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67th Evacuation Hospital, History

Books and Documents > 67TH EVACUATION HOSPITAL (SEMI-MOBILE)

67th EVACUATION HOSPITAL

HISTORY

1 JANUARY 45 TO 30 JUNE 45

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CALENDAR OF WESTERN EUROPEAN OPERATIONS

REPORT OF SURGICAL SERVICE

REPORT OF MEDICAL SERVICE

REGISTRAR AND RECEIVING

ACTIVITIES OF X-RAY DEPARTMENT

 

______

SOURCE: National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 112, Records of The Surgeon General, US Army, HUMEDS, Box 404, 67th Evacuation Hospital, Annual Reports, 1943-45.


 

CALENDAR OF WESTERN EUROPEAN OPERATIONS

1 January 1945 to 30 June 1945

67TH EVACUATION HOSPITAL (SEM)

 

 

Days Open

Days Closed

Days With Patients

Days with No Patients

Bivouauc: Namur, Belgium

1-9 Jan 45

0

9

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operation I: Antheit, Belgium

 

 

35

0

35

0

 

a. Opened

10 Jan 45

 

 

 

 

 

b. Closed (Last Treatment: 13 Feb)

13 Feb 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bivouac: Brand, Germany                            

14 Feb -
9 Mar 45

0

24

0

24

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operation II: Duren

 

13

1

14

0

  

a.  Opened

10 Mar 45

 

 

 

 

  

b.  Closed (Last Treatment: 23 Mar)

22 Mar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Movement

24 Mar 45

0

1

0

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operation III:  Bonn, Germany

 

7

0

7

0

 

a.  Opened

25 Mar 45

 

 

 

 

 

b.  Closed (Last Treatment: 31 Mar)

31 Mar 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operation IV: Edingen, Germany

 

21

4

25

0

 

a.  Opened

31 Mar 45

 

 

 

 

 

b.  Closed (Last Treatment: 24 Apr)

20 Apr 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bivouac: Edingen, Germany

  25 Apr -  4 May 45

0

10

0

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

Movement

5 May 45

0

1

0

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operation V: Bayreuth, Germany

 

4

2

6

0

 

a.  Opened

6 May 45

 

 

 

 

 

b.  Closed (Last Treatment: 11 May)

9 May 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Movement:

12 May 45

0

1

0

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operation VI: Cheb, Czechoslovakia

 

13

0

13

0

 

a.  Opened

13 May 45

 

 

 

 

 

b.  Closed (Last Patient Cleared: 25 May)

25 May 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bivouac: Marienbad, Czechoslovakia

26-31 May 45

0

6

0

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operation VII: Marienbad, Czechoslovakia

 

30

0

30

0

Opened

1 Jun 45

 

4

 

4

End of Report Period 

30 Jun 45

 

9

 

9

Totals

 

123

59

130

52

                                                Number of Days in Period                            181
                                                Number of Days Open                                 123 -- 67.95%
                                                Number of Days Closed                                 59 -- 32.59%                                              
                                                Number of Days Hospitalizing Patients          130 -- 71.82%
                                                Number of Days With No Patients                  52 -- 28.72%


2

[PERIODIC REPORT, 1 JANUARY- 30 JUNE 1945]

The 67th Evacuation Hospital spent the first ten days of the year 1945 at Namur, Belgium, in bivouac. Eagerness to participate in another operation mounted as unit and personal equipment was gradually replaced and recovery from the somewhat gruelling events of the withdraws from Malmedy, 17-23 December 1944, which had been forced on the unit by the German counter-offensive was completed. The usual administrative duties were carried out with all equipment being checked, repaired when necessary, salvaged and inventoried.

On the afternoon of 4 January at the first ceremonial formation on the Continent of the entire unit, Brigadier General JOHN A. ROGERS presented Bronze Star Medals to the followings

Staff Sergeant Lawrence B. Botohe     MD

Staff Sergeant Winford L. Graham      MD

Captain Frank A. Jones                      MC

Captain Stephen A. Larrabee MAC

Captain William T. Van Huysen MC

Captain Jean R. Truckey ANC

1st Lt Mary C. Willhide ANC

Certificates of Merit were awarded to the 4 officers, 6 nurses, and 40 enlisted men who regardless of the approach of the enemy had accomplished the evacuation of over 200 patients from the Malmedy setup on 17 and 18 December 1944, and also to the 7 enlisted men who had remained behind with Captain VAN HUYSEN as the rear guard to protect the unit equipment.

Having received orders to open near Huy, Belgium, for operation I, 1945, the hospital returned on 10 January to the northwestern edge of what had been "The Belgian Bulge" and took over the patients then under the care of the 51st Field Hospital.

The main barracks of a former Belgian Caserne served for wards and quarters for enlisted personnel, with adjoining buildings being utilized for the operating ward section, X-ray and Laboratory Departments,


3

and clinics. A small building housed headquarters and quarters and club room for officers. Nurses were housed in another separate building. The Receiving Department used a large garage-like building with the Registrar's Office in a small bui1ding nearby. Severely wounded battle casualties were received for several days. A large number of cases of frost bite, especially among prisoners of war, were received. All but the mildest cases were evacuated for definitive treatment. For the last two weeks of the operation, which ended 13 February, the hospital functioned primarily as a communicable disease hospital.

An enlisted dance for a group of Belgian girls was held toward the close of the operation.

Moving by infiltration over a period of days, the hospital at last entered Germany, the command post opening 13 February at Brand, Germany. Several other medical units of the First US Army were set up in adjacent buildings; a group of brick modern buildings, reported to have been an OCS for the Wehrmacht. The 67th Evacuation Hospital received no patients but was held in reserve. For nearly a month the unit was subject to two hour alert orders. Since only the X-ray and Laboratory Sections and the Dental and EENT clinics were called to assist the 44th and 102nd Evacuations Hospitals and the 633rd Medical Clearing Company, a full recreational and training program was instituted.

At least three small groups of officers and enlisted men went on special training trips to the forward medical installations of the 104th Infantry Division, on the west bank of the Roer River, to witness something of medical treatment of casualties before they reach an evacuation hospital.

Good Conduct Medals were given to some thirty enlisted men in a formation of one detachment.


4

On 6 March, the unit was honored by a visit by the Superintendent of the Army Nurse Corps, Colonel Florence A. Blanchfield, who was accompanied by General Rogers and Major MacCafferty, Chief Nurse, FUSA. The nurses of the hospital entertained the nurses of five other FUSA hospitals at a very enjoyable tea for Colonel Blanchfield.

After the Roer River had been crossed by American troops, several reconnaissance trips for possible future sites were undertaken. A group of badly bombed buildings, formerly the city hospital of Duren, eventually became the setting for OPERATION 2, 1945. Several days of arduous labor were needed to remove the debris from the lower floors and to clean up the surroundings. Practically every department was forced to function under crowded and difficult conditions. Fortunately, casualties were lighter than anticipated, and the unit functioned as successfully as it had in many better physical set-ups. For more than a week the hospital handled principally venereal patients, with an officer from the 4th Convalescent Hospital attached to supervise the work on the venereal ward.

The next move took the hospital to Bonn on the west bank of the Rhine. Here the hospital set up for OPERATION 3, 1945, in a large modernistic building which had housed several clinics of the University of Bonn and, apparently, certain offices of the local Nazi party. From two wards one looked directly out onto the Rhino. Officers and Nurses lived in nearby houses.

On 30 March the unit suddenly received orders to move to the vicinity of Edingen, Germany and. to open as soon as possible. The mission was to hospitalize battle casualties among the troops closing the "Ruhr Pocket" from the south.

A move of more than 80 miles was completed and the entire hospital


5

was set up under canvas (for the first time since October 1944) and functioning within 24 hours. The 46th Field Hospital took over the patients remaining at Bonn.

During the first three weeks of OPERATION 4, 1945, the hospital received a load of patients which rivalled its first Continental operation on the Cherbourg peninsula in the continuous intensity and in the severity of the casualties. For two days during the rapid eastward thrust all casualties in the First US Army came to this hospital. Many recovered Allied prisoners of war were received and evacuated to airfields. Admissions ceased on 20 April 1945 with the closing of the Ruhr Pocket, the last patient leaving the hospital four days later.

A brief period of rest proved most welcome.

On 6 May the hospital opened OPERATION 5, 1945 on an extensive level area field-part of the civilian airfield-at Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany, after completing a 300-mile movement by unit and for the first time, ADSEC transportation. The original plan to operate a holding unit for Russians to be returned via a nearby air strip did not materialize, and the hospital functioned normally for a very few days.

This operation was notable only for the scarcity of patients and the arrival of V-E Day, which was celebrated with somewhat restrained joy.

On May 12 the hospital moved by infiltration to the 1st Infantry Division PW Enclosure, near Cheb, Czechoslovakia, and for OPERATION 6, 1945, set up a relay and sorting station for German prisoners of war. Nurses of the unit were quartered about fifteen miles away in the Germania Hotel, Marienbad, and several medical officers were placed on detached service at "overrun" hospitals 'with German prisoners of war. About 10 German medical Officers and 80 German enlisted men stayed at the hospital area and did the major share of the work under the advice and supervision of the staff. The Receiving end Registrar's sections had particularly difficult tasks in preparing the records and


6

in evacuation the 2213 patients who were admitted in two weeks. 1745 patients went thru the operating room, 174 having incisions, drainage, and applications of casts. 301 patients were evacuated on 21 May, the largest number in a single day. Captured medical supplies were utilized, and prisoners were fed from their own mess operated with prisoner personnel in coordination with the rest of the enclosure.

The last German patients were evacuated on 25 May. On the same day the remaining personnel of the hospital moved into Marienbad. Enlisted men moved into the Marienbader Muhle Hotel. Officers moved into a villa nearby.

After two days of inactivity, preparations were made to open the hospital in a large hotel on a hill behind the enlisted quarters. Prisoners cleaned out the five-story building and helped set up the hospital. On 1 June the unit received the first patient of OPERATION 7, 1945. The unit continued to function as a station hospital throughout the month of June. On l7 June the unit celebrated one year of service on the Continent.

An enlisted men's party for some 50 Czech girls brought the social events of the year to a satisfying close.


7

Report of Surgical Service

67th Evacuation Hospital

During the summer and fall campaigns the surgical service operated essentially as planned. From January 1945 to the present, however, each setup has been different and has called for extensive improvisation. At Huy, Belgium, a long corrugated metal shed housed the surgical section. A total of 3 operating and 4 prep-tables was adequate, but continuous efforts to obtain sufficient heat met with disappointing results. All members of the service are in accord in recommending a different and more adequate heating system since the exposure of the patients to cold during the more serious operations increases their shock condition. The connection of the shock ward directly to the operating room was a distinct advantage at this time.

At Duren, Germany, a ward of a bombed municipal hospital was converted into an operating room, which proved satisfactory, inasmuch as the number of casualties proved to be small. Again Sibley stoves were found to give adequate heating.

At Bonn, Germany, the hospital was housed in a modern building. A suite of 3 rooms furnished ample space for operating rooms, central supply, and prep-room. The central heating proved inadequate at night since doors had been removed to permit passage of litters.

At Sinn, Germany, the surgical section functioned once again in tents and with the routine set-up. What with the changeable spring weather of rain, cold and snow, the chief problem was obtaining adequate heating. A roaring Sibley stove gave too great heat for the near table, while the other tables remained too cold. Therefore, serious cases were scheduled so that the operations could


8

be done near the store. Outlets for stovepipes in ward tents were found to be situated so that they allowed insufficient space in that section. Attempts to overcome this condition by employing elbow offsets resulted both in diminished heat and in increased smoke in the operating room. Nevertheless, faced with a schedule the section had to continue irrespective at discomfort to patients and staff.

At Bayreuth, Germany, the hospital was set-up on an airstrip with only a ward tent end two storage tents tied together for sterile supply and an operating room. This proved adequate for the small amount of work.

At Eger, Czechoslovakia, the hospital was set up inside a prisoner at war enclosure. The surgery section consisted of one storage tent, one ward tent, and a ward fly with seven tables set up. The mission of the hospital was to screen the wounded and sick prisoners and to determine whether they were convalescent cases, emergent cases, or cases requiring further surgery or prolonged hospitalization. The section functioned primarily as a dressing room where all wounds were exposed for evaluation. Such additional procedures as were necessary were performed, namely, reapplication of casts, incision and drainage, application of skin traction to stumps, et cetera. 10 German doctors were employed under supervision of unit surgeons. The great number of amputations impressed the staff. The German doctors stated that they had not had penicillin or adequate sulfa and that had done amputations in lieu of attempted conservation of severe wounds. Only rarely had skin traction been applied. They stated preference for reamputation if necessary. Some stumps, twelve to fourteen months old, still had granulating areas. The Germans did not advocate skin-grafting or secondary closure. Preferring healing by granulation, infection was present in all wounds, large and small. They


9

attributed the infection to the paucity of sulfa drugs and penicillin. However, an utter disregard for aseptic and antiseptic technique was noted on the part of all ten German doctors who would have been content to use the same pus-laden forceps on several cases, if they had not been removed by our technicians.

In Marienbad, Czechoslovakia, the hospital functioned as a 300-bed station hospital in a converted hotel, a 15-day evacuation policy was followed. The operating room was set up in the ballroom where three tables were adequate to take care of accidents, appendectomies, circumcisions, tonsillectomies, and other minor operations. The outpatient clinic was heavy with surgical consultations of all kinds.

By the beginning at 1945 the whole surgery section had been formed into coordinating teams capable of being reshuffled with little less in efficiency. All enlisted men know what was necessary to set up quickly for operation as well as how to carry out the various surgical operations. Technicians did the scrubbing, except in unusual circumstances. Concerted efforts to eliminate delay and waste motion resulted in more work being done with less effort. Each case was given whatever was necessary to complete the job efficiently, even though it sometimes required four teams on one patient to lessen the shock and shorten the operation time. In other words, the philosophy of treatment had been altered to complete attention to the case at hand irrespective of backlog, relying on increased efficiency to maintain volume. Triage was better employed to assure getting the more seriously wounded operated on at the optimum time in shock therapy - a good surgeon being responsible for the shock ward. This care was considered essential in conserving not only time in the operating room but also, sometimes, the life of the patient.


10

Utilized in so far as possible for their specialties specialists were not allowed to remain idle and took cases as they came. Twelve-hour shifts were used, with ward rounds made during "off" hours. Team chiefs remained constant with assistants being rotated between wards and operating room.


11

Report of Medical Service

67Th EVACUATION HOSPITAL, SEMIMOBILE

The Ward Section during the first six months of 1945 has continued to function in the same manner as in 1944. All Wards - Shock, Pre-Operative, Post-Operative, Medical, and Non-Operative Surgical - have been the direct responsibility of this section. The selection of the patients for evacuation each day has also been a part of its duties. Five and occasionally six officers were assigned to this work.

The first period of activity in 1945 took place at Huy, Belgium. A considerably greater percentage of diseases as against injuries were admitted during this period. Many cases of trench feet were admitted to the wards. A large number of German prisoners of War were treated for this and other conditions, when one considers the severity of the weather during this period the low incidence of serious respiratory infections is worth noting.

During the brief period of operation at Duren, Germany, a number of seriously ill post-operative cases were transferred to this hospital from a Field Hospital and their care was quite a problem for a few days. A proportionately, greater number of cases of diphtheria were encountered here than during any other period of operation. During the last half of this phase the hospital functioned as a venereal disease unit.

The stay near Bonn, Germany, was brief and there was nothing unusual encountered though our physical set-up was very ample and we were will equipped to handle a much larger number of cases.

The operation at Sinn, Germany, proved to be the longest and most active during the six month period. The physical set-up of the hospital, in the fields for the first time since October 1944, was very satisfactory and enabled a large number of cases to be cared for promptly and efficiently. During


12

this campaign the hospital was visited by the consultants in medicine from ETOUSA and FIRST ARMY. Liberated American and Allied Prisoners of War were encountered for the first time. Diphtheria and pneumonia were seen frequently on the Medical Wards. Our first three eases of typhus, in Russians, were admitted here. The battle casualties seemed unusually severe and recalled those treated in Normandy.

The next phase of activity occurred near Bayreuth, Germany, and was characterized chiefly by its brevity.

Near Eger, Czechoslovakia, the hospital functioned as a relay and sorting station for a large number of German prisoners of War. In addition to many inadequately treated or healing battle casualties, diseases, infrequently seen in our own troops, were encountered. Typhus, diphtheria, post-diphtheria, paralyses, and chronic dysentery fell into this group. The unavailability of laboratory service and the brief stay of these patients prevented adequate study. German medical personnel were largely responsible for the care of the patients while our own medical staff acted in an advisory capacity.

In Marienbad, Czechoslovakia, this unit functioned as a Station Hospital with a capacity of 285 beds. Cases with chronic or recurrent partially disabling conditions, such as are commonly seen in garrison, formed a large percentage of the total. A greater number of cases of scabies were treated suggesting that this disease is more prevalent among stationary troops than those in more active phase. The current evacuation policy permitted the retaining of cases up to a limit of fifteen days thus enabling us to follow more patients throughout their entire illness. This policy also permitted and encouraged a more adequate study of the less acutely ill. Our neuro-psychiatrist worked with the unit for the first time on the continent and was of great assistance. SIW's were encountered in unexpected numbers.

It is felt that as our experience has increased and become more varied the


13

quality of care given patients has improved greatly. Directives concerning therapy from higher headquarters have been most helpful and have been adhered to. Aside from the possible physical discomfort of operating in tents all agree that it is more ideal than a make-shift set-up in buildings. The advantages of placing tarpaulins over the more commonly used lanes between tents has been amply demonstrated. The problem of black-out of entrances to the ward tents has

not been entirely adequately dealt with an warrants further consideration prior to another campaign.


14

[Registrar and Receiving]

STATISTICAL TABLE OF DIRECT ADMISSIONS

67th EVACUATION HOSPITAL, SEMIMOBILE

1945

LOCATION - PERIOD

DISEASE

INJURY

WOUNDED

TOTAL

OTHERS

GRAND TOTAL

OPERATION I
  10 Jan 45 - 13 Feb 45
  Huy, Belgium

820

731

885

2,436

366

2,802

OPERATION II
  10 Mar 45 - 24 Mar 45
  Duren, Germany

221

73

129

423

24

447

OPERATION III
  26 Mar 45 - 31 Mar 45
  Bonn, Germany

142

45

126

313

87

400

OPERATION IV
  31 Mar 45 - 25 Apr 45
  Herborn, Germany

583

396

1200

2,179

209

2,388

OPERATION V
  6 May 45 - 11 May 45
  Bayreuth, Germany

33

7

0

40

12

52

OPERATION VI
  11 May 45 - 25 May 45
  Eger, Czechoslovakia
  POW Hospital

0

0

0

0

2062

2062

OPERATION VII
  1 Jun 45 - 30 Jun 45
  Marienbad,
     Czechoslovakia

646

213

0

859

4

863

TOTALS

2,445

1,465

2340

6,250

2764

9,014

 


15

STATISTICAL TABLE OF INFORMAL ADMISSIONS

67TH EVACUATION HOSPITAL, SEMIMOBILE

PERIOD

TIME

NUMBER

OPERATION I 

0200 Hours 
10 Jan 45

1200 Hours
13 Feb 45

632

OPERATION II 

0800 Hours 
10 Mar  45 

1200 Hours
24 Mart 45

210

OPERATION III 

0001 Hours 
26 Mar 45 

1500 Hours
31 Mar 45

51

OPERATION IV

1800 Hours 
31 Mar 45 

1700 Hours
25 Apr 45 

416

OPERATION V 

1200 Hours 
6 May 45 

1700 Hours
11 May 45

3

OPERATION VI 

1800 Hours 
6 May 45 

2400 Hours
11 May 45

5

    

OPERATION VII

1200 Hours
1 June 45

2400 Hours
30 June 45

60

Total Number of Informal Admissions

 

 

1,373

 


16

STATISTICAL TABLE OF OUT PATIENTS

TYPE 

NUMBER

Dental 

513

Laboratory 

185

X-Ray 

560

Physical Examinations 

37

General Medical & Orthopedics 

202

EENT Patients 

252

Total Number of Out-Patients 

1,749

(37 Physicals are not included in the X-Ray, Laboratory, EENT and Dental totals, and they all went to these clinics.)


17

CLASSIFICATION OF WOUNDS

 

TOTALS

DEATHS

A. Number of Wounded Admitted "Direct"
    1. US Army Troops
    2. British Troops 
    3. French Army Troops
    4. US Navy-Marine Corps 
    5. British and French Navy 
    6. Enemy Forces Personnel 
    7. Civilians 
    8. Others (RAF: 1; Canadians 2)
Total Number of Wounded Admitted "Direct" 

 

2,533
11
12
0
0
292
42
61
2,951

 

 

 

 

 

B. General Classification of Wounds (US Army only)*
    1. Slight
    2. Serious 
Total Number of Wounds 

 

 1,858
675
2,533

 

 

 

 

C. Number of Patients with Multiple Wounds 

935

20

 

 

 

D. Anatomical Classification of Wounds

ADMISSIONS

 

   

1. Wounds other than Burns

 

 

       

a. Abdominal 

49

6

       

b. Thoracic

235

3

       

c. Thoracio-Abdominal

56

3

       

d. Maxillo-Facial

262

0

       

e. Neurologic

 

 

           

(1) Head

136

7

           

(2) Spine

15

0

           

(3) Nerve

12

0

       

f. Extremities

 

 

          

(1) Upper

278

0

          

(2) Lower

773

4

      

g. Buttocks

557

0

      

h. Others

59

0

     

Sub Totals

2,432

23

  

2. Burns--All Locations

49

0

 

 

 

  

Total Number of Wounds

2,481

23

 


18

 

 

TOTALS

DEATHS

E. Classification of Wounds by Causative Agent

 

 

   

1. Gunshot Wounds

630

2

   

2. Shell Wounds

1,344

14

   

3. Bomb Wounds

117

2

   

4. Blast Injuries

37

0

   

5. Wounds Secondary Missiles

15

0

   

6. Burns

49

0

   

7. Others

341

5

   

Total Number of Wounds

2,533

86

 

 

 

F. Number of Transfusions (All Patients)

 

 

   

1. Fresh Whole Blood

0

 

   

2. Stored Blood

703

 

   

3. Dry Plasma

546

 

   

4. Other Blood Substitutes 
               (Do not include crystalloids

0

 

   

Total Number of Transfusions

1,249

 

 

 

 

G. Number of Units of Penicillin Administered

729,500,000

 

 

 

 

H. Number of Amputations

 

 

    

1. Upper Extremities

3

 

    

2. Lower Extremities

25

 

    

Number of Amputations

28

 

 

 

 

I. Number of Cases showing Clinical Evidence of
      Gas Gangrene

 

 

   

1. US Army

7

0

   

2. Other

3

0

   

Number of Cases of Gas Gangrene

10

0

 

 

 

J. Number of Wounded Evacuated to Other Hospitals

 

 

   

1. US Army

1,122

 

   

2. Other

242

 

Total

1,364

 

*(Note: B thru E pertains to US Army troops only.)

 


19

ACTIVITIES OF X-RAY DEPARTMENT

67th EVACUATION HOSPITAL, SEMIMOBILE

a. All procedures in this department were done according to the U.S. Army directives and circulars. Anterior-posterior and lateral films were taken on all extremities. The same procedure was followed with injured chests abdomens and skulls.

b. Fluoroscopic examinations, gastro-intestinal series were done when we operated as a Station Hospital. One patient had a fracture reduced with the ad of a fluoroscope. He was anesthetized, reduced, and had a cast applied. All precautions were taken to avoid overexposure of the patient and those employed in the procedure.

c. Duplicate reports were rendered. The duplicate report was glued to the preserver which contained the patients films and the original was placed in the Field Medical Record.

STATISTICS:

The statistics are listed and broken down as the various parts of the body X-rayed.

Chests

1529

Abdomens

158

Pelves

284

Spines

348

Skulls

453

Extremities

2682

Teeth

469

 

 

Total No of Cases X-Ray'd

6023

Total No of Patients X-Ray'd

4606

Total No of Films Used

12061

 

IMPROVEMENTS:

a. Fluoroscopic Hoods: The devised hood was used during the reduction of a fracture. The operator found it a useful device for immediate blackout,


20

when as was the case, a permanent darkroom was not available.

b. Technique: It was found that technique had to be varied from time to time. Films, although diagnostic, were subject to varied densities due to the frequent change in the current being supplied by the 2.5 KW generator.

SUPPLIES:

All supplies were received as necessary. At no time did we have any shortage of film or solutions.