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Annual Report of Medical Activities for 1945

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REGISTRY NUMBER WD-84

ANNUAL REPORT OF MEDICAL ACTIVITIES
FOR 1945
279TH (US) STATION HOSPITAL
APO755 US ARMY





INTRODUCTION
CONSTRUCTION
REGISTRAR
ADMISSION AND DISPOSITION
MEDICAL SERVICE
DENTAL SERVICE
LABORATORY SERVICE
X-RAY DEPARTMENT
OFFICERS’ SECTION
ARMY NURSE CORPS
DETACHMENT MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
UNIT SUPPLY
MEDICAL SUPPLY
MESS DEPARTMENT
UNIT POST OFFICE
TRANSPORTATION SECTION
SPECIAL SERVICE & POST EXCHANGE
PROTESTANT CHAPLAIN
CATHOLIC CHAPLAIN
AMERICAN RED CROSS
UNITED STATES CIVILIANS
GERMAN CIVILIANS


Photographs

Layout of 279th Station Hospital in Berlin


SOURCE:  National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD
                   Record Group 112, Records of the U.S. Army Surgeon General
                   World War II Administrative Records, Entry 54A
                   279th Station Hospital, 1945
         Box 446A


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INTRODUCTION


The Hospital Plant now occupied by the 279th Station Hospital is located at 44-46 Unter den Eichen, Lichterfelde West, in the City of Berlin. Construction of the hospital was begun in 1898 for the District of Teltow by direction of the Landrat von Stubenrauch, and was opened as a 150 bed hospital on 26 June 1901. The original buildings are indicated on the attached ground plan as Headquarters, and Stations III, V, and VI.  The Hospital was first called the Kreiskrankenhaus Teltow but more recently was known as the Stubenrauch Kreiskrankeuhaus. New buildings were erected from time to time during the period from 1901 to 1913 when the newest building (Station IX) was completed. The cost of construction of the entire plant is said to have been between 12 and 13 million marks.  Annual building maintenance costs were in the neighborhood of 47,000 Marks. The Hospital used as a Municipal (non-charity) General Hospital until 1 May 1941 when the entire plant and grounds was purchased by the German Reich for 5 million Marks. It was then designated as a hospital for the Waffen-SS. Official German records indicate the following valuation at the time of acquisition by the Nazi Government:

Buildings and Grounds (approx 17 acres) Reichsmark        4,351,858
Equipment and Furniture                                                       620,372

During the war the Hospital cared for battle casualties as well as the non-fighting members of the Nazi party. Shortly before the Battle of Berlin the hospital census was more than 700 patients. After the fall of Berlin the majority of the patients were evacuated, and for a short time the hospital was taken over by elements of the Red Army. A requisition for the hospital


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plant was prepared by the US Berlin District Surgeon on 20 July 1945, and was approved by the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4, US Headquarters Berlin District, on 3 August 1945.

Buildings and grounds had been damaged to a considerable extent by allied bombing and by small arms and artillery fire during the Battle of Berlin. Further damage to buildings and equipment was the result of vandalism during the chaotic period immediately after the fall of Berlin.

At the time of the arrival of the advance party of the 279th Station Hospital from Verdun, France on 11 August 1945 the entire hospital area was in great disorder, and work was begun immediately to remove useless and unserviceable furniture and equipment to prepare the buildings for occupancy.

Shortly after the arrival of the advance party a common grave in the garden west of Station VII was opened and the bodies of 17 unidentified Germans were removed. There are still present in the grounds the graves of two Russian soldiers.


ACTIVITIES OF 279TH (US) STATION HOSPITAL

The previous Medical reports submitted by this organization attempted to set out the establishment, location, boundaries and mission of the 279th (US) Station Hospital, as well as personnel changes, facilities, recreation and training programs for the period from 1 January 1945 to 30 June 1945 and will be referred to briefly in this report.

This report has been divided into various sections and will cover three different periods in an effort to give a more complete outline of the activities of each section during the operation of the hospital at Abergavenny, Wales and Berlin, Germany and during the inactive period at the Maginot-Niel Medical Staging Camp, Verdun, France.


3    

During the period 1 January 1945 to 28 April 1945, the hospital was functioning as a General Hospital.  Being in this status brought a marked increase in patients, and the patient load remained high until the first week in April. During the month of April the patient load decreased rapidly and on the 28th of April the hospital was officially closed to the reception of patients.

Movement orders were received, and on the 20th of May the personnel entrained for Southampton, England. From La Havre, France the advance party proceeded to the Verdun Staging Area. and arrived there on 26 May 1945. The rest of the personnel followed in two groups, the main body coming by rail, arid the rear guard in organic transportation.

The duties of the personnel of the 279th Station Hospital upon arrival. at the Medical Staging Area were nil, with the exception of the Administrative personnel who were placed on Temporary Duty with the Medical Staging Camp, and since no personnel changes were made for approximately one month, the majority of the Medical Officers and a great number of Nurses were placed on detached Service with hospital units in the Oise Intermediate Section. The remainder of personnel participated in a training program.

On 8 August 1945 an advance party consisting of ten officers and thirty-three Enlisted Men was ordered to proceed from Verdun, France to Berlin, Germany, to prepare the new location for the remainder of personnel who departed the Staging Area on 9 September 1945 by motor convoy, The thirty-nine nurses and Red Cross personnel were flown from Reins on 11 September 1945 to Berlin arriving the same date,

There is attached herewith to this report photographs taken at the time the 279th Station Hospital moved into this location and also further reference


4

is made to the progress of repairs in the attached construction report. Buildings can be identified by the attached diagram.


5

STATUS OF CONSTRUCTION


WARDS.  Wards in Stations I, II, III, IV, VI, and VII now in use have been ready for occupancy since 18 September 1945. There is still much in the way of minor repair to be done, such as plastering, painting, etc; however, this work is being done by permanently employed German Civilian maintenance personnel and all such repairs should be completed in a period of about six months.

Station IX is not occupied at present. At the t1me of the opening of the hospital for the reception of patients this building was without a roof. The roof has been completely repaired and the rehabilitation of the building nearly complete. Plastering, painting, repair to plumbing, electric wiring, and woodwork is proceeding satisfactorily and the building should be ready for occupancy by 8 January 1946. The second floor of the east wing of the building is being prepared as a locked neuropsychiatric ward.

Station VIII has been 50% destroyed by bombing and shell fire. The work of restoration has not yet begun. During the coming months it is proposed to proceed with necessary demolitions and to clear away all rubble in order that reconstruction can begin without delay in the spring of 1946. When completed this building will house 200 patients.

No ward tents are presently in use,

OPERATING THEATER. The operating theater is now located in Station IV (formerly used by the Germans as an obstetrical and gynecological building).  Present facilities are adequate and entirely satisfactory, The permanent operating theater will be located in the west wing of Station I.  Inasmuch as the operating facilities in Station IV are satisfactory, it is proposed to delay construction and repair in Station I until more urgent work has


6

been completed.

X-RAY CLINIC. The X-ray clinic in Station V has been in operation since the opening of the hospital. Minor repairs are being completed by permanent maintenance personnel.

LABORATORY. The EENT and the Dental Clinics, and the Laboratory are at present temporarily housed in Station VII. A pending completion of permanent quarters in Station V A. Station V A  was severely damaged by fire and restoration is at this time about 95% complete.

PHARMACY. The pharmacy located in Station II A was undamaged and was in full operation on the opening date. Present facilities are excellent.

PATIENTS KITCHEN. All food for patients, for the Detachment, and for German civilians is prepared in a large central kitchen in Station II G.  Facilities for the preparation of food are adequate and minor repairs have been completed. A patients’ dining room in Station VI G is at present nearly complete. and will seat approximately 250 patients.

ADMINISTRATION. Administrative offices and departments are adequately housed and only minor repairs are needed in some of the offices.

Administrative offices are located in buildings as indicated below:

    Hq. (CO, Adj, Sgt Maj)     )
    Personnel                            )
    Civilian Personnel                )
    Chief Nurse                         )    AU are in that portion of main
    Admission & Disposition      )    building shown on attached plans
    Information                          )    as Headquarters
    Records                              )
    Medical Library                  )
    Chief of Surgical Service     )

    Chief of Medical Service    )    Station II A
    Mess Office                       )    Station II G
    Registrar                            )    Station IV G
        


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    Barber Shop            )    Station IV G
    Beauty Shop            )

    Post Exchange        )    Station VII G

    Medical supply Office    )    Station VII G

    Detachment Commander      )
    Special Service Office          )
    Unit Supply                          )    AU in EM Barracks
    Utilities Office                      )
    Post Office                          )
    Chaplains Office                  )


FLOORS.  Floors in most buildings are of either terazzo [sic] or tile. A few rooms in Station IV B and Station II B are of hardwood parquet and a few rooms in Stations II B, VI G, and IX B are at present covered with linoleum in a bad state of repair. Efforts to obtain new linoleum from local sources have been partially successful and at the present time sufficient linoleum is on hand to replace worn out linoleum in Station II B. In the event that sufficient linoleum is not available for the east wing of Station IX B a composition tile floor will be laid. Terazzo [sic] will be used in all of Station V A. Materials for terazzo [sic] floors is readily available and work has already begun in Station V A.

PATHS.  Gravel and cinder paths connect most buildings in the area. They are all in good condition now but will require resurfacing In the spring of 1946.

COVERED RAMPS.  The dispersal of buildings in the area would seem to make the construction of connecting covered ramps impractical.

ROADS.  All roads in the hospital area are hard surfaced (concrete or black top) and are in a good state of repair. Work on an ambulance entrance from the street west of the hospital area arid between Station I and IV has not begun and will probably not be completed before the spring of 1946.    


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ELECTRICAL SERVICE.  T/E Generators.  Work on the construction of a building to house two (2) 50 KW Generators to the east of Station V has been completed.

Most current now used in the hospital is from the city of Berlin. Power failures since the opening of the hospital have not interfered with normal operation and have occurred at rare intervals. Transformers are presently in use to provide 110V AC to buildings where such current is needed. The total capacity of these transformers is 100KW.

Steam powered generators capable of supplying 110V DC up to 30 KW are present but not in use.

The conversion of all power lines from the 220V AC source to the 110V AC source in order to make the hospital entirely independent of the municipal power supply is a major undertaking that will probably not be begun for many months or at least until the necessary materials for conversion are available.

LIGHTING. (see above). All current for lighting in the hospital is from the city supply - 220V AC, and lighting to date has been adequate and power shut-off a few and far between.

WATER SUPPLY.  The present method of supplying potable drinking water is not entirely satisfactory. An Engineer water point has been established in the hospital grounds. Plans for the construction of a water purification and softening plant have been approved by the Berlin District Engineers and work on the project is to begin during January 1946.

BATHING. Adequate bathing facilities are available for all personnel. It is proposed to remove many bath tubs now in use in wards and barracks and to replace them with showers. The substitution of showers for tubs has not yet been started. Provided materials are available, the conversion should be completed by 1 July 1946.


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ABLUTIONS.  Ablutions are entirely adequate throughout the hospital.

SEWAGE DISPOSAL. Sewage disposal is entirely satisfactory through the municipal system.

HEATING. An efficient and adequate central heating plant for the entire area is now in operation. Five large boilers are capable of furnishing adequate heat and hot water to all buildings. Minor repairs to steam pipes (new insulation etc.) is being done by a German contractor.

SUPPLY AREA. Station XI is a large underground shelter connected by a long corridor and series of underground rooms with station IX and it is here that the bulk of medical supplies are stored and issued. The supply rooms are well lighted and heated. Minor repairs to a ventilating system are now being made. Adequate shelving and dunnage has been constructed for all supplies kept in this shelter.

Bulky items of supply and some items of field equipment are stored under canvas on concrete platforms in the area west of the static water tank.

LAUNDRY.  Minor repairs such as plastering and painting are now being done in the second floor rooms over the laundry. These rooms will be used for linen storage and issue, sewing rooms and tailor shop. The laundry itself is in a good state of repair so far as the building is concerned but repairs are necessary for laundry equipment. The Berlin District Quartermaster is attempting to secure the necessary materials to put all laundry machinery into full operation.

THEATER. Construction of a 375 seat theater has not started. It is not expected that construction will begin before the spring of 1946.

STATION XVI - STAFF HOUSE. This building consisting of one large and two small apartments to house eight officers is in a fair state of repair.


10
 
STATION X - EM BARRACKS.  Billets for enlisted men outside the hospital grounds have been requisitioned and movement from the barracks was begun on 29 December 1945.

As soon as enlisted personnel leave the building, rehabilitation and necessary repair will be made in order to provide space for 200 hospital beds. The project should be complete about 1 February 1946.

The new quarters for enlisted personnel consist of a number of apartments, some of which are in a good state of repair. Much work is still required to be done on plumbing and beating systems before the billets can be considered to be satisfactory.

GREEN HOUSE - GARDENERS SHEDS.  Two small green houses have been repaired with salvage window glass. The repair of a large green house will be delayed until an adequate supply of window glass is available.

HOG PENS.  These buildings used by the former German Hospital are not now in use and will be razed completely - probably during the winter months.

STATION XX. Utility shops are in a good state of repair and contain the followings carpenter shop, forge shop, and machine shop.

STATION XV. Red Cross House - complete.

OVERALL COMPLETION OF PROJECT TO DATE.  Based upon ultimate and present bed capacity the project is now 58% complete.

DATES OF OPENING.

18 September 1945    368 Beds
  9 October 1945          64 Additional Beds
15 January 1946         500 Beds ) Estimate
  1 February 1946       750 Beds )

DATE ESTIMATED FOR OVERALL COMPLETION.  1 September 1946.

Lack of skilled civilian labor arid redeployment of U. S. Engineer personnel has materially delayed the project. These difficulties have been overcome


11

to a large degree recently and it. is expected that work will proceed rapidly from now on. There has been some difficulty in procuring materials from factories and dumps outside the United States occupied sector.


12

REGISTRAR

The 279th station Hospital ceased operating as US Hospital Plant 4182 on 28th April, 1945. All records pertaining to the operation of that plant were left in England when this unit moved to France.

The 279th Station Hospital opened the US Hospital Plant,  Berlin, Germany on 18 September, 1945 per Circular 82, US Hq Berlin District dated September 18, 1945.  Primary medica1 service was furnished the 279th Station Hospital, 253 Med Mess Det, 1112 Army Postal Unit, 15th Med Depot Co and 428 MP Escort Guard Co. Hospital opened with a bed capacity of 368 beds which were increased as follows: 395 beds on 7 October, 1945, 427 beds on 8 October and 432 beds on 7 November, 1945.

This unit furnished primary medical service for a command whose annual mean strength was 444.

During the year 1945 the following was reported by the out patients

Service:

(1)    Out patients treated                      3727
(2)    Treatments given                          7495
(3)    Physical examinations given          2889
(4)    Vaccinations and immunizations    2431

The following statistics are given for the total admissions of the Hospital Plant 4464 for the period 18 September, 1945 to December 31, 1945, incl:
    
Total admissions (including civilians)                  4525
Total dispositions (including civilians)                 4301
patients remaining as of 31 December, 1945        224


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The following statistics are for US Army personnel only and do not include civilians or allied military personnel:                            
    
(1)    Total admissions                           4299
(2)    Returned to duty                           3884
(3)    Trfd to other Hosp.                         190
(4)    Deaths AWOL & other                    28
(5)    Total dispositions                          4092
(6)    Remaining in Hosp                          207
(7)    Total dispositions and remaining    4299

The following statistics are for US Army personnel only and do not include civilians or allied military personnel:

(1)    Patient days lost due to disease    22288
(2)    Patient days lost due to injury         1319
(3)    Total patient days lost                   23607

Venereal cases:
    
(1)    Gonnorhea [sic], new           1522
(2)    Gonnorhea [sic], old               175
(3)    Syphilis, new                          176
(4)    Syphilis, old                             13
(5)    Other venereal diseases            10

Deaths:

3 patients died in hospital
8 patients received dead on arrival.


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RESTRICTED
U.S. HEADQUARTERS BERLIN DISTRICT
and
HEADQUARTERS FIRST AIRBORNE ARMY
Berlin, Germany


CIRCULAR )                                                                                                                                                                APO 755, U. S. Army
NUMBER 82                                                                                                                                                                    18 September 1945

EXTRACT

*     *    *

Opening and Closing of Hospitals III

*       *       *

III.    Opening and Closing of Hospitals. The 101 General Hospital will officially close in its present location - ZINNOWALD SCHULE (Zehlendorf)(5.l-N.6) - at 2400, 17 Sept 45 and open at 0001, 18 Sept 45 in KRANKENHAUS BUCKOW (Buckow) TRIFTWEG, 51-56 (16.2-0.8).

2.    The plant number of the new 101 Hospital location is 4468.

3.    The 279 Station Hospital will open at 0001, 18 September 1945 In STUBENRAUCH KRANKENHAUS, 45-46 Unter den Eichen Strasse (7.7-N.9). Their plant number is 4464.
    
*        *       *

BY COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL GAVIN:
    

P. L. RANSOM,
Brigadier General, GSC,
Chief of Staff

OFFICIAL:

/s/ W. F. Smith
W. F. SMITH, Colonel, AGD,
Adjutant General.    

EXTRACT COPY
    


15

ADMISSIONS AND DISPOSITIONS


The Activity of the A and D department as connected with the operation of the hospital during 1945, can be divided into two periods : 1 January - 8 May while at Abergavenny, England, and 18 September to 31 December while in Berlin, Germany. In the interval between the two phases the hospital was not in operation.

During the first period the predominant feature of A and D activity was the admission of large numbers of battle casualties and trench foot cases from the continent. Patients were received in trainloads, on the average of 250-330 at a time, 60-70 per cent of these were litter patients.

According to the previous report during that period there was a total of 2479 dispositions. 37 per cent of these were transferred to holding hospitals to be evacuated to the Zone of the Interior.

In April the patient load decreased rapidly and on 28 April the hospital was officially closed to the reception of patients per VOCO 12th (US) Hosp. Center.

From May till September the hospital was staging in France, most of the time in Verdun.

The second period of the operation began in Berlin on September 18th. The A and D department was established in the main hospital building, occupying four rooms, one room for the R & E Office, one for the dispensary, one for the out patients clinic and one for the R & E Officer. A temporary prophylactic station was established in a small room adjoining one of the


16

latrines, pending establishment of a permanent prophylactic-station in the detachment area.

The personnel of this department consisted besides the R & E Officer on the average of 16 enlisted men, who were employed as shown below:

                        Day duty    Night duty

R & E                    5                3
Dispensary           3                2
Out patient clinic  3    

Because of redeployment there were some changes in personnel on short notice.  On some occasions qualified men were replaced by less experienced personnel who then were broken in and trained by the older men for the new type of work.  Besides the American personnel there were a few German civilian employees with the department: one R&E Clerk, and five litter bearers.

The out patient clinic and the consultation service in different specialties were very active and served many units in this area. The dispensary held daily sick call for the personnel of the 279th Station Hospital and that of the 15th Medical Depot. The same applied to immunizations. Vaccination of personnel against influenza was on a large scale during the month of November: 499 between the 1st and 24th of November.

A considerable number of accident cases were treated in the dispensary, chiefly automobile accidents. Allied military personnel injured were treated, and when indicated, admitted to the hospital until they could be safely transferred to their own hospital. First aid and occasionally emergency hospitalization were rendered to German civilians.


17

As for the type of patients seen, the outstanding feature of this period was the high number of cases of Gonorrhea. Letter, Office of the Surgeon, Berlin District, of 28 September, directed that all cases of suspected venereal disease be referred undiagnosed by other dispensaries to the 279th Station Hospital for hospitalization, diagnosis and treatment. This resulted in termination of dispensary treatment of Gonorrhea and in marked increase of venereal disease admissions to this hospital (2,667 V.D. admissions, 18 September to 31 December).

The hospitalization policy in general was maximum 10 days. Patients examined at the dispensary and whose diagnosis indicated that they required more than 10 days hospitalization were referred to the 101st General Hospital for medical care (as directed by letter from the Office of the Surgeon, Berlin, District, dated 3 Oct).

The total number of admissions 18 September to 31 December was 4,525. There were 4,301 dispositions. The attached graphs illustrate the admissions and dispositions during the two periods of activity described in this report.

Admissions and Dispositions Graphs


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U. S.  HEADQUARTERS BERLIN DISTRICT
and
HEADQUARTERS FIRST AIRBORNE ARMY
Berlin, Germany

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON


                                    APO 755, U.S. Army
                                    3 October 1945

SUBJECT:    Hospitalization Policy.

TO : All Hospitals, Dispensaries and Medical Detachments.

1.    Letter this headquarters dated l8 September 1945, File 312.1 (BDQ), Subject: Hospitalization Policy, is hereby rescinded.

2.    The hospitalization policy for hospitals within Berlin District will be ten (10) days for the 279th Station Hospital and one hundred and twenty (120) days for the 101st General Hospital for conditions other than Venereal Disease.

3.    Patients examined at dispensaries and whose diagnosis indicate that they will be returned to duty within ten (10) days will be transferred to the 279th Station Hospital for necessary medical care. Those patients examined at dispensaries and whose diagnoses indicate that the patients will require over ten (10) days hospitalization will be transferred to the 101st General Hospital for medical care.

4.    Those cases admitted to the 279th Station Hospital because of error or emergency reasons and who exceed the ten (10) day hospitalization policy will be transferred to the 101st General Hospital for necessary medical care.

5.    Hospitalization of venereal disease cases will continue as directed in letter of this headquarters dated 28 September 1945, File 319.1 (BDQ) Subject: Venereal Disease.

6.    Hospitals will not transfer patients unless the patients’ condition is such as to make such transfer a safe procedure. Emergency cases will be accepted for hospitalization at all hospitals as a life saving measure and such patients will be retained by the admitting hospital until such time as the condition of the patient will justify movement.

                        FOR THE SURGEON:    
                        /s/ W. R. deForest
                        W. R. deFOREST
                        Lt. Col.  MC
                        Executive Officer
 


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U.S. HEADQUARTERS BERLIN DISTRICT
and
HEADQUARTERS, FIRST AIRBORNE ARMY
Berlin, Germany

Office of the Surgeon
                                    APO 755, US Army
319.1 (BDQ)                                                                                                                                                                     28 September 1945

SUBJECT:    Venereal Disease.

TO:        Commanding Officers; All Medical Units, Installations and Detachments, US Berlin District, APO 755, US Army.

1.    Letter, U.S. Headquarters, Berlin District, Office of the Surgeon, subject: “Reporting of Venereal Disease”, dated 30 July 1945 is hereby rescinded and the following information relative to the reporting of “NEW” venereal disease cases by hospitals and dispensaries is substituted therefor to be effective with the weekly period beginning Saturday, 6 October 1945.

a.    Reporting by Dispensaries.

(1)    All cases of suspected venereal disease among U.S. Military Personnel at all Berlin District Dispensaries will be referred immediately to the 279th Station Hospital for diagnosis, treatment and hospita1ization. Dispensaries will be responsible for initiating Emergency Medical Tags, MD Form 52b for all such patients prior to sending then to the hospital. Emergency Medical Tags will not Show a positive diagnosis from the dispensary bat rather will read substantially as follows: “New Gonorrhea, Observation for” or “Old Gonorrhea, observation for”; “New Syphilis, observation for” or “Old Syphilis, observation for”.

(2)    All cases of suspected venereal disease referred to the 279th Station Ho5pita]. by dispensaries will be picked up by dispensaries on Line (E), “From Command”, Hospital Section, Patients Table of the Statistical Report, WD MD Form 86ab and will be carried in the Patients Table until the patient is returned to duty, dies or is transferred to the hospital’s detachment of patients and thus dropped from unit rolls. Likewise these cases if positively diagnosed by the hospital, will, upon receipt of notification from the hospital, be picked up by dispensaries in Column (S) “Hospital”, Second Section of the WD MD Form 86ab and will be immediately dropped in Column (3), “Disposed of Since Last Report”. No cases of venereal disease will show as remaining on unit dispensary reports. Dispensaries wi1l also account for all such new cases in the “Hospital” breakdown of venereal disease cases from Column (S), lower left of Second Section.


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(3)    Dispensaries will account for days lost in hospital due to venereal disease by members of their command in the same manner as in the past, based on notification of positive diagnosis received from the 279th Station Hospital.

(4)    It should be noted by all dispensaries that, in-as-much-as all diagnosing of venereal disease will be done at the 279th Station Hospital , the preparation of and disposition of Individual Venereal Disease Reports, ETOUSA MD Form 302, will now become the responsibility of that hospital.

b.    Reporting by Hospitals.

(1)    All suspected cases of venereal disease seen by Berlin District Dispensaries will be referred undiagnosed to the 279th Station Hospital, accompanied by Emergency Medical Tags, MD Form 52b. Such cases will be admitted to the hospital, treated and held until cured. If the case is not positively diagnosed as venereal disease, the final diagnosis upon disposition should read substantially as follows: “observation for venereal disease - no disease found”. Hospitals will not consider these patients as on a “carded for record” or “Quarters” status but rather as “Hospital”.

(2)    When such cases have been admitted to the hospital, regardless of whether they are direct admissions to the hospital or transferred undiagnosed from dispensaries, they will be picked up on line (E) “From Units”, Admissions and Dispositions Section, Hospital Statistical Report, ETOUSA MD Form 310 and will be carried in this table until patient returns to duty, is transferred, dies or is otherwise disposed of. These cases will likewise be picked up in Column (2), “All Cases”, Second Section of ETOUSA MD Form 310. These cases will not be picked up in Column (3), “cases that are old” unless they have been previously reported as a “New” case. Cases picked up in Columns (2) and (3) will be carried in the Second Section of the ETOUSA MD Form 310, until proper disposition is made. All “New” cases will be reported in the “box” breakdown of “New” cases of venereal disease admitted, lower left of Second Section.

(3)    The hospital will prepare the Individual Venereal Disease Report, ETOUSA MD Form 302 in quintuplicate in all “New” cases as it will be making all diagnoses of these cases. The hospital will be responsible for forwarding the original copy of the ETOUSA MD Form 392 to the patient̓s Unit Commander thru the Unit Surgeon, a duplicate copy to the Surgeon, US Berlin District, APO 755 to accompany the Hospital Statistical Report, ETOUSA MD Form 3l0,e duplicate copy to the Office of the Theater Surgeon, TSFET(Main) APO 755 to accompany the copy of the Hospital Statistical Report forwarded to this office, a duplicate copy to Frau Dr K. Hussels, Amtsarzt, Gesundheitsamt, Rathaus, Kirchstrasse, Zehlendorf and the fifth copy will be retained for unit file. Special attention is invited to the fact that the copies forwarded by the 279th Station Hospital to Frau Dr. K. Hussels will be delivered by the hospital daily for the preceding twenty-four hours, directly to Frau Dr. K. Mussel's Office. These copies will give only the information


21

listed below the words “Sex Contact With” on the ETOUSA MD Form 302. That section of the form above these words will be torn off by the hospital before delivery is made to Frau Dr. K. Mussel's Office. It should be noted also that there should be an Individual Venereal Disease Report Form accompanying each of the copies of the Hospital Statistical Report forwarded, accounting for each “New” case of venereal disease diagnosed during the past week and reported In the “box” breakdown, lower left of Second Section.

(4)    The 279th Station Hospital will be further responsible for notifying the patients' unit. dispensary as soon as a positive diagnosis of venereal disease has been made, together with date of diagnosis; thus making it possible for the dispensary to correctly tabulate its days lost in hospital due to venereal disease and its hospitalized cases of venereal disease from its̓ command in the “Hospital” division of Column (S), “Second Section” and in the “Hospital” division “box” breakdown, lower left of Second Section, Weekly Statistical Report, WD MD Form 86ab.

c.    Monthly Venereal Disease Report.

(1)    The changes in reporting of venereal disease cases as outlined in paragraphs a and b above will in no way modify or change the pa3t procedure of preparing the Monthly Venereal Disease Report. Even though the 279th Station Hospital will diagnose all venereal disease cases among U.S. Military Personnel in Berlin District, it will include on its Monthly Venereal Disease Report only those cases from its own command, units attached for Medical Service and from its Detachment of Patients. All other cases will be accounted for on the Monthly Venereal Disease Report of the dispensaries rendering Medical Service to the patient's Unit.

2.    Concurrently with the termination of dispensary treatment of venereal disease cases, each dispensary will immediately turn in to the Berlin District Medical Supply Depot all pencillin (sic) and all other stocks of medical supplies hitherto maintained for the treatment of venereal disease.

FOR THE SURGEON:


/s/ Walter R. deForest
      WALTER H. DeFOREST
                                                                                            Lt Col, Medical Corps
                                                                                            Executive Officer


22

MEDICAL SERVICE

During the period 1 January 1945 to 8 May 1945 while the 279th Station Hospital was functioning both as a Station and General Hospital in Abergavenny, Wales and receiving patients direct from the continent, the three largest categories of patients treated during this period were:

1.    Trench Foot and Frostbite
2.    Neuro-Psychiatry
3.    Respiratory and Infectious diseases

An average number of gastro-intestinal, cardio-vascular, athritic [sic], dermatological and venereal disease cases were also treated. The number of patients treated during this period will be found in the attached table.

During the first period a special program for the treatment of Trench Foot was under the direction of Captain Philip M. Joffe, MC. The results of treatment were gratifying and a large number of these cases were returned to full duty. The Neuro-psychiatric section received the second largest number of patients during the first period and these were largely of the psycho-neurotic type secondary to combat. Respiratory diseases made up the third largest number of cases received during the first period and among this group were a large number of cases of Infectious-mononucleosis.

From 8 May 1945 to 11 September 1945 while the hospital was in the Eagle Main Medical Staging Area, Verdun, France, awaiting orders for a new station, the majority of the personnel


23

were placed on Detached Service with other Medical Units in France while the remaining personnel remained with the 279th Station Hospital and participated in training programs and such medical meetings as were available at that post.

On the 18th of September the hospital opened in Berlin, Germany. The Medical Service with the usual divisions into sections. On the 28th of September this unit was designated as the Venereal Disease Treatment Center for the Berlin District, which necessitated the changing of the Medical Service into the following sections:

1.      General Medicine
2.      Communicable Diseases
3.      Officer's and Women's Section
4.      Venereal Disease

A program for the rapid treatment of cases of Gonorrhea, non-specific Urethritis, Syphillis [sic], Chancroid and other venereal infections was set up as follows:

All suspected cases of Gonorrhea were sent to a special diagnostic laboratory immediately after admission where smears were taken. A report on these smears was available within 3 hours, and in those cases found positive, treatment with penicillin was immediately instituted. This treatment consisted of 200,000 units of penicillin given in doses of 40,000 units at three hour intervals. Following this treatment three negative smears were taken as a criterion of cure and these patients were discharged to their units, with instructions to


24
    
[report] to their unit medical officers for a weekly check-up on three successive weeks and return to this hospital for a final checkup one month after completion of treatment.

In the cases of Gonorrhea failing to respond to this routine treatment, the dosage was continued until cure was effected. Only in very few cases was an amount of penicillin over 500,000 units required.

In those cases suspected of Gonorrhea in which the original and two successive smears were negative, three cultures at 24 hour intervals were made. If those cultures were all negative the case was diagnosed as non-specific Urethritis. The number of oases of non-specific Urethritis have averaged 6.2 percent of all those admitted for observation of Gonorrhea. Those cases of non-specific Urethritis have been treated with equally good results with both sulfadiazine and penicillin.

The cases of suspected Syphillis [sic] admitted to the Venereal Disease Section were first referred to the diagnostic laboratory for both Dark-field and serological examination. In no instance was treatment begun on these patients until a positive diagnosis of syphillis [sic] had either been made or excluded by repeated laboratory and clinical examinations. Cases of primary syphillis [sic] were treated with the prescribed 2,400,000 units of penicillin and discharged to their respective units with instructions for follow-up examinations according to Army Regulations. No patient was discharged who still had an open venereal lesion.


25

The service has encountered relatively few cases which have failed to respond to the above treatment. Numerous cases of Chancroid have been seen on the service and have responded well to sulfa-therapy. In past experience, penicillin locally in the chancroidal infections has not been effective.

Total patients seen on the Venereal Disease Section is included in the attached tables. This section has also maintained an active out-patient clinic, seeing an average of 50 patients per day. In addition a women's clinic for the pelvic examination of food-handlers has been conducted 3 days each week and an average of 30 patients per day were seen in this clinic.

The section on General Medicine has of necessity included all types of cases. The8e have been predominately upper respiratory infections and acute tonsillar infections. The respiratory infections seen have been distinctly acute in nature, accompanied by high fever and prostration. Most of them have responded to symptomatic treatment.

Over 100 cases of pneumonia have been treated on the Medical Service with the majority of cases being of the primary atypical variety and only moderately severe in character. The Service has had one death from pneumonia.

Penicillin was used in a large percentage of the many cases of tonsilitis which have been seen. The throats of these patients were all cultured and some type of streptococcus found in the majority. The response of these patients to penicillin was dramatic and most of them had an average of a 4.5 days-stay


26

in the hospital.

The communicable disease section has received a rather large number of cases of Diptheria [sic] as the accompanying table will show. These have all been treated with Antitoxin and have responded well to that therapy. This section also received cases of Scarlet Fever, Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Measles, and Mumps.

The out-patient clinics for each service have been very active and as the table will show, handled a large number of patients.


27-28

Medical Service Statistics


29

 VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL

During the period 18 September 1945 through 31 December 1945, the period of activities in Berlin, venereal disease control suffered from the many problems contained in a large occupied city. Despite these problems the venereal disease rate was kept at a comparatively low rate. Instruction and discussion periods with the enlisted men were held at regular frequent intervals. In these periods, the problems of control of venereal disease as well as the prophylactic measures were freely discussed with a high degree of interest displaced. An officer and a non-commissioned officer were chosen to assist the regularly appointed venereal disease control officer. These assistants directed their activities towards establishing proper off duty fields of interest among the detachment.

Methods of prophylaxis as established by the Surgeon, Berlin District, included the use of sulfadiozine [sic] tablets to be dispensed at the prophylaxis status. Mo study was made to determine the value of this means locally.

In the broad field of venereal disease control it is difficult to select any one factor which has curbed the high incidence of venereal disease in Berlin.

The persistent efforts at locating the source of this infection and following through with treatment have been outstanding among the factors contributing to the success of venereal disease control. All patients diagnosed as victims of venereal disease have been questioned carefully and completely. The information concerning the source of infections was then passed as to the venereal disease control section of the Surgeon’s office, Berlin District and action taken by this section to institute    


30

treatment as well as to hospitalize the patient until cured.

A secondary step in venereal disease control was the restriction of three weeks applied to all gonorrhea cases following hospital treatment. Post treatment check up was carried out by having the patient return to the Venereal Disease Clinic at  weekly intervals during their restriction. In this manner if the disease recurred, the patient could be hospitalized and no loss of control was caused by the rapid treatment and release of the patient from the hospital.


[Not numbered in original]

SURGICAL SERVICE.

During the period from 1 Jan 1945 to 8 May 1945 the Surgical Service was occupied mainly with giving definitive treatment to battle casualties. The work consisted largely of orthopedic cases and some general surgery.

The admission of surgical cases in January was 803, in February 461, and during March and April the number of admissions was practically negligible, being only 36 in March and 23 in April.

At the beginning of January the surgical service had 15 wards and 7 tents. At the end of March 5 wards and 5 tents were closed, only 242 surgical cases remaining on the service. In the month of April the remaining surgical cases were disposed of and the service was officially closed 28 April 1945 to the reception of patients.

Besides the professional care of patients, a daily X-ray conference was conducted, at which the treatment and disposition of various cases were discussed by the members of the surgical staff. On Sunday afternoon an hour session was held in which some phase of surgical work was presented and then discussed by the staff.

From 28 April 1945 to l8 September 1945 the service was inactive. On 18 September 1945, when the hospital opened in Berlin, the surgical service had three (3) wards, two general surgery and one orthopedic. The operating room section was set. up in the delivery rooms of the former German obstetrical department, because the German operating rooms were damaged. This set up was adequate, however, and full use was made of German Equipment.


31

The service followed the ten day policy of the hospital, and admitted only minor cases. The average census was, therefor, 40-50 patients in the service at any one time.

A rapid turn over of personnel, a small staff, and a light service, prevented regular staff meetings. Ward rounds were made frequently by the total staff. Procedures have been conservative, following theater directives. There has been no need for improvisation or for new methods.

The Statistical Report of the Surgical Service (inclosure # l) and the report of the Anesthesia Section giving the number and types of anesthesia given (inclosure # 2) are attached to this report. There is also included in the anesthesia report the number of units of blood plasma administered.


32-33

Inclosure # 1

Inclosure # 2


34

DENTAL SERVICE

During the period 1 January 1945 to 8 May 1945 while this unit was in Wales, several fractures of the maxille and mandible were treated.

The average sittings per month for this period was 1200. Besides the professional care of patients, the service maintained classes for both officers and enlisted personnel.

The prosthetic department was very active during this period, having enlarged the working space and procured new equipment, thus enabling the construction of both acrylic and gold crown, bridges, inlays and all general prosthetic appliances, including the processing of acrylic eyes.

The period this unit was in the Verdun staging area awaiting orders for a new station, personnel of the Dental Service were on Detached Service with other units in the Oise Intermediate Section.

On the 15th of September the Dental Clinic was established temporarily in one of the existing hospital buildings, arid using the available T/E equipment and personnel, initiating dental service for the hospital.

Four dental officers and six enlisted assistants and technicians comprised the operating personnel.

Prosthetic laboratory service was available through the facilities of the 101st General Hospital, and a large out-patient clinic was maintained.


35

Plans were initiated for construction of a six chair completely equipped Dental Clinic and requisitions submitted for base units, base chairs and other items of Zone of Interior equipment to equip the new Clinic in keeping with the standards of fixed installations in the United States.

Construction has progressed and it is contemplated the clinic will be completed according to plan.

Attached herewith Medical Department Form 57, Report of Dental Service covering the period this unit has been in operation in Berlin, Germany.


36-37

Form 57 Medical Department, E.T.O., U.S.A., Report of Dental Service, 279th Station Hospital, Berlin, Germany, 15 Sept 1945 to 31 Dec 1945


38

LABORATORY SERVICE

During the period 1 January 1945 to 29 April 1945 while this hospital was in Wales and operating as a General Hospital, the demands upon the laboratory service were quite heavy, however, with an experienced staff, all work was carried out in an efficient manner,

For the period this hespital was in the Medical Staging Area at Verdun, France, awaiting orders for a new station, the majority of personnel were placed on Detached Service with other units and the remainder of personnel participated in a training schedule.

On September 19 the laboratory started functioning at the new station in Berlin and was set up in Station VII occupying one room in that building, The work increased in the weeks following and two small rooms were added, but by the middle of October and with the increase of Venereal Disease work, the laboratory space was extended to five rooms. Departments of Bacteriology, Biochemistry, Hematology and Serology and the laboratory office occupied one room each.

The end of the year found the laboratory in its new location in the Clinic Building. Six large modern well ventilated rooms have been provided and are being occupied.

The departments of the Laboratory are now: Bacteriology, Biochemistry, Hematology, Parisitology [sic], Dark Fields, Serology, Urinalysis, and the Morgue. There is also a room exclusively for the withdrawing of blood from patients and another room for office and filing work. The Department of Tissue pathology


39

is being initiated and it will be well equipped and in operation by the and of January 1946. There is also a small animal house for the newly acquired animals (Guinea pigs and mice).

The morgue is located in a separate building approximately one block from the main laboratory. The building was redecorated and ready for use in the middle of December with all the facilities of a modern hospital morgue. It is believed to be one of the most modern and well equipped morgues in any United States Army installation in the European Theater.

The services rendered by the Laboratory Service have been many and varied. In addition to the clinical pathology tests performed for patients of this hospital, it has also performed all of the serology work for all dispensaries in Berlin, all clinical laboratory tests for food handlers and all laboratory tests on all German civilians before they are engaged to work for Military Government. The Laboratory personnel are also engaged in the examination of beverages and food products, including water, ice cream, Coca-Cola, alcoholic beverages, etc., which are consumed by the American troops in Berlin.

In addition to autopsies performed in this hospital, our pathologist was also called upon by the 101st General Hospital during the period when they had no pathologist.

From the time the laboratory opened on the 19th of September until 31 December 1945, the laboratory has performed 32,976 tests. The breakdown by departments is as follows:

Bacteriology        11,673
Biochemistry            391
Hematology          4,531


40

Parasitology        1,086
Pathology                52
Serology             9,623
Urinalysis            5,132

Work in the different departments increased considerably, especially in Venereal Disease diagnosis, so that it was necessary to increase the personnel. German civilian laboratory technicians were employed to help carry on the duties of the American personnel, This was a good policy for the personnel that were hired are well trained technicians and familiar with hospital laboratory work. At the present time nine German civilians are employed in the laboratory to replace Enlisted Men who have been redeployed and to augment the personnel present.

The nine Enlisted personnel presently assigned to the laboratory have all attended Army Technicians' Schools and have had long laboratory experience in the Army.

The Officer personnel consists of one Captain and two Lieutenants one of whom has additional duties outside the Laboratory. The Officers supervise and review all work of the different departments. Regularly weekly meetings are held with all the personnel to discuss new methods and developments which leads to a more efficient and smoother operating department.


41

X-RAY DEPARTMENT

In the advance party, which arrived several weeks before the official opening of the 18th of September in Berlin, Germany, were two X-ray technicians to aid in the primary operation of the department.

Under the direction of Major B. Stein, the department was rearranged; and some German accessory equipment, such as view boxes, cassettes, film and processing apparatus, were replaced by those of American manufacture to facilitate the use of American film of different sizes and of superior quality.

The German Machines in the department were of excellent manufacture and essentially in good operating condition. These consisted of one Siemens' 200 Ma.-125 Kv. rotating anode X-ray unit, one 200 Ma.-125 Kv. rotating anode, fluoroscopic, tilt-table unit with an ingenious spot film device. These were found to he adequate for the volume of work expected in the first weeks of operation. A basic technique for these machines, together with the use of American film, was standardized with the aid of a German technician, who was retained as an employee.

At the beginning, the personnel consisted of seven technicians of Army training and experience, two German female civilian technicians, and Major Stein.

Redeployment has not affected the functions too seriously as the replacement of personnel has proceeded gradually and smoothly. Major Stein was redeployed in October and replaced by Capt John W. Smythe, who remained


42

in charge through the remaining period of this report.

Several weeks after the official opening, the Army field units were unpacked and tested, and one of these and a cystoscopy table unit were installed in the additional rooms of the department; and two portable units were set up in the medical and surgical buildings.

Major improvements which have been made in the department have been the result of improvisation and combination of both the German and American equipment. From part of a 35 mm photoroentgen unit, an upright Bucky unit for erect positioning was built.

The Siemens' X-ray unit was reconstructed into a horizontal stereo tube shift, and this synchronized with a General Electric cassette changer; a signal light system was instituted as a safety precaution in the darkroom; a film identification flash printer was built by the technicians for efficient labelling [sic] of roentgenograms. The cystoscopy table Bucky was synchronized to the hand switch, a feature not present on the standard equipment. Special cylinders and cones were made from shell-casings for radiography of sinuses, mastoids etc. These were also adaptable to either the Siemens or American field units.

In the main medical ward, an accessory X-ray room was provided so that it would not be necessary for patients who were suffering from upper respiratory disease to go to the X-ray department in inclement weather. A portable field unit and an improvised cassette holder and table simplified the procedure of portable chest films on patients not completely bed-ridden.


43

During the period of operation, American film was used almost entirely, however sane German film is used for the spot films following fluoroscopy. German chemicals for processing films were used for the majority of the period.

1582 patient examinations were completed in the period of this report, the statistical breakdown of which is present in the following chart:

Total No. fluoroscopic examination: F.B. Localization      4
                    G.I. Studies          40
                    All Others            10

Total No. radiographic examinations: (Patients)        1582
No. gastro-intestinal examinations:                41
No. K.U.B. examinations:    Plain                6
                Excretory            10
                Retrograde            1
No. gall-bladder examinations:                7

Patient Examinations:

   American Personnel:
        No. of Enlisted Men X-rayed             1254
        No. of Officers X-rayed                       148
        No. of Nurses X-rayed                          56
        No. of WACs X-rayed                          22
        No. of U S Navy Personnel X-rayed        6
        No. of ARC Personnel X-rayed               5
        No. of American Civilians X-rayed         53
    Russian Army personnel            3
    French Army personnel             1
    Displaced Persons                     5
    German Civilians                     26
    German POWs                         3


44

OFFICERS' SECTION

From 1 January 1945 to 27 March 1945, which has previously been reported, this hospital was functioning under Column 18 T/O and T/E 8-560 dated 22 July 1942 with a strength of 41 male Officers.

On 27 March 1945 the unit was reorganized under Column 18 T/O and T/E 8-560 dated 28 October 1944, per Organization Order No. 204, Headquarters, Com Z, European Theater of Operations, dated 21 March 1945. The new organization reduced the strength of male officer personnel from 41 to 39.

The 39 Officers were in the following categories:

20     Medical Corps
4       Dental
12     Medical Administrative
1       Sanitary Corps
2       Chaplains

During this period while the hospital was functioning as a General Hospital, the entire staff was required to devote the greater part of their time to assigned duties. However, in the latter part of April and the first of May the hospital was officially closed to the reception of patients and as a result a great deal of time was devoted to recreation.

While at the Medical Staging Area in Verdun, France, the majority of Officers were placed. on Detached Service with Medical Units in France while the remaining personnel participated in a training program.


45

Upon receiving orders to move to the new station in Berlin, Germany, many changes were made in Officer personnel.

The hospital has operated on the same T/O as mentioned above, however, with redeployment and various reassignments, the personnel has not been as static during this period as contemplated in the coming months.

Attached herewith rosters of Officers and Nurses which have been transferred in and out of this organization during the period 1 September 1945 to 31 December 1945, which indicates the large number of personnel changes mentioned above.


46-58


CHANGE OF STATUS OFFICER PERSONNEL
1 SEP 1945 THRU 30 SEP 1945 INCL



59

ARMY NURSE CORPS

The demands upon the Nursing Service for the 1 January 1945 to 8 May 1945 were very heavy duo to the hospital receiving a large number of battle casualities [sic] direct from the continent. Work schedule for this period consisted of ten hour days and twelve hour nights with one day per month arid two half days per week off duty being given. Even though it was-necessary to work longer hours than this many times, morale remained high as the nurses shared in the feeling of accomplishment.

Recreation for this period consisted mainly of dances and gatherings at the Officer' Club; promotion and. birthday parties and occasional theater parties.

The period 8 May 1945 to 10 September 1945 while the hospital was inactive and awaiting orders, many of the nurses were placed on Detached Service with other medical units while others remained with the hospital and participated In a training schedule. Many of the nurses were fortunate to receive leaves to the Riviera, Paris and other leave centers during this period which added greatly to the morale of all.

On the 10th of September, thirty-nine nurses proceeded from the Eagle Main Staging Area at Verdun, France to an air strip at Rheims, France. Half of the group were nurses from the original 279th Station Hospital and the others were low- point personnel or volunteers from other units in France.


60

The following day at 1500 hours the nurses boarded planes for the journey to the new station in Berlin, Germany. The Chief Nurse met the group at the Templehof [sic] Airdrome and escorted them to the hospital where they were billeted until the apartments were prepared for occupancy.

By the 14th of September, the Nurses' apartments were clean and ready for occupancy. Four nurses were assigned to each apartment and even though bombs and artillery had marred much of the buildings original beauty, it was great luxury compared to the buildings In which the majority of nurses had been billeted while in France.

A great deal of construction and repairing was being done to the hospital and on the 18th of September was prepared to accomodate [sic] the first patients. Everybody was very well pleased to have a job to do again and looked forward to the days In Berlin.

A beautiful home was found a few blocks from the hospital and made available f or an Officers' Club. A group of men and women officers were selected by ballot to plan for a social life for the group, and the first dance was held on 19 September 1945. Dances, with floor shows as added attractions, have followed with regularity every Wednesday night since.

Redeployment has taken many of the original 279th nurses with the first group of thirty leaving on the 13th of October. Since that time many low-pointers and volunteers have joined the staff and can now be called old members of the organization.


61

There is attached herewith to this report a roster of the nurses showing their duty assignment as of 31 December 1945.

Quotas for leaves to Switzerland started in late November and many of the nurses have been fortunate to go on this trip.

Christmas was celebrated in traditional fashion with church services, gift giving, parties, a banquet and a formal dance.

With working and living conditions above average, the morale of the nurses in this organization appears to be high.


62-63

Army Nurse Corps Roster


64

DETACHMENT MEDICAL DEPARTMENT

The Detachment Medical Department for the period 1 January 1945 to 18 May 1945 while this hospital was in Wales, had an average strength of 360 men. Due to the heavy patient load during this period, passes and furloughs were granted to only a small percent. Upon arrival of the hospital at the Medical Staging Area at Verdun, France, more effort was made to grant passes and furloughs to those who weren't placed on Detached Service with other Medical units in France.
                    
In September the hospital moved to its present location with an assigned strength of 373. By 31 December 1945 this figure decreased to 301, redeployment and reassignment being largely responsible.

Duties of the professional services were mainly in the direction of setting up wards and clinics for the expected opening of the hospital and the arrival of patients. Administrative service personnel were greater taxed during this time because of heavier administrative demands brought on by redeployment, applications for reenlistment in the Regular Army, transfer of personnel to other organizations, and transfer of personnel into this Detachment. With the opening of the hospital and the gradual increase of the number of patients the professional service personnel found their services to be in greater demand and made it necessary to curtail their off-duty time.

Despite the gradual increase in the number of patients, the curtailment of pass and furlough privileges was only very slight and as many furloughs were granted to organized leave centers as the patient load permitted.

Recreational activities were further enhanced by the establishment of an Enlisted Men’s Club in the immediate vicinity of the hospital.  Under the


65

auspices of the Post Exchange, beer, coca-cola and ice cream were dispensed; the monthly liquor allowance was also served here. A civilian band was engaged to furnish music in the evening. In addition to the day-room a reading and writing roam was made available for those that desired a quiet place for rest and relaxation. A well-stocked library of fiction and non-fiction was supplied by the Special Service Department.

Quarters for all enlisted personnel were at. first established on the post. Shortly before the end of the year it was necessary to start evacuating these quarters in order to convert the building occupied into a hospital ward. New billets have been requisitioned off the post proper, in buildings and apartments formerly housing German civilian families. Each building and apartment, depending on the number of rooms, will be able to accomodate [sic] from six to eight men. The greater part of the bedding will have to be brought to the new quarters and set up in rooms that were once living and dining rooms. Furniture left there by the civilians add greatly to the appearance and comfort of the quarters.


66

UNIT SUPPLY

During the period 1 January through May, which has been reported previously, the Unit Supply functioned with the usual activities of requisitioning and issuing clothing and equipment, securing cleaning and preserving materials and stationary supplies.

While the hospital was in the staging area at Verdun, France, the supply was not. very active due to the limited number of personnel present for duty.

On or about 1 September 1945 the advance party proceeded from Verdun, France to Berlin, Germany to set up the hospital in its new location.

The functions of supply since the arrival at the new station in Berlin have been as follows:

    1.    laundry service was furnished the organization by this Department, 4024 bundles were handled for the Enlisted Men, 619 bundles were handled for the commissioned personnel.

    2.    Dry cleaning service was furnished the organization. 2634 pieces were done for the Enlisted Men and 325 pieces for the commissioned personnel.

    3.    Usual salvaging of clothing and equipment was done during this period. Normal allowances of expendable supplies wore obtained.

    4.    Eight pieces of baggage were shipped, for patients and personnel transferred from this organization.

    5.    Special lists of equipment were devised for this organization to enable it to perform its mission.

Preparations were made and forms and procedures set up to bring Unit Supply into conformance with Zone of Interior procedures by 1 February 1946.


67
                
Involved in this work was a complete physical inventory of the property of the hospital and the adjustment of all discrepancies.


68

 MEDICAL SUPPLY


For the period 1 January 1945 through 18 May 1945, which has been reported previously, the Medica1 Supply had one of the busiest periods since the activation of the 279th Hospital.

Many times difficulty was encountered in obtaining supplies on short notice, however, the Medical Supply functioned quite smoothly.

During June, July, August and September, the Unit waited at the Maginot-Neil Staging Area, and Medical Supply was inactive, except for storage of a few items of equipment on hand.

The latter part of August, a party of fifteen Enlisted Men and one Officer was dispatched to 402d Medical Depot at Fouge, France with the mission of guarding a train load of supplies going to Berlin, Germany. There were twenty-five vans loaded with supplies and one van front and rear with cots and water for the guard detail. Guards were unarmed except for a few personally-owned weapons.

The trip was a series of long waits interrupted by short moves. Considerable study was made of the problems of maintaining a reasonable rate of movement. Discussions were held through French and German speaking members of the detail with the train crews and also with the Rai1 Transportation Officers enroute. However, it is felt that indicating to the train crew that left overs from the meals would be available to the crew as long as reasonable progress was made was the most effective system.

Seals were broken on two cars during one stop, but no supplies were lost.


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On arrival in Berlin, the guard crew become the unloading crew. Shortage of personnel, plus an urgent call for supplies to set up wards placed a heavy load on Medical Supply. The problem was met by issuing supplies direct from stock-pile to wards, before completing the Tally-in. This procedure made it possible to meet the existing deadline for receipt of patients. Property accounting was rendered more difficult, but the patients were assured comfortable medical care.

Medical equipment was stored under canvas and in basements of Stations VIII and IX and issued as construction on wards and clinics progressed.

Difficulty was encountered in securing certain needed items including various cleaning materials.

The developing mission of the hospital and its geographical isolation from other medical installations necessitated repeated requests for items over and above T/E for 750 bed Station Hospitals.

Many items of German manufacture have been utilized in the operation of the hospital.


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MESS DEPARTMENT

In view of the report which was submitted on 30 June 1945, a summary only will be made for the period 1 January 1945 to 30 June 1945.

Three mess halls were in operation during this period under the direction of 1st Lt. Michael J. Skvorak.  Food was prepared according to menus issued by the Quartermaster Corps.

A bakery was operated in the Detachment mess and supplied all messes with cakes, cookies, rolls and pastry.

The patients' mess carried the heaviest load in the department and required the close supervision of the Mess Officer. Two dietitians supervised the preparation and cooking of the special diets and also supervised the loading of food carts for bed patients on the wards. The dietitians made a visit to the wards in order to correct any food problems which might exist.

During this period the Patients' Mess served a total of 338,709 meals. This total Includes those fed in the mess hall, on the wards and the special diets. In the Officers' Mess 38,724 meals were served to Officers and Nurses, and 480 meals were served to civilian personnel authorized to use the mess. The Medical Detachment Mess served 126,323 meals,

During June, July and August 1945, the 279th Mess Personnel were in the Staging Area, Verdun, France awaiting orders for a new station. As several hospital units were in this area, messing was rotated from one unit to the other. Three kitchens were used and the food was all, prepared In field ranges. Approximately 2000 persons were served at each meal.

Upon reaching the new station in Berlin on the 13th of September, two mess halls were opened. On September 26th the Ambulatory patients’ dining


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room was opened in the basement of Station VI. The food for this dining room was prepared in the main kitchen which supplied the Enlisted Mess and was then transported the short distance by food carts and placed on the steam tables in order to keep it warm until consumed.

In addition to the enlisted men working in the kitchen, several German Civilians are employed. They are working as bakers, cooks, cooks' helpers, waitresses and others which do the cleaning and washing. The civilians cook their own food which Is issued by the quartermaster and have their own mess line adjacent to the kitchen.

The cooking and the preparation of the food is under the direct supervision of two dietitians. They also supervise the loading of the ward food carts which are sent to the wards and to the patients' dining room, and in addition make up all the various menus and special diets.

Electricity, gas and steam is used for cooking. As a whole, the equipment at the present time is quite adequate although some additions and improvements need to be made.

The patients' dining rooms in Station VI were closed shortly before Christmas for renovation. A new floor was layed [sic], walls were removed and the entire section is to be painted. When all renovations are completed and new equipment added, this mess Will be adequate to accomodate [sic] all the ambulatory patients at one time. Using a separate exit from the entrance will overcome any congestion of traffic. It is contemplated this dining room will be ready for use on or about 15 January 1946.

In October 28,200 patients' meals were served, November 21,081, and in December 21,081. During this three month period, approximately 108,000 meals were served to the Officers and Enlisted Men of this unit.


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During this period, from the opening until the end of December, arrangements were made for thirty-three entertainments, parties and contests on the wards and a total of one hundred and thirty-four similar recreational events which took place in the Red Cross House. The Highlights of the program were the festivities centering about the holidays. On Christmas day, arrangements were made for a large party for children from two orphanages in the neighborhood which had been contacted through our two Chaplains, Father Evett and Chaplain Woyke. The military encouraged these holiday activities, for the children of Berlin.

From August through the middle of November, the social work cases were handled by Miss Krefft, Secretary, in the absence of a Social worker on the Red Cross Staff. These cases pertained mainly to Detachment men requesting Red Cross verification of home conditions in applying for emergency furloughs and dependency discharge. However, on November 18th, Miss Edith Burtt, Assistant Field Director, joined the staff to take care of the administrative details and social work.

From the time of arrival here, everybody was impressed by the great need. for recreational facilities for the military here in Berlin. The feeling of unrest, the lack of wholesome social contacts and the unsettled state of affairs during the period of adjustment at the beginning of the occupation era all converged into a prevailing atmosphere of discontent, boredom and abandon which presented to the military and to Red Cross a definite challenge in the way of morale building. All were aware of the needs on our own post and were interested in doing all we could to help our own Detachment men. As a step in that direction Miss Burtt, the Assistant Field Director, organized a coordinating committee made up of the Detachment Commander,


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Special Service Officer, the two Chaplains, the I. & E. Officer and the ARC representative. This committee meets once a week to discuss problems and suggest possible means of working them out together.

Several recreational plans of major interest on the post now are the establishment in the Red Cross house of a photographic dark room where picture hobbyists may spend many happy hours, the building of a post theater and the set-up for showing ward movies. The value of a large and well equipped craft shop is recognized and every effort is being made to get the permanent craft shop set up and in operation.

In the latter part of December a new member was assigned to the staff as a recreation worker. As time goes on and the facilities and staff are enlarged, it is hoped that the Red Cross will be able to offer a wider range of activities for patients and the hospital as a whole.


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UNIT POST OFFICE

During the period 1 January 1945 through May 1945 while this unit was in Wales, the Unit Post Office had one of the busiest periods since the activation of the hospital in 1943.

In addition to serving patients and personnel of the hospital, it was required to render service to the personnel of the South Wales District Engineers and the Rai1 Transportation Office. The Post Office also performed courier service for these organization to and from the 29th Area Headquarters and the Finance Office.

During this period a total of $15,700 of Money Orders was furnished. 675 packages mailed and a total of 1270 begs of mail for the 4182 Hospital Plant and 328 bags for the 279th Station Hospital were received, sorted and distributed.

The Unit Mail clerks operated the Camp Pest Office at Maginot Neil Staging Area during June and July. This assignment was turned over to personnel of another hospital in August when a move was expected. Two men in the 1112 APU were given “On-The-Job”training at APO 586 in Verdun, France beginning 3 July 1945 while awaiting shipment to Berlin.

On arrival at Berlin, the Unit Post Office was organized with a delivery room separate from the finance section. The two man APU handled all stamp sales. Money Order business and registration and insurance. The registration and insurance service began at 1112 APU on 16 October 1945. Due to redeployment of officers and nurses, a large number of packages were stamped during October and November. Mail was routinely taken to APO 755 twice daily.

Postal supplies were requisitioned upon arrival in Berlin. While waiting for supplies, parcels were handled thru local APO. Supplies arrived


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14 October 1945. The 1112 APU was in full operation 16 October 1945.

SSgt Leon Walters served during the last half of 1945 as Army Mail Clerk. T-5 Mike Strouth joined 3 July 1945 as asst Army Mail Clerk. T-5 Max Yost joined 15 October 1945 and became Asst Army Mail Clerk to replace T-5 Strouth who was redeployed to ZI, 25 November 1945.

ACTIVITY AT 279TH STA HOSP POST OFFICE IN 1945


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TRANSPORTATION SECTION

From 1 January 1945 trough May 1945 while the 279th Station Hospital was stationed in Wales, the Transportation Section was operating with a full T/O and T/E.

The main objective of this Section was to keep all vehicle in perfect running condition at all times so that it would not hinder the transporting of patients and supplies.

The accident rate for this period was very low due to the experienced drivers assigned to the vehicles.

During the period the hospital was at the Verdun Staging Area, the Transportation Section dispatched only the necessary veheicles [sic] to handle the transporting of supplies and other official business required.

In September the unit moved to its present location in Berlin, Germany with a full T/E of vehicles. This number was found not adequate to meet the needs at the present time to other trucks are dispatched daily from a Quartermaster Trucking Company in the Berlin District. The additional number of vehicles are required at this time to take care of the transporting of equipment being used in the construction of damaged buildings. Also there is a great deal of waste to be hauled away from these buildings,

The main difficulty found in the Berlin area is the length of time it takes to procure spare parts for the proper maintenance of the vehicles. At different times it has been necessary to dead-line a vehicle longer than it should be, due to the fact necessary spare parts are not obtainable.

With the redeployment of many key personnel, and the additional trucks being used at the present time, it was necessary to employ German civilian drivers and machinics [sic] which has helped to keep the vehicles ready for dispatch at all times.


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PROTESTANT CHAPLAIN.

During the period 1 January 2945 through May 1945 while the hospital was located in Wales, the duties of the Protestant Chaplain consisted of regular services on Sunday mornings and Wednesday evenings and a special Memorial Service was held on Good Friday which was very well attended.

Following is a summary of some of the activities engaged in and the number of persons reached during this period a

NUMBER        ACTIVITY            NUMBER OF PERSONS
4                Communion Service                   346
13              Preaching Services                   1085
16              Orientation Services                 1655
142            Hospital Visits
                  Personal Contacts                   4310
307            Office Interviews                       307
3                Ministers' Meetings                      22
21              Official Calls                               63

Civilian contacts consisted of attendance at Ministers' Meetings and Church Services, arranging for volunteer singers for the services, and official calls in connection with Marriage Applications.

For the period June, July and August while the hospital was in the staging area at Verdun, France, the duties were not as heavy due to the hospital being inactive and the majority of personnel on Detached Service with other units. However regular services were held and several interviews held with the personnel present for duty.

During the early part of September the hospital moved to its new station in Berlin, Germany. Many alterations had to be made as the building in which the chapel located had been damaged during the war. Work progressed rapidly and in a short time an excellent chapel was ready for use.

Many contacts have been made with civilians pastors in the Berlin area


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and due to the fact that the Protestant Chaplain was able to speak the German language fluently, was requested to participate in civilian services which it is felt will help to a great extent to teach the people the better way of life in which they have been deprived for a period of twelve years.

Regular services have been held on Sunday mornings and Wednesday evenings and a special service for Thanksgiving and Christmas. Following is a summary of the activities engaged in during the period the hospital has been in Berlin:

    NUMBER OF TIMES        ACTIVITIES            NUMBER OF PERSONS

    303                                    Personal Interviews                303
    95                                      Hospital visits                       1920
    44                                      Conference with Officers          50
    16                                      Visits to Day Room                114
    13                                      Visits to Red Cross                480
    19                                      German classes-Teaching         78


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CATHOLIC CHAPLAIN

During the period while the 279th Station Hospital was located in Wales, which has been covered by a previous report, the activities of the Chaplain consisted of the regular and week-day Masses, Confessions and Communions. Lenten Services were held With Stations of the Cross each Thursday, Special Mass Ash Wednesday, Mass Holy Thursday and Stations of the Cross Good Friday.

Many personal contacts were made with patients, Catholic literature distributed and letters of sympathy written to family of casualities [sic].

While the hospital was located in the Verdun Staging Area the activities of the Catholic Chaplain were lees due to the hospital. being inactive and regular hospital. personnel being on Detached Service with other units. Regular Sunday and weekday masses were held and many personal contacts made with personnel in the Staging Area.

Upon arrival at the new station in Berlin, Germany in September, a chapel was available in the Main Hospital building, and through the efforts of the Commanding Officer, many renovations have been made and a very beautiful chapel is now in use. Through contacts with civilian pastors of the Sacred Heart Church and Rosary Church in Berlin, a large organ and many chairs were obtained for use in the Hospital Chapel.

Regular Sunday and weekday masses have been held and special masses on Thanksgiving and Christmas which were very well attended. Catholic literature and other items have been distributed to patients and personnel of the hospital.


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During the period 1 September 1945 through 31 December 1945, the following services have been rendered by the Catholic Chaplain:

                                                            NO.                          ATTENDANCE
        Sunday- Masses                            34                                    2247
        Thanksgiving Day Mass                   1                                        61
        Christmas Day Masses                    3                                      169
        New Years Day Masses                  2                                      131
        Daily Masses                                 91                                      731
        Nuptial High Mass (Marriage)          1                                        86
        Baptisms of Personnel                      3                                          3
        Personal Interviews                      447                                      447
        Visits to Wards                            109                                    1893
        Religious & Moral Instructions       44                                     1937
        Instructions on Marriage                 12                                        12
        Bedside Confessions &                  97                                         97
            Holy Communion

In addition to the patients and personnel of this hospital, services are also rendered to the 3110th Signal Battalion as was requested by the Supervisory Chaplain, United States Headquarters Berlin District.


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SPECIAL SERVICE SECTION AND POST EXCHANGE

During the period 1 January 1945 to 30 June 1945 while the 279th Station Hospital was in Wales, the Special Service Section endeavored to obtain all possible USO shows, films, athletic equipment and other forms of recreation so necessary to keep a high state of morale.

All possible reading matter and games were furnished the wards for bed patients, also movies were shown on the wards f or these men. Various types of athletic equipment were available for men physically able to participate in outdoor sports.

A wide variety of items in the Post Exchange plus the Coca-cola bar added greatly to the morale of the men.

During the period the 279th Hospital was at the staging area at Verdun, France. The Special Service Section operated a little differently due to the fact that no patients were being handled at this time. Conducted historical tours of World War I battle sights was of much interest to all and very well. attended. Motion pictures USO shows and outdoor sports comprised most of the other entertainment.

Since the arrival of the 279th in Berlin, a larger variety of entertainment has been enjoyed due to the fact the majority of the Special Service units are in a more permanent setup.

A building was secured in the next block to the hospital and a club for the enlisted men was organized. Ice Cream, Coca-cola and beer are available and a civilian orchestra was hired to play for the enjoyment of the men at night.


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Motion pictures are shown each week on the post and transportation is available for all who desire to attend the Titinia Palast theater which has a good variety of pictures, stage shows and musical concerts.

Many items have been secured to make a comfortable Red Cross club on the post which is enjoyed by all.

A modern barber shop has been opened with a staff of two German barbers and one enlisted man as supervisor where all men can secure free haircuts. A beauty shop has been set up for the female personnel where they may receive shampoos, waves and manicures.

A tailor shop has also been set up in the laundry building where all personnel may have clothing altered and pressed.

Games, literature, radios, etc., have been supplied to all wards and day rooms for the enjoyment of patients and hospital personnel.

The Post Exchange is well stocked and at different times has been fortunate in receiving gift items such as French perfumes, Swiss handkerchiefs scarves, hand made table covers and other Swiss and German products which make desirable gifts to send home.

With all the various types of entertainment now available and many more to become available when the warm weather arrives, the morale of this organization should remain high.


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AMERICAN RED CROSS


During the period when the 279th Station Hospital in Wales, the Bed Cross program ran very smoothly in spite of the small staff of only three. Handling a volume of patients equal to that of many of the permanent general hospitals in the United Kingdom this group of three was required to manage a program parallel to that of units fortified with six or eight staff members.

The Red Cross building was very attractive and was easily the center of leisure time activity for the patients. Many games, phonograph records, books magazines, guitars and ukeleles were supplied for the use of patients.

Through the efforts of the Special Service Officer movies were also shown at different times.

The 279th Station Hospital left Wales the latter part of May 1945 and arrived on the continent. In the period extending from June through the middle of September, the 279th Hospital awaited orders for its new assignment at Eagle Main in the Verdun Staging area. During this period the entire Red Cross staff was placed on Detached Service in Paris. With some personnel changes being made the Red Cross staff was recalled to the 279th Station Hospital which was preparing to leave for Germany.

The group of Nurses and Red Cross staff flew from Reims to Berlin on September 11th.

After the first tour of the home for the Red Cross in Berlin, everybody was enthusiastic about its possibilities, but at the same time, quite dismayed by the tremendous task of furnishing it and getting it ready for operation.


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The typical ravages of street skirmishes and bombardment were evident everywhere. Windows were out, ceilings cracked, doors were broken, walls were smoked and battered, and there were a great many mechanical repairs to be made. The interest and cooperation of the Commanding Officer of the Hospital were generously extended from the beginning. He facilitated in many instances the procedure of converting work orders into accomplishment without delay. Other departments of the Post who were involved, were also very helpful. The Special Service Officer, was the agent responsible for assisting us in securing furniture and equipment for the building, which was no small task, as we were one of the later units to arrive in Berlin and the sources of supply through Military Government had dwindled to small proportions.

After a few weeks, we managed to get the first and second floors of the house ready for occupancy. A goal was set for opening the building on October 7th. An open house tea was planned and invitations made to the personnel of the post as well as to the patients. Everybody worked feverishly in order to be ready for the grand reception.

One of the Field Supervisors of Occupied Germany from Heidelberg and a Recreation Director and Consultant from Paris, were here at the 279th for the occasion. It was felt that the grand opening was a success and gave tangible evidence that plans for the future would gradually work out.

From this time on, the recreation program was set into operation. Due to shortage of Red Cross supplies, incomplete staff and the chaos of constant repairs being made in the Red Cross House, the program was not full bodied at this time but slowly beginning to take shape.


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[page missing]

committee made up of the Detachment Commander, Special Service Officer, the two Chaplains, the I. & E. Officer and the ARC representative. This committee meets once a week to discuss problems and suggest possible means of working them out together.

Several recreational plans of major interest on the post now are the establishment in the Red Cross house of a photographic dark roan where picture hobbyists may spend many happy hours, the building of a post theater and the set-up for showing ward movies. The value of a large and well equipped craft shop is recognized and every effort is being made to get the permanent craft shop set up and in operation.

In the latter part of December a new member was assigned to the staff as a recreation worker. As time goes on and the facilities and staff are enlarged, it is hoped that the Red Cross will be able to offer a wider range of activities for patients and the hospital as a whole.


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UNITED STATES CIVILIAN PERSONNEL

In the latter part of October this organization was notified that in accordance with the Theater policy, United States civilians were being hired to replace a certain number of Technicians.

On 12 November the first employee reported for duty and was assigned to the Unit Supply for which job he had been hired. Since that date six other employees have arrived and assigned duties as indicated below:

2 Clerk, Administrative (Personnel)
2 Clerk, Property & Supply
1 Subsistence Inspector
1 Dental Technician
1 Clerk typist (Medical supply)

A separate section of the personnel office has been set up to handle the administration for Civilians and process applications for any of the Medical Detachment men desiring Civil Service Employment. Two applicants from the Detachment have been accepted for employment after a furlough and discharge. Other applicants have applied for duty with units other than in the Berlin District.

At the present time the US Civilians are billeted in a private home nearby the hospital, however, an apartment building has been requisitioned to take care of any more employees that report fur duty.

Messing facilities in the Officers' mess are adequate at the present time to handle the small number of personnel now on duty.

Recreation and entertainment for the United States Civilian employees is plentiful with the Red Cross Clubs, Theatres, Officers̓ Club and various sports which are open to all desiring to participate.


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GERMAN CIVILIAN PERSONNEL

During the period 1 September 1545 to 31 December 1945, the Civilian Personnel Department was established to accomplish the job of hiring, releasing, controlling feeding, and using civilian labor in this hospital, both directly and indirectly as employees of civilian contractors.

Most important of all problems encountered in the use of alien civilian laborers was that of security and control of supplies and food.

Security methods regarding the vetting of civilians were established in accordance with Military Government regulations. Requisitions for necessary civilian personnel were submitted to the Labor Office at United States Headquarters Berlin District. When properly documented civilian applicants were sent to be hired, the Fragebogen Form M.G./OSG/9a 15 May 1945, was accomplished. This form consists of several hundred questions concerning all, pertinent information bearing on nazism and militarism. The Fragebogen was examined by the Civilian Personnel Officer for preliminary screening out of unsuitable applicants. Those persons obviously undesirable because of Nazi affiliations were refused employment on the basis of this preliminary vetting. Those who passed this preliminary screening were hired and put to work. The completed Fragebogen was then forwarded to the Special Branch Officer of the Military Government for more thorough investigation. This investigation included checks for accuracy and checking against party records with the information contained in the Fragebogen.
                    
An Action Sheet was prepared by the Special Branch Officer on the basis of his investigation. The final decision on continued employment was made on the basis of the recommendation in this Fragebogen Action Sheet.


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Those persons in the mandatory dismissal class were dismissed unless a further investigation seemed warranted or the person was engaged only as a common laborer. Persons in lower classifications were generally retained.

One meal a day was furnished to all civilian employees of the 15th Medical Depot, the Military Courts, US District, Berlin, and the employees of civilian contractors working on the post.

The expansion in the Civilian Personnel Department is best shown by the following tabulated figures. The persons in this table were working directly for the hospital on the dates shown:

1 September 1945    78

1 October 1945       410
1 November 1945    431
1 December 1945    493
31 December 1945  506

As of 31 December 1945, the breakdown of civilians by occupation for those persons directly employed by this hospital plant was as follows:

2     Barbers
1     Chauffeur
2     Elevator Operators
7     Firemen
14     Gardeners
3     Janitors
26     Laborers General
3     Labor Supervisors
6    Laundry workers
5     mechanics
2     Sales girls
4     Storekeepers
7     Tailor Seamstresses
4     Telephone operators
23     Truck drivers
1     Architect
17     Bricklayers
6     Cabinet makers
1     Draughtsman
11     Electricians
11     Glaziers
1     Engineer
10     Locksmith
10     Painters
1     Paperhanger
3     Pipelayers
3     Plumbers
2     Riggers
3     Bookkeepers
6     Clerks    
10     Interpreters
10     Secretaries (writing English)
12     Stenographers (writing German)
3     Typists
2     Bakers
37     Cooks helpers
15     Cooks
111     Domestics
35    Waitresses
56     Attendants
8     Watchmen


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In addition to chose listed above, 174 employees of contractors were engaged in the reconstruction of this hospital as of 31 December 1945.

The use of civilians in innumerable jobs of extreme importance was a most vital factor in the operation of this hospital during this period. Without the civilian engineers, mechanics, electricians, telephone repairmen and medical technicians of various types it would have been difficult if not impossible to operate this hospital due to the inadequate number of military personnel capable of installing, repairing, reconstructing and operating various pieces of specialized equipment on the post. Civilians who knew the utilities and the buildings in general were essential in the operation, repair and reconstruction of the plant.