12 and 20 miles farther south in Burma.
    17Presumably from Naga villagers in the vicinity.
    18Fromant himself, of course.
    19One of the Nepalese camp servants.


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[April] 26. Breakfast was not until 0900, we all felt like having a few extra winks. The total number of logs hauled for the morning was 11; a good mornings excersise. The sun was pretty hot after dinner, so we went swimming for a few hours. A few logs were notched & laid before supper. Phillips is doctoring two coolies who have two very bad infections. These coolies have to be taken care of here or die because if they were sent to Tipang20 for treatment, they would declare them fit for convoy and they are not. A white man with these infections would have had blood poisoning days ago, but as yet there is no signs on these two. There were no visitors here today. Shorty told us Capt Schwartz arrived at Ujan [Ujon] mad as hell, five loads were left at Rema. The fault of all the trouble with this convoy is the rations were not packed correctly, and they were brought here by "peep" instead of being left at Tipang where they could have been observed and made correct for carrying. Capt Schwartz should not have had all this trouble. A S.N.A.F.U. someplace.21

[April] 27. The weather was rain off & on all day. We continued work on cabin when it would stop raining. At 1600 Capt. Schwartz & Lt. O'Dahl arrived from up trail. They traveled 23 miles in 7 hours and 15 minutes, a good days march.22 Art [Arthur G. Seith] took them down to our private beach, then we had supper when they returned. The evening was spent telling stories and jokes over a cup of tea and cakes.

[April] 28. The Capt. & Lt. stayed for a days rest. Shorty was up at 0630 and left camp with his coolies at 0715, the rest of us took a few extra winks and breakfast was at 1000. Price & I cut logs while Art & Stoney carried them. These logs evened the walls to about three feet. Lt. O'dahl and Price fixed a dynamite charge for fishing. Four of us farther down stream caught them as they floated down stream. The catch was fine, but they were suckers and we gave them to the coolies. A strong wind blew up a storm that lasted only a short time. The wind blew the canvass off the roof23 and [it] had to be replaced. Capt Schwartz and the fellows notched logs before Supper. The Capt. gave us R's 4024 for a food fund. He said he ate off of us and would in the future, so that was his fee. We appreciate it. That was darned white of him. The food is running low; have been looking for rations.

[April] 29. The Capt & Lt left for Tipang. The weather was rainy, so we did no work. Russ had chicken for dinner and he had dinner at 1400; consequently, we had no supper. As we were eating, the Lt. & five men came back looking for the Capt & Philips. The two never showed up at Tipang and the Lt. thought maybe one had broken a leg. The six started back after about an hour. We will find out what happened tomorrow when Phillips

    20Near Ledo on the West Axis Trail. The reference here is apparently not to Aid Station No. 1 but to civilian medical facilities at the porter depot.
    21"Situation normal-all 'fouled' up."
    22From Station 4 at Ujon.
    23Of the basha, not the unfinished log house.
    24Rupees-about three to the dollar.


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comes back, he went to 20th General25 to have a tooth pulled. About 1700 we became jittery, so four of us played a little anna poker.26 We played until 2000 and became hungry, so we raided the icebox. Taps at Tirap was at 2100. Yesterday Mr. Miller & Sgt came up from Tipang for a walk.27

[April] 30. Shorty was up at 0600 to get his convoy started. They left at 0830. We had breakfast at 1000. There was no work this morning & very little this afternoon because it was too damn hot. Shortly after dinner, 10 signal men & 88 porters arrived on there way up trail. They are staying over night. Phillips came back about 1600. [Frank] Kitzberger & [Donald F.] Booth came along for the trip.28 After supper we all pitched in and filled in a lot of the [cabin] floor. Eight Chinese soldiers stopped for a rest this afternoon. A note was sent to Sgt [William H.] Shaw & Sgt [Ivan B.] Montgomery29 to take care of the two coolies with the infections. A bull session and small poker game ended the evening.

May 1. The signal men were up quite early also Shorty, but the rest of us slept until 0930, or thereabouts, and had breakfast at 1030. We finished the floor, which was a hot job and quit for the day. The weather for the last few days has been hot. To work too much would result in a blackout. The S/Sgt in charge of the signal teams had to go back to Tipang for more coolies because three loads were left here. He came back at 1200 ahead of the coolies. At 1400 the coolies still hadn't arrived and again he headed for Tipang. He returned in a half an hour with the coolies. After much arguing, the coolies headed up the trail. It appeared that the Sgt. didn't know how to handle coolies because he was having a tough time with them. He pulled his gun, more or less threating them, and they were much against it. He may have a little trouble. Booth & Kitz[berger] started back about 1100. A Chinese Lt. with 10 Chinese stopped for a rest. The water was wonderful for swimming today. Something is going to have to be done about rations in the very near future, we are down to "C" rations.30

[May] 2. Everyone was up at 0600 had breakfast and was working in the woods by 0730. Eighteen logs were cut and carried to the cabin by 1030; a good morning workout. It was too hot this afternoon for work, so we washed clothes and went swimming. Art, Price, & Stoney notched and placed four logs, Phillips made a medicine shelf, and I set up a wash stand & made a soakage pit31 before supper. After supper a back log was notched and a snake was killed. A few Auboy coolies was the only travelers today.

    25The 20th General Hospital, at Margherita, near Ledo, was the most important fixed medical unit supporting troops in Burma. Originally affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania, and commanded by Col. Elias E. Cooley, MC, it began to receive patients only 2 weeks before Phillips visited it. It grew steadily in size and complexity to a 2,000-bed hospital by June 1944, overflowing with American and Chinese casualties from the Second Burma Campaign. Not long after arriving, Colonel Cooley became the Medical Inspector of the Theater. Col. (later Brig. Gen.) Isidor S. Ravdin then took command of the hospital.
    26That is, "penny-ante," using the Indian "anna" as an equivalent coin.
    27Miller was a British civilian working with the porter corps. See Tamraz Diary, p. 143. The sergeant is not identified in the Log.
    28From Company B, 151st Medical Battalion, at Ledo.
    29At Aid Station 4, up the line at Ujon, to which the signalmen and porters were going.
    30One of the standard individual ration packages used by all troops, ad nauseum.
    31For waste water and grease.


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Everyones moral[e] is still very high and they dislike the thought of leaving here. Today was Stoneys birthday and no "sakie".

[May] 3. The crew was up at 0630. We were able to work [only] until about 1000 because it was starting to get too hot. Around 1400 a S/Sgt with 91 coolies arrived on their way up the trail. He is with the hospital at Pebu.32 He had supper with us and then he & I went for a short swim while the others notched a few logs. The cabin walls are to window height and before long we will move in, I hope. The rations are gone and we are eating "C" ration. Rations had better come soon. The S/Sgt opened a box of cookies while here. Another small stake poker game.

[May] 4. We were up at 0600, but there was no work as it rained all morning. After dinner we only did a little work as it cleared up and the sun came out hot. Stoney laid down for an hours sleep & slept until supper. Price shot a few shells for fish and the catch was all small ones. They prepared them for supper. The S/Sgt left this morning about 0700. I WAS THE FIRST ONE UP THIS MORNING, but returned to bed shortly after breakfast for a few winks. We are having quite a change in menu. Stew for a change.

[May] 5. We arose again at 0600 and were in the woods chopping logs at 0700. After about an hours work it started to rain, but we continued work until about 1030. Just before dinner, Capt Schwartz, Capt [Cyril B.] Marlewski,33 and driver arrived with a big saw and some things we had requested. They stayed for dinner and left about 1330. A front window was made today and if the weather holds up we will be able to complete all windows in a few days. It rained the hardest this afternoon of any time since we have been here. "C" rations is the main course and breakfast is coffee & biscuits. Capt. said rations will come as soon as coolies are available. Shorty received word from Ujan that station #4 is moving into new basha.

[May] 6. Phillips was up at 0530 as he was going to Tipang. I was supposed to go with him, but I failed to respond to his calling; consequently he went alone. He was back before dinner. Just after dinner, a Lt. with 10 negroes and 80 coolies arrived on their way up trail. They are QM34 going to

    32The original editor of the Log, Floyd T. Romberger, Jr., notes that the hospital was actually at Hpachet Hi, much further south in Burma, although at one time Pebu had been considered as a site. In March 1943, Dr. Gordon Seagrave, the famous "Burma Surgeon," was a Lieutenant Colonel in command of a medical company composed partly of the American, Burmese, Indian, and Chinese staff of his mission hospital at Namhkam. Since the beginning of the war in Burma, he had been with Chinese troops. Now, in support of the Chinese Army in India, he was starting back toward his mission. In April 1943, he operated three jungle medical stations, one of which was at Hpachet Hi. Because of their isolation, they served as dispensaries and hospitals for Chinese infantry, American engineer and quartermaster troops, Indian porters, and Burmese villagers. The good will created by medical aid to the latter was reflected subsequently in the services of the natives as guides, porters, and rescuers of do at the aid station began. Shorty's prediction is noted in the entry of 22 April. Although he had left the area (see entry of 15 May), may it not be assumed that he is "Shorty, the Christian Auboy" ?
    51Indian porters.
    52The 38th Division was continuing its move into Burma, having sent forward its first elements in March. Slater was an officer of the Chinese Army in India headquarters.


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[May] 21. Everyone was up at 0630 for no reason other than nothing else to do. The Chinese left about 0700. Shortly after they left it started to rain and was almost a continuous rain until after dinner. About 1100, four men from Joe's outfit53 arrived with his rations and rations for the station. A mechanic for the motors at Ujan [air-warning station] came along and is staying over nite. The fellows made three trips with rations, and after the third load, they stayed and waited for Sgt. [Paul E.] Skiddmore54 who came from Ujan. Skiddmore is going before O.C.S.55 board and has to return to the unit. At 1500, the Capt in charge of the second company arrived with his men who totaled approximately 150. There was room for all and we extended the same courtisies as we did for the Major & his men. They didn't ask for medical treatment.

[May] 22. It was raining when we arose but it didn't last very long. There was very little done all day and no work on the cabin. About 1400, the third & last company of Chinese arrived numbering less than either of the other companies. Lodging was found for all. The interpreter for these men could talk very little English and conversation was just mainly questions. Those men had their own medical aid with them and were treated shortly after arrival. We invited the Capt & interpreter for supper and they took it upon themselves to invite more; consequently, eight of them ate at the table and we ate in the cook house. We didn't care as the supper was the ungodly "pork soya links."56 After supper we sat around making conversation and finally hit the hay about 2200.

[May] 23. Art, Russ, & Phillips were up early and on their way to Tipang by 0610. Phillips is going to the dentist & Art to the [20th General] hospital. Joe & Chandra also left early to go to Tipang. Seven of the coolies left the other day for the hospital and seven are sick here, so Joe is going to see about more coolies. About 1000, "Pop" & his daughters came down from the village with chickens & sachie. We entertained them with a few pieces of ration candy & a couple of drinks of sachie. (No idea in mind. N. Tirap hospitality). "Pop" is having some of his villagers put the roof on the cabin so we have to be nice to him. At 1200, Joe came back from Tipang. Capt Schwartz & Tom Weeks57 arrived with rations about 1400. After straightening out everything we went for a swim. Vandy [Ralph Vanderground] & Flaten58 arrived about 1500 to stay for an hour or so. Stoney & I prepared supper. After supper there was a few chess games & card games and after a cup of tea, we hit the hay.

[May] 24. Price, Stoney, and myself were up at 0600 and prepared breakfast. The Capt [Schwartz] & Tom [Weeks] left ahead of the convoy and were on their way by 0800. Phillips arrived about 1400, he became impatient at Tipang and started ahead of Art and Russ. The two came in about

    53The Ujon air-warning station.
    54Should be Staff Sergeant Skidmore, 679th Signal Air Warning Company, in charge of the observation post at Ujon. Later he was evacuated by litter with a severe case of malaria.
    55Officer Candidate School.
    56Sausage.
    57151st Medical Battalion.
    58151st Medical Battalion.


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1530. The weather the last two days has been terrificly hot. The coolies Joe asked for arrived today.

[May] 25. Nothing unusual happened today. Breakfast was the usual time and the day was leisurly spent. The sun was out all morning and shortly after dinner it began to rain. The rain was pretty steady until about 1600. The five Naga's started gathering leaves for the roof and brought 10 bundles in for the days work. They said the roof would be completed in four days. No travellers on the trail.

[May] 26. Oatmeal & bacon was served at 0700 to all the personnel. After breakfast it started to rain and continued until dinner when it stopped for the day. Most of the day was spent writing and reading. The Naga's brought 18 more bundles in today and will soon be ready to start the rafters. Joe's coolies arrived from Rema about 1500. The only travellers were a few Naga women escorted by their men-folk.

[May] 27. The usual breakfast habit started off a day of leisure. Shortly after, it started to rain, but did not last long. About 1115 the Capt [Schwartz] & Weeks arrived from Rema.59 In the afternoon some consumed a few bottles of "Jungle Pani"60 while the rest slept or read. We had Chandra kill eight chickens and Russ & I got supper. The Capt complimented the chicken. The evening was spent listening to Capt. Schwartz' experiences in medical school. A cup of hot chocolate was the "nite cap."

[May] 28. Four of us were up at 0600 and breakfast was at 0700. The Capt & Tom [Weeks] was on their way by 0800. Joe went down to Tipang with them and was back after dinner. Chandra took Price & Craig to one of the "Bustees"61 and they were back by dinner. Gumps [Montgomery] & [Robert L.] McFarlin arrived about 1330. They came from Ujan today. We had an afternoon swim and after supper we shot the bull. Two Chinese soldiers came about 1800 and are staying over nite. They are going down trail. The Nagas have all the leaves and most of the bamboo at the cabin and work should begin tomorrow.

[May] 29. Gumps & McFarlin left about 0900. The Nagas started laying the rafters early this morning and completed the roof before dark. They were certainly on the ball and did a dandy job. The cabin looks swell with it's green roof. About 1100 Political Officer [Johnny] Walker stopped on his way to Rema.62 Sgt Hibbard arrived at 1400 with a note for Phillips to report to the company in clean clothes & a clean shave. In disgust he shaved and both left about 1530. The weather the last two days has been terrificly hot. The evenings have been stuffy and buggie.

[May] 30. Today was another scorcher. It started getting hot just after breakfast which was at 0730. Pop and his Naga women spent most of the day here. Work was started on the doors & windows and they should be completed in another day. Joe's coolies arrived from Rema today and this

    59After delivering rations to Aid Station 3.
    60Pani is an Indian word for water. "Jungle Pani" was a roundabout name for the distilled rice drink which the Nagas produced.
    61Houses.
    62Aid Station 4, 151st Medical Battalion.


18

may be their last convoy. There were no travellers of importance on the trail.

[May] 31. Breakfast was at 0730. The Nagas started early and finished the doors, windows & the ends. They were over right after they finished for their money. Price, Craig & myself started cutting the grass around the cabin. Gumps [Montgomery], McFarlin, & Phillips arrived from the company about 1630. They are staying tonite and tomorrow. The weather was hot most of the day but we did have a little rain. Craig had quite a sick call of coolies who arrived from Punyang.63 One of the coolies had badly infected legs and was carried down. It looks very much like gangreen. He was removed to Tipang. Two Chinese soldiers stopped on their way down trail.

June 1. Gumps & McFarlin brought some baking powder, which changed the menu from the usual oatmeal & bacon to pancakes. And they were darned good. Everyone went to work this morning putting canvas on the roof and cleaning the area. A lot was accomplished and really adds to the looks of our mansion. About 1030 eight Chinese arrived with the injured soldier. A clean bandage had been put on at Rema, so we did nothing for him. After they ate they started for Tipang and was met by our "peep." We never saw the vehicle, but gather it was a peep. The day was cloudy and we had about an hours rain.

[June] 2. Everyone was at the breakfast table at 0700. Art & Russ went to Ujan with Gumps & McFarlin. The fellows left about 0900. The rest of us started cleaning the area around the cabin and burning rubbish. Seventy Chinese started coming in about 1600 and the last ones arrived around 2000. The officers took the place over as usual until about 2100 when Price & Craig started playing chess. They took the hint & when [went] to bed. The Chinese had Naga men and women porters. The sun broke thru the clouds several times making it a hot day. Phillips & Craig had quite a sick call.

[June] 3. Joe got breakfast this morning and he made fritters. They were extra good and a darn good change. Work was done on the area around the cabin. The Chinese were on their way by 0700. About 1100 a Naga came to the basha with two cubs which were purchased immediatly by Price & Craig. Chandra seems to think they are tiger cubs. The darn things aren't more than a week old. The only travellers were a few Nagas. The weather was hot all day.

[June] 4. It was raining at breakfast and continued most of the day. No work was done. Phillips left for Tipang about 1400. He has a dentist appointment tomorrow. Seven Chinese stopped for the nite on their way down trail. These gave us the worst time of any.

[June] 5. Breakfast was at 0800. Price & Craig had an hours work done before breakfast. We started digging the latrine and worked until about 1100 when the rain chased us in. The rain lasted an hour and stopped for the day. Phillips arrived around 1400 with Sgts. Boughter & [Richard E.] Everett,64 they are staying over nite. About 1600 approximately 70 Chinese

    63See n. 35, p. 12. Pfc. McFarlin--see entry of 28 May--will open Aid Station 5 at Punyang in mid-June.
    64151st Medical Battalion.


19

soldiers stopped for a rest. Several of them had bites so Philips & Craig held sick call. After supper we played cards and shot the bull.

[June] 6. Joe again took to the stove and this time we had some delicious corn fritters. Today being Sunday, we decided to rest, so there was no work accomplished. A newcomer has been added to our zoological gardens. I am the proud owner of a baby monkey which was purchased from a native. The darned thing isn't any bigger than a minute. Boughter & Everett left us about 1400. Five Chinese stopped a few minutes on their way up trail. Jit arrived about 1400. We were all glad to see him. It was raining when we arose but lasted only a short time.

[June] 7. Craig & Price worked a little on the latrine before breakfast and after breakfast, we all pitched in. Chandra, Jit, Goop & Dil65 bid us goodbye. We are certainly going to miss those fellows in more ways than one. The latrine hole was finished and the box was made. The sun was too hot to do any work after dinner. While we were eating dinner a Chinese soldier arrived on horseback. He is headed up trail and is staying over nite. No news of importance & no travellers on the trail.

[June] 8. It was raining at breakfast time and lasted about an hour. The four of us finished the latrine and quit for the day. About 1400 Col. Chin arrived with 50 soldiers on their way up trail. They are staying over nite. Accompaning the Chinese is a very interesting Polish doctor who is a contract surgeon for the U.S. Army.66 He speaks seven languages and has travelled all over Europe. He talked with us for a while and went to bed early. We would have enjoyed several hours with him. He is responsible for "Jakie's" life because he showed me how to feed her. Shortly after supper the fellows arrived, everyone plenty tired. R. [Ray B.] Price & [Earl] Piens67 came from Ujan & [Manuel B.] Felix & [Dudley M.] Donnelson68 from Rema. Taps is early tonite for the majority. Price, Craig & myself are going to the company tomorrow.

[June] 9 & 10. The Chinese soldiers started up trail about 0700 and after breakfast C. Price, Craig, the fellows from up the trail, & myself started for the company. During the day at Tirap, three Chinese soldiers headed down trail stopped for the nite. Art & Russ started the kitchen setup. The afternoon of the 10th a Gurka Lt., a few soldiers, and Naga porters arrived on their way up trail. They were going to make maps. During the nite a buffalo broke into the Lt's basha. There was also a chicken lost, some animal made itself at home.

[June] 11. Price & Craig arrived about noon with the coolies for the Co. convoy. There was a S.N.A.F.U. someplace and the coolies left a day ahead of Lt Baumgarten & Sgt. Boughter.69 I arrived about 1430. Craig & Price were packing for their trip to Pebu.70 We were entertained after dark by

    65The Indian camp servants.
    66Perhaps Dr. Franz Kriegel, one of the European refugee doctors who worked for the Chinese Government and military forces. See Chinese Liaison Detail, p. 81.
    67From Aid Station 4.
    68From Aid Station 3.
    69From the 151st Medical Battalion.
    70To open Aid Station 6.


20

the porters who sang and danced. Had anyone told us we would be sitting in the moonlight watching a bunch of coolies dance, we would of [have] thought them crazy. Everyone was tired, so we went to bed early. Booth also arrived with Craig & Price.

[June] 12. The coolies were held back in wait for the Lt. [Baumgarten], so they slept a few more winks. The convoy started arriving about 1100 and the last ones came about 1500. [Don W.] Duncan & Piens71 were two of the first to arrive and after staying a short time, they started for Rema. After everyone arrived there was a few changes made. Craig & Price to Pebu as scheduled, Seith to Punyang,72 [Nicholas] Romeo, [John L.] Savage & Booth to remain here and Duncan to Ujan. The changes were made by the Lt. Along with our convoy was a medical man to releive the medic there at the [Ujon air-warning] station. This fellow gave Joe four shots and not of whiskey. Gassabaro [Gasbarro] is still sweating out his transfer to Punyang. Nothing else of importance for the day.


51Indian porters.
52The 38th Division was continuing its move into Burma, having sent forward its first elements in March. Slater was an officer of the Chinese Army in India headquarters.


16

[May] 21. Everyone was up at 0630 for no reason other than nothing else to do. The Chinese left about 0700. Shortly after they left it started to rain and was almost a continuous rain until after dinner. About 1100, four men from Joe's outfit53 arrived with his rations and rations for the station. A mechanic for the motors at Ujan [air-warning station] came along and is staying over nite. The fellows made three trips with rations, and after the third load, they stayed and waited for Sgt. [Paul E.] Skiddmore54 who came from Ujan. Skiddmore is going before O.C.S.55 board and has to return to the unit. At 1500, the Capt in charge of the second company arrived with his men who totaled approximately 150. There was room for all and we extended the same courtisies as we did for the Major & his men. They didn't ask for medical treatment.

[May] 22. It was raining when we arose but it didn't last very long. There was very little done all day and no work on the cabin. About 1400, the third & last company of Chinese arrived numbering less than either of the other companies. Lodging was found for all. The interpreter for these men could talk very little English and conversation was just mainly questions. Those men had their own medical aid with them and were treated shortly after arrival. We invited the Capt & interpreter for supper and they took it upon themselves to invite more; consequently, eight of them ate at the table and we ate in the cook house. We didn't care as the supper was the ungodly "pork soya links."56 After supper we sat around making conversation and finally hit the hay about 2200.

[May] 23. Art, Russ, & Phillips were up early and on their way to Tipang by 0610. Phillips is going to the dentist & Art to the [20th General] hospital. Joe & Chandra also left early to go to Tipang. Seven of the coolies left the other day for the hospital and seven are sick here, so Joe is going to see about more coolies. About 1000, "Pop" & his daughters came down from the village with chickens & sachie. We entertained them with a few pieces of ration candy & a couple of drinks of sachie. (No idea in mind. N. Tirap hospitality). "Pop" is having some of his villagers put the roof on the cabin so we have to be nice to him. At 1200, Joe came back from Tipang. Capt Schwartz & Tom Weeks57 arrived with rations about 1400. After straightening out everything we went for a swim. Vandy [Ralph Vanderground] & Flaten58 arrived about 1500 to stay for an hour or so. Stoney & I prepared supper. After supper there was a few chess games & card games and after a cup of tea, we hit the hay.

[May] 24. Price, Stoney, and myself were up at 0600 and prepared breakfast. The Capt [Schwartz] & Tom [Weeks] left ahead of the convoy and were on their way by 0800. Phillips arrived about 1400, he became impatient at Tipang and started ahead of Art and Russ. The two came in about

    53The Ujon air-warning station.
    54Should be Staff Sergeant Skidmore, 679th Signal Air Warning Company, in charge of the observation post at Ujon. Later he was evacuated by litter with a severe case of malaria.
    55Officer Candidate School.
    56Sausage.
    57151st Medical Battalion.
    58151st Medical Battalion.


17

1530. The weather the last two days has been terrificly hot. The coolies Joe asked for arrived today.

[May] 25. Nothing unusual happened today. Breakfast was the usual time and the day was leisurly spent. The sun was out all morning and shortly after dinner it began to rain. The rain was pretty steady until about 1600. The five Naga's started gathering leaves for the roof and brought 10 bundles in for the days work. They said the roof would be completed in four days. No travellers on the trail.

[May] 26. Oatmeal & bacon was served at 0700 to all the personnel. After breakfast it started to rain and continued until dinner when it stopped for the day. Most of the day was spent writing and reading. The Naga's brought 18 more bundles in today and will soon be ready to start the rafters. Joe's coolies arrived from Rema about 1500. The only travellers were a few Naga women escorted by their men-folk.

[May] 27. The usual breakfast habit started off a day of leisure. Shortly after, it started to rain, but did not last long. About 1115 the Capt [Schwartz] & Weeks arrived from Rema.59 In the afternoon some consumed a few bottles of "Jungle Pani"60 while the rest slept or read. We had Chandra kill eight chickens and Russ & I got supper. The Capt complimented the chicken. The evening was spent listening to Capt. Schwartz' experiences in medical school. A cup of hot chocolate was the "nite cap."

[May] 28. Four of us were up at 0600 and breakfast was at 0700. The Capt & Tom [Weeks] was on their way by 0800. Joe went down to Tipang with them and was back after dinner. Chandra took Price & Craig to one of the "Bustees"61 and they were back by dinner. Gumps [Montgomery] & [Robert L.] McFarlin arrived about 1330. They came from Ujan today. We had an afternoon swim and after supper we shot the bull. Two Chinese soldiers came about 1800 and are staying over nite. They are going down trail. The Nagas have all the leaves and most of the bamboo at the cabin and work should begin tomorrow.

[May] 29. Gumps & McFarlin left about 0900. The Nagas started laying the rafters early this morning and completed the roof before dark. They were certainly on the ball and did a dandy job. The cabin looks swell with it's green roof. About 1100 Political Officer [Johnny] Walker stopped on his way to Rema.62 Sgt Hibbard arrived at 1400 with a note for Phillips to report to the company in clean clothes & a clean shave. In disgust he shaved and both left about 1530. The weather the last two days has been terrificly hot. The evenings have been stuffy and buggie.

[May] 30. Today was another scorcher. It started getting hot just after breakfast which was at 0730. Pop and his Naga women spent most of the day here. Work was started on the doors & windows and they should be completed in another day. Joe's coolies arrived from Rema today and this

    59After delivering rations to Aid Station 3.
    60Pani is an Indian word for water. "Jungle Pani" was a roundabout name for the distilled rice drink which the Nagas produced.
    61Houses.
    62Aid Station 4, 151st Medical Battalion.


18

may be their last convoy. There were no travellers of importance on the trail.

[May] 31. Breakfast was at 0730. The Nagas started early and finished the doors, windows & the ends. They were over right after they finished for their money. Price, Craig & myself started cutting the grass around the cabin. Gumps [Montgomery], Mcned. The number more or less equally divided between the South Staffs and Lancashire Fusiliers.

Psychiatric Casualties. Not one case of mental illness was seen on personal contact. Neither was any case referred by the Camp Medical Officer or to the hospitals in the neighbourhood.

Relative the present evacuees the mental health is 100 percent sound.

    137J. S. Dawson, Captain, RAMC, who signed each of the reports quoted below.
    138The report on the 77th Brigade is second in sequence in the original Report. Its introductory section, however, indicates that it was intended to be first in order.
    139Ind.--Indian; A.B.P.O.--overseas postal office designation.


284

Factors influencing Morale Unfavourably.

    (a) Promises. Officially promised out before the Monsoon and again after "White City" in May. Undivided opinion of the men here gave it that these promises dashed their hopes considerably when not implemented and they would much rather they had not been given.

    (b) Monsoon Equipment. Non-existent. The gas-capes issued were useless after a fortnight's rain. Loss of sleep and consequent exhaustion were attributed to lack of this equipment. American hammocks would have been appreciated.

    (c) Clothing. Replacements inadequate and for most unobtainable.

    (d) Rations. Monotonous and depressing. Three months on "K" rations is enough for any man.

    (e) Repatriation. A sore point with those concerned. Men with five years service overseas and more before entering Burma, resent having been detailed to go in. An ominous bond of sympathy exists between these and many of the remaining men, strengthened by the assertions that many of those who were due repatriation have been killed.

    (f) Medical Attention. Uncivil and inadequate. By far the greater majority of men expressed this view and said they were ultimately afraid to go sick for fear of being accused of "scrounging." Men with fevers and dysenteries had to continue fighting. The absence of detailed stretcher bearers in the columns was also bemoaned. These complaints were largely mitigated however, by the almost unanimous opinion that the conditions obtaining were due to lack of medical personnel. (N.B. Surgical cases interviewed could not speak too highly of the attention received from M.O.s and orderlies alike.)

    (g) Length of Campaign. Much too long. None would have minded being in twelve weeks.

    (h) Chinese. Very unpopular. Described as an undisciplined collection of looters and thieves. Very difficult to distinguish from Japanese troops owing to the variety of clothing they wore. W.O.s and N.C.O.s shared the same opinion as the men. All would have preferred to have continued to fight as an independent Chindits Force.140

Factors Favourably Influencing Morale.

    (a) Officers. Apart from a few isolated instances, the officers had the unbounded confidence of the men. Brigadier [Michael] Calvert was extremely popular and the admiration of the men without exception, stopped a little short of hero-worship. One wit expressed the opinion that "we would follow the Brig. through Burma into Hell."

    (b) Evacuation of sick. Air-personnel's work in evacuating the sick much appreciated. All felt confident of getting out if wounded.

    (c) Self-appreciation. Stated un-reservedly that they had had their fair share of fighting in nd another six had suffered from dysentery.

    These cases appeared more rapidly after evacuation from Burma than those of 14 Brigade. This is probably due to the fact that 77 and 111 Brigades had lived almost entirely on K rations until their arrival in the Rehabilitation Area, and the rations issued during their travelling period had little time to replace the body reserves of vitamin B Complex, so thoroughly depleted in Burma. The same discoveries [sic: difficulties?] of postulating the aetiological factors involved, postmalarial complications, postdiphtheritic paralysis, or failure of intestinal absorption after dysentery or gastroenteritis was experienced. It is considered however, that these were probably precipitating factors in patients suffering from avitaminosis in a subclinical form.

    No frank cases of scurvy were found on examination of these brigades after their evacuation, but again the disease may have been present in its subclinical form.

    Although the discovery of these cases of avitaminosis would seem to indicate that the vitamin content of the K ration is deficient, this is in fact not so,

      136Central Nervous System.


    283

    and those cases of avitaminosis which did occur, can only be attributed to the well-known fact that the men threw away or failed to eat some vitamin-containing part of the ration. While this cannot be condoned it can never be avoided, and it does indicate the absolute necessity of the inclusion in the ration of a separate multi-vite tablet.

    Condition of Personnel on Termination of Operations

    All brigades on their withdrawal from Burma, with the exception of 16 and 23 Brigades, concentrated in the reception camp at Tinsukia. Here they were placed on a special convalescent scale of rations--received their first hot bath for months, and were given a complete new issue of clothing and necessaries.

    At this camp the psychiatrist137 attached to the Force was located, and as the various brigades passed through, he was in a position to take a cross section of each brigade and assess their general condition and morale, and at the same time was available to see any special cases considered by the medical officers to require psychiatric advice and treatment.

    The reports on his observations are attached and are of considerable interest and show clearly that morale was highest in those units and formations which finished on a high note, with a recent success in battle--and the lowest in those where a reverse had led to acute disappointment.

    Morale on the whole--considering the length of time the men had been in and the hardships to which they had been subjected--was surprisingly good.

    Psychiatric Report on 77 Ind Inf Bde, Special Force138

    Examined at--69 Ind. Rest Camp, 6 A.B.P.O. July '44.139

    Procedure. In conducting this investigation two aims were formulated:

      (1) To assess the morale of the Brigade as a whole, and
      (2) To estimate the percentage of psychiatric casualties.

    To accomplish the latter the co-operation of the Camp Medical Officer and the local hospitals was enlisted to supplement personal interviews.

    In assessing morale an essay was made to garner data under two sub-headings:

      (1) Factors favourably influencing morale
      (2) Factors influencing morale unfavourably

    In the two to three days available, as many as possible of the British personnel of the Brigade were interviewed immediately on arrival at camp from the local air-strip.

    In all 189 men were examined II. "WE HAVE SOMETHING TO BE PROUD OF"

    13 June-4 August 1943

    The new men73 fitted in well with those of the original team that remained under Sergeant Fromant's command. Even the sudden arrival of Authority, an officer, was absorbed after the first dismay passed off, and the new bustle of a nearby Chinese camp attracted attention. Then came the first serious backlash of the environment. Fromant became sick with malaria and one of his assistants, John L. Savage, took over the Log for a few days. Others were up and down with malaria. Yet the period ended on the high note of "Doc" Paul E. Lotze's experiment with radical treatment of fungus infections.

    [June] 13. Everyone was up bright & early. The porters were up about 0430 according to Joe. Breakfast was skimpy this morning because there is no ration. After coffee & sugarless oatmeal the convoy started. The last ones were gone by 0745. Romeo made a stove pipe & Russ finished the kitchen. The rest of us moved in the cabin and arranged the interior. Most of the morning was cloudy and it rained for about two hours this afternoon. This ration situation is the nuts. It has been seven days already since the end of the 15 day ration and nothing in site. There is plenty of American

      71151st Medical Battalion.
      72To open Aid Station 5 between Ujon and Hpachet Hi. Officers came from the 48th Evacuation Hospital--see Chinese Liaison Detail, p. 79.
      73On 12 June, Craig, Price, and Seith went up trail to new aid stations. Pfcs Donald F. Booth, Nicholas Romeo, and John L. Savage took their places at North Tirap. In July, Phillips returned to the base, and T5c. Paul E. Lotze joined the team. 1st Lt. Arthur Sonnenberg, MC, came out to the station on 18 June.


    21

    ration in Tipang but no one has given an order for it to move. Here's to corn willie an[d] "C" ration.

    [June] 14. "Jakie" started making noise about 0500 which naturally disturb our sleep and after a few cracks on the buttox we were able to sleep until 0800 when Russ called breakfast. Russ & Nick [Romeo] did more work on the stove but it still smokes at the wrong places. Booth and myself made a table while Savage & Phillips did their bit. The Gurka Lt came thru today with his party. Four porters from the convoy returned this afternoon with fever. Sgt. Hibbard & C. [Clarence H.] Smith74 arrived about noon with Savages glass[es]; they left shortly after dinner. The weather was rain most of the day. Still no news about rations. [Donald G.] Rorabeck & [Joseph J.] LaMorticelle75 arrived about 1100 stayed for dinner and left for the company.

    [June] 15. Booth & Joe left just after breakfast for Tipang, Joe to see about the transfer and Booth to the dentist. Everyone was busy today doing something. We started the porch and should have it done in a couple of days. Five Chinese came thru with a couple officers headed for Ledo. Joe returned about 1500 with the news that the rations are coming tomorrow. Guns were heard this morning in the direction of Ledo. The weather was a mixture of sun and rain all day.

    [June] 16. Joe left at 0730 to join his Lt. for a few days and to receive orders for his new setup. Around 1000 a Mr. Marten76 arrived with coolies for a station that is being set up above us. The plan for transportation of supplies is finally going into affect. Mr. Marten is making Tirap his home for a while. Booth returned to our happy abode about 1130. The aid man from Ujan [air-warning station] who was releived, arrived around dinner time and left for Tipang shortly after. A Gurka Lt, a wounded Gurka, and four soldiers arrived around 1330 on their way to Tipang. The soldier was a litter patient and had a gun wound of the foot. Accompanying them was a note from Lt. Baumgarten77 who had doctored the man and given orders for his immediate transportation to the hospital. After a cup of tea, four coolies were assigned by Marten to evacuate him to Tipang. Along with our many visitors of the day was a Sgt from Seagraves hospital who was thru here a few weeks ago.78 In his party was two guides and five porters. Today was quite a busy day.

    [June] 17. The main item for today is rations. They arrived about 1100 and was a fine ration as for quality but not quantity. I am afraid we will have to turn to the standby (corn willie) before the 10 days are up. Work was continued on the porch and it should be done by tomorrow. The weather was rain in the morning and sun in the afternoon. Besides a very interesting bull session with Marten taking the lead, the news is little.

    [June] 18. We were greeted this morning by a shower of rain which lasted only a short time, but resumed it's appearance for an hour or so in

      74151st Medical Battalion.
      75151st Medical Battalion.
      76A British civilian supervisor of a porter corps.
      77At one of the up-trail aid stations.
      78See entry for 3 May.


    22

    the afternoon. About 1100 we all received a surprise when the Lt,79 apparently to be in charge of Tirap for an indefinite time, arrived. We had no fore warning of his arrival and all of us, including himself, are still in question as to his status except that some Chinese will frequent the station in the near future. At any rate, a dispensary is being set up to take care of anything from a cinder to an amputation. Quite a few plans are being made an[d] I am anxious to see how many are carried out. Joe returned this afternoon and he has been given a new job. He is to be liaison80 and leaves tomorrow morning for up trail. Rorabeck & LaMorticelle arrived with the Lt. [Sonnenberg] and started for Rema shortly after dinner. The last log for the porch found position at 1735 and soon we will be thru with all of the cabin proper and take to bunk study until another bright idea comes into focus.

    [June] 19. Breakfast was the usual early time. Ever since Marten arrived morning chow has been early much to mine & others dislike. It's not that we can't sleep in, but if we do there is no second chow and the coffee is too good to miss. We received quite a jolt this A.M. about 1100 when Cpl. [John F.] Mikulka, [Donald C.] Everingham, & Tom Weeks81 came puffing in. Tom was well rested upon arrival but as for the other two, their condition was obvious. The reason for their visit was to releive Phillips of his duty here. He is supposed to be transferred. So to date there is no T/582 at Tirap. The weather is the usual rain.

    [June] 20. The day was nearly over before anyone realized that it was Sunday, but it made no difference because none of the crew was in a working mood. For the past several days the coolie convoys have been many and a lot of supplies are going up trail. The coolies & supplies have been keeping Marten on the "proverbial" ball.83 The reports are that the station at Tima84 is almost completed and will soon be ready to house supplies and coolies. There were no travellers today.

    [June] 21. In yesterdays report, I failed to mention that Lt. [Donald L.] Ducie [Ducey]85 arrived with the Chinese. He is the guide for the Bn. At the new camp a mile from here, the Chinese are making there Hq's for a two weeks maneuver. The maneuvers are to begin Wed. and we understand they are to use live ammunition. Everyone is preparing. Shortly after breakfast Lt. Sonnenberg assisted Lt. Ducie on a short walk up the "Golden Staircase." The news is slight and the rain is still very much in existance.

      79lst Lt. Arthur Sonnenberg, MC, was a medical liaison officer, advising and assisting Chinese medical troops attached to infantry at a jungle warfare training center being started near North Tirap. He served in this capacity until October, when the Second Burma Campaign began. As the Seagrave medical unit moved out with the Chinese infantry, the stations they vacated at Hpachet Hi and Hkalak Ga were taken over by Sonnenberg and others. See Chinese Liaison Detail, parts III and IV.
      80With Chinese signal troops. One purpose of providing American signalmen was to remedy the shortage of Chinese technical specialists. But another was to establish means of monitoring Chinese combat communications should General Stilwell's headquarters become uneasy about the disposition of orders sent to, and the quality of reports received from, the Chinese field commanders.
      81From the 151st Medical Battalion.
      82Technician fifth class--a specialist paid as a corporal.
      83"On the ball"--diligent; proficient.
      84Near Ledo.
      85Ducey, from Chinese Army in India Headquarters.


    23

    [June] 22. Russ left for Tipang with Marten's runner at 0630, so Romeo turned chief cook & bottle washer for the day. He also insisted on early breakfast and everyone was up by 0800. Having not fully recovered from the other days shock, we received a more stunning blow when "Typewriter" [John A.] Beyth86 came trodding behind "Lighthorse" Weeks about 1030. We are never surprised at who may visit our abode, but we were today. The nature of their visit was to assist the medical & canteen supplies and to pick up some stuff Phillips left behind. Lt. [Dexter N.] Ashbrook87 arrived with the fellows. The Lt. is going to Punyang to releive the officer now in charge of the dropping station. This afternoon one of the colored boys from Punyang arrived on his way back to his unit. He was sent down. We have had about two hours relief from the rain all day.

    [June] 23. Lt Ashbrook and party left rather early for their trip up trail. After breakfast we continued work on the porch only after spending about two hours cutting bamboo from the bank in front of the cabin. Russ arrived about 1430 from Tipang. Another convoy of coolies arrived with supplies for up trail as did a large convoy leave this morning for up trail. The supplies seem to be flowing in spite of the fact that the camps aren't completed. A soldier was brought from the Chinese camp this afternoon with a fever and was sent to the hospital. We were blessed all day with the miserable rain, as if thats any news. Joe arrived today and is planning to leave in a few days. He evidently has a new job.

    [June] 24. Breakfast wasn't until about 0900, the cook along with the [sic] a few others felt more like sleeping than eating. Just after breakfast Lt. Ducey visited "Monsoon Lodge" and his armament was the M-1 rifle with a few rounds. A couple of us stood on the bridge and fired a few rounds. Nick, Booth, & myself not only completed the porch rail but made a canopy for the side door. Speaking of class, we have it. A few Gurka officers arrived late in the afternoon and are staying over nite; they are going down trail. We had more rain today. Joe is leaving tomorrow so we worked about an hour after supper because the only pair of pliers are going with him.

    [June] 25. We were awakened about 0730 this morning by a "Solong Gang," Joe came to bid us goodbye. The noise, however, wasn't breakfast call and three of us managed to sleep an extra hour. Having no pliers we were unable to do any work much to our disappointment. Lt. Ducey was with us again today for few hours. An English Lt arrived today with a few Gurka soldiers on their way down trail. They are staying over nite. We had sunshine most of the day today, but is raining tonight. Marten & I are going to Tipang tomorrow morning.

    [June] 26-27. Mr. Marten, and myself started for Tipang at 0700. I did not return until 1000 Monday and the news for Tirap of the weekend was little. The fellows did, however, do a fine job of cleaning up the front yard and clearing away a brush pile. Savage & Booth left here at 0600 and I met them at Tipang just before my leaving for up trail. Lt Sonnenberg donated R's 20 towards some furniture and gradually we will have "Mon-

      86151st Medical Battalion.
      8721st Quartermaster Group.


    24

    soon Lodge" looking something like home. We also are having a few Red Cross donations of furniture.

    [June] 28. We had rain most of the day. A party consisting of Capt [William G.] Walters, Capt Needham, three negro fellows, and porters arrived about 1030. From all indications, they are going on reconnaissance as far as Hkalak Ga.88 I envy those men for the interesting trip they will have. Capt Walters slept in the cabin as did "Ledo" his monkey. Nothing else of news.

    [June] 29. Capt Walters and party left 0800. Lt Baumgarten and Sgt Boughter arrived around 1230.89 Left for Tipang about 1430. Savage and Booth returned at 1400. Rained in the afternoon.

    [June] 30. Today we were expecting a party from the company, which never came. Felt sick today. I had a temp. of 100o at 1500.90 Confined to bed. Rained most of the day.

    [July] 1. Stayed in bed all day. Still feel very sick. Temp. is 102o. Rained in the afternoon. Nothing of notice happined except the natives believe they seen a Cobra in the coolie hut. We found nothing.

    [July] 2. Today at 1030 Sgt Fromant was sent down to the hospital carried by coolies. Romeo went with them. Savage becomes "keeper of the Book." At 1610 Paul "Doc" Lotze and Ray Price91 came down from Ujan on their way to the company. Around 1730 Nick returned and brought our chairs, tables and cigarettes that were at Tipang--Good boy. We retired about 2400. Doc slept in Bob's [Fromant's] bed and Ray on a litter on the floor. Rained.--

    [July] 3. Rose at 0600. Doc and Ray left for the company around 0715. A group of Chinese went through at 11:30 going to Likhapani [India]. A colored boy named [William T.] Robertson came from Punyang arriving

      88Hkalak Ga was well south of the Ledo-North Tirap area, on the West Axis Trail, and it was the staging and final training area for the 3d Battalion, 112th Infantry, of the 38th Chinese Division. The evident increases in trail traffic at this time reflected the buildup prior to the advance toward final positions below Shingbwiyang in October. Walters was the Commanding Officer of an element of the 21st Quartermaster Group; Needham was a British officer.
      89Presumably on the way back to Ledo, after having established Aid Stations 5 and 6--see entries of 11-12 June.
      90Fromant is down with malaria, as all the others will be at North Tirap, so Savage posts the entries from 30 June through 21 July. During World War II, malaria was second in the list of infectious and parasitic diseases incurred by Army troops overseas and in the Army as a whole (gonorrhea led the list). The death rate of malaria followed that of tuberculosis and infectious hepatitis; the rate for each was above 2.5 deaths per annum per 100,000 average troop strength. The incidence rate of malaria was higher in the China-Burma-India Theater than anywhere else. The 1942-45 average incidence rate in CBI was 98.46/1,000/year. In 1943, the incidence rose from 264/1,000/year in June to a peak in August of 322/1,000/year; it ran below 200/1,000/year from January through May and in November and December; the year's average incidence rate was 181/1000/year. The highest mortality rate for malaria occurred in CBI in 1943, 20.19 per 100,000 average troop strength per annum. For men such as those at North Tirap, virtually no environmental controls were provided. Personal protective measures were rarely enforced or self-sustained. The use of Atabrine to suppress the acute phases of the disease in an infected man still was being experimentally investigated in the Southwest Pacific. Under such conditions, there were 9,160 men like Fromant in CBI in 1943; he was one of the 1,700 patients with malaria among the first 2,400 patients admitted to the 20th General Hospital at Ledo. See U.S. Army Medical Service, Environmental Hygiene, pp. 29, 219; Malaria, pp. 7-11, 35, and chapter VII; Infectious Diseases, chapters XIV-XVIII. The report of the experiments with Atabrine--as decisive in the war in their way as those of the Manhattan Project--is listed in the bibliography under the name of the principal investigator, N. Hamilton Fairley.
      91151st Medical Battalion, Aid Station 4.


    25

    here at 11:30, had dinner and went on to Ledo at 1300. At 1500 a note from Station Number One saying a Lt. [Donald O.] Hartburg and a Pvt. [Victor] Krolick92 was coming up, & going through. They arrived at 1800. It rained the best part of the day. Retired about 2230. For the past week we have been drinking boiled rain water, for two days prior to this we drank boiled river water as the spring where we got our water before this was covered by the river.

    [July] 4. Lt. Hartburg and party left around 07:30. At 0700 Savage had a Temp. of 101.4o. It droped to 99.4o in an hour after taking quinine. Today was Martins birthday so this morning as he walked in, shouting and waking us up we greeted him with, "Happy Birthday Martin," instead of the threats that usually greet this human (?) alarm clock. These we said under our breath. Today being Independence Day in our country (the good ol' USA.) Russ baked a cake and brother it was really good. We had a very good meal. (honors to Russ) Part of the cake was for Martens birthday and the rest for our holiday. The Chinese provided the sound effects for the day with rifle fire and hand grenades. At 20:00 the gang had coco and cake, but I, feeling too ill, remained in bed and dozed off to sleep soon after. The others following around 22:00.

    [July] 5. It is known now that I have Benign Tertian Malaria and I have hopes that I won't have to leave here for a place in the hospital. Early this morning Lt. Sonnenberg and Nick went in to the company. That left Russ, Booth, and myself here. I felt rather sick all day. Nothing of interest happened.

    [July] 6. Today Nick and the Lt. came back at 1330. Prior to that nothing out of the ordenary took place. With them they brought some G.I. candy, books, mail and some replaced clothes. They had taken Bob a piece of Russ's cake and said that he's feeling better. Lt. [Shy Seymour] Greenspan,93 who is replacing Lt. Ducey at the Chinese camp, and Maj. Chow came over to talk to the Lt. I felt much better today.

    [July] 7. Booth left at 0500 for the company to get his teeth fixed. Nothing else happened until 1800 when Nick returning from a visit to the Chinese camp brought company in the form of Lt. Greenspan, Lt. Clancy Topp and Sgt Nick Lycesko. Lt Topp & Sgt Lycesko are going to take pictures and write a story of the cabin for the "CBI Roundup."94 They slept here.

    [July] 8. Today we all had pictures taken. We're getting into the higher class. Booth got back at 1530 and then the pictures were taken. The Lt. even let me get out of bed to have some taken. Wish Bob was here. So that he wouldn't be let [left] out we faked a picture of him with Lt Greenspan.

    [July] 9. Today the last of the pictures were taken and Lt Topp and the Sgt. left. About 10:00 a English Capt. T. Maston came through going to GHQ at Lickapanie. An hour later a Maj. Leedham also English95 came up

      92From the 679th Signal Air Warning Company en route to the air-warning station in the Ujon-Rema area.
      93An Engineer officer from Chinese Army in India Headquarters.
      94The U.S. Army weekly troop newspaper. See Chinese Liaison Detail, p. 111, n. 112.
      95Apparently neither Capt. Needham (English) nor Lt. Col. Leedham, commander of the 48th Evacuation Hospital.


    26

    and stayed overnight. Marten reported a Chinaman hanging to a tree above Tema. Around 1900, Art Seith came in96 with the colored boy, who came up with Lt. Ashbrook, taking him to the hospital with a lacerated knee. Lt. Sonnenberg made a diagnosis and said that nothing was radically wrong with him, but sent him down for observation.

    [July] 10. Art and his patient left at 0800. About 1100 a Lt. [William J.] Smith and a Lt. [William F.] Cox with Maj Chow and two other Chinese97 stoped for dinner on their way to investigate the hanging Chinaman. They came back about 1900. Lt. Smith had went back for a jeep and returned with it about 1800. At 1730 Lt. O'dahl, Sgt [Howard A.] Woods98 and Sgt Boughter came up and stayed overnight. We also had Majors Wu and Chow from the Chinese camp over for supper. After supper everyone went down on the bridge and fired at cans in the river. We used about 100 round of 30.30 and a lot of cal. .45. Lots of fun. I lost Rs 20 when Lt. O'dahl hit a can in the air twice. We haven't had any rain for the past four days, and we're back to drinking spring water.

    [July] 11. It's a wonderful day out today. The sun is shining and everything looks bright and cheerful. We got up at 0830. Maj. Chow came over bringing shells over to replace those that we fired last night. Lt. O'dahl and party left about 14:15. Lt. Sonnenberg and Nick made the usually trip to the Chinese camp. Nothing else took place today.

    [July] 12. Today was another day without rain. Duncan and Piens came in about 1400. The're returning to the company and are taking all of their rations in.99 Majors Chow and Wu where [were] over for a farewell supper tonight. Maj Wu and his command is leaving the 14th. Martin has another young fellow working with him100 named Halladay who we met last night. We sat on the porch and talked for a while then retired.

    [July] 13. Today as yesterday Nick, Booth and Russ went across the river and cut logs for firewood. The Lt [Sonnenberg] even went over and cut some for and [an] hour. At 1020 Art Seith came in, going back.101 With him he had two colored fellows named [Leonard R.] Slaughter and [Carl F.] Cummings102 also going up to Punyang. Piens and Duncan had left at 1000 this morning.

    [July] 14. Starting around 1000 today the fellows from stations three and four started drifting in following the advanced guard of Piens and Duncan who had carried on yesterday. It wasn't a very orderly retreat but a successful one. It came to an end at 1400 with Sgts. Montgomery and Shaw bringing up the rear (as all good Sgts. should). The entire group stayed overnight.

    [July] 15. At 0600 everyone had allready left. Those remaining were R. Price and Sgts. Montgomery and Shaw. Corp. Paul "Doc" Lotze is staying

      96From Aid Station 5. Ashbrook and the soldier came through on 22 June.
      97From the nearby jungle training camp. Smith and Cox were officers from Headquarters Chinese Army in India.
      98151st Medical Battalion.
      99Aid Stations 3 and 4 at Ujon and Rema were closed on 12-13 June; so also was Station 1 at Tipang.
      100Supervising porters.
      101No. 5, Punyang.
      10221st Quartermaster Group.


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    with us until Bob returns and Pvt. Rorabeck is to remain here in place of Phillips. I had the cramps the entire day due to the reaction of quinine. Around 1030 Major [John T.] Smiley103 and Capt Short arrived and stayed until 1400. Also the new Chinese officers from the camp down the trail came over. There was Major Chang the interpreter and Capt. Wong the commander.

    [July] 16. Today "Doc" Lotze and Cobby [Rorabeck] went to Ledo and the company. I felt much better today but just took things easy (I love it.) At 1615 a Corp. [Roland H.] Rosinsky from the 679 Sig. Bn. and a Corp. whose name is unknown, from the 51 Fighter com[e].104 They stayed over night.

    [July] 17. Rosey [Rosinsky] and his friend left at 1000 this morning and not[h]ing else of interest took place until 1300 when "Doc" and Cobby came back with Lt. O'dahl, Corp. [William] Bradbury105 and porters with our canteen supplys and the Lt. brought our pay. (What a happy day) This is the first time I've ever had money in India without someone yelling Baksheesh at me all day. Incidently, Lt. O'dahl had me put the R/20/ in a fund for the use of the cabin. Our beer ration also came in and we sat on the porch this evening drinking our brew, smoking and talking.

    [July] 18. Today it rained for the best part of the day. About 1145 two fellows by the name of [Owen B.] Lockridge and [Joseph F.] Sutto droped in. Lockridge left around 1300 going back while the other fellow who is going up the trail stayed here. It has always been known that Russ is really sharp at cooking and has proved it many times but today was really the end of any doubt that may have existed when for dinner he had creamed chicken, mashed spuds, chicken and rice soup, chocolate pudding, fruit cocktail, and a few other odds and ends that make up a good meal. Lt. O'dahl and the boys brought the chicken up with them yesterday. At 1715 Art Seith came in. It was really a surprise because he had just went up [to Punyang] last Wed. the 14th. He certainly must like to walk.

    [July] 19. Lt. O'dahl and Bradbury left around 1000. About 1100 a Capt and S/Sgt whose names slips my mind drop[ped] in for lunch before going on to Tipang. Today we did our Spring house cleaning even though it's the middle of the summer. Better late than never. Art left this afternoon with the Capt. and party.

    [July] 20. Today we received a great surprise when who should walk in but S/Sgts [Herbert] Thomas and [Carlo] Guinto.106 This makes the 16th successive day that we have had visitors. Tirap should by now be a well known place.

    [July] 21. Today is the day I've been waiting for. Bob returned home bringing Sgt. Evrett who is going to stay for a visit. Thomas and Guinto left at 1400. Some Chinese troops slept in the coolie shead and I slept in the dispensary for safe keeping. And so ending with this, I once more return the

      103The 151st Medical Battalion Executive Officer, an especially able man who later became Surgeon of Base Section 3 at Ledo. See Chinese Liaison Detail, p. 112.
      104En route to the air-warning station at Ujon. The "51st Fighter" may refer to the 51st Fighter Control Squadron or to the 51st Pursuit Group, Tenth Air Force.
      105151st Medical Battalion.
      106151st Medical Battalion.


    28

    keeping of the book back to Bob and shall try to recover from my writers cramps. Adio.[s]!

    [July] 22. I again take my pen in hand for the purpose of "Keeping the Books" as my able bodied assistant put it. There is no need to write of the happiness brought about by my return to "Monsoon Lodge" as it is obvious to anyone who has had the fortune to have visited the cabin of Assam. My one hope is that I never receive another bite from our insect enemy. It wasn't such a good thing to have & it took me away from this paradise. The order for the station was that Cpl. Lotz[e] was to remain as our medical tech and Rorabeck return to the company, so Rorabeck went back with Sgt Everett early this morning. Yesterday we started placing the burlap ceiling107 on the cabin and finished it this morning. This afternoon for an hour or so Nick & myself started the chicken coop. Lt. Sonnenberg, "Doc", and Booth did a fine job in the dispensary with the mesh that was sent up. The fellows took good care of the cabin during my absence and besides keeping it clean, they added a few improvements. The crew is really a fine one and have a lot of pride about the place called home. About 1600 a Lt. [Kenneth D. Harris], from "Seagraves" arrived and is staying over nite.108 He is going to the base at Tagap. After supper we all congregated on the porch, the subject being: "sex and how we like it and would like it." The Lt. from Seagraves took the stand with a few of his tales about his stay in Calcutta. We retired at 2300. The weather was very hot all day.

    [July] 23. Breakfast was served at 0700 and the Lt. [Harris] left shortly after. It was raining when we arose and continued for about an hour when the sun came out terrifically hot remaining so for the rest of the day. The only work for the day was a little cleaning of the area. We were expecting Col. Pitkin & Capt Schwartz today and we were ready for them with a nice chicken dinner ready for preparation, but they never arrived. Art [Seith] arrived about 1500 from the company with cigarettes & supplies. He had a note from Capt. Schwartz explaining about not arriving. Lt. & Doc109 went to the Chinese camp this afternoon.

    [July] 24. The roosters did a fine job of awakening everyone at 0500, but the chow was not served until 0830. The main event of importance for the day was the visit of General [Haydon L.] Boettner [Boatner]110 to the famed "Lodge." The General & Lt Greenspan arrived about 1000 and after a tour of the area and dinner, they left. His presence at dinner made the last link of rank that has eaten here. To date we have had every rank at some time or other for a meal. The General was the type of man we have heard all the Generals in this theater are. He was definitely not a brass hat, had a bit of

      107As a barrier to prevent dirt and chaff from sifting down from the bamboo roof.
      108Kenneth D. Harris, 1st Lt., MAC, had a great reputation as a rapid hiker. He was the "walking link" between the three Seagrave hospitals. Tagap, on the East Axis trail, was the site of the principal Seagrave medical station in the summer of 1943. See Seagrave, Burma Surgeon.
      109Lotze became a well-trained technician who later took over Sonnenberg's duties, and still later, served as a noncommissioned liaison officer with the British 36th Division.
      110Brig. Gen. Haydon L. Boatner was Stilwell's chief of staff and deputy commander of the Chinese Army in India. At this time he was in charge of the Forward Echelon of the CAI Headquarters.


    29

    humor, and was very much concerned about his age. He commented [complimented] the group on the station and said he has heard of the good work we are doing. Russ also received a compliment on his dinner. One thing that went over big with all of us was the fact that the General wanted to wash his own dishes, but the water was not ready. The work was very little today because it was so darned hot. Marten was down for about an hour today.

    [July] 25. When we arose this morning we found to our surprise that Col Pitkin & Capt Schwartz was here. They had started early from camp but do [due] to an obstacle in the road, they had to leave the peep and walk about a mile. They arrived in time for breakfast. When the General was here his last remark was "I am going to send about 20 men up tomorrow and don't give them a damn thing to eat. They have been sitting on their ass too long." We thought he was kidding but about 1000 the men started arriving and everyone was in sad shape. Among them was a Major, 3 1st Lt., and 2nd Lt., several grades of non-coms and some Pvts. Most of their stay here was spent in the water cooling off and they started back about 1300. The Col & Capt left about 1400 stopping at the Chinese camp on their way down. Lt Sonnenberg arrived from the camp with two Lt's. who just arrived from the States & who had big ideas for repairing the road. They stayed only a short time. The weather was very hot. The Capt. brought Savage a box that contained his camera; he will now become camera happy.

    [July] 26. Art [Seith] had left by the time most of us got up, which was about 0800. About 0915 Nick & I started for Tema arriving there at 1100. We had dinner and rested an hour or so we started back arriving here at 1430. Today was the first day for several that we have not had visitors although we did offer our most humble hospitality to a Naga fellow and five women who stayed for almost an hour. Savage was very fortunate in getting five pictures of them after a cost of cigarettes and biscuits. The weather was again very hot but tonite it looks like rain.

    [July] 27. In last nite's log I mentioned that it looked like rain and not only did it look like rain, but it did rain plenty hard. One could class it as a cloudburst. The rain brought two small leaks to our attention. After a 0900 breakfast Savage, "Doc," Nick & I went to the woods with the saw and cut 32 logs. We returned to the cabin and the work for the rest of the day was sweeping out the joint and lowering the big table. The only visitor today was "Bad Eye"111 who only stayed a few minutes after he backsheeshed us for some biscuits. We had a short rain, the rest of the day being cloudy until about 1500 when the sun came out. Today makes the second we have not seen Martens Dakwalla.112 He went through Sunday to Tipang and hasn't been back yet. Booth feels some better today. The Tirap chicken farm is not doing so well, two more are struggling for their last breath and Russ is tearing his hair out trying to keep the mortality rate down. Things have come to a pretty pass when vitamin pills won't work, so the latest medication is the well known drug Sulfanilimide. Fingers are crossed.

    [July] 28. Lt. Sonnenberg made an order that no one is allowed to sleep

      111A Naga villager. "Baksheesh"--a gratuity to a beggar.
      112Mail carrier.


    30

    after 0800 regardless of what time we go to bed, so breakfast will never be later than 0830. Nick was sent to bed today with malaria. Booth is feeling much better. There was no work and the visitors were Capt. [Benjamin F.] Gerhardt113 & Capt. Walters.114 Capt Gerhardt met Capt. Walters in Kalak [Hkalak Ga] and they made the trip together. Capt. Gerhardt started his journey from "Hell's Gate" [Hellgate]115 taking seven weeks to get here. They stayed long enough for a bite to eat, then headed for Tipang. Capt Walters was stiff legged when he arrived but was determined to make camp. Both men started from Ranglum116 at 0530 and were here at 1510. A good days walk. "Funeral director" Lotz performed another burial today, but the other chicken is hanging on for dear life. Maybe we had better give up raising chickens. The sun broke thru the clouds several times to make the day miserable.

    [July] 29. The main event for the day was Lt. Sonnenbergs dangling personality being stung by an insect larger than a mosquitoe, possibly by a yellow jacket. The insect not only stung him but left the stinger in and while getting it out he kept saying: "Gee it feels funny." There were no visitors to the abode which is very unusual. The day was hot most of the day with threatening rain tonite. The rations were due two days ago.

    [July] 30. The arrival of the rations constitutes the main event of the day and of course we all welcomed them with open arms. Booth was up & around some today but Romeo was running a higher temperature and consequently he was feeling bad. He should feel better tomorrow as today is his last for quinine. I felt ambitious today and tried my hand at baking. With Russ aiding me in the measurements, I managed to throw together material enough for two pies & an apple turnover. The pie was "Ambrosial Apple Pie," and it wasn't half bad at all if Russ & I do say so ourselves. We will know the complete results tomorrow. Halliday stopped here for the nite on his way to Tipang. The chicken mortality rate has been increased one more as of 0730. Russ has failed as a fowl doctor and we have decided to have chicken Sunday (if they last that long). The weather was cloudy most of the day with occasional rays of sun.

    [July] 31. Today is not only the last of the month, but the day of celebration. Some years ago, Mr. & Mrs. C. B. Fromant was blessed with a most wonderful child and today we dedicated the whole day to that great happening. If you haven't guessed it by now, its my birthday. I practically broke my arm on that one. Halliday bid us goodbye & good luck this morning. He has been given a new job and probably won't be thru again.117 About 1100, the colored fellow, who assisted Capt. Walters up to Kalak,118 arrived and left shortly after dinner. He had seen Stoney [Craig] & Price [at Pebu] and said they were fine; they had awfully long beards. He told us

      113Gerhart, Chinese Army in India Headquarters.
      114See entry of 28 June.
      115East of Ledo on the road trace. Gerhart had gone out on the new road trace, down to the Chinese Army stations at Hkalak Ga, across to the West Axis Trail, and thus on to Tirap.
      116Below Punyang.
      117See entry of 12 July.
      118See entries of 28 June and 28 July.


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    Capt. Needham was straggling down and straggling he meant. The Capt. arrived about 1400 in bad shape. He stayed for a half an hour then started for Tipang figuring 3 hours to make it. He said he would never take the trip again and remarked that his guides were responsible for bringing him in because several times he gave up hope and was going to quit. He did fine for a 50 yr old man. We had Naga company today for about 2 hours. The fellows gave me a party about 2030 tonite. I really appreciated it and thank them a lot. It goes to show that fun & gatherings can be had under any circumstances. I don't believe I could have felt happier at the moment because I knew they were all sincere. We had lemonade and a swell cake baked by Russ. Russ is certainly doing a grand job here. I can also say that for all the fellows here. I have an item that was very funny to us but not to Doc. It seems that T-5 Paul E. Lotze, medical tech, has been bothered for some time with the "jockey itch" and figured that Gentian Violet, the medication for days, wasn't doing very good. So tonite before going to bed, he put [on] 4% iodine saying he would cure it for good. Russ was up late writing letters when he saw Doc in bed applying wet handkerchiefs to his testicles. When that failed, he went outside and between jumps he would pour buckets of water on them. Finally Russ awakened the Lt. and they applied Boric Acid & Phenol ointment to his lower extremities. T-5 Lotze went to bed, but he was in too much pain and Lt. Sonnenberg had to give him a shot of morphine. He finally went to sleep. The diagnosis is 2nd degree burn of the testicles and surrounding territory.

    August 1. We were surprised this morning during breakfast by the arrival of Sgt. Everett & Earl Palmer119 who are staying until Tuesday. Palmer said it wasn't a bad trip and later today he said his feet hurt. It wasn't but about an hour before another group from Gen. Boettners Hq's started arriving. These men were the ones who were on duty last Sunday and couldn't come. From what they say, the Gen. is going to send a group out every Sunday. I was very surprised to see a boy from Bedford [Ohio] who is a Tech. Sgt. in their unit [5303d Combat Troops (Prov)]. We finally solved the chicken problem today by snuffing out the light of six chickens lives leaving "Corky" to roam Tirap by himself. Russ prepared another delicious dinner which was thoroughly enjoyed by everyone. The afternoon was spent reading by some and swimming by others. Booth's condition is very satisfactory today and Romeo's also. Nicks temperature was normal for the first time today and he felt like whipping wildcats, until he stood up. Marten stopped in this morning and had quite a chat with Lt. Sonnenberg. I must not forget to mention that today is Nicks lst yr. wedding anniversary. The day was comfortable all day.

    [August] 2. The news for today is very little. Russ & I started for Tipang at 0715 to see Capt. Cunningham120 about Jit being our bearer. Capt Schwartz had seen Cunningham prior to our visit, so it was a matter of formality. We will see Marten tomorrow and have him send Jit down. We went to the bazaar at Ledo and returned to Tirap at 1800. There had been

      119151st Medical Battalion.
      120British officer in charge of the porter camp at Tipang.


    32

    no visitors other than the usual Naga's. The sun broke thru the clouds enough to make it a hot day. Nick was up for a while today.

    [August] 3. Sgt. Everett & Palmer were gone when we arose. They left about 0700. Marten arrived while we were eating breakfast and stayed until shortly after dinner. He has his new assignments and will leave in a few days. About the only work done today was the making of curtains for two windows by seamstress Booth. She, I mean, he will finish the job tomorrow. Another Naga girl stopped today, escorted by six men, to excite our passion. The sky was quite cloudy making it comfortable all day except for a few minutes of hot sun.

    [August] 4. It rained most of the day today. It wasn't a hard rain, but a slow steady one. The Dakwalla didn't stop for the mail this morning and [I] found out that he will tomorrow. We had more Naga company today. Lt. Sonnenbergs thyroid treatment seems to have spread all over the village because new ones are coming every day. They were leary of the medicine at first until they learned it was a cure for goiter. Doc & I left for Tema at 1335 to get Jit. Marten was not there but we brought Jit back anyway. I might inform the log that T-5 Paul E. Lotze found a new but painful cure for "jockey itch." Apparently it is working fine as the burned skin is peeling, showing new skin. It is still a pitiful looking mess.

    III. "THIS GODFORSAKEN COUNTRY"

    5 August-5 October 1943

    Sickness became more common. Trail traffic declined. Boredom alternated with worry and loneliness. Then Sergeant Fromant took a trip up trail simply to occupy his time, and left the Log with his cheerful assistant, "Doc" Lotze. There was a stir when two nurses from the 22d Field Hospital walked out and stayed the night. But the trend of events was clear. To the east, road work progressed and the Chinese infantry assembled above the Hukawng Valley. The West Axis Trail, now off to the side of the main line of advance, became somnolent. At the base, the 151st was preparing to move into Burma along the road. Massarra returned to the company. Lieutenant Sonnenberg went on to a more active station. By October the team had shrunk to half its former size.121 "The weather was cloudy with occasional rays of sunshine."

    [August] 5. Something is radically wrong someplace because we have had no visitors for the past few days. Furthermore, we haven't had any excitement to give me a subject for the log. Today was Jits first day and we can't figure

      121 Pvt. Armand V. Gentile replaced Massarra on 6 September. Lieutenant Sonnenberg, Savage, and Booth went up trail on 26 September. Then Gentile was pulled out, leaving only Fromant, Lotze, and a new man, T5c. John P. Goodall.


    33

    out whether he likes his job or whether its just his nature. We will find out in a week or so probably. The Dakwalla didn't show up again today and here our mail sits as it has been for two days. The sun shone on & off all day and about 1500 it started lightening and thundering in the East. The Chinese camp changed units again, the new group arrived yesterday & today.

    [August] 6. The Dakwalla didn't show up again this morning so Savage & Russ started for Tipang with the mail. They returned about 1900 with two V-letters,122 every bit of mail there was. Their trip is the extent of the news for todays log. The Lt. & Doc made their daily visit to the Chinese camp and the Naga's were the only visitors. We had quite a bit of rain today.

    [August] 7. Among the many surprises we have had during our stay here was the arrival of Sgt. [John M.] Drusso with Sgt. Guinto.123 The nature of their visit was supplies both medical & canteen. The medical supplies took a back seat today because the canteen supplies consisted of our first American Beer ration124 and cigarettes. The two are only going to stay until tomorrow because a vehicle is coming after them. Drusso tried to pursuade Sgt. Guinto to stay but to no avail. The evening naturally was spent drinking beer and shooting the familiar bull. Their arrival is all of importance today. We had just a little rain.

    [August] 8. The Sgts. were on their way by 0800 much to the disappoint[ment] of Sgt. Drusso. There is something about this place of attraction because everyone wants to come back. Could it be the good looking & husky men who run the lodge? I know its not the fact that its a perfect rest set-up. We were looking for another group from Gen. Boettner's Hq. today, but evidently he is giving them a rest. From the looks of some of the fellows, they will have to rest a few weeks before coming up again. You could tell, by a not too close an examination, who was the desk sitters & who wasn't. We were blessed by an all day rain today.

    [August] 9. The Lt. sent Savage to the hospital for an x-ray today and he left rather early. The time is unknown by me because I, along with a couple others, slept a few extra winks. He is to come back Wed. We had plenty of rain again today, which has been a relief the last few days from the previous hot days. Our only visitors were the familiar Naga's who frequent our abode quite a bit for the thyroid medicine.

    [August] 10. Our rations arrived but were the poorest we have received yet. It seems that the QM had a "S.N.A.F.U." somewhere along the line and was shorted 70% on the ration delivery. We hope rations for the next ten days will be better. The weather was cloudy with a slight rain in the early morning. Russ & I left for Tipang for the purpose of a visit to Tinsukia.125 Wed. I am listing the happenings from the 10-12 inclusive. The fellows said nothing of importance took place during my absence, so we jump to today, the 12th. Russ & I returned about 1330 after a hot walk and shortly after our return, Russ was sent to bed with a Temp. of 102°. The Lt. is undeter-

      122Letters written on special forms, photocopied, and reduced in size.
      123151st Medical Battalion.
      124Fromant was in the hospital away from the station when beer first arrived--see entry of 17 July.
      125West of Ledo.


    34

    mined as to whether he has Malaria or a tropical fever. Savage went to bed again with a reoccurance of his malaria. "Doc" was up today feeling fit as a fiddle. Russ's job was taken over by Romeo, who does a fine job of "throwing it together." When we returned, we found, to our surprise, a pineapple cobbler made by Romeo. No kidding it was good. So closes the log for tonite.

    [August] 13. Today is the day for all superstitious people, but as far as we were concerned, it was just another day. Nick put out a good breakfast of pancakes & sausage and in fact all three meals were good. He makes a fine assistant to Russ. Russ does have malaria but felt good all day. Savage's temperature went down considerably since yesterday afternoon. About 1400 a Lt. [Edwin P.] Massoth126 arrived with coolies. He is on his way to Pebu to relieve Lt. Robbins [Harry Robinson Jr.] there. The sun was out most of the day and tonite the moon is beautiful. Oh for home, a car, & freedom. Three Chinese were up from the camp this morning. Nick wishes to report to the log that he caught his eighth rat tonite.

    [August] 14. Lt. Massoth didn't leave till after breakfast which was about 0830. He was rather a nice fellow and we enjoyed his stay. We had rain the better part of the day. I tried my hand at baking again today and I will leave it to the opinion of the fellows as to how it tasted. My opinion is that it wasn't bad but--. Lt. Sonnenberg is having quite a time with his bed patients. There is no more news for today. Amen.

    [August] 15. Another Sunday and no visitors from General Boettners Hq. He has probably called off his plans to send them up weekly. Nick is doing a fine job at cooking and put out three more good meals. About 1100 a fellow from Ujan station stopped on his way to Ledo followed by Rosensky who is going down after parts. They both stayed for dinner and left shortly after. The weather was a slight drizzle all morning with occasional drops in the afternoon. We had some twenty Nagas stop for treatment today. Jit came down with a fever of a 104° today and was sent to bed. He will probably be back to work in a day or two.

    [August] 16. Russ & Savage were allowed up for their first time today since their illness started. Lt. Sonnenberg went to bed today with a temperature of a 102°. His coming down with it makes a sum total of seven [new] cases of malaria and one reoccurance among the seven enlisted personnel at N. Tirap. We have all had it now. The Lt. tried to keep it from us, but had to tell when "On the ball Lotze" checked the thermometer. Booth & I stuck to the Monday characteristic and did a little washing. This afternoon Romeo made some right fine noodles that set off the vegetable soup we had for supper. Jit's temperature has been normal all day. Outside of the Lt., everyone is feeling fine. We had a little sun today and just a slight sprinkle of rain in the early afternoon.

    [August] 17. I surprised the little garrison this morning by arising at 0500. Of course there was a reason for it. Booth & I started for Tipang at 0530. We wanted to take the mail down and, too, we needed some things from

      12621st Quartermaster Group.


    35

    the bazaar. We returned at 1800. A fellow by the name of Tims127 was here for supper. He is on his way to Punyang to take charge of 500 porters who will porter from Punyang to Kalak [Hkalak Ga.] Lt. Sonnenberg was in a bad shape today, he is going through his toughest days which is no fun. It rained most of the morning but the afternoon was very hot. Booth & I heard from Tipang that more beer was coming. That suits us very well.

    [August] 18. Tims left very early this morning as no one seen him go. Today proved another bad one for the Lt., he should feel some better tomorrow. Nothing unusual happened which makes tonites news for the log very skimpy. The day was cloudy with a little rain after supper. The traps held the ninth rat this morning when Romeo went into the kitchen. Tirap should be rid of them for awhile.

    [August] 19. Everyone spent a dreary day today because there was nothing brewing. We all spent the afternoon reading except Nick who spent his time making potatoe raviola's for supper. There [they] were my first and really tasted good. The fellows went for them in a big way leaving none for the garbage pit. We had a hard rain in the afternoon for about an hour and a half. We had the usual Naga visitors today. When Nick went to the garbage, he found to his surprise that a lonely rat had fallen into the can and at the time was well covered with grease. We took measures and after igniting a kerosene soaked piece of cotton the rat found it very hot and finally gave in to the heat. This morning Nick found the 10th rat in a trap and the garbage can made the 11th.

    [August] 20. There is two events for todays entry, the first being arrival of our rations which were four days earlier than we expected. The rations were pretty fair this time. The next more important event was not the arrival of Tom Weeks & [Luis A.] Marchion,128 which was a surprise, but our second beer ration which arrived on the backs of porters. Along with beer came 1 carton of cigarettes per man, plus candy & gum. These canteen supplies were extra super and we all appreciated them very much. The boys arrived about 1100. We had no rain today, but a very hot sun. The Lt.'s temperature was normal all day and he felt very good.

    [August] 21. Another dreadful hot day was spent by the personnel at N. Tirap. This morning, while all of us we[re] killing time in various ways, Romeo was sweating in the kitchen over a batch of noodle dough. He made another batch of good noodles for vegetable soup. This afternoon, yours truly made three more apple pies for supper. N. Tirap is really producing some fine meals, thanks to Nick. We are holding true to the Sat. nite tradition by drinking beer and throwing the bull. The Lt. had another fine day today.

    [August] 22. Today was another day of company. About 1100 another group from the Gen's Hq arrived. Most of these fellows had been here before and we learned that General Boettner definitely has not stopped the Sunday hikes. One Sunday they go in one direction and the next they come here. One of the fellows took some more pictures for the "Roundup" and for use in

      127A civilian with the porter corps.
      128151st Medical Battalion.


    36

    the States. We also heard that the pictures taken some time ago of the cabin will appear in the next issue of the "Roundup." Tom & Marchion left about 1400 with the rest of the fellows. Shortly after everyone left, three fellows arrived who are taking some needed supplies to Ujan. They are staying over nite. N. Tirap was a busy place today. The weather was partly cloudy with occasional rays of sun.

    [August] 23. A very quiet & restful day was spent today with no visitors and no excitement. The log is short of news. The weather was a steady downpour of rain all day and half the nite.

    [August] 24. It was still raining when we arose. Booth had planned to take the mail to Tipang and was able to start about 1000 when the rain slowed down to a slight drizzle. Around 1400 several Bengalese & Assamese arrived. They have come to repair the bridge.129 Booth returned with several letters at 1700. He said the trail was in worse shape than when we went to Ledo. Two more rats met with death during the nite. The rain stayed with us all day.

    [August] 25. Today was another rainy, dreary, boring, & uneventful day. This was one of the longest days I have ever spent here and I believe the rest will say the same. We all wish the rumor would come true or something happen to enliven our spirits. This Godforsaken country. The Assamese forman claims the bamboo around here is not the right kind for the bridge, so he went to Ledo for wood. Later in the afternoon some of the workers left, bag & baggage. They claim the climate & mosquitoes are too bad and they won't stay here; poor fellows. We had rain about half of the day. No visitors.

    [August] 26. We had two surprises today which was the arrival of Sgt. [Seawood L.] Richardson130 and Bob McFarlin.131 Sgt. Richardson had returned from Kalak where he had been for some time. He assisted Capt. Walters on his trip and contracted malaria while at Kalak. He received treatment from Col. Seagraves personnel and after recovery, started his return. We had quite a chat with him and learned a few things that is happening up there. About an hour after his arrival, Bob McFarlin arrived looking like a hermit. He had started from Ujan this morning. Both fellows are staying over nite. Nothing else outside of the usual happened today. We had a little rain and the day was cloudy.

    [August] 27. Today was one of the biggest & best we have had. Everything good happened and our moral[e] was stepped up 100%. Savage has been running an unusual temperature, so Lt. Sonnenberg sent him to the hospital for observation. Leaving with him was the Sgt. [Richardson] and these two were followed shortly by Booth and McFarlin who went to the company for a walk. After they left we watched the Lt. set a coolies broken arm which to me was very interesting. No sooner was that over when a coolie arrived who had a finger that was paining him because the finger had swollen tight to a ring. The Lt. removed that with a slight cut to the finger. Romeo & I heard a deer close by and went after it, but to no avail. We returned to find a few

      129See entry of 7 May, when two officers inspected the bridge.
      13021st Quartermaster Group; see entries of 28 June and 28 and 31 July.
      131151st Medical Battalion, Aid Station 5 at Punyang.


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    Naga visitors. This concluded the morning. Early afternoon brought a Lt. Col. Lee, his interpreter, and three enlisted men. They had two pack horses and are going to Hapache [Hpachet] Hi. They left after a short rest. The next visitors were a Lt. Col. American attached to the Chinese and his assistant Chinese Major Chen. They stopped for a rest and were invited for supper. They were here only a short time when Major [Newman R.] Burns & Capt. [George G.] Bonnaman [Bonnyman]132 arrived. The Major & Capt. are going to Kalak. With the Capt. came a package from Sgt. Girand133 containing the "Roundups" of our pictures. We were extra glad to see them and we are very pleased and proud to have our pictures in the paper. We had nine for supper. After supper the Lt. Col. & Chinese Maj. returned to camp. At 2000 who should arrive but Booth & McFarlin. We never expected them to return and with them came a lot of mail & two quarts of "Seagrams VO" for Lt. Sonnenberg. A very enjoyous evening was spent reading letters drinking & talking. A very busy day for N. Tirap was brought to a close around 2300.

    [August] 28. Major Burns & Capt. Bonnaman left this morning about 0830. McFarlin left with them. As we were eating dinner Sgt. Drussoe & Corp. [William] Bradbury arrived with four porters carrying canteen & medical supplies. They finished dinner and opened the supplies. To our surprise was more cigarettes, loads of candy & soap. We certainly received a good supply this time. Around 1530 a Col. [James E.] Darby134 and Capt. [Frederick B.] Zombro135 arrived followed a few hours later by a Corp. & Tech Sgt. with 24 Garrow [Garo] porters. The party was completing a "loop around the hoop," in plain words, from Hells Gate to here. They had been out 31 days and that is nothing to sneeze at. Capt. Zombro was very anxious to reach "home" before dark, but when the Col. saw the noodles Nick was making he decided then & there to stay. After a very good supper an interesting talk was enjoyed by the Col. and all. He made a trip thats worth a thousand dollars and I envy him in spite of its roughness. Today is the seventh consecutive day of rain.

    [August] 29. We arose this morning to be greeted by a very nice surprise, it was raining. The Col., men & porters were on their way by 0800, a little later than expected. Russ & I baked three peach pies this morning and they were pretty good, by jove. We had a fine dinner which was followed by a card game, reading, and writing. Everyone enjoyed the afternoon relaxing except Nick again who spent his preparing the good Italian dish "Niocoli." We had one of the best suppers tonite. We started off with a toast by the

      132Chinese Army in India officers. "Bonnaman" should be Bonnyman. The identification of Lee, mentioned just before, is conjectural. A Capt. Thomas C. Lee was with CAI at that time. The mention of an interpreter suggests that the Lieutenant Colonel may have been a Chinese officer, however.
      133Staff member of CBI Roundup.
      13421st Quartermaster Group.
      135Of the 73d Evacuation Hospital, but temporarily assigned at the time to S-2 (Intelligence) in Ledo. The 73d and 48th Evacuation Hospitals, as well as the 20th General Hospital and the 151st Medical Battalion, reached the Ledo area in April. The 73d was originally an affiliate of the Los Angeles County Hospital. The trip which Zombro is contemplating, like that noted in the Log on 28 July, began near Ledo on the new road trace, turned south, then west, and so back up the West Axis Trail to the starting point.


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    Lt. of Seagrams V.O., note. Then a big dish of delicious Niocoli followed by pie & coffee. Everyone got up from the table stuffed & satisfied. Tonite a rugged game of pinochle is being played for the championship of N. Tirap.

    [August] 30. The feature for the day was the arrival of the rations. The ration was very good and a fine selection. Sgt. Drusoe & Cpl. Bradbury left shortly after dinner. About 1000 Sgt. Webb & Corp. [Willie L.] Beasley,136 two colored boys from Punyang arrived. They are going to base and left after an hours rest. At 1600 we met again with Yen Chang who has returned from Hpachi Hi. He came thru May 20 with Major Chen's unit and is now returning to his Hq. After supper we enjoyed a very interesting session with Yen Chang at the bat. He translated various names into Chinese meaning. Tomorrow we lose the Lt. & Doc who are going to Punyang for the walk. The Tirap personnel is retiring early tonite.

    [August] 31. Lt. Sonnenberg & "Doc" finally got under way for the trip to Punyang by 0730 and much to our surprise they didn't return after being out a half a day. We all feel that if nothing else the Lt. will make it on sure determination. Yen Chang left about 0900. Around 1100 who should surprise us but Capt. [Harold F.] Zwick, Del [Delbert D.] Zehnder, [John M.] Gregel, and W. [Wilbur] Cox.137 You could have pushed us over with a pin because they were the last ones we ever expected to see. Shortly after dinner we went to the river and upon our return we found Capt. Zwick preparing to leave. He said he would like to stay over nite, but had to get back. He started at 1615. We haven't had rain for two days but the weather man will make up for it. After supper we shot the bull until 2230.

    [September] 1. Russ left for the company this morning about 0730 and with him went Romeo and Gregel. Cox and Zehnder decided to stay until later. About 1100 Art Seith138 arrived on his way to the Company. After dinner the three left leaving Booth & myself to guard the haven of bliss. It was very quite all afternoon and it was a job to keep ourselves occupied. Then tonite it was even worse. The place can certainly be desolate and to be stationed alone would be slow death. We talked until about 2100 and retired.

    [September] 2. There is very little news for the log on todays activities. Booth & I slept until 0800 and had a late breakfast. The only work done was a hole started by me followed by the laundrying of 16 pairs of socks. Booth made up a batch of medicine which he took to the [Chinese] camp this afternoon. Russ & Romeo was supposed to return yesterday and it is now 2000 and still no sign of them. I can't imagine what is holding them up, but evidently something is. We had several light showers throughout the day. The only visitors were a few Nagas and porters for medicine.

    [September] 3. This morning we had another late breakfast and accomplished nothing for the day. After hours of patient waiting, Russ & Nick

      13621st Quartermaster Group.
      137151st Medical Battalion. Captain Zwick commanded Company A, and organized the East Axis Trail aid stations. He later succeeded Lieutenant Colonel Smiley as the Battalion Executive Officer when the latter became Services of Supply Surgeon for Base Section 3, at Ledo. Zwick's successor was Capt. Bernard G. Schaffer, MC. See Chinese Liaison Detail, p. 110.
      138From Aid Station 5, Punyang.


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    arrived but not until 1730. They explained their delay as having to wait for the gasoline lantern that was purchased for Lt. Sonnenberg. They brought with them a lot of mail and several "Bedford Blabbers,"139 so the evening was spent reading. About 2030 we heard shouts coming from the direction of Rema and in answer to our calls, we heard the word Chinese. In a few minutes two Chinese soldiers, drenched with rain, arrived to the cabin. They had started from Rema at 1400 and had to walk part way in darkness because their flashlight burned out. Russ fixed them some supper and they stayed for the nite.

    [September] 4. Russ being back, we had breakfast on time. After breakfast Russ, Booth, & I went laundrying at the river. While we were down there, Nick broke a part of the lantern and started for Tipang to get it fixed. He had been gone only a few minutes when Sgt. Gumps [Montgomery], [John] Cisek, and Joe Joe [Joseph J. Joseph] arrived with red but beaming faces. Cisek & Gumps said they had to carry Joe Joe half way but of course Joe denies it. The fellows went swimming and after dinner a pinochle game was started and has been almost continuous since except for long enough to eat meals and a little sleep. Russ & Cisek are trying their best to beat Gumps & Joe, but to no avail. A bull session, the standard entertainment at Tirap, concluded the day. Nick arrived back about 1800.

    [September] 5. After a good breakfast, the foursome began their game. Yours truly started making peach pies and after throwing away one batch of dough I succeeded in getting the pies finished. The afternoon was leisurely spent by all. 1600 brought action to the kitchen once more when Nick & Russ dove into dough & "Corn Willie" with the results being another meal of Niocoli. After supper, the card game changed to a small stake poker game. The weather man brought forth another day of rain.

    [September] 6. Breakfast had been over only a short time when the foursome again took to cards and after a few games we went swimming. While we were down at the river, Russ brought the news that Lt. Sonnenberg & Doc had just returned. When we returned we found them in fine shape except for being wet & muddy. This was about 1130. Around 1200 who should arrive but Tom Weeks, [Armand V.] Gentile,140 & [Joseph A.] Susich.141 Gentile came to replace Russ who is finally leaving the outpost after 5 mo of darned good service to the station. I hated to see him go, but maybe he had enough of the hills. Russ certainly did his share during his stay. Monsoon Lodge was full of company until 1500 when Gumps, Cisek, Russ, & Joe Joe started for the company. A fellow from Ujan [warning] Station arrived with the Lt. & Doc and is staying over nite. We had one of the hardest rains yet which started about noon and lasted about two hours.

    [September] 7. The fellow from Ujan left with his coolies before breakfast. Dr. Salo142 arrived from up trail and had dinner with us before leaving. The porters being pulled off the trail has forced the Dr. to leave his station at

      139The local newspaper from Fromant's home, Bedford, Ohio.
      140151st Medical Battalion.
      141151st Medical Battalion.
      142An Indian civilian on duty with the porter station at Rema.


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    Rema. Nick left with Tom [Weeks] & Susich at 1300. Nick is going to the company for Gentiles lantern and a generator for the Lt's. Doc, Lt. and I returned from the Chinese camp and shortly after our return, we saw a transport circle the camp. The Chinese were practicing panel work and the plane dropped a chute for practice.143 There is no other news for the days entry.

    [September] 8. The important entry for today's log was the drowning of a Chinese soldier at a spot in front of the cabin. His accident wasn't explained to us very well, but we know he had on an improvised life belt. The onlookers did nothing to remove him and we tried, but to no avail because of a lot of tree limbs in the water. To our knowledge his [he] is still there unless the current flowed him down stream. The camp gave a 3 hour ceremony this evening. Nick returned about 1900 with mail and nothing new in the line of rumors. We had a little rain again today.

    [September] 9. The news for today is very scarce. The only visitor was Mr. Oliver144 who came a little after breakfast and stayed only a short time. Today was a very long day. It seems very strange not to see coolies coming thru as was the daily sight until a very few days ago. We have had no information as to our rations as yet and they are way overdue. Here's to "Corn Willie" & stew for a while.

    [September] 10. We were expecting Drusoe with medical & canteen supplies today but he never arrived. In his place, Clancy Price arrived which was quite a surprise. He & four colored boys are headed for their respective Hq. Again Monsoon Lodge has company. We get more company for being a jungle outpost as described by the C.B.I. Roundup. Booth & I are planning to go back with Clancy on his return. About 15 porters passed thru today with up trail loads. The first in days. Yesterday it rained practically the whole day and today there was occasional showers. We have 11 beds up tonite the most we have ever had. The cabin is really crowded.

    [September] 11. The Lt. left about 0700 with Price & the colored boys. They started in the rain which was an all day rain. About 1100, Cpl. Mikulka & [Alfred O.] Herwick145 arrived soaked to the skin. It was Al's first hike since the States and he said he felt fine. I'll let [sic] the rest to your opinion. Al had the payroll and it was the thing that brought him up not the exercise. There wasn't any activity and a small poker game ended the evening.

    [September] 12. The last mantel burned out last night, so Doc and I started for Marghareta at 0700 with Mikulka and Herwick. We also started in the rain & returned in the rain. On our way down we meet Art Seith who is returning to Punyang. Also to our surprise we passed ten loads of ration for Tirap. It wasn't a very good variety, but it was the best they could do because most of the food was packed in the cars. The Tipang QM has definitely moved and the last man leaves tomorrow. The Lt. is going to see

      143Signal panels displayed at a dropping field identified the target for the cargo planes.
      144With the porter corps.
      145151st Medical Battalion.


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    about our future rations. We are sweating out the length of our stay here and can find no facts about it. Doc & I returned at 1900.

    [September] 13. Art was supposed to leave this morning, but no one awakened until after 0800. He figured it was too late, so he stayed and is leaving tomorrow. There is very little news for todays log. Oliver stopped for a few minutes this morning on his way up trail. He went down just a few days ago, but was sent right back up to operate another porter camp. Today was the third consecutive day of rain and I mean rain. It hasn't let up the least bit since it started.

    [September] 14. Art was gone when I awoke. Breakfast was later than usual but didn't make a lot of difference. Sgt. Montgomery brought a 1st Lt. and Sgt from the 303rd [330th] Eng. to look over the bridge once again. They arrived about 1030. We are through looking for an improvement on the bridge because this is the 10th party who has examined it and it is still as bad as ever. The three of them are staying over nite. Another porter convoy came thru today with loads for Punyang. No other news. The weather was changed today only a half a day of rain. Finding myself becoming a bit fat around the "Buttox" and in need of a walk, Booth & myself decided to take a small trip to Pebu and do a little visiting. While I was gone, my able bodied assistant "Doctor Paul E. Lotze," alias T-5 Lotze, accepted the job of keeping the station log intact and might I say he will do a wonderful job as you will read as you continue. My hat is off to "Doc" and many thanks.

    [September] 15. Today Lt. Sonnenberg returned home after a four day vacation in the big city of Marghareta. C. Price & [Warren G.] Welch146 arrived a little later. Welch is to replace Art Seith [at Aid Station No. 6, Pebu] who is coming down "Out of those thar hills" after a five months stay. The Lt. brought our latest issue of beer together with some late news flashes. (We really have a Lt. that is on the ball). The night was spent drinking that good old "Pabst Blue Ribbon" with Lt. and Price still trying to find out who is the best chess player.

    [September] 16. This morning old Station #1 [2] looked like Grand Central station with all the boys cots and bed rolls laying around ready to be moved. C. Price, Welch, Fromant, and "Robin Hood" Booth started for Pebu. (The bets are 100 to 1 they won't make it ) but the old trail jockeys say they will. Gentile left for the company on a little business trip. Now the little garrison at Tirap consists of three personnel, Lt. Sonnenberg, Romeo, & Lotze. But we think we can hold it from the Japs till the other boys get back. Again it was visitors day at Tirap. Lt. Ashbrook & Brown147 from Punyang rolled in about noon after walking all night. They were the first Americans we ever heard of walking the trail at night. So its "hats off" to the young Lt. & his comrade. Today Tirap opened its clinic for women. A Naga girl had an abcess of the breast. The Lt. had a little minor operation fixing it up. Late in the afternoon a plane circled our camp and we thought maybe it was rations so we waited and waited (we are still waiting the time is 8:00 PM).

      146151st Medical Battalion.
      14721st Quartermaster Group. There were five men named Brown in the 3304th QM Truck Company, 21st QM Group, and three Browns in the 21st QM Regiment.


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    Thats all the news from Station B-1 [2] for today. P. S. Romeo & Lotze, who know very little about panel work, had a little panel practice trying to tell the pilot that this was an American camp. He got our signal as we saw his green light flash on. We think the rations were for the Chinese. If anyone should see any American rations laying along the trail, kindly forward them to Tirap. You have our permission to eat all the corned beef, but spare the rest for the Tirap boys. (Aren't we generous). Thats all folks for today.

    [September] 17. Today we here at Station #1 [2] are opening up a hotel. All we are asking in the way of rent is that all guests bring his own ration. Romeo went to Rema after rations and in the meantime rations came. They were really the best rations we have had so we will have to throw a few orchids to the QM outfit and to the Lt. for getting them "on the ball." Lt. Sonnenberg & Lotze have been given a new name "Sourkraut Face" as it seems they have an awful hard on148 for raw sourkraut. The weatherman has been good to the boys here at Tirap. He has shut off the water supply for a few days and we really appreciate that big bundle of sunshine he is supplying us with. Tirap B-1 [2] signing off for today. More tomorrow.

    [September] 18. Lots of news from little old Station #1 [2] today. Nick returned from Rema about noon with lots of ration, so now we can take off our sweatshirts (sweating it out) as we have plenty of food. This actually happened in India. Time: Today. Place: Tirap. Two American nurses (did you get that American nurses) walked to Tirap from Ledo. Say these Americans are great people male or female. Well the nurses made it in fine shape and here are the names (get out those date books) Lt. [Alice] Gunlugson & Lt. [Rose] Oser149 and I might add they are really good lookers. Say what have those boys in New Delhi got over us here at Tirap. We [have] American Nurses. Don't you guys in Ledo envy us? Sgt. Hibbard150 also paid us a visit and is going to spend the night with us. Gentile and [Pvt. Edwin H.] Garl151 brought the nurses up so its a full house here tonight. Lt. Gunlugson A.N.C. wishes to say that, "Two nurses, bonefide Amer. nurses from the second generation, showed us what the U.S. Army nurse is made of.["] In closing todays news we take time out and all say, "Its hats off to Uncle Sam's Nurses." Lt. Gunlugson, ANC & Lt. Oser, A.N.C. are the trail blazers. We are expecting more to follow. Thats all folks. Station #1 [2] signing off. More news tomorrow night.

    [September] 19. Sgt. Hibbard left early this morning. The boys got up without the Lt. having to call us. The girls, who spent the night here, were the last ones up. The old cookie (Romeo) had hot cakes and they were really good. I may add that the nurses of the U.S. Army also have big appetites. For dinner Romeo came thru with his old specialty "Niocoli," and it made a hit with all. The nurses left Tirap at 1300 for Ledo. First stopping in at the Chinese camp. The Chinese treated them like ladys and the gals thought

      148Male ardor.
      149Of the 22d Field Hospital, on duty at Margherita with the 73d Evacuation Hospital while their own unit was waiting to be flown to China.
      150151st Medical Battalion.
      151151st Medical Battalion.


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    a lot of the Chinese camp. Then they took off for Ledo G.I. shoes & all. Garl took them back (the lucky guy). Pvt. Rozensky152 came thru about noon and left after dinner. The nurses paid us a compliment before leaving. They said they really appreciated their short stay here and hoped to pay us a visit again (we're hoping so). We had a little improvement today. Gentile turned carpenter and fixed up our sidewalk. He done a good job. The nurses gained the title "Sweethearts of Tirap," bestowed upon them by the personel. Lt. Sonnenberg wishes to take the floor at this time for a few words. Come in Lt. "I wish to say that the boys at Tirap haven't forgot their manners; they acted like gentlemen all the time the nurses were here." The above statement is not a believe it or not question, its actually true. In closing todays news, if you guys see any nurses out walking around Ledo show them to Tirap as we know they are headed this way. (I prefer blonds.)

    [September] 20. Visitors day at Camp Tirap again today. Lt. Ashbrook better known to Tirap log readers as "Night Walker"153 and two of his body guards [Riligh] Dorsey & Brown are spending the night with us on their way home (Punyang) after a brief visit to the big city at Ledo. The Lt. brought a few cans of beer with him and said "Lets drink boys" and you know these Tirap boys they never refuse anything (Nice Guys). Not much news today so will give you the weather report. The weatherman came through with a little rain which lasted all night long. Today he threw a bundle of sunshine our way. He figured we were getting a little hot so thought we ought to have a shower last night. Thats all from Tirap today. Keep your dial set for tomorrows news.

    [September] 21. Today was construction day at little old Tirap. Ground was broken for our new mess hall, which is going to be the best in the Tirap area. Our native foreman "Bad Eye" is in charge, and the supervision is none other than Nick Romeo who used to put cars together back in Bedford, O. He is going to try his hand at putting up a mess shack. (We're hoping for the best). Lt. & Lotze took off bright & early for the company on a little business trip. Lt. Ashbrook & party also left this morning. Savage returned to Camp Tirap after a vacation at the 20th Gen Hosp.154 (Poor guy had to look at those nurses all day). Well its Jack Savage Day at Tirap. We are all glad to have Jack back with us again, but we hope he has forgotten some of those corney jokes and stories. Thats all folks.

    [September] 22. The boys had a lot of sleep last night as breakfast was not served until 9:30 A.M. the reason being the "Green Hornet" was absent. Lt. and Lotze arrived about noon with odds and ends of the news reports and a few rumors. The contractor "Bad Eye" stated that the dining room would be completed tomorrow. So we will put on our Sunday Best and use Emily Posts Etiquette at least for one day. The weatherman threw us a few drops today. [Salvedor F.] Ponce,155 from Ujan, is staying overnite on

      152Rosinsky, from the Ujon air-warning station, was listed as a corporal on 16 July.
      153See entry of 16 September.
      154Savage had been sent to the hospital on 27 August.
      155679th Signal AW Company.


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    his way back to his unit. More news tomorrow. Buy War Bonds in the meantime.

    [September] 23. Our mess hall was completed today. We ate our first meal in it tonight. Gentile christened it by spilling a cup of coffee on the table. Ponce, who stayed overnite with us left this morning for Ledo. The boys named the new mess hall "Tirap Cafe." Tirap had its first night work when a Chinese soldier had to have a piece of shrapnel removed from his neck. The Lt. did a fine job of sewing with a kerosene lamp as the only light. The Chinese really appreciated the Lt's. coming and think he is really "Ting How" ["good"].156 The weather was fine today. No rain and plenty of that good healthy sunshine. In closing todays news we all say, "We at Tirap are doing our part to spell the word Victory and we hope the home front is doing their part also!"

    [September] 24. Visitors again at Tirap. Capt [Floyd T., Jr.] Romberger157 and Cpl. Weeks arrived about noon today. It was the first time we have seen our new C.O. since way back there in the good old States. The Capt. brought us a little bad news. The Tirap station is going to spilt up.158 Lt. Sonnenberg, Savage, & Booth are going to Hpachi Hi to start a new station. Gentile is going back to the Co. leaving Fromant, Romeo, & Lotze at "Ye Old Tirap." We know the Lt. and the boys will make a good name for themselves in Burma. We hate to see them go but this is war and duty calls them. Mr. Oliver159 & Art Seith, formally of Punyang, dropped in on their way to that big city of Ledo. They are going to spend the night with us, so its "full house" again at Tirap. In closing todays log we at Tirap ask these good old civilians back home for a little favor, for Christmas we wish Old Santa Claus would send us a "Juke Box" [phonograph].

    [September] 25. Capt. Romberger, Cpl. Weeks, Art Seith, & Mr. Oliver left early this morning. Nick fixed a special meal for the Lt. today of that awful stuff Soya Links. The rest of us had fish & beans. It was the first time he had ever tasted them and he said, "I love them." He also likes Corn Willie another awful dish. He said he could live on Corn Beef & Soya Links the rest of his time in the army (I think it's a Section VIII case).160 Savage & C. [Clell C.] Norris161 surprised us by dropping in on us tonight, we thought they were Japs. Before going to bed tonight the Lt. is going to read us the Articles of War. This makes the 100000056 time we have heard them (Boring isn't it). So in closing todays news we are going to bed and dream of Court Martials.

    [September] 26. Lt., Savage & C. Norris left early this morning. We hate to see the "Looie" and Savage go. We will always remember the Lt. as a

      156"Good"--a phrase which (with its opposite, "Bu hao") most soldiers in Burma learned.
      157Company B, 151st Medical Battalion. He was the original editor of the Log.
      158To relieve a Seagrave hospital station, which would soon move forward with the Chinese, as the Second Burma Campaign commenced.
      159Civilian porter supervisor.
      160Section VIII of the Army Regulations concerning medical matters and the discharge of troops; it covered cases which were psychologically or morally unfit for retention.
      161151st Medical Battalion. Savage had returned to duty 4 days before, but Lotze apparently failed to note his departure.


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    right guy. Tirap has a new song entitled "We Three" Gentile, Romeo, & me. Nick had "Niocoli" for supper to lift our moral[e] to A-1, it was really good. The weatherman threw rain at us all day.

    [September] 27. Romeo left early this morning for the Co. leaving Gentile & Lotze to hold down the fort. We kept ourselves busy doing little repair jobs which were well needed. Gentile tried his hand at baking pies and did a fine job. We had cherry pie for supper; incidently, is there a war going on? Weather was bad, rain all day. We are watching the trail every day for that "Juke Box." Hasn't anyone an old rusty Juke Box they could let the Tirap boys use? Thats all for today.

    [September] 28. Breakfast was served at 9:00 AM. A few Chinese officers dropped in about 9:30, so we had coffee and crackers with them. Romeo arrived back about noon bringing with him books & cigarettes as a moral[e] builder. Gentile, our sub cook, again had a field day baking two peach pies. Rained off & on all day. Closing for today.

    [September] 29. We here at Tirap have become, as Emily Post would say, late sleepers because breakfast was served at 10:45 A.M. (Really, we are still in the Army). We are definitely getting our share of the Monsoon Season; again it rained off & on all day. We have been very busy the last few days with patients who consist of natives, porters, & Chinese. Well its time we say goodnight as its time all good soldiers are in bed and of course we are good soldiers.

    [September] 30. Today was Nicks birthday so as a present we gave him the day off. Gentile baked a cake which was very good and he even put trimmings on mind you to the tune of Happy Birthday Nick. Just like downtown. Gentile has the title of Camp baker. Lt. Sonnenberg & party arrived this afternoon on their way to Burma. They are going to spend the night with us. The weatherman was very good to us today. No rain fell on little old Camp Tirap today, just plain good old sunshine like those lucky civilians are having back in the good old U.S.A. Today was also payday, oh Happy day. In closing todays news, we all made a wish when Nick cut his cake. You are not supposed to reve[a]l ones wishes to the public but we will just this one time. We all wished that Nick would celebrate his next birthday back in the States. We hope our wish comes true, don't you?

    [October] 1. The Lt. & party left early this morning. They have a big job ahead of them, but we know they will do a good job and make a good name for themselves. We wish them the best of luck that can be had. A political officer [Johnny Walker] was our only visitor for the day. He stayed about an hour. He had just returned from the Naga villages where he had been paying them for work done. Now they are the Rajas for a change. Good weather all day. Closing for today, its bedtime.

    [October] 2. Today was very slow, nothing happened. In the place of news which is little, we will dedicate todays date to our bearer. His name is Jit Bahardu and his home is Shillong. He is Nepalese and as close as we can figure he is in the late twenties or early thirties. Before working for us, he was a porter on a regular run. We have known Jit ever since coming


    46

    to the hills and everyone holds high regards for him. He has been our bearer for the past three months and is a very good worker. He can understand & talk enough English to get along; therefore, releiving us of the sign language that has to be used in regards to other porters. He also acts as our interpreter when treating porters and can also interpret the Naga language for us. He is very reliable and knows what is to be done and how. We would part with him only under absolute necessary circumstances and everyone will hate to see him leave when the time comes to break station. All in all, Jit is "Teek Hi"162 with us as you can plainly see. No rain today and again we were blessed with that good sunshine.

    [October] 3. The news is very slight again for today. Gentile & Lotze went to the company this morning and are due back tomorrow. The went to the company this morning and are due back tomorrow. The us rain. There were no visitors so until tomorrow evening its cheerio.

    [October] 4. Lots of news for todays log entry. Guests again, Corp. John (Jeeter) Goodall and Corp. Harry [Donald C.] Everingham, better known as "City Folks," arrived with Gentile & Lotze about 1030. Then who should walk in but old "Trail Blazer" none other than Fromant. After a seventeen day vacation he thought he would come home and give us a break, or is it a break, we wonder. Rations also arrived today, so again we eat. We at this time take time out to pause for one (1) minute and pay respect to Hq 151st Med. Bn. for the good rations they sent us. Its orchids again to the 151 boys. Goodall is replacing Romeo as chief cook & bottle washer. It is rumored that he is a good cook but we will submit our report later after we see how he throws our chow together. The weatherman again showered us with rain, but only for a short time. I, Paul E Lotze, at this time turn this job of log entries over to the Sgt. [Fromant] who will resume all responsibility. I am glad to wash my hands of it all.

    [October] 5. Harry [Everingham] was supposed to return to the company yesterday but decided to stay overnite, so this morning he started back taking Romeo and Gentile with him. It was ordered that Romeo & Gentile return to the company immediately upon my arrival as there was some changes made and they are wanted at the company. The personnel now at Monsoon Lodge is three and from all reports it will remain three until such time when it will be broken up. The station is going to be lonely now with only three of us, but we will try to keep each other from busting our skulls against the wall. Booth, who accompanied me on the trip, returned as far as Ujan and was taken back over the same trail with Lt. Sonnenberg on his way to Hapachi Hi. I was sorry to learn that most of the boys were leaving the station because we really had fun in their presence but they were called on to do another job and of course there was no alternative. We will miss them and hope it won't be long before we are altogether on "F" deck of some transport, sail boat, or tug heading for that land of lands. The weather was cloudy with occasional rays of sunshine.

      162 "OK."--about the limit of the American soldier's command of Indian languages.


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    IV. "START PACKING"

    6 October-21 December 1943

    Time dragged at the aid station although the autumn was not without novel incidents. Then an emergency at one of the up-trail posts required Fromant to leave North Tirap temporarily. This time he turned the Log over to his substitute, T5c. Donald C. Everingham. With ears accustomed to a duller tone at the Ledo base, Everingham heard a jungle sound which may well have helped sustain the equanimity so typical of earlier days at North Tirap: the sound of freedom. Yet symptoms of cabin fever increased.

    The command to Fromant to close the station came just before Christmas. His mood changed instantly, and he regained the optimism with which he began the Log 8 months before. Was it that, like Stephen Crane's men in the open boat, within the same ironic limits and with the same transcendence of literal actuality by moral truth--was it that the soldiers of North Tirap silently acknowledged that they had had the best experience of their lives?

    [October] 6. Visitors again today. One would think this place was a museum because of so many visitors but we don't mind as long as the food holds out. The visitors were Lt. Baumgarten, Corp Weeks & Don [Donald E.] McKay.163 They puffed & grunted and after not too much exertion arrived here about 1100. We have our idea as to who grunted & puffed but we wish to keep our opinions to ourselves. While Doc made his trip to the [Chinese] camp, the rest of us busily engaged ourselves in some sound sleep. The evening was spent in a bull session about everything and if you have ever attended a session in which there was a doctor & soldiers, you know what was the main subject and it wasn't food. Everyone hit the pad about 2300.

    [October] 7. The Lt. and fellows left [for Ledo] about 0900 and I went with them to see Capt. Romberger. I was there until Sunday morning, therefore, I was unable to note any events that happened here and according to "Doc" the only visitor during my absence was a fellow from the Ujan [warning] station. He is the trail walker in my estimation and can really make dust, if any is to be found. He was on his way to his Hq.

    [October] 10. I returned to the happy garrison about 1330 today and brought with me Sgt. Herb Thomas, who decided he needed a rest. It seems when some one needs a rest or change of scenery they come to Tirap because its the only place besides Shillong164 that any one knows where peace & quiet can be had. And it definitely can be had here. Jeeter [Goodall] & I did a little work in the kitchen but we were both too sick and decided to leave it go until tomorrow. Our motto here is: Always put off until tomorrow that

      163151st Medical Battalion.
      164Site of a military rest camp.


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    which you are too tired to do today. It is a good motto for here but it would soon change if we were at the company. When I returned "Doc" was in bed; he was down with malaria for his second time. Thank gosh the malaria season will be over soon. This is all for now.

    [October] 11. Herb [Thomas] was supposed to return today but it was raining and then too we all slept a little longer than usual (he wasn't in favor of returning anyway). Jeeter & I felt better today, so we started on the kitchen again. Our last cook must have become lazy because the place was a mess. After about three hours work, we finally were able to stop with the results being a clean kitchen once again. I can certainly say for Russ's sake that the kitchen was never a mess when he was here. The fellow from Ujan stopped for a few minutes on his way up trail. We had just finished breakfast when Mr. Timms arrived on his way to Tipang. He received a message to report to his Hq. and he was puzzled as to what is coming off. I seriously beleive we won't be at this station much longer. After a "spot of tea" he left. We had rain again today.

    [October] 12. Herb left this morning about 0900. He said he wished it was possible to stay a month to give him emmunity so he could [go] back to the company and take the S.N.A.F.U.'s that are so prominent there. I feel we will go thru hell when we have to go back to regular duty. Today was really the first time the three of us have been alone and I believe we will be able to manage if its not too long. We all had a lost feeling because we are used to seeing seven faces and it makes a difference when someone leaves. Porters came thru today from up trail, the first in several weeks. They were carrying chutes to Tipang. Doc made his daily trip to the Chinese camp today. A new unit came in and he is having the usual trouble getting the hospital organized. More rain today but not steady.

    [October] 13. We three were not alone long today. About 1600 Harry Everingham & Al Herwick came bouncing in with no other reason than just the walk. They made good time which I believe is about the best anyone has made who is not used to walking the trail. The one and only amusement we have here is a game called "Bull Session" which we played until about 2200 over a cup of coffee. I'll bet we have told the same stories over several times but its always to someone new. We like to have strangers stop because we can hear new stories and then tell ours over again. We have each told each other our life history from childhood to present and its coming to the point where we'll have to start over again to keep from sitting in silence. There is going to have to be some changes soon or the Company will have to write papers for three Section VIII case[s]. We talk on the darndest subjects just to have something to say. It rained hard just after Harry & Al arrived and then later in the evening the rain was accompanied by a strong wind. Oh yes, we also had to sit in the dark because we are out and have been out of kerosene. I would like to know why the civilians are griping.

    [October] 14. Al & Harry had intentions of going back this morning, but postponed their leave until the afternoon. About 1100 who should bestow his presence upon our humble abode but Bob McFarlin. He had journeyed from Rema and was planning to continue to the company. His reason for


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    coming was legal, he had no home. It seems while he was accompanying Lt. Sonnenberg to Hpachi Hi his partner Welch became cold and as a result, burned the Basha down. He tried to find out what happened, but all mouths remained closed. Someone managed to salvage a few personal items but it was all a complete loss. Everything including medical supplies & all made a dandy fire so they told him. He has his suspicions but no proof. The fellows were ready to leave about 1500 when Harry called Al chicken for not wanting to stay over and the result was six for supper instead of three. Harry said his cold was too bad to walk anyway. Everingham was on the ball all evening and had us laughing until we went to bed. Someone said the monsoon season was over. It looks as tho it has just started, rain again today.

    [October] 15. The fellows had planned to leave at 0500 but it was too dark at that time and they finally left at 0600. We had guests for dinner in the form of a Col., Major, Chinese Major and 2nd Lt. The 2nd Lt. was Greenspan, who was stationed at the camp a few months ago. Greenspan had brought the officers up to look over the Tirap area. I believe they are planning to put troops here. God help us if they do. They left shortly after dinner. Old Doc decided to go to the company after talking to Greenspan and there was nothing going to stop him so he went down from the Chinese Camp about 1400. Jeeter & I are holding the fort until he returns. Surprise today no rain. The sun managed to shine a few minutes during the day but the clouds were too thick.

    [October] 16. The station was rather quiet today having only two of us here. Jeeter & I managed to remain occupied the whole day. The sun sent forth its warm & welcomed rays most of the day and I took advantage of them for about two hours. It's the first sun bath I have been able to take for several weeks. A few Nagas were our only visitors. Jeeter & I managed to think of a few life stories that were not told as yet, so we talked until about 2100. Very little news for today but maybe more tomorrow when Doc returns.

    [October] 17. Doc returned today about 1400 empty handed and we were about to knife him for not bringing mail when he told us three porters were coming. He had very little news of interest and found out later that most of what he did say was "Bull." We did manage to learn that Capt. Romberger is coming up Tuesday. The porters arrived shortly after with mail, clothing, and medical supplies, and three (3) cans of beer apiece. This beer is supposed to be our monthly beer ration and what a ration. I'm afraid we'll get drunk drinking so much. They tell us another S.N.A.F.U. is the cause of the shortage and that the 151 was one of the unfortunate units who received only (3) per man. I wonder if it could be another lend lease stunt pulled by our allied friends. Doc also said to give up hopes of our transfer because the odds against us are too high. We'll have to sit tight I guess and wait as we have been for years. This ends the gossip for today.

    [October] 18. More company came today than was expected and the news they brought wasn't any too good in my concern. The company was in the form of Capt Romberger, Sgt Everett, and guess who again, Corp. H. as in Harry E as in Everingham but he came this time to stay for awhile.


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    He brought the sad news that I am to go to Punyang and he is going to take over. While at the Co., McFarlin received a cholera shot that settled in his neck muscles and he was sent to the hospital, so I have to run this station until he is released for duty. The trip is not to my liking but then who am I to disagree. Harry is going to run Monsoon Lodge for about two weeks and I hope I am not gone any longer. As for him, he wishes me no bad luck but he hopes I have to stay there several months. It would appear that he likes this place. Shortly after the Capt. arrived, a group of 10 Americans arrived and who should be in charge but Trail Blazing Skiddmore from way back. It has been several months since he was thru here. He is taking this party to Kalak Ga to set up a station once more and lets hope they are not run out again.165 The Sgt. & men rested about two hours then left from Tima where they are staying for the nite. Mr. Timms accompanied the Capt. He is going back to Punyang and will eventually land in a camp on the other axis [East Trail] to carry on operations. Maybe this bomb will explode soon; we all hope so or at least something to stop this idleness. Nite flying has been very prominent the past week, looks like the sky is relatively safe.166

    [October] 19.167 The Capt. left early this morning. Mr. Tims also left this morning. Sgt. Everett stayed over for a day. A little work was done around the camp. The rest of the day we had some well earned "bunk fatigue." It is getting quite cool up here it looks like winter is just around the corner.

    [October] 20. We had breakfast at the early hour of 0700. Then had a little gun cleaning followed by a little swimming than a little rest. The night was spent "shooting the Bull." We had a little rain today.

    [October] 21. Sgt. Fromant left for Punyang this morning. Sgt. Everett left for the company so now their is only three of us to run Camp Tirap. Cpl. Goodall made some bread which was really good. We are living like Kings up here (in fact they tell us their is a war going on) The weatherman was good to us today. Had plenty of that good old Indian sunshine. Bedtime came early for the Tirap boys. Everyone was in by 2100. (See, we are trying to be good soldiers).

    [October] 22. Today was awful slow, but life came to our station when Major [Herbert V.] Traywick and Major [Joseph] Rockis dropped in on us. They are in charge of the new Chinese camp which is going to be built in our back yard. Major Traywick brought some beer out of his bag so we drank to his health. In closing todays news we say "bottoms up."

    [October] 23. Today Camp China Town has been set up. Those little sons of China were as busy as a bee all day long. And they really have something

      165Soon after an air-warning station had been established at Hkalak Ga in early spring, the Japanese moved in its direction. Alerted to their danger by native informers, the signalmen escaped after burying their equipment. The episode occurred in March. By the time of this entry the area had been entirely secure for several months: Romanus and Sunderland, I, pp. 308-309: and Craven and Cate, IV, pp. 463-465.
      166The Japanese air force became more active when the monsoon lifted, and its fighters began to harass the cargo aircraft flying the Hump. Attacks occurred frequently from the 13th to the end of October, and sporadically until the end of the year. The field at Dinjan was bombed on 13 December. Limited countermeasures had some success: Romanus and Sunderland, II, pp. 66, 85-86; and Craven and Cate, IV, pp. 467-468.
      167The author now is Everingham.


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    to show for their work. We hope that the officers of the 151st read this article. The two Majors rolled up their sleeves and cooked a very good supper. Why don't some of the 151 officers try their hand at it sometime and give the enlisted men a break to see an officer work. Major Rockis pulled something out of his bag and guess what it was. Good old American wiskey. We then had a mixed drink made up of grapefruit juice and wiskey. And it was really good. Just like a Tom Collins we use to know in civilian days. These Majors are nice people to know. In closing todays log we say "Khan Bay" (Meaning Bottoms Up). See we are even learning Chinese.

    [October] 24. Today Camp China Town was completed. It really is a good looking camp. We now have Chinese guards watching over us while we sleep. Major Traywick put out some fine biscuits (just like mother use to make). Boy it is really swell the way those Majors can cook. We had six American visitors yesterday. They were from Gen. Boltner's Hqs. About ten Nagas slept on our front porch last night so we are now running a Naga Hotel. No Rain today "Thats all folks."

    [October] 25. Not much news today. Sunshine all day. It is really getting cold here at night. The two Majors have been busy making out a training program for the Chinese (It reminds us of our 13-weeks training period wich we had about ten times) Remember those good old days back in "Rookie" time. Thats all for today folks.

    [October] 26. A little news from Camp Tirap today. The big event was that Cpl. Everingham (Malaria can't get me down) was bit by a mosquito and now has a hot forehead and is shaking in bed as though he has the palsey. India will get the best of men down. Cpl. Goodall & Cpl. Lotze took a sick patient down to Lido. They walked most of the trail in the dark. The Chinese carried the patient down and it only took two and a half hours. So in closing todays log we say "Hats off to the Chinese."

    [October] 27. Cpl. Goodhall & Lotze rode back from Dipang on Chinese horses they got back about noon. The two Majors cooked dinner to give Goodall a rest. They turned out a good meal. The Chinese started their training program. The two Majors gave them a "pep" talk and told them what their program would be for the next ten days. Cpl. Everingham is much better today. No rain all day. Lots of Indias sunshine has been coming our way. But we are not complaining. Thats all the news from station T-i-r-a-p.

    [October] 28. Today the two Majors moved to their new home across the field from us. They are still going to eat with us so we will see them often they are really swell guys. Today a searching party came through. A Zero plane was shot down about seven miles from here and they were going up to find out what the score is.168 The searching party consists of three officers and ten enlisted men and a small detail of Gurkia soldiers. One man is to stay with us and watch their supplys. Cpl. Goodall & Mr. Wormington [Wilmington]169 are also going on the little party. We are really busy here with Chinese patients. We are now operating two (2) Chinese hospital. We are now play-

      168See n. 166, p. 50.
      169Superintendent of the Tipang Colliery.


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    ing a part in this war. (At least we feel we are.) The weather was fine today. That's all for today

    [October] 29. Cpl. Goodall & Mr. Wormington arrived back this morning with a little news. The Jap piolet is dead and their were about six bullet holes in the plane. (Good shooting you Americans). The piolet was a very small man and very young. But he is a dead cookie now. We toasted cheese sandwiches tonight around a bonfire with some good old "Jungle Pani" to wash it down. We had a little singing session and "then hit the hay." Good weather today. In closing todays news we know that their is one less Jap in the war.

    [October] 30. Lots of visitors today. The searching party came through. They had all sort of Jap belongings. They got two .50 calb. guns, motor, radio and a few odds and ends. They buried the Jap pilot who was found dead on their arrival. A group of soldiers came up from Lido on a hike so we really had the visitors today. Cpl. Weeks came up and brought some medical supplys with him. He brought enough supplys to run a Gen. Hosp. Last night the Chinese had a night manuvers so we had a little war at Camp Tirap. The weather was fine today. Station B-#2 signing off.

    [October] 31. Company again at Tirap. Two Capts and one Sgt. stopped in on their way to Punyang. An American airplane crashed up at Punyang. These officers are going up to see what the trouble was. One of the officers was a piolet. He told us a few of his experiences in a plane. The Chinese were on the firing range all day so we had to put up with the noise all day. That is all for today. More news tomorrow (we hope)

    [November] 1. Lt. Baumgartner [Baumgarten] and Cpl. Weeks arrived today. Major Rockes went on a little hike this morning and on his return he was carrying something on his solders [shoulders] on a close look it was a deer leg. The Major said "He shot it with his gun" No one can doubt his word as he is an expert with a pistol and he has the deer for proof. So it was deer steak for supper for the boys at Tirap. They tell us their is a war going on. Well let us know when its over so we can go home. Lt. Baumgartner & Weeks are going to stay over for a day. No Rain again today just good old Indian sunshine. As we bring todays log to a close. We all say "Hats off to Major Rockes for bringing the meat home."

    [November] 2. Cpl. Weeks and Everingham took a little hike today. They went up to see the Jap. plane. They returned about noon carrying with them parts of the plane. They also brought back blisters with them. We now have two patients with blisters. The Chinese had a little night practice so again we had war at Tirap. Two soldiers from Punyang stopped on their way to Lido. They had dinner with us then took off for Lido. No rain again today.

    [November] 3. Major Rockes went hunting and brought back a squriell. (I can see why he got an experts medal). We gave the squrriel to the Chinese as their wasn't enough for all of us to eat. Cpl. Weeks and the Lt. left for the company right after breakfast. Nice weather again today. We haven't seen a drop of rain for over a week. We are not complaining about it either. That's all the news for today. Will be on the air at the same time tomorrow night. Keep your dial set for station B-#1 [2].


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    [November] 4. Not much news from little old Station #1 [2] today. Harry & Goodall went fishing the result was nothing no fish, no bites so they are giving up fishing as a bad job. No visitors for the past few days so everything is peacefull expect [except] the Chinese. No Rain today. Our Crops are going to spoil as the farmers back home say but over here it doesn't worry us as we have no garden. Old Uncle Sam makes sure we eat rain or shine. Well its bedtime so I guess I will say goodnight.

    [November] 5. Today it was very peaceful at Tirap. The Chinese went on a hike all day. Lt. O'dall [Odahl] & Sgt. "Gumps" arrived at 1800 last night we thought the[y] were "Jap Snipers" They are going up to the Jap plane tomorrow. Jit is going with them. No rain again today. It looks like the old weatherman is on our side. That all the news for today.

    [November] 6. Lt. O'Dall and "Gumps" left for the Jap plane this morning. Two men stopped in on their way to Punyang. McFarlin and Joseph arrived this afternoon on their way to Punyang. They brought their "Juke Box" with them so we had a little music tonight. Boy it was really "solid." The old "Hep Cats" of Tirap really enjoyed it. Lt. O'Dall and Gumps returned about 2000 with half of the Jap plane. In closing todays log we have one question to ask. Why don't we have a "Juke Box" Our only wish for Xmas is for Santa to bring us a "Juke Box."

    [November] 7. Lt. O'Dall and Gumps left for the company this morning. McFarlin and Joseph left for Punyang. Slatter [Slaughter] and Dorsey170 (from Punyang) dropped in on us about noon. They are going to stay overnight. Late in the afternoon, the two Capts. and the Sgt. who went up to Punyang to find out about the air plane accident dropped in. They also are going to spend the night. So its "full house" again at Tirap. Lotze was guest at a Chinese supper today. He reports that the food was very good and he had a swell time. He ate with chop sticks and all. So we expect he will be using chop sticks in place of the knife, fork and spoon from now on. Still no rain today. "Its lights out at Tirap" so we will sign off.

    [November] 8. Well not much happened at Tirap today. Three American officers from Chinese Hqt. came up today to look over the Chinese camp. He told the two Majors to come back to Lido tomorrow and the Chinese troops to move out and come back on the 10th. So we are going to be alone again. Had Rain today for a couple of hours. Just enough to cool us off. That's all for today.

    [November] 9. Major Traywick and Major Rockes left early this morning. They hated to leave and we hated to see them leave. Boy they were two swell guys. All of us here including the Chinese thought they were "Tops." The Chinese were busy packing to leave tomorrow. They worked like bees all day. No Rain again today. In closing todays log we take our hats off to Majors Traywick & Rockes and give them a 21 gun salute. We hope we meet them again whether in Burma, China or the good U.S.A.

    [November] 10. The Chinese left early this morning. Everything is so silent it doesn't seem like the same place. We all will miss the Chinese as

      17021st Quartermaster Group.


    54

    this outfit was a swell group. About 1500 two Nagas came down and they had two men which they said were Japs. One looked like a Jap. We tried talking Chinese to them (a few words we picked up from the Chinese). They did not answer us. They wouldn't say a word. So Goodall and Lotze took them down to Tipang and called the M.P.s. It came out that they were Japs or Chinese deserters. So it may be that the boys at Tirap have got two Japs to their credit. We are really in this war after all. No rain again today. Closing for today.

    [November] 11. Slater [Slaughter] and Dorsey stoped in on their way back to Punyang. They are going to stay over night. Lotze and Goodall arrived about 1700 from Dipang bringing mail so we were happy again. Today is Lotze's Birthday so we all had "Jungle Pani" and got quite high. Slatter had a bottle of gin so it was some party with jokes (Dirty ones) songs and storys. The weather was fine today. It is starting to get cold up here in the evening it won't be long before we have to install a heating system of some kind. Well its about bedtime so we will close for tonight.

    [November] 12. Slatter and Dorsey left for Punyang this morning. About noon Brown and Welch and another fellow from Punyang dropped in on their way down to Ledo. Welch is going to stay here a few days till his porters come in Brown and this other fellow from Punyang brought a Naga dog with them. We talked them into giving it to us so now we have a dog. Her name is Dot and it's a swell pet. No rain again today. As we bring the log to a close for today our little dog is barking which in the dog lingo is bedtime.

    [November] 13. Not much news today. No visitors (except Welch who is staying here till his porters come in) The day was spent reading and the night with the "bull session["] in full swing and a little "Jungle Pani" to wash it down. No Rain again today. More news tomorrow we hope.

    [November] 14. Goodall, Welch and Lotze went to a Naga Busattee [bustee] to treat a few patients. Welch left for the company this afternoon. Leaving the little garrison with three men. Everingham, Goodall, and Lotze. Our song will be "We Three" for a while now, till visitors come or some new changes are made. Everything is peaceful at Tirap. Our mascot Dot is doing fine, she really likes her new home. No Rain again today its getting nice and cool up here. This is a grand way to win a war. We are living like natives up here not a worry in the world. Lets hope we stay like this. Well as the Nagas say its time to say "Sala[a]m" til tomorrow.

    [November] 15. Today was a big day at Camp Tirap. The Chinese moved in about 1300. Now we have a little noise again. It was getting dead here but now life has returned again. About 1600 Col. [Robert P., or William V.] Thompson and Major Rockes arrived Major Rockes brought some rations with him so now we will eat like Kings. The Colonel and Major are going to live with us so we now have a full house. With the Chinese coming back it makes our stay at Tirap longer and we are really happy about that. No rain again today. "30"

    [November] 16. Lotze left early this morning for the company to get some milk and pick up some mail. He returned this afternoon with milk and lots of mail. The Chinese moved in the other camp today so now we are


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    servicing two Battalions. Lots of work again. No Rain again today. In closing todays log we all say, "You send the supplys and will [we'll] do the work."

    [November] 17. The Major & Col. moved to their own Basha today. The hospital is moved back to its old place again. Everyone seems to be busy around here. The Chinese have started on their training program. And we have started operating our hospitals. So Tirap is a busy place these days. No Rain again today. It is really getting cold up here at night and early in the morning. Our rations are getting low again so we will have to put on the old sweatshirt (sweating it out) before long. Well its closing time hear at Tirap. See you tomorrow in the meantime "Buy War Bonds and Stamps and help us lick the Japs."

    [November] 18. Not much brewing at Tirap today. "Bat Eye" came down today and brought us some "Jungle Pani" beans and a few odds & ends. The Major & Col. ate with the Chinese this evening. The Major shot a fish so he and the Col. were invited to supper. Goodall, Everingham & Lotze had a "Jungle Pani" party last night. (Thank God we are not rationed on "Jungle Pani" over here yet.) Our cigarettes are runing low we will soon have to turn Naga and roll our own. But we can see a cig. & beer ration coming. Old Uncle Sam takes good care of his boys (We hope). No Rain again today. Well its time all good soldiers got to bed (F.M. 000-0)171 See you tomorrow.

    [November] 19. The Col. & Major left for Lido this afternoon. They had to go back to Hqts. They will be down their for a few days. The Chinese were on the firing range all day. So we had plenty of noise around here. It sounded like the fourth of July. It was cloudy all day but no rain. Old man sunshine stayed in all day. Well its time to say goodnight.

    [November] 20. Goodall woke up and he is moaning with pain in his chest. Lotze took Goodall to the hospital for an Ex-ray. They left about 1100. Maj. Rockes and Col. Thompson returned about 1500 from Lido. They were a little tired so everyone is going to bed early. No Rain again today.

    [November] 21. Nothing much happened today. Goodall & Lotze returned late this afternoon. Goodall is feeling much better. He is going to take his treatment here. We are glad to have "Jeeter" back with us. No Rain again today. In closing todays log, we all say "this Goodall lad is a rugged boy." (That goes for all the Tirap boys.) Station T-I-R-A-P signing off.

    [November] 22. [Thomas M.] Collins & Kitzberger paid a little visit to Camp Tirap today. They said it was a tough hike but it was worth it. Our dog is missing. We can't figure out what happened to him. May be the Chinese ate him as they really like dog meat. If anyone should see a brown dog who answers to the name Dot, kindly contact the boys at Tirap. As a reward we will offer one can of good old Corned Beef. In the meantime we will be listening for the Chinese to bark. Thats all for today.

    [November] 23. Fromant & two fellows from Punyang droped in on us today. Collins & Kitzberger left for the Co. this afternoon. Goodall took Jit down to the Co., to have Capt. Denez [Denys] look him over. Jit has a sore

      171F.M.-Field Manual.


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    back. We all hope it is nothing serious. Major Rockes was called back to Lido today and is going to stay down there for awhile. We hate to see him go. But as the old timers say "Duty calls him." Slatter & [Staff Sgt. Homer R.] Castle dropped in after coming from Punyang (walking over 40 miles in one day.) They are going to spend the night with us. We had a little rain today for a change. In closing todays log we are celebrating "Fromant Day." We are glad to have Sgt. Fromant back with us. He has done a good job up at Punyang and deserves a lot of praise. Its bedtime at Tirap. Will drop a few lines tomorrow to you.

    [November] 24. Once again172 resume my duties of entering the daily happenings around Tirap in the log. For today we have the news that Slaughter & Castle, much against the trip, started for the base. They were rather stiff naturally from the hike they made yesterday but they thought it best to go today. Jeeter returned about noon with Jit who he found had no serious illness. We all liked that news but we didn't like the news that John [Goodall] is supposed to return to the company. I was hoping that he would remain with us, but when a man is good, he is put where he will do best. I would certainly like to keep the group I now have but the company needs them worse than I do. Jeeter also reported that Capt. Romberger is supposed to come Sat. Just before we sat down for dinner, three suspicious looking Naga's arrived on their way up trail. When we began to question them we found they could not understand Hindustani or the Naga language spoken around here. We all had intentions of sending them to Base Hq for questioning but could not find enough proof to do so. We sent them on their way and I still believe they are connected with the Japanese.

    [November] 25. Thanksgiving Day, and how well we remember where we were last year at this time. We tried to make our day as close to home celebration as possible and succeeded fairly well. All the fowl we were able to buy was one fairly large rooster and one small hen, so Jeeter fried the chicken and made a chicken rice soup. Along with that we had mashed potatoes (dehydrated) and coffee. We were planning on only six for dinner but a few minutes before it was ready to consume, Lt. [Robert] Waldon173 & two colored boys from Hpachi Hi arrived on their way to the base. So it was nine mouths to feed with two little chickens. We made out so everyone got a taste of Thanksgiving. All the boys considered themselves lucky because we at least had fowl and probably a lot of soldiers had "Corned Willie." The evening was spent, guess how, in a bull session. Yes, sir, in a good old session; we haven't had a bull session for a long time--all of 12 hours I'll bet.

    [November] 26. A lot of activity today, at least this morning. The Chinese received orders to move out which is just two days before their scheduled time. They were on their way about 0800, but before they left, they had to give us a salute which was in the form of about 50 mortar shells over the hill. This was not a salute really, but today was the scheduled day for mortar practice and they had to do it before they moved. The part we liked was

      172 Fromant.
      17321st Quartermaster Group.


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    their shooting at 0600--a fine state of affairs, waking us up at such an early hour. Col Thompson paid his respect and left after breakfast. Lt. Waldon & men left about 1000 as they waited for their porters to come from Tima. Jeeter was leary about staying over as he was told to return when I arrived, so as much as he hated to and we hated to see him go, he left about 1400. It wasn't bad enough that Jeeter left, but Harry decided to go also because he was told to return also when I arrived. We wanted the fellows to stay at least until the Capt. came, but they knew Co. "B" and thought it best to return. After they left it became lonely as hell around here for Doc & me who are the only ones left at the garrison in the hills. We are hoping another group of Chinese come soon so as to put life into this place. Not only are we alone, but we are here without a cook and heaven help our poor stomachs.

    [November] 27. Capt. Romberger, Capt. [Cobb G.] Laslie174 & Capt. [Harold] Cohen175 arrived this morning about 1100. They came bag and baggage as they plan to stay until Monday. Shortly after their arrival, a few Americans arrived and after some questioning we found that they were part of a group of some 30 men on their way to Kalak Ga. Kalak Ga is not going to be their destination and we know something. Among this group was some old timers of way back one of whom was Joe Gasbarro the talkative guy who used to be stationed here. Lt. Hartberg176 is in charge of the men. Nothing outside of these men happened and the day was spent "gassing." After supper, Lt. Hartberg came over and related some of his experiences in India which were very interesting to us. The Lt. has been here over a year and has seen a lot.

    [November] 28. The Lt. and men started early and I can't say how early because I was deep in a dream when they left. Capt. Romberger had deer on his mind so he & Capt. Cohen went hunting before breakfast. Do you want to know what they brought back? Why they brought back themselves. After breakfast the three officers and myself started our trip to the Jap plane for souveniers. I was literally dragged, against my best wishes to recline on the bed. We returned to the garrison about 1730 and who should be there but Major Rockis. I was glad to see him but found to my disappointment that he is not to stay here. He and his band of Sons of China are taking over Hapachi Hi for an indefinite period of time. After supper everyone became interested in conversation, but I became interested in the bed as I had a sick headache. The conversation lasted only a short time because some officers were tired.

    [November] 29. Breakfast was awfully early this morning 0800 after which Major Rockis started on his journey carrying his own field bag, toilet article kit, and another bag. He is sure a grand fellow and the kind of a man all Majors should be. The three Capts left shortly after the Major and we were again thrown into loneliness, but who cares. If things get tough we

      174151st Medical Battalion.
      17573d Evacuation Hospital.
      176679th Signal AW Company. In October, Staff Sergeant Skidmore led a party to Hkalak Ga. There a warning station was established, partly as a base site from which other posts would be developed in support of the Chinese Army in India, as it advanced in the Hukawng Valley: "History of the 679th," Stilwell Papers.


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    can always start talking to the birds & flies & grasshoppers, and ants, and monkies, and even to ourselves. It appears that I am getting that way already. Til tomorrow--Oh yes rations came today.

    [November] 30. Well, I can say we got up today, ate three meals and shot the breeze, but as far as any news, there is none. Doc & I are sure having fun preparing the meals. This morning it took us so long to prepare the main course for breakfast that when we sat down to eat, the coffee was cold, Jits tea water had boiled away and the mess kit water had just about boiled away. God what cooks. I sure hope the Capt. sends one soon. So ends another month and I add one more cross to my calendar. Gee, the crosses are adding up.

    [December] 1. The log entry for the first day of the month isn't very good and I am hoping that something happens during the month so the remaining days enteries won't be blank. Today was a replica of yesterday only we didn't have the tough luck of cooking that we had. Doc & I are learning slow but sure thru sheer necessity and hoping every day that a cook arrives.

    [December] 2. We received quite a surprise today when Castle, Beasly, Slaughter, and Cummins arrived on their way back to Punyang. After inquiring we found that a misunderstanding of orders had been taken and the boys were not supposed to return to base. As soon as they arrived Doc asked if they wouldn't stay overnite so as to give us company but their plans were to go to Rema and they were going to go until two Nagas arrived carrying a deer (animal) yes, that's right, a barking deer. When the fellows saw that, moving orders were changed and changed fast. After a little bargaining, incidentally, it cost us approximately $8.00, Slaughter wasted no time what so ever and returned from the river with a bucket full of Venison. Supper tonite consisted of Venison, mashed potatoes, Venison, coffee, hot biscuits and Venison, we also had some Venison. Man, but it was good. Everyone rose from the table stuffed. We will say that everyone gave a thought to the home folks while he was munching on a delicious piece of meat. It was all we would do to make it from mess hall to cabin where we digested supper over a card game and bull session.

    [December] 3. Slaughter & myself were the first ones up this morning, early too. We had the meat cut and was frying it when the rest of the fellows forced themselves out of their warm beds. Breakfast this morning was venison again with coffee & oatmeal as the side dishes. The Punyang gang left shortly after breakfast leaving Doc, Jit & myself with a half bucket of meat. There was too much meat for three of us and knowing it would not last, we decided to cut up the best piece. Neither one of us knew a tinkers damn about butchering but we started in and literally mutilated the poor deer. Had a butcher witnessed the ceremony he would have gone into hysterics, but at any rate we cut enough meat for dinner and had ribs for supper. We were sorry to see the day end because it brought our venison to an end. About 1600 we heard a call from the hill and recognized the voice to be Clancy Price's. We were quite surprised to see him and learned that he was returning to be admitted to the hospital. He has contracted some kind


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    of a disease and from the symptoms, he may have ulcers. He is going to stay here tomorrow and I plan to go to the company with him Sunday.

    [December] 4. Breakfast was little later than usual, 0900. About 1030 Sgt. LaGrand arrived with a company of recruits who were sent up here for a conditioning hike. The last month we have seen several men who were sent up & back the same day for conditioning. It seems to be a habit with the signal unit. LaGrand stayed for dinner and left about 1500. Nothing outside of the usual routine happened.

    [December] 5. Clancey and I left for the company the morning of the 5th and on our way down we met Sgt. Boughter, [Alton B.] Wolf[e], & [John] Tychan.177 Tychan is to be our cook and was I happy to see him. I was at the company until the 8th and according to Doc Paul E. Lotze, T/5, nothing of importance to the log happened. I can now skip to the 8th and save some writing.

    [December] 8. Sgt. Guinto, Drusoe, and myself arrived today about 1100 and found everything in tip-top shape, Guinto & Drusoe decided they needed a rest and of course N. Tirap is the logical place to have peace & quiet. The two staffs nursed a basket all the way up because it contained 90 eggs, so it would seem we are going to eat eggs for the next two days. The remainder of the day was spent loafing, something, we have been unable to do much of since our arrival to N. Tirap 8 mos ago. Boy can I tell the fibs. Something of importance just came to my mind. While [I was] at the company, Jit our bearer, left us. I certainly hated to see him go. He served us faithfully for 5½ mo. and we had grown so attached to him that he was a necessity to the station, but his 6 mo term was up and he was anxious to go home. He told us he would come back but I'm afraid he will come back to a vacant cabin. Maybe not.

    [December] 9. While Jack [Drusso] & Carlo [Guinto] went hunting, Doc & I closed the garbage pit and washed out the garbage cans. Later this morning Carlo & Drusoe took pictures of everything they could see. After a dinner snack four of us went to the river and raced each other, on rafts, up stream. It was the only way we know to pass time and any way it was fun. After a good supper, a game of hearts was enjoyed and the evening was ended rather early.

    [December] 10. The two staffs [Drusso and Guinto] left about 1000 against their wishes. The day was very unexciting as if very many days are exciting. A few porters passed thru on their way to Punyang. I learned while at the company that the porter camp at Tipang is definitely closed and we are wondering what is going to become of us. We are willing to sweat out the duration here at Tirap tho.

    [December] 11. We half expected Sgt. Thomas today but he never showed his face. Another bunch of men from the signal came today and spent several hours in the woods. LeGrand wasn't with them today which was a surprise because he has always had to go out on these so-called conditioning hikes. Maybe they are giving him a rest. We had a large group of Naga's today and

      177151st Medical Battalion.


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    among them was "Bad Eye." He brought six men with him and they are going to start the supply house tomorrow. The crew has moved into the wood house and we will undoubtedly be kept awake half the nite. Early this afternoon, some 50 porters arrived from up trail. They are from Pebo and from what the porter commander said, Pebo is definitely closed and the [Aid Station] boys have gone to Tagap.178 Todays news is finished Sahibs & Mem-Sahibs.

    [December] 12. "Bad Eye" and his crew started building this morning. This house building is quite the thing All one has to do is mark off a plot of ground, make hand motions in the form of a building, and let the natives do the rest. It is surprising what these people can do with bamboo. The buildings they erect contain no nails or wire yet they are strong and last a long time. The cost of labor is cheap and one can usually bargain with a few rupee's plus some corned beef. Good ole "Corn Willie." We were surprised to no end today when Jeeter walked in. No one had seen him coming and of all people, we never expected to see him. He is staying until tomorrow. We had several women visitors today who come to watch their husbands work. It is probably so seldom that the men work and when they do, everyone comes to watch them. Two deer came very close tonight, but when hunters, Fromant & Tychan went after them, they ran for almighty.

    [December] 13. The crew finished the warehouse this morning and made a few changes in the kitchen. This afternoon Jack & myself plus the Naga's moved the supplies into place and it really made a difference in the kitchen. Tychan has room to move around now. The change has also made a difference in the rats concern because the usual noise from the kitchen is not there. But it won't be quiet long, they will soon find their way around and continue the racket & mess. Tom Weeks & Ed [Edward J.] Krakora179 found their way to Monsoon lodge today arriving about 1100. They brought the payroll, plus mail and the company mascot "Gestapo." They stayed for dinner and left shortly after as they could not receive permission to stay over. Jeeter went with them. The station has one more member for quarters & ration. The member is "B" Co's dog "Gestapo." He is to remain indefinitely. The moon is certainly shining on N. Tirap tonite, makes a person homesick. To date there is no Chinese here and from the looks of things, there will be no more. The scheduled day was over three weeks ago. We don't care tho' because we are perfectly contented in our cabin in the hills.

    [December] 14. Doc felt pretty bad this morning and he came to the conclusion that he doesn't have malaria because his temperature is not running according to a malaria temp. He became worried and wanted to go to the company, so we started about 1300. After quite an effort, he made it to the porter camp where he picked up a ride to Lakhipani. Three days ago, while taking a bath in the river, Doc was bitten on the leg and we believe he was poisoned. I left the porter camp at 1600 and was back here at exactly 1720

      178Below Shingbwiyang, at the head of the Hukawng Valley, the Chinese bogged down soon after they first encountered the enemy. The 151st was replacing Seagrave units on the main line of communication behind the front.
      179151st Medical Battalion.


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    making the best time yet from Tipang to Tirap. I was a crazy fool for doing it and will probably suffer for it later, but then who doesn't become crazy at times. Jack had supper ready when I returned. When I returned I found that some 50 porters were here on their way to Punyang for loads.

    [December] 15. Again the breakfast table seated only two. We are hoping Doc isn't in serious danger and will be back soon. We are going to miss him because he adds so much life to the station. Long about 1100 the conditioning boys arrived again and without LaGrand. They tell us he still has no shoes. I believe he's chicken. Jack & I have been watching "Gestapo" closely the last two days because he wants to leave and today when the fellows left he went with them. We called and the fellows chased him back but he was bound in [and] determined to go and wasn't going to be stopped. I imagine the fellows at the company will be peeved at us but we had already chased across the river twice after him and wasn't about to do it again. Our new member for quarters & rations is now gone; too bad he didn't like his new home.

    [December] 16. Another dead day. The porters left early this morning and after their departure the place became quiet and remained so for the remainder of the day. This idea of two here alone is beginning to wear on me. A change has to be before long or we'll both be found someday with crushed skulls, the result being from beating our heads against the wall. Man, I almost forgot the main event of the day. We set both traps tonite and so far have four pesky individuals who were fools enough to think they could eat the cheese without setting off the trap. If we keep this up, maybe we can rid the place, for awhile.

    [December] 17. We arose, ate three meals, cleaned the place, shot the bull, and for tonights entertainment, we fixed our fingernails, oh gee. Certainly entered todays news in a hurry.

    [December] 18. Jack cleaned the kitchen this morning and did a fine job. It looks the best it ever has. We also cleaned the back yard and tried to eliminate some of the million flies in the latrine. All told today we had about 15 Naga visitors including "Bad Eye" who was returning from Honju Busitee. The morning visitors came for their usual iodine and started home about noon. I was half expecting Sgt Thomas today but no one came. We are also hoping Doc returns in time for Christmas. Christmas, a fine one we'll have this year.

    [December] 19. News today and lots of it. Jack and I were talking about how lonely it was here and we made the remark wondering when the station would be closed. Always speak of the devil and he will appear because we had just spoken the words when Sgt. Drusoe burst forth with a yell from atop the short cut and when he arrived he said "Start Packing." At first I thought he was joking in the usual manner but found he wasn't when he said 35 porters were on their way. With him came the new Corp. assigned to "B" Co. and after a short bull session, we started working. Most of the boxes were packed tonite and we have 22 loads already not counting personal equipment; more porters will have to come back I'm afraid. After supper we


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    played a few games of "hearts," and now we are ready to crawl into our beds for the last sleep in N. Tirap.

    [December] 20. Today is the winding-up of 8 wonderful months in a jungle haven. Having been here the longest, I have become so attached to the N. Tirap that is almost like leaving home. Today or rather yesterday marks exactly 8 months for this station. April 19 we landed and started an aid station expecting to stay only a short time, but fortune came our way and gave us so much time. A lot of changes took place since the beginning and it has been interesting watching the progress and interesting from the standpoint of the various people I have met. I will miss the place and my Naga friends as will Doc, but we have been told that we are going to rejoin Lt. Sonnenberg,180 which pleases both of us very much. I will now close the station log of N. Tirap hoping it has been of interest to you who have read it. It is a history that has given me a great pleasure and one that I will be proud to own.

    The remaining members:

    T-5 Paul E. Lotze
    Pvt. Jack Tychan
    Sgt. Bob Fromant

    THE END

    Index of Names

    The original editor of the Log, Floyd T. Romberger, Jr., identified officers and men of the 151st Medical Battalion, as well as many others who are mentioned. Approximately one-third of the names were incomplete, however. Clues as to probable unit assignments were given by the present editor to the Military Personnel Records Center in St. Louis. Its Army World War II Section provided the missing information in all but a very few cases. The editor is indebted to Mr. Chapel Haines, Jr., of the Center for this assistance.

    Art-see Seith
    Ashbrook, Dexter N., 2d Lt., QMC, 3304th QM Truck Co., 21st Quartermaster Group
    Bad-Eye, a Naga villager
    Bahardu, Jit, the favorite Nepalese camp servant
    Baumgarten, Oscar, 1st Lt., MC, Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Beasley, Willie L., Cpl., Co. D, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Beyth, John A., T. Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Boatner, Haydon L., Brig. Gen., Deputy Commander and Chief of Staff, Chinese Army in India, and of Headquarters 5303d Provisional Combat Troops; later Commander, Northern Combat Area Command
    Bob-see Fromant
    Bonnyman, George G., Capt., Inf, Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Booth, Donald F., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 12 June to 26 September
    Boughter, James D., Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Bradbury, William, Cpl., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion

      180At Hkalak Ga, where a detachment from 151st had taken over a Seagrave hospital.


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    Brown: in the 3304th QM Truck Company, there were Joseph, Keith C., Nolan H. Jr., Rufus, and Warner A. Brown; in the 21st QM Regiment, there were Charles M., Govenor, and Robert C. Brown
    Burns, Newman R., Maj., Inf, Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Castle, Homer R., Staff Sgt., Co. D, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Chandra, one of the Nepalese camp servants
    Chang, ----, Major, Chinese Army in India
    Chen, ----, Major, Chinese Army in India
    Chin, ----, Colonel, Chinese Army in India
    Chow, ----, Major, Chinese Army in India
    Ciseck, John, Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Clancy-see Price
    Cobby-see Rorabeck
    Cohn, Harold A., Capt., MC, 73d Evacuation Hospital
    Collins, Thomas M., Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Cox, Wilbur F., T5c., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Cox, William F., 2d Lt., Sig.C, Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Craig, Stanley B. (Stoney), Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 19 April to 12 June
    Cummings, Carl F., Pfc., Co. D, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Cunningham, ----, Captain, British Army
    Darby, James E., Lt. Col., 21st Quartermaster Group
    Denys, Kenneth J., 1st Lt., MC, Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Dil, one of the Nepalese camp servants
    Doc-see Lotze
    Donnelson, Dudley M., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Dorsey, Riligh, T5c., Co. D, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Drusso, John M., Staff Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Ducey, Donald L., 1st Lt., Inf (?), Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Duncan, Don W., Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Everett, Richard E., Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Everingham, Donald C. (Harry), T5c., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 18 October to 25 November, during most of which time he kept the Log
    Felix, Manuel B., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Flaten, Paul R., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Fromant, Robert W. (Bob), Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 19 April to 20 December; in charge of the station and chief author of the Log
    Garl, Edwin H., Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Gasbarro, Joseph R. (Joe), T5c., 679th Signal Air Warning Company
    Gentile, Armand V., Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; served at North Tirap from 6 September to 4 October
    Gerhart, Benjamin F., Capt., Inf (?), Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Girand, ----, Sergeant, CBI Roundup staff
    Goodall, John P. (Jeeter), T5c., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; served at North Tirap from 5 October to 25 November
    Goop, one of the Nepalese camp servants
    Greenspan, Shy Seymour, 2d Lt., CE, Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Gregal, John M., Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Guinto, Carlo A., Staff Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Gumps-see Montgomery


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    Gunlugson, Alice, 2d Lt., ANC, 22d Field Hospital, on temporary duty with 73d Evacuation Hospital
    Guss-see Sonnenberg
    Halliday, ----, British civilian with porter corps
    Harris, Kenneth D., 1st Lt., MAC, Seagrave hospital
    Harry-see Everingham
    Hartburg, Donald O., 1st Lt., 679th Signal Air Warning Company
    Herb-see Thomas
    Herwick, Alfred O., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Hibbard, Luellen B., Staff Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Hyatt, ----, Sergeant, possibly Robert Wyatt, 679th Signal Air Warning Company; otherwise not identified
    Jack-see Savage; also Tychan
    Jeeter-see Goodall
    Jit-see Bahardu
    Joe-see Gasbarro
    Joe Joe-see Joseph
    Joseph, Joseph J. (Joe Joe), Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Kitzberger, Frank, Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Krakora, Edward J., Cpl., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Krolick, Victor, Pvt., 679th Signal Air Warning Company
    LaGrand (LeGrand), ----, Sgt., Base Signal Headquarters? or 679th Signal Air Warning Company?
    LaMorticelle, Joseph J., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Langevin, ---- (Shorty), Ujon-Rema air-warning station
    Laslie, Cobb J., Capt., MC, Headquarters, 151st Medical Battalion
    Lee, ----, Lieutenant Colonel, Chinese Army in India
    Leedham, ----, Maj., English police officer
    Lockridge, Owen B., Sgt., 679th Signal Air Warning Company
    Lotze, Paul E. (Doc), T5c., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 15 July to 20 December; a contributor to the Log
    Lycesko, Nicholas (Nick), Sgt., CBI Roundup photographer
    Mac-see McFarlin
    Marchion, Luis A., T5c., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Marlewski, Cyril B., Capt., MC, Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Marten, ----, civilian with porter corps; at North Tirap from 16 June through July; last entry to mention him is 3 August
    Massarra, Russell A. (Russ), Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 19 April to 6 September
    Massoth, Edwin P., lst Lt., QMC, Co. E, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Maston, T., Capt., British Army
    McFarlin, Robert L. (Mac), Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    McKay, Donald E., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Mikulka, John F., Cpl., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Miller, ----, a British civilian in charge of a porter camp at Tipang
    Montgomery, Ivan B. (Gumps), Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Needham, ---- Captain, British Army
    Nick-see Romeo
    Norris, Clell C., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Odahl, William R., 2d Lt., MAC, Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Oliver, ----, civilian with porter corps
    Oser, Rose, 2d Lt., ANC, 22d Field Hospital, on temporary duty with 73d Evacuation Hospital
    Palmer, Earl, Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Phillips, Dean W., T5c., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 19 April to 20 June
    Piens, Earl, Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion


    65

    Pitkin, York N., Lt. Col., MC, Commanding Officer, 151st Medical Battalion
    Ponce, Salvedor F., T5c., 679th Signal Air Warning Company
    Pop (Pops), headman of Naga village near North Tirap
    Price, Clarence B. (Clancy), Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 19 April to 12 June
    Price, Ray B., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Richardson, Seawood L., Sgt., Co. A, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Robertson, William T., Pvt., 21st Quartermaster Group
    Robinson, Harry, Jr., lst Lt., QMC, Co. A, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Rockis, Joseph, Maj., Inf (?), Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Romberger, Floyd T. Jr., Capt., MC, Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; the original editor of the Log and commanding officer of Co. B from September 1943 to January 1944
    Romeo, Nicholas (Nick), Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 12 June to 5 October
    Rorabeck, Donald G. (Cobby), Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 15 to 22 July
    Rosey-see Rosinsky
    Rosinsky, Roland H., Cpl., 679th Signal Air Warning Company
    Russ-see Massarra
    Salo, ----, a civilian doctor with the porter corps
    Savage, John L. (Jack), Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 12 June to 26 September; a contributor to the Log
    Schwartz, Edward N., Capt., MC, commanding officer of Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion until September 1943
    Seith, Arthur G. (Art), Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 19 April to 12 June
    Shaw, William H., Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Short, Hubert T., Capt., MAC, Headquarters, 151st Medical Battalion
    Shorty-see Langevin
    Skidmore, ----, Staff Sergeant, Ujon-Rema air warning station (679th Signal Air Warning Company)
    Slater, Vernon, Maj., Inf (?), Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Slaughter, Leonard R., Staff Sgt., Co. D, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Smiley, John T., Maj., MC, Headquarters, 151st Medical Battalion
    Smith, Clarence H., Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Smith, William J., 2d Lt., Sig. C., Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Sonnenberg, Arthur, 1st Lt., MC, Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion; at North Tirap from 18 June to 25 September
    Stoney-see Craig
    Susich, Joseph A., Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Sutto, Joseph F., Pvt., 679th Signal Air Warning Company
    Thomas, Herbert (Herb), Staff Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Thompson, Robert P. or William V., Lt. Col., F.A. or Inf, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Tims (Timms), ----, civilian with porter corps
    Tom-see Weeks
    Topp, Clancy, Lt., CBI Roundup staff
    Traywick, Herbert V., Maj., Inf, Headquarters, Chinese Army in India (5303d Prov. Combat Troops)
    Tychan, John (Jack), Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Vanderground, Ralph (Vandy), Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Waldon, Robert, 1st Lt., QMC, Co. B, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Walker, Johnny, British political officer in Assam


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    Walters, William G., Capt., QMC, 21st Quartermaster Group
    Webb, Charlie M., Sgt., 21st Quartermaster Group
    Weeks, Thomas (Tom), T5c., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Welch, Warren G., Pvt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Wilmington, ----, superintendent of the Tipang Colliery
    Wolfe, Alton B., Pfc., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Wong, ----, Captain, Chinese Army in India
    Wood, Howard A., 1st Sgt., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Wu, ----, Major, Chinese Army in India
    Yen Chang, civilian interpreter with Chinese Army in India
    Zehnder, Delbert D., T5c., Co. B, 151st Medical Battalion
    Zombro, Frederick B., Capt., MC, 73d Evacuation Hospital
    Zwick, Harold F., Capt, MC, Co. A, 151st Medical Battalion

    The Men at North Tirap Aid Station Number 2

    19 April-12 June

    Fromant, Craig, Price, Massarra, Phillips, Seith

    12 June-21 July

    Fromant, Romeo, Savage, Booth, Phillips (reassigned on 20 June), Sonnenberg (joined 18 June), Rorabeck (joined 15 July), Lotze (joined 15 July)

    22 July-25 September

    Fromant, Romeo, Savage, Booth, Sonnenberg, Lotze, Massarra (reassigned 6 September), Gentile (joined 6 September)

    26 September-25 November

    Fromant, Romeo, Lotze, Gentile (reassigned 4 October), Goodall (joined 5 October), Everingham (joined 18 October)

    26 November-20 December

    Fromant, Lotze, Tychan (joined 8 December)

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