U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History
Skip Navigation, go to content

HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL HISTORY

AMEDD BIOGRAPHIES

AMEDD CORPS HISTORY

BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS

HISTORICAL ART WORK & IMAGES

MEDICAL MEMOIRS

AMEDD MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS External Link, Opens in New Window

ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORIES

THE SURGEONS GENERAL

ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

AMEDD UNIT PATCHES AND LINEAGE

THE AMEDD HISTORIAN NEWSLETTER

CHAPTER V

Contents

CHAPTER V

NATIONAL GUARD CAMPS (CONTINUED)

CAMP LOGAN, TEX.

A location one-half mile west of the corporate limits of Houston, Tex., was chosen for Camp Logan.1 The mixture of black loam and clay composing the soil of this level plain was almost impervious to water and gave rise to deep mud in rainy weather and excessive amounts of dust in dry weather. Ditches, of a maximum depth of 7 feet, were required to provide surface drainage into the Buffalo Bayou lying close by on the south.2 The average annual rainfall was over 46 inches. The drainage situation in the camp at the end of the year 1917 was considered to have been much improved over earlier conditions, as all storm water was then carried off within 24 hours.1 The temperature ranged from 21° to 102° F. above zero during the year 1917. The roads through the camp were gradually metaled until all main roads were hard surfaced by the spring of 1918.3

The camp was officially organized September 1, 1917,4 and the first of the Illinois National Guard troops constituting the 33d Division arrived September 10.1 The last of the more than 20,000 men in the division arrived October 15.5 The 5th Division was organized about December 1, 1917, from Regular Army units,6 with headquarters, the Artillery brigade, and the divisional trains, at Camp Logan,7 and the Infantry brigades at other camps.4  There were about 33,000 men in camp in December.5 The two divisions left for overseas service about May, 1918,6 and the first units for the 15th Division arrived July 3, 1918,8 although the division technically was not organized until August 28.9 The total strength of the camp was much reduced during the remainder of the year, although over 17,000 men were present in November.5

The water supply of the city of Houston was obtained from 34 artesian wells. The city furnished the main water supply for Camp Logan from one deep well, with an accessory connection with the city water mains.10 A second well was later sunk to a depth of 1,425 feet for camp use, and was connected with the camp mains in December, 1918.11 Storage was provided by a covered earthen reservoir and two uncovered wooden tanks.10 The tanks were covered in the summer of 1918. An additional wooden main was laid in November, 1918.11 A heavy rainfall while these pipes were lying in the trench uncovered,

filled the trenches with water and floated the pipes, resulting in breaks in the line and the ingress of mud and surface water. This accident, other new installations, and defects in the coverings of storage spaces, were held to account for the occasional appearance of colon bacilli in the water. A chlorination apparatus was installed at the inlet of the storage reservoir, but the water pumped directly from the wells into the mains was not treated.

As in other tent camps, pit latrines were provided for the disposal of excreta. These were covered with fly-proof latrine boxes, and their interiors were sprayed


206

with lampblack and crude oil to prevent fly breeding.2  Since there was sufficient available space for only one change of location of latrines in February, 1918, their liquid contents were removed by means of odorless excavators and the solid contents incinerated with the aid of crude oil.12 The continued use of latrines by this method was not satisfactory, but was the only solution of the problem at that time.3

A sewerage system with septic tank and filtration bed was completed for the base hospital early in the spring of 1918, the effluent being discharged into a ditch leading into Buffalo Bayou.12 13 Construction of a sewerage system for the part of the camp occupied by the division was started in June, 1918, and completed in October.8 14 The sewage was emptied into the city system.15 As the bathhouses were not connected with the sewerage system, inevitably there resulted foul and unsightly deposits along the drainage ditches.15

Garbage that was suitable for hog feed was disposed of by contract, but that which was not suitable for hog feed was taken to the dump and burned with the camp rubbish and manure.1 15 By the change in September, 1918, which placed the disposal of general waste material under the reclamation service, this service delivered the garbage to the contractor at the hog farm 3 miles distant.16 The garbage was separated in the kitchens.

Until late in 1918, manure was disposed of both by burning it on a dump and by hauling it to distant farms.1 Late in 1918 manure was either given to anyone who would come for it or place a car on the siding, or it was hauled to the dump, as all attempts to sell it had failed.17

The sanitary train of the 33d Division was organized before the middle of October, 1918, but was only about 67 per cent equipped late in November.2 18 There were 128 officers and 1,186 men in the train at the end of the year, and 24 officers and 62 enlisted men of the Medical Department in the camp with units not part of the division.1

The enlisted men in the division surgeon's office were detailed to duty there from Medical Department organizations or detachments of the division.19 They comprised 2 noncommissioned officers, 2 privates first class, and 4 privates. As in other camps, this system of providing for personnel of the division surgeon's office was a cause of dissatisfaction not only among the men so detailed but also in the organizations from which they came.19 In the case of the noncommissioned officers, when they were transferred from an organization, vacancies in the noncommissioned grade there were created. Since there was no authority for filling these vacancies, the organization concerned suffered the loss. As regards the privates, there was little or no opportunity for their advancement in the division surgeon's office, consequently they became dissatisfied and applied for transfer to other branches of the service at about the time when they had become sufficiently trained to be of real use to the division surgeon. In addition to these faults of the system, the need for the men was felt in the organizations from which they had been transferred.

The separate office of camp surgeon was created in June, 1918, with 4 officers and 7 enlisted men assigned for duty, 1 of whom was a master hospital sergeant.20

There were on duty in the camp, exclusive of the base hospital, when the 15th Division was organized, 44 medical officers, 7 dental officers, 6 veterinary


 207

officers, 2 officers of the Sanitary Corps and 87 enlisted men.21 Seventy-nine medical officers were assigned from civil life about two weeks later, and 334 recruits were received for the Medical Department in September. This great preponderance of entirely untrained individuals necessitated the devotion of the greater part of the time for the ensuing few months to their instruction in basic principles.9 Enlisted men from the medical detachments of the two Infantry regiments which had been in camp since July were used to form nuclei for the medical detachments of the newly formed regiments, the vacancies in both classes of organizations then being filled with recruits. The initial personnel of the sanitary train of the 15th Division consisted of 175 enlisted men who arrived from the Medical Department training camp at Fort Riley, Kans., on September 5.9 Two hundred and fifty-five recruits were added before December.9

Though the sanitary squads of the 15th Division consisted of enlisted men of the Medical Department,22 the camp sanitary squads had 35 civilian laborers in September, 1918, working under the camp sanitary inspector, divided as follows: 14 to oil ditches, 6 with odorless excavators, 5 filling old latrine pits in unoccupied areas, 8 at the dump, 1 at camp headquarters, and 1 not assigned.17 A permanent detail of 50 men from the labor battalion was used instead of civilians in December.22

The original plans of the camp called for 14 regimental infirmaries, but this number was reduced to 9 in the construction, each infirmary to care for 2 regiments.23 The number in the camp had been increased to 11 regimental and 4 battalion infirmaries, of 24 beds each, by June, 1918.4

Measles was of little consequence in Camp Logan until December, 1917, when 195 cases were reported.5 The incidence after February, 1918, was so small that it was negligible. German measles was differentiated from true measles from the beginning, but never occurred in sufficient numbers to cause any concern.

Influenza occurred at Camp Logan in the early fall of 1917, and steadily increased to 184 cases in January, 1918.5 There was then a slight drop in its incidence, but a sharp rise to 2,724 cases occurred in April, with 274 cases in May. Comparatively few cases were reported during the summer. The fall epidemic of 1918 began September 10, with nine cases, reached its highest point September 23, and gradually declined through October.8 For the 2 months, 3,091 cases were reported and nearly 150 in each of the 2 following months.5 These figures probably do not include a large part of 1,098 cases which were treated in quarters and did not appear on the base hospital records.8 The mortality was very low, only 84 deaths being reported from influenza and its complications.5

Pneumonia was not as common in Camp Logan in the fall of 1917 as in many other camps, and the death rate was low.5 Nearly all cases were of the lobar type. Few cases complicated influenza or measles, and those associated with the latter disease were mainly of the bronchopneumonic variety. There were few cases during the summer of 1918. The fall increase of 1918 was confined to the months of September and October, with the greater occurrence of 309 cases in September. Of these, 251 were associated with influenza and only 24 were reported as being of the bronchopneumonic type. The 79 deaths in


208 

September and the 26 in October constituted a large majority of all pneumonic deaths for the entire camp period.

The first case of cerebrospinal meningitis occurred in November, 1917, and one or more cases occurred monthly until June, 1918.5 No cases arose during the summer of 1918, and only four in the fall. There was a total of 17 cases during 1917 and 1918. Four cases died during the winter of 1917-18 and three in the fall of 1918.

Malaria was prevalent to an unusual degree, the majority of the cases having been contracted prior to arrival in the camp, some cases by the 33d Division troops in Illinois24 and those of the 15th Division in Louisiana and Texas.25 There are discrepancies in statistical reports concerning the camp, but the division surgeon of the 33d Division reported 100 cases as having arisen in 1917,1 and 85 were reported in 1918.5 Of 39 cases in camp during July and August, 1918, 34 were definitely contracted elsewhere, and the remaining 4 occurred in organizations which had recently arrived from other stations.25 Blood examinations for detection of carriers were made of all men in the companies which had recently arrived from stations in Louisiana and Texas. The type found was principally tertian.8

The tuberculosis board started its work in September, 1917, usually conducting the examinations in the regimental dispensaries.4 An examination of all cases of measles before discharge from the base hospital later became a part of the board's duties.12

The psychiatric examiners at first worked in conjunction with the tuberculosis board in a routine examination of the 33d Division.26 This system was discontinued when about one-third of the troops had been examined, because the psychiatrists could not keep pace with the other examiners. Thereafter this board examined only such men as were referred by the regimental surgeons.

The division orthopedic surgeon supervised two foot surveys of the troops early in 1918, one to obtain measurements of the feet of 5,000 men and the other to ascertain existing foot disabilities in the Infantry regiments.27 28 The latter showed that approximately 10 per cent had flat or pronated feet, but that only 374 of these 1,171 cases were giving trouble, and that ill-fitting shoes aggravated existing conditions but were not in themselves the primary cause of foot disabilities.28 29 An effective system of foot and shoe inspections was used which secured the cooperation of the organization officers.30 The organization furnished a roster on which the names were given serial numbers. In reporting the results of an inspection, the various conditions were grouped and all men falling in each group were so reported by their serial numbers. The report gave brief information as to the general disposition proposed for certain groups, and the organization commander received a copy. Approximately 1,500 men of the 33d Division were discharged from the service on account of flat feet.3

A detention camp was in existence in April, 1918,3 and a casual detachment, commanded by a line officer, in June, 1918.4  Men with correctable orthopedic conditions were sent to the latter. The detention camp was not in existence in September, 1918, but there was at that time a quarantine camp of eight


209

sections, surrounded by a double-wire fence, and with a capacity of 1,200.22 The quarantine camp was closed February 24, 1919, owing to the small number of troops in camp.31 Three hundred and eighty-six contacts were sent to the quarantine camp prior to January 1, 1919, and only 14 of these developed a communicable disease during the detention period.8

A development battalion was organized August 26, 1918, with two medical officers assigned.32 The enlisted personnel was obtained by detailing members of the battalion for temporary duty. An orthopedic company in the battalion was formed a week or two later.33 There were 5 medical officers on duty the middle of October and 3 enlisted men of the Medical Department.34 Four additional enlisted members of the battalion were detailed for duty in the battalion infirmary. There were 370 men in the battalion. A venereal company was formed at about this time,35 and two additional battalions shortly afterwards,36 one of which was for venereal cases exclusively. In addition, two companies of another battalion were reserved for syphilitics.36 All men of the battalions classified A were given full military drill under line officers, as were those in class B, but the latter were released when required for medical treatment. The training of men with cardiovascular and orthopedic conditions was under the supervision of appropriate specialists.36  No men in the battalions were allowed to be used for work which would interfere with the fundamental purpose of the development battalions. The strength of the three battalions early in November, 1918, was 36 officers and 3,334 enlisted men, about three-fourths of these having arrived as development battalions from Camp Grant, Ill. The numbers of men in the different classifications

were approximately as follows: Venereal, 1,100; orthopedic, 450; cardiovascular, 300; neuropsychopathic, 450; eye, ear, nose, and throat, 250; pulmonary, 200; postoperative, 100; convalescent, 100; non-English speaking, 300; others, 100.

The convalescent center was organized on December 20, 1918, in a section of the quarantine camp,37 but was later removed and occupied a dental infirmary building and adjacent tentage.38 This center never held more than approximately 90 men, was not active or efficient,39 and was closed late in February, 1919.38

The supervision of sanitation in the extra-cantonment zone was a divided responsibility.40 Inspectors from the United States Public Health Service, the Texas Department of Food and Drug Inspectors, and the 33d Division all worked in the area outside of the city limits of Houston. In the city of Houston, however, the city health officer reported to the division surgeon any places, for the sale of food and drinks, which were found to be insanitary, and at military guard was placed at such places until conditions became satisfactory. Establishments which were satisfactory were later given a certificate to that effect, and food handlers were vaccinated and examined for disease carriers.32

Thirty-five dental officers were in camp the middle of October, 1917, and two had been assigned to duty with each regiment in order to use the available dental equipment to the best advantage.41 Thirty-one dental officers were serving with the divisional troops in December and eight at the base hospital.42 Most of them had office space in the regimental infirmaries, but some worked


210

in tents. All regimental dental offices had at least two portable dental equipments by October, 1917, and a complete base outfit for the base hospital arrived in the early part of 1918 to replace the three portable outfits then in use.43 Two dental infirmary buildings were completed and base dental outfits to install in them arrived in June, 1918, and two base outfits were added to the base hospital equipment. The instrument chests of portable outfits were drawn upon to replace a shortage in the base outfits received. Twenty-six enlisted dental graduates reported in August and September to act as dental assistants.

These men were given a course of instruction similar to that given to the dental officers. A dental society was maintained throughout the camp period. An instance of dental specialization here was the assignment of a dental officer to exclusive work with genitourinary patients, particularly syphilitics.

There is no record to indicate that meat and meat products purchased from local dealers were inspected prior to July 1, 1918.44 After this date they were presented at the office of the meat and dairy inspector before delivery. The local products were not handled, in general, in a satisfactory manner, many loads being rejected on account of unclean trucks, clothing of men, and tarpaulin coverings. One local branch of a widely known packing house was particularly negligent. Canned milk was used almost exclusively in the early period of the camp.21 The dairies in the neighborhood were reported as "very

good" and only Pasteurized milk was sold in the regimental exchanges, from one company.1 The inspection of dairies supplying milk to establishments in the city was prevented by the lack of transportation until January, 1919.44 The meat and dairy inspector inspected all food supplies received by the camp quartermaster after about June 1, 1918, and this officer cooperated in every way.

The drainage of the corrals of the auxiliary remount depot was not good, the inclosures remaining very muddy for days after a heavy rainfall.45 Each corral had a shed, closed on the northwest side. The manure was at first raked into windrows by hand preparatory to removal, but later road graders were used to great advantage. Sheds of the open-frame type constituted the veterinary hospital. The wards were divided to receive four classes of cases-influenza, strangles and purpura, pneumonia, and surgical conditions. No enlisted personnel of the Veterinary Corps was assigned to the hospital during 1917,

an insufficient number of men from the Quartermaster Corps detachment of the depot being assigned for veterinary hospital duty. When men were transferred to this service in January, 1918, partially disabled men were selected. Eventually the full quota of 75 men was acquired. Dermatitis gangrenosa caused more admissions to the hospital than any other condition during the period for which records are available.46 No case of glanders occurred. The depot was closed March 15, 1919.47

The demobilization period in Camp Logan extended from December 1, 1918, to March 15, 1918.48 During this time 14,867 officers and enlisted men were examined, of whom 78 were found to have had disabilities. Camp Logan was transferred to the United States Public Health Service on March 12, 1919.49


211

CAMP MacARTHUR, TEX.

Camp MacArthur was built on the outskirts of Waco, Tex., a mercantile city of about 40,000 inhabitants.50 The rolling country provided excellent drainage into the Basque River on the north and the Brazos River on the south. The soil was waxy loam which overlaid limestone to a depth of 1 to 3 feet, and which formed an extremely tenacious mud and much dust. The temperature for the year varied from 5° F. below zero to 109° F., but the prevailing and constant southerly wind made the heat of summer bearable with slight discomfort. Two asphalt roads entered the camp, and the main roads inside the camp were covered with macadam.

One company of each regiment which was to form a part of the 32d Division was sent to Camp MacArthur about the middle of August, 1917.51 These organizations were from the National Guard forces of Michigan and Wisconsin, and all were in the camp by the last of the month. The period in which the camp contained the greatest number of men was October, 1917, with about 28,000.52 The last elements of the division left for overseas service early in February, 1918.53 A part of the 7th Division, Regular Army, was in the camp before all organizations of the 32d Division had left,53 but the divisional organization was not made until May, 1918.54 All units of the division were not mobilized at Camp MacArthur, and several organizations left the camp in May.55 The last organization of the 7th Division departed August 1, 1918, and the camp became an Infantry replacement and training camp.56

Waco furnished Camp MacArthur with water from its city system, the supply sources being both artesian wells and the Brazos River.57 The wells furnished excellent water at a temperature as high as 107° F., but the river water required coagulation, filtration, and chlorination. The Brazos River drained an agricultural region, was frequently muddy and received the sewage of several small towns. There was presumptive evidence of the presence of the colon bacilli in the water in December, 1917. The original water mains in the camp were of iron. Wooden mains were added to the camp water supply system in the fall of 1918. These lay on the ground for some time, were dragged along the ground scooping up dirt, and eventually lay in the trenches for a period before being connected to the existing system. Soon after the water was turned through these pipes, typhoid fever appeared in the camp. Colon bacilli were present in the water, apparently due to contamination of the wooden pipes with surface dirt, and disappeared about a week after these pipes were cut off from use.

Prior to the time when a sewerage system was installed at Camp MacArthur, waste water from the bathhouses was discharged into about 10 ditches which drained eventually into the Brazos River.58 The effluent was therefore chlorinated. Guthrie incinerators, with evaporating pans, were provided for the kitchens.53 Pit latrines also were used during this period, for the disposal of excreta. The pits were sometimes too shallow, owing to the superficial depth of the underlying limestone stratum.59 They were burned out to prevent fly breeding, but this was not accomplished,60 and they were spoken of as being

 "in a bad state" in December, 1917.58 The liquids from old pits seeped into the new ones, so a smaller pit was dug near the latrine pit into which the liquid


212

seeped, and was removed by the odorless excavators.53  When a new latrine pit became necessary, the old pit was filled, the seepage pit enlarged to become a latrine pit, and a new seepage pit dug. The latrine pits were being treated with the oil and lampblack mixture in January, 1918, apparently only to cover the deposits, and were still being burned out instead of sprayed in April.61 Both the care of the latrines and the system of disposal of the liquid were unsatisfactory.62

A sewerage system for the base hospital was included in its original construction,63 and one for the camp was begun before the summer of 1918.50 The camp system was completed in the fall of 1918,64 the two main outlet sewers connecting with the city system.56 All kitchen lines were provided with grease traps, the grease collected being sold and the sludge buried in deep trenches.

The garbage was sold to a contractor, the Army delivering the cans at the feeding pens, in November, 1917.60 The requirements for garbage removal were quite radically changed by the summer of 1918.50 The contractor then kept 1,000 garbage cans on hand, replacing a full can by one which had been sterilized by hot water, then scrubbed with a brush in a vat of warm water containing borax and lye, and finally dried in the sun.

The manure from the camp was dumped into a ravine half a mile to leeward of the main part of the camp. This was satisfactory during the cool weather,60 but the system of disposal of manure proved to be very unsatisfactory with the advent of warm weather in 1918.62 The dump was within 150 yards of the camp bakery, garbage scraps had been included with the manure, and fly breeding occurred on an extensive scale. As much of the great collection as possible was oiled and burned.

Measles appeared in Camp MacArthur in October, 1917, and became epidemic in the next month.52 There were 1,234 cases during November, December, and January. A few cases arose each month throughout the remainder of the year 1918, with a maximum of 132 in November. In only a small number of cases was German measles differentiated.

The diagnosis of influenza was made in a number of cases prior to September 1, 1918, the highest monthly incidence being 198 in January, 1918.52 The first case of the epidemic type occurred September 23, 1918.65 The daily incidence thereafter slowly increased until September 30, when there was a sudden rise to 262. The epidemic continued for less than one month, with more than 2,800 cases admitted to the base hospital and 3,857 of the milder cases treated in improvised field hospitals.66 Approximately 30 per cent of the command contracted the disease and 11 per cent of the cases were complicated by pneumonia. Certain restrictions on the movements of individuals, and later, absolute quarantine of the camp, were recommended by the camp surgeon but not approved by the camp commander.

Pneumonia was prevalent in the fall of 1917 and the following winter, the great majority of the cases being of the primary lobar type.52 The 152 cases occurring in January were by far the highest monthly incidence during this period, but an unusual number continued to arise throughout the spring and summer of 1918, with a total occurrence of 488 cases prior to September 1. Seventy-six of these died, the higher rate, nearly 50 per cent, occurring in those


213

of the bronchopneumonia type. Bronchopneumonia predominated in the fall of 1918, both in the primary cases and in those secondary to influenza and measles. Nearly four-fifths of the 773 cases of pneumonia were of the bronchopneumonia type. There were 184 deaths.

Nine cases of cerebrospinal meningitis occurred in January, 1918 and a number of others in succeeding months, with a total of 23 for the year.52 The unusually low mortality of two is recorded.

Thirty cases of typhoid fever occurred in the fall of 1917,52 14 of which occurred in one Infantry company, and were traced directly to a healthy carrier.67 No deaths were reported.52

The civilians engaged in the construction of the camp were suffering from an epidemic of intestinal trouble when the troops arrived.51 The troops became infected promptly, and a large proportion of them became involved during the succeeding six weeks. The symptoms were those of bacillary dysentery, but the results of laboratory examinations are not available.59

A survey of 3,000 men in the casual camp after the departure of the 7th Division revealed 312 cases of tuberculosis.68 All officers and enlisted men in the camp at this time, 26,589, were examined for nervous and mental diseases.69 One hundred and nine men were recommended for discharge and 129 for domestic duty on account of these latter conditions.

The tuberculosis board referred to the cardiovascular board 1,274 men of the 27,000 examined in the 33d Division.70 Of these, 166 were recommended for discharge and 67 for limited service. Hyperthyroidism was the cause of  the recommendation for discharge in 96 cases, and an enlargement of the thyroid was found in three-fourths of all cases referred to the board. While very few of the men with organic heart disease broke down under the training, almost all of the hyperthyroid cases became progressively worse. Operation was not recommended for thyroid cases except for those with simple enlargement which caused pressure symptoms.

Two main classes of foot defects were found by orthopedic examiners in the early period of the camp-cases which had caused more or less trouble prior to enlistment, and acute strains.71 The latter were considered to have been due largely to a too-rapid introduction of strenuous work in the training schedule. Early in 1918, a survey of the feet of all troops in the camp and a record of defects found were made.72 Treatment facilities at the time included an orthopedic dispensary at the base hospital and another in the camp. An orthopedic training detachment, under line officers but supervised by orthopedic surgeons, was established about the middle of June, 1918.73 The members of this detachment were assigned to sections according to their ability to perform foot work, and were not allowed to leave their own area.74 Four hundred and twenty-two men were admitted during the first month,75 and 720 by August 31, with 381 remaining on the latter date.76  Of those remaining, 58 were to be returned to full duty, 188 to continue treatment, and 135 were to be recommended for discharge from the service. The orthopedic training detachment became a part of the development battalion before October 1, 1918.77   There were 1,000 men with orthopedic conditions in the development battalion on that date.


214

In addition to a detention camp, with a capacity of 1,500 men, to which casual troops were sent,56 there were two quarantine camps each of which was divided into two sections, surrounded by wire fences.66

The development battalion was organized August 1, 1918.55 In October it consisted of headquarters and 20 companies in 5 battalions, with 23 officers and 71 enlisted men of the Medical Department on duty.78 Men were assigned for duty in the battalions according to their classifications as fit for full duty, fit for domestic service, to be discharged, orthopedic cases, and venereal cases, a battalion being reserved for each class. There were 4,261 men in the battalions, 482 being fit for full duty, 1,276 fit for domestic duty, 803 to be discharged, 824 orthopedic cases and 876 venereals. Three infirmaries served these battalions-one general, one orthopedic, and one genitourinary.55 The strength of the development battalion had been reduced to 244 in January, 1919.79

The convalescent center was organized January 9, 1919, as a battalion formation with four companies.80 Nineteen line officers and 67 enlisted men formed the training cadre. The camp athletic officer was given charge of the physical training, under the direction of the camp surgeon. Two days later, an order was received to abandon the camp.79 The 108 men in the convalescent center were discharged or transferred to convalescent centers in other camps.

The authorities of the city of Waco and the local military authorities entered into an agreement early in October, 1917, which was intended to insure an effective organization and cooperation on the part of city, State, military, and Federal health authorities.81 An officer of the United States Public Health Service was assigned to duty in Waco in the fall of 1917 and proceeded to perfect a board of health organization, with the cooperation of the city and military authorities.60 A military guard was placed at places near the camp where food and drinks were sold and which were found to be insanitary. Some restaurants in Waco were treated likewise, with excellent results. The booths near the camp were closed for a period, but allowed to reopen under military supervision in October, 1918.66

There were 39 dental officers in the camp in December, 1917, with officers in the base hospital and in regimental infirmaries.82 When the 32d Division left the camp, most of the dental officers, all of the portable dental outfits, and all of the instruments went with them.53 One officer who remained had some instruments of his own with which all the dental work of the camp and base hospital was done for some time. In June, 1918, there were 2 dental officers at the base hospital and 22 divided between the 2 dental dispensaries; there were 31 enlisted dental assistants at that time.83 There were 36 dental officers

and 36 assistants a month later.59 One dental dispensary had 13 chairs and the other 14, and both were well equipped. One infirmary was closed December 18, 1918.55

Refrigeration facilities not being available, the deliveries of meat to organizations were made directly from the refrigerator car.84 A representative of the Bureau of Animal Industry conducted the meat  inspection of supplies received by the quartermaster during the greater part of the period of camp activities and returned to the contractor for salvage such meat as was not accepted. After the discontinuance of this Federal inspection, the camp commander per-


215

mitted sales in the camp only by those dealers who agreed that any meat condemned by the inspector should be destroyed under his supervision. Local dealers supplying organizations were instructed to present their wares at a designated point in the camp for inspection before delivery, but this was not done in many cases. In order to furnish a method of checking this matter, the dealer was required to furnish duplicate sales slips of all sales made to the camp, and the organizations to furnish weekly reports of all local purchases. This method was not entirely satisfactory either, as both dealer and purchaser were

often remiss in their returns. The main efforts in disease prevention among animals in camp concerned the insurance of a forage supply of high grade, good stable conditions, and the control of animals entering the camp.85 The latter was particularly necessary, as cases of clinical glanders were not uncommon in the surrounding country and public watering-troughs were the rule. Efforts to obtain action by the State veterinary authorities in one instance of a known reactor to the mallein test were unsuccessful.

The remount depot was located on rolling wooded ground, and the scattered trees were left standing, where practicable, in the construction.86 The veterinary hospital consisted mainly of three double-fenced corrals, with a ward building in the center of each. The removal of manure from the corrals of the depot was accomplished once weekly. In dry weather, this was easily done with the assistance of a road grader, but additional labor from a labor battalion was necessary following rains. The most serious diseases encountered among the remount animals were influenza and glanders. The former caused about 200 deaths during the winter of 1917-18. The glanders infection covered the period of January 30, 1918, to January 17, 1919, and resulted in the destruction of 48 animals.87 The entire depot was quarantined for a period, as a saddle horse which had been ridden into all corrals was found to be a reactor.86 Dermatitis gangrenosa did not appear until November, 1918.87 In the following five and

one-half months 117 animals were afflicted, resulting in 34 deaths.

Eleven thousand and ninety-eight officers and men were examined physically during the main demobilization period of December, 1918, and January and February, 1919.88 Of these, 306 were found to have had disabilities. The camp was officially closed February 28, 1919,89 although about 1,300 men remained to complete the process and care for property, etc.90 The wrecking of buildings was done mainly with civilian labor.90 The remount infirmary was used as a camp hospital to care for the military force engaged in this work.

CAMP McCLELLAN, ALA.

Camp McClellan was situated 6 miles north of Anniston, Ala., and an equal distance from Jacksonville, Ala., in a sparsely settled, rolling section of the foothills of Blue Mountain.91 92 The site was so divided by small streams that one of these flowed across the rear of nearly every organization area, providing excellent natural drainage; however, several low areas required artificial drainage.92 The soil was clay, contained some gravel, and formed much mud in rainy weather and much dust in dry weather. Extremely hot days occurred during the summer, but the nights were relatively cool. The temperature during the winter occasionally dropped to the freezing point, or below.


216

The 29th Division, National Guard, was organized here. It was composed of National Guard troops from New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and the District of Columbia.93 Two thousand six hundred troops were in camp before September 1, 1917, and further increments increased the strength of the division to 27,000 in November. The division left camp in June, 1918, for overseas service.93 The 6th Division was organized at Camp McClellan in November, 1917, from units of the Regular Army, and left the camp about June and July, 1918, for overseas service.94 The camp became principally a

Field Artillery school of fire after the departure of the two divisions.95 The 98th Division was being organized when the armistice was signed.96 The maximum strength of the camp was approximately 29,000 in October, 1918.93

A local spring furnished water to the camp prior to about August 31, 1917, when connection with the city water-supply system of Anniston was made.91 The water used from the spring was chlorinated. The permanent supply was derived from springs 7 miles distant.97 An area of about 1 acre had been cleared, dammed, and protected from surface drainage to form a sparkling pool of about a 4-foot depth which supplied between 20,000,000 and 30,000,000 gallons per day. This supply was at first reported to be entirely free from any contamination,98 but later reports showed high bacterial counts and the presence

of gas-producing bacteria, and chlorination was considered advisable.99 An earthen storage reservoir of 750,000 gallons capacity was located on a hillside on the edge of the camp. This was surrounded by a wire fence, and one sentinel was constantly on duty there.97

Until the completion of the camp sewerage system in 1918, waste water from the bathhouses was removed by surface drainage. Rock incinerators were first used for the disposal of the liquid kitchen wastes, but these were soon displaced by Guthrie incinerators.92 The remodeling of these so that they would burn coal instead of wood doubled their efficiency. During this period the use of pit latrines necessitated a great deal of work, for because of the level of the subsoil water there was considerable seepage into the latrine pit.92 This seepage was so great in one regimental area that recourse was had to dry-earth closets.100 Unused latrines would sometimes fill with water, and the use of excavating tanks improvised from road sprinklers was constantly necessary.92 Because the discharge of this waste into the stream was objected to by the State health officer, five large crematories were constructed each of which disposed of four or five thousand gallons of liquid from the latrines daily. These crematories were

enlarged models of the rock-pit incinerators first used at the kitchens.101 Subsequent investigation disclosed that the apparent efficiency of these crematories was due to wholesale seepage through a sandy stratum into a creek, so seepage pits were dug in the same area, which answered the purpose equally well.102 Two types of box seats were used for the latrines, both of which were unsatisfactory: The Havard boxes had been constructed with square and octagonal holes; the wooden seats of the metal type warped and cracked, the hinges broke, the metal lids became bent out of shape, and the seats were very wet in winter, owing to the collection of water of condensation.92 The latter objection was obviated by the use of a vent pipe extending from the box or pit through the roof of the latrine shelter.92 A sewerage system for the base hospital was under


217

construction before the end of the year 1917,92 and was completed about April 1, 1918.100 A camp system was practically complete by the end of the year 1918.103 The effluent from the filter beds of the camp sewerage system was discharged into a creek.97 The discharge of raw sewage during the summer of 1918, prior to the completion of the disposal plant, resulted in numerous complaints due to the fouling of the stream.97

The kitchen incinerators at first were used for the destruction of garbage,99 but disposition by contract was arranged for about October 1, 1917.98 This contract remained in force for several months, and upon its discontinuance the kitchen incinerators were again used for the disposal of garbage.101 A contract was again in force in September, 1918, under which the quartermaster hauled the garbage to the contractor's pig farm,104 each organization being responsible for the cleaning of its cans after return.105 Such classes of the garbage as were not taken by the contractor were destroyed in the kitchen incinerators.103 However, since these were ordered dismantled in December, the garbage formerly destroyed in them was then hauled to the rubbish dump.103 Attempts to burn this material by improvised means pending the completion of a special incinerator were unsuccessful and resulted in a very undesirable accumulation.103

Manure was burned at first in an incinerator constructed of steel rails, but later that from the camp proper was loaded into cars on the railroad, and that from the auxiliary remount depot was removed by wagons to a point about 1 mile distant.91 92 In the summer of 1918 it was spread by a contractor on fields 2 miles distant.95

The sanitary squads of the 29th Division were organized December 5, 1917, each consisting of 1 commissioned officer, 4 noncommissioned officers, 2 chauffeurs, and 20 privates first class and privates.102 The squads were attached to the division sanitary train, but functioned under the divisional sanitary inspector as supervisors of the execution of various sanitary operations about the camp. Men were stationed at the manure-loading track and the dumps, and supervised the pumping out of latrines and certain antimosquito work. Sixty civilian laborers were employed as a camp sanitary detachment after the departure of the divisions.95

The measles situation was never serious in Camp McClellan, although there were two small epidemics, one in the winter of 1917-18 and the other in the fall of 1918.93 Eight of the 363 cases in the first epidemic were complicated by pneumonia and 16 of the 312 cases in the second epidemic were likewise complicated. The preventive measures adopted in 1917 consisted in quarantining the tent group in which a case arose.101 If six or more tent groups in a company were involved, the company was removed to the quarantine camp. If the majority of the companies in a regiment were involved, the entire regiment was quarantined on its own area, and the companies were each quarantined against the others.

Influenza cases frequently were reported here prior to July, 1918, and there was a sharp outbreak of 1,229 cases in April.93 The fall epidemic of 1918 started September 20, the early cases occurring in widely separated organizations.96 Epidemic proportions prevailed only from October 3 to October 31,


218

during which time there were 4,212 cases. To care for the cases during the epidemic, in addition to the base hospital facilities, five buildings of the camp welfare organizations were converted into temporary wards for mild cases, and a tent convalescent camp was established near the base hospital. Among other measures adopted in an attempt to prevent the spread of the disease were the wearing of face masks by every member of the command, the quarantining of the camp, and the oiling of all roads.

The monthly occurrence of pneumonia during the fall of 1917 and the following winter was constant, though never very alarming, varying from 10 to 24 cases.93 The great majority of cases were of the lobar type. There were occasional cases during May, June, and July, 1918, with an increase in August. In the fall increase of 1918 the lobar type maintained its predominance in the primary cases until December, but the bronchopneumonias were in the majority among the secondary cases in both November and December. Three of the 16 cases complicating measles during this four months' period were of the

lobar type, and these three occurred in September. There were 23 deaths during the first period and 267 during the second.

Cerebrospinal meningitis first appeared in October, 1917, and new cases arose each month until the close of 1918, with two exceptions.93 There was a total occurrence of 30 cases, with 7 deaths. Thus, though this disease was present in the camp over a prolonged period of time, it was not the cause of the great degree of apprehension experienced in some of the other camps such as Camp Jackson, S. C., and Camp Funston, Kans.

Malaria was unusually prevalent during the year 1918, particularly among colored troops during their early period in the camp.106 Of 72 cases reported, in 59 the disease was contracted while the individuals were at Camp McClellan.

A quarantine camp was established here in the fall of 1917. Though its normal capacity was 1,500 men, 2,300 were present in it in January, 1918. A section was used as a detention camp for men returning from furlough and for groups of men newly arrived at the camp. There was neither a quarantine nor a detention camp in operation in July, 1919, tent groups being quarantined in the organization areas as required,95 and none was established during the remainder of the year, with no untoward results.107

A development battalion was organized in the late spring of 1918, and in August its strength was about 1,275.108 Unlike the development battalions at most of the other camps, the work of the battalion here was entirely under the Medical Department until late in September.109 There were 1,780 men in the battalion at that time, classified as follows: Venereal, 211; orthopedic, 335; cardiovascular, 140; neuropsychopathic, 95; eye, ear, nose, and throat, 75; pulmonary, 102; postoperative, 165; convalescent, 150; non-English speaking, 66; others, 339. The development battalion was discontinued about January 31, 1919.110

The convalescent center was not established until late in January, 1919, but prior to this date a convalescent detachment was in operation for facilitating the discharge of convalescents from overseas.111 Only a small number of men passed through this center, as it was discontinued early in February, 1919, owing to the abandonment of the camp.112


219

Control of the immediate vicinity of the camp was early realized as necessary, and the camp commander permitted no booths except a few large concessions, the control of which he retained.91 There was a part-time health officer in Anniston, and an officer of the United States Public Health Service was present from the first. The city health officer's duties consisted almost entirely in the care of the sick. The public health service rendered was efficient throughout the period of the camp.107

The remount depot was located about 2 miles southwest of the camp on a hillside which afforded excellent natural drainage.113  Although the personnel was too limited in 1917 and early 1918 to keep open the drainage ditches which had been constructed, there were usually one or more comparatively dry spots in each corral on which the animals could congregate and thus keep out of the deep mud. The sudden acquisition of a large number of animals from the departing 29th Division in June, 1918, overwhelmed the force at the depot, consequently approximately 5,000 wagon loads of manure had

accumulated there by July, 1918, and fly breeding existed everywhere.95 To assist in the removal of this, 100 men from the casual camp were placed on special duty at the auxiliary remount depot.95

The order for the abandonment of Camp McClellan was received early in February, 1919, and the camp was closed March 16, 1919.114

CAMP SEVIER, S. C.

Camp Sevier was 4 miles from Greenville, S. C., in a rolling country of cultivated fields and timber.115 There were many small streams within the limits of the camp. The surface soil was a sandy loam and the subsoil a red clay underlain by a stratum of gravel.116 One concrete road led to Greenville, and some of the roads in the vicinity were surfaced with gravel. The climate and rainfall were moderate.

The 30th Division was organized at Camp Sevier from National Guard troops from North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee,117 augmented by troops sent from other camps.118 Certain units arrived in the camp in August, 1917,119 but the division was not organized until October.117 It left for overseas service about May, 1918. The 81st Division arrived in the camp in May, 1918,120 and left in July, 1918.121 The 20th Division was organized in August, 1918, and demobilized in December, 1918, and January, 1919.121 The camp contained the maximum number of men in the early spring of 1918, about 29,000.118

The water supply of Camp Sevier was obtained from the same source as that of the city of Greenville, a series of springs and reservoirs on Paris Mountain, 6 miles distant.119 The quality of the water was satisfactory until November, 1917, when colon bacilli were demonstrated.116 Local organizations chlorinated the water until a central chlorination plant was installed in December, 1917.116

Waste from the bathhouses was at first led into the subsoil by terra-cotta pipes,119 but this was not successful for long and the waste water was later conducted by ditches to small streams.116  For kitchen liquids, the improvised incinerators first used were ineffective and were replaced by the standard


220

type having evaporating pans.122 However, the amount of fuel consumed by the incinerators was so large that seepage pits were substituted for them. These proved very successful, owing to the presence of a gravel stratum below the red clay.122

The latrines that were used required pumping out by the summer of 1918, because no space was available where new ones could be dug.123  The liquid removed was emptied into pits for chlorination before being discharged into a watercourse.

A sewerage system was installed at the base hospital early in 1918.124 A system for the camp was partially constructed in 1918 but never entirely completed.125

Repeated efforts to dispose of the garbage by contract were unsuccessful, so it was given to individuals or burned in battalion incinerators.116 A contract was finally made in the summer of 1918 by which the organizations delivered the garbage to the contractor at the garbage transfer station, received their own cans at once, and were required to cleanse them at the kitchens.126 Both the base hospital and auxiliary remount depot fed their garbage to their own hogs.127

Manure was at first hauled to neighboring farms119 and later disposed of by contract.128 Owing to the bad condition of the roads early in 1918, it was necessary to spread the manure on farms as close as three-fourths of a mile from camp in order to accomplish its removal.128 This hauling was done by the Army. A change was made in the spring of 1918 by which all manure not disposed of to farmers within a radius of 2 miles of the camp was to be stacked in a pen having perpendicular sides where the edges could be treated with a larvicide.123

The physical examinations of incoming increments from the draft were made by two complete examining teams working in two separate buildings.129 The system included the mustering officer's force as an accessory, so that the reception into the service of all accepted men was completed in one process. About 14 per cent of the men received early in the summer of 1918 were rejected. The neuropsychiatric and orthopedic examiners for this work were borrowed from Camp Jackson.

Measles became epidemic with the arrival in October, 1917, of 9,000 drafted men who were largely nonimmune and had recently been exposed.122 The onset and the decline of the epidemic were abrupt; there were 2,242 cases in November.118 A few cases arose throughout the year 1918, with a maximum of 120 in July.118 Bronchopneumonia was the most serious complication, being particularly common in 1917.

Influenza frequently occurred prior to the outbreak in the fall of 1918, the greatest number of cases reported during any one month being 610 in April, 1918.118 The fall epidemic began with 5 cases on September 20, reached its maximum daily incidence on the 29th, and was practically over before the end of October.130 There had been more than 4,600 cases during that period, requiring the use of welfare buildings, the theater, a schoolhouse, mess shacks, and tentage as accessory hospitals, and the acceptance of the services of civilian nurses.


221

The small epidemic of primary pneumonia in the winter of 1917-18 reached its height in January, with 95 cases.118 The majority of the cases were of the lobar type. The secondary cases, which were chiefly of the bronchopneumonic type, occurred principally as a complication of measles and were most prevalent in November, 1917. All varieties of cases arose throughout the succeeding spring and summer, but in small numbers. The great increase in the fall of 1918 was principally of the bronchopneumonic type. It was thought that mistakes in the differential diagnosis of types were made during this period, as

the sudden, massive involvement of these bronchopneumonias could easily have been mistaken for lobar pneumonia.115

Mumps was present in epidemic proportions in September, 1917, but only a few cases occurred in October.118 There was a steady increase during the next two months and a great increase about the first of the year 1918. There were almost 4,000 cases during the first three months of 1918, and a considerable number each month during the remainder of the year. The greatest monthly occurrence during this last period was in July, coincident with the increase in measles.

Beginning with October, 1917, one or more cases of cerebrospinal meningitis were reported monthly until the close of the year 1918.118 The highest monthly incidence in both years occurred in October-17 cases in 1917 and 12 in 1918.

The troops of the 30th Division being drawn so largely from Southern States, a survey was made early in 1918 to determine the prevalence of infection with the uncinaria.116 About one-third were found to be infected and were given treatment.

There were about 3,000 men in the development battalion by the middle of August, 1918, of which about 400 were orthopedic cases.131 Approximately 37 per cent of those classified at that time were fit for fall duty.132 There were 7,000 men in the battalion before the middle of October, 2,500 of whom were venereal and 700 orthopedic cases, divided into 3 regiments of 27 companies, and located in four different parts of the camp.133  The battalions were greatly reduced in strength before the end of 1918, and were demobilized January 5, 1919, after all members requiring treatment had been sent to the base hospital.134

The 24 dental officers in the camp in December, 1917,135 made a dental survey of the enlisted men of the 30th Division, examining 14,750 men.136 This survey revealed 589 men with dental conditions which were suspected of being sources of focal infections. Dental officers first operated in tents and smaller buildings.137 Base outfits were installed in the new dental infirmary buildings about August 1, 1918.137 From July 1, 1918, to March 10, 1919, 27,510 dental examinations were made, 32,543 permanent fillings and 2,364 temporary fillings put in, 839 root canal fillings made, and 10,279 extractions

performed.

The remount depot was located at the northeastern part of the camp area, contiguous to the Southern Railroad. The condition of the corrals was poor during the winter of 1917-18, due principally to an inadequacy of enlisted personnel to keep them clean and properly drained.138 Consequently, enormous numbers of flies were present with the onset of warm weather. An increase


222

in personnel permitted such changes to be made that all corrals were cleaned and swept daily regardless of the weather.115 Thrush and wounds were the two chief sources of animal disabilities. Thirty-seven sporadic cases of glanders occurred, the first case discovered in August, 1918, and the last in March, 1919.

Demobilization began in November, 1918, and was completed in April, 1919.139 Of the 12,771 men examined, 477 were found to have disabilities. Camp Sevier was practically abandoned by April 1, 1919.140

             

CAMP SHELBY, MISS.

Camp Shelby was located on a rolling plateau, on which there were scattered pine trees, 11 miles from Hattiesburg, Miss.141 The many ravines traversing the camp site afforded excellent drainage in general, but there were several swamps in and near the eastern part of the camp site. The soil consisted of a layer of sand over clay, which tended to form much dust but little mud. The climate was generally favorable for a tent camp. Although the annual temperature varied from zero to 105° above, there was no interference with training from this cause. The average annual rainfall was about 56 inches. The roads through this sparsely settled country were of gravel.

The 38th Division, composed of National Guard troops from Indiana, Kentucky, and West Virginia, was organized at Camp Shelby in August, 1917,142 and departed in September, 1918.143 The formation of the 101st Division was under way when the armistice was signed. The maximum strength of the camp was about 36,000, in August, 1918.144

In the earliest period of the camp, water was obtained from a group of springs in the camp area.145 This water was at first said to have been uncontaminated145 and was not treated.146 It was later found to be not potable, and each organization was required to chlorinate the water used.147 This source of supply was connected with the permanent supply system, and as the latter was occasionally insufficient in quantity, a chlorination apparatus was installed at the outlet from the springs.142 The permanent supply was derived from three wells, each over 300 feet deep.142 The presence of colon bacilli in the water from these wells when they were first put in use required chlorination,148 but the water was colon bacillus free before the end of November, 1917, and the treatment was discontinued.149 The number of wells was increased to five by the summer of 1918, and later to eight,150 only six of which were in use in the spring of 1919.151

The installation of a sewerage system for the entire camp was originally planned but was stopped before the middle of August, 1917.152 A sewerage system was installed at the base hospital in the spring of 1918,153 and a camp system by the following fall.154 Meanwhile, water from the bathhouses was carried away by surface ditches.141 That from the kitchens was, at first, collected in storage pits, from which it was transferred to the evaporating pans of the Guthrie incinerators.142  When the incinerators fell to pieces after a month's use, owing to poor construction, the liquid waste was passed through improvised

grease traps into surface ditches.142

Pit latrines were used for the camp. These were burned out daily until a supply of lampblack for spraying became available.146  The pits soon filled


223

with liquids, and as filling them with earth then caused an overflow, it was necessary to use excavators.147 Seepage pits were dug later in rear of the latrine line, which drained the latrines and from which the liquids were removed by the excavators, thus obviating the necessity of disturbing the latrines.142 This liquid waste was heavily chlorinated before being discharged into a neighboring stream.153 Sixty tank loads were removed weekly.

Improvised incinerators were used for the destruction of kitchen refuse pending the construction of the standard type.146 When the latter became unserviceable, battalion incinerators of the rock-pit type were built.142 In October a contract was entered into with a civilian to remove the garbage. The contractor washed and sterilized the cans before returning them. There was no central garbage transfer station, the cans being collected from the kitchens by the contractor.153 The contractor sublet at least a portion of the business, 15 individuals removing garbage in the summer of 1918.155

Manure was burned at a dump during the early camp period,146 or given to farmers.147 A contract for its removal was made about November 1, 1917, under which the bulk of it was removed from the camp in cars.142  When glanders appeared in the camp, removal of manure for agricultural purposes was prohibited. Attempts to burn it were not successful during the period of frequent rains, and fly breeding occurred in the burned-over material.156 These conditions led to the establishment of large compost piles as an experimental method for the disposal of noninfected manure.151 The wagons drove onto the pile at one end and off at the other. Loads which contained the greatest proportion of straw were dumped at the edges of the pile in order to form a matted wall with a steep slope. At first, the manure was treated daily with powdered phosphorus, and the surrounding ground was oiled and burned over. While fly breeding was reported to have been absent with this method,157 it was not sufficiently superior to the method used later to justify the expense.151 The later method was to oil the sides of the pile and surrounding ground, and the small amount of fly breeding that took place was cared for by the liberal use of flytraps.

Sanitary squads for camp work were organized in 1917, 3 foremen and 60 laborers being employed in ditching, etc., and 25 more were authorized for general sanitary work.147 These civilians were replaced by 50 colored enlisted men in the summer of 1918,155 who, because they were demobilized in December, 1918, were in turn replaced in the spring of 1919 by 50 civilian laborers for antimosquito work.158

Measles and German measles were not consistently differentiated, but the proportion of the latter was considered to have been large, owing to the small percentage of cases which were complicated by pneumonia.159 Measles was brought to the camp by the troops which first arrived for guard duty. The incidence steadily increased until the second week in November, 1917, when a very rapid spread began and continued for a month, then steadily and rapidly declined through December. There were a few cases each month until July, 1918, when an increase occurred, with a further rise to 152 cases in August

and 107 in September.144

Numerous cases of influenza occurred prior to April, 1918, when there was a sudden outbreak of 2,604 cases.144  These were of a comparatively mild


224

type, but were considered to have been true cases of epidemic influenza.160 The disease was present through the following three months, increased considerably in incidence in August and September, and rose to 1,481 cases in October. There were 7,500 troops in the camp who had been there in April, and some 3,000 others. Only about 8 per cent of the former were attacked, while about 33 per cent of the latter suffered from the disease. Camp Shelby had the lowest mortality of any of the large camps-0.29 per cent.

Pneumonia cases were present in quite large numbers in the fall of 1917 and January, 1918, largely of the lobar type and largely primary.144 There was an increase in April and a change to predominance by the bronchopneumonic type which was maintained through the remainder of the year. The smallness of the number of cases of pneumonia occurring in the fall of 1918 was due both to the low rate of incidence as a complication of influenza and to the comparatively small number of troops present in the camp.160 While the death rate for the whole period was unusually low, that for bronchopneumonia complicating measles in 1917, was approximately 60 per cent.144

Only one case of malaria was reported in 1917, but 288 occurred in 1918.144 All of these gave a history of malaria prior to arrival in Camp Shelby.161 The malaria occurring in Camp Shelby was confined practically to draft troops from the Southern States.155 Nearly 14 per cent of 821 men from Mississippi who were examined proved to be carriers.

The United States Public Health Service assumed control of the extra-cantonment zone and was active,146 but the local health authorities were inactive.141 There was every reason for active work here, for general sanitary conditions in the surrounding country were poor-only about 60 per cent of the population of Hattiesburg used the sewerage system, and 54 per cent of the population used water from shallow wells. The United States Public Health Service discontinued its activities about April, 1919, and the Medical Department of the camp thereafter supervised the adjacent territory.162

No formal quarantine camp was established,156 but an area was set apart, under the supervision of the camp epidemiologist, for housing contacts.155 A detention camp was established in April, 1918,163 and was well organized and efficient in August.155 It was discontinued during the following fall, the recruit depot being used for this purpose.156

The development battalion was formed at this camp early in June, 1918, with about 650 men.164 This number was increased to 796 men in November. The real purpose of the battalion had been lost to sight and it was used largely as a sorting station.165 Men were transferred to and from the battalion, and its members ordered to special duty without reference to the battalion surgeon or consideration as to their medical treatment.

The administrative organization of the convalescent center was transferred entire from the development battalion.166 Though this center was in operation from January 11 to July 18, 1919, no great number of men passed through it, the maximum number in the center at any time being about 200.167

The first dental officer arrived August 31, 1917, and 41 more arrived during September, 10 of these coming with National Guard troops.168 Four portable dental outfits were brought by arriving dental officers, four were requisitioned,


225

and four were improvised from equipment purchased from arriving officers and homemade tables and chairs. With the receipt of 10 additional portable outfits in November, each dental officer was enabled to work at least one-half of each day. One base dental outfit was installed in the base hospital in December, and the eight portable outfits necessary to complete the equipment for the camp were received in February, 1918. Following a dental survey of the entire command in November, extractions were made of all teeth which were badly decayed or abscessed or which were foci of infection, before other restorative work was undertaken. The extraction of some 7,000 teeth was completed in December. The idea was stressed from the beginning that quality was desired rather than quantity in dental work performed. When the drafted men arrived in June, 1918, six dental officers were assigned to the recruit camp. These officers took care of the emergency work and performed the necessary extractions, thus enabling those with organizations to take up restorative work at once when the new men were assigned to regiments. One dental infirmary building was completed in May and another in June, 1918, but one was used by the camp personnel board and the other by the constructing quartermaster until September, in spite of repeated attempts to obtain them for dental use. Base dental equipment for these buildings arrived in September and one infirmary was opened in that month and the other early in October. Eighteen dental officers were assigned to one and 12 to the other. One of these infirmaries was closed early in January, 1919.168

Meat and dairy inspection was made by the camp veterinary service.169 Fresh meat furnished by the large packing companies was inspected in the refrigerator car. That slaughtered by local dealers was inspected by a camp veterinary officer, both before and after slaughtering, otherwise its sale to camp organizations was not permitted. Canned meats required close attention, as the governmental demands for immense quantities to be delivered within a short period of time led to improper packing and the use of poor tins. There was little dairying, as a primary business, in the section of the State in which Camp Shelby was located. Though numerous farmers within a radius of 50 miles of the camp each had a few cows, these were of no particular breed and they received little attention. Reliance was therefore placed upon Pasteurization in the one plant in Hattiesburg, rather than to make any attempt at dairy inspections.

Camp Shelby was conducted as a demobilization camp throughout the greater part of the year 1919.170 One team of nine examiners made the physical examinations in the summer, with a daily capacity of about 330 men.171 The total number of men examined was about 60,000, 564 of whom were found to have disabilities which entitled them to discharge for that reason.170

CAMP SHERIDAN, ALA.

Camp Sheridan was situated 4 miles north of the town of Montgomery, Ala., on an alluvial plain lying between the Tallapoosa and Alabama Rivers.172 This projection of low land measured about 6 miles each way and contained numerous swampy areas of from 1 to 20 acres in extent. Three-fourths of the area was flooded during high water, and at times the entire camp site was cov-


226

ered. Four creeks formed the natural drainage courses of the area. The natural drainage of the camp site toward the low-lying land was excellent.173 The soil, containing considerable sand and gravel, did not form tenacious mud, but dust was very annoying in dry weather. Underlying the top soil was a stratum of clay over a mixture of clay and gravel, the latter being freely permeable to water.174 The summers were hot and during the winters the temperature frequently fell to below freezing.173 The annual rainfall was about 50 inches, most of which occurred during the winter months. The roads in the surrounding

country were of clay-gravel construction.

The 37th Division, composed of organizations from the Ohio National Guard, later supplemented by draft troops,175 arrived in Camp Sheridan during August and September, 1917.173 The 37th Division left the camp about June, 1918. The 9th Division, Regular Army (less Artillery), was organized in July, 1918.176 It was preparing for departure when the armistice was signed and was then demobilized. The maximum strength of the camp was about 24,000 in December, 1917.177

Eighteen wells from 250 to 750 feet deep supplied soft and potable water for Montgomery and the camp.178 No treatment of the water was indicated, except immediately after the installation of the camp water distributing system. Two additional wells were drilled in 1918. All surface wells in the immediate vicinity of the camp were closed, except two in which such action was not feasible, and a guard was placed over these two.174

Until kitchens were connected with the sewerage system, waste water from them was first collected in seepage pits,179 but it was later strained into cans, then pumped into tank wagons, and finally emptied into a remote creek.180

During the earliest period of occupation by troops, the garbage of the camp was disposed of in several ways-some was burned, some was thrown into abandoned wells, and some was given to farmers.181 Improvised rock incinerators were in use until the Guthrie type was installed.182 Garbage disposal by contract began about November 1, 1917, under which the quartermaster delivered the garbage to a hog farm 4 miles distant.183 The cleansing of the cans before return was not satisfactory to the division surgeon, although the contractor had a steam plant for that purpose which functioned in a manner which was satisfactory from a sanitary standpoint. This contract did not immediately cover the entire camp, as a portion was still depending upon incinerator disposal late in February, 1918.184 Bones, fats, grease, etc., were salvaged by the contractor at the delivery point. Beginning December 1, 1918, organizations collected their own garbage and hauled it to the disposal point.185

The pit latrines first dug were too shallow,174 but they were later reported as being deep and dry, having penetrated into the underlying gravel stratum.183

A camp sewerage system was begun in June, 1918, used to some extent in August, and completed before the end of the year.173 The base hospital sewerage system, completed at a much earlier date, provided treatment in a septic tank before discharge, but this tank was by-passed upon completion of the camp system and all sewage was discharged into a creek without treatment.178

Part of the manure was hauled away by civilians, during the early period,182 and the remainder was hauled by camp personnel to a dump 3 miles distant,179


227

that containing a large amount of straw being burned. A contract was later entered into under which the manure was delivered by organizations to cars on the railroad siding.178 That which contained an excess of dirt or straw was hauled to neighboring farms and plowed under immediately.

Owing to the large area of the swamps on the reservation, mosquito control at Camp Sheridan was a big problem in itself.186 Drainage of these areas necessitated one 5-foot cut 200 yards long, 2 new trestles, and 3 new culverts in the railroad, miles of main ditches and laterals, and extensive clearing of brush and trees. This work was accomplished largely by the use of civilian laborers directed by personnel of the Medical Department. In the spring of 1918, the entire division was turned out for one day to clear underbrush, clean out ditches, etc., and each Friday afternoon for a period was devoted to similar work.

Cases of German measles were reported from the earliest period of the camp and reached the number of 156 for the month of December, 1917.177 None was reported after March, 1918. Measles cases occurred in October, 1917, but the number of cases occurring in any calendar month did not reach the 100 mark until August, 1918, when there were 115, and 143 occurred in September. The incidence declined steadily during the remainder of the year.

Only a few cases reported as influenza occurred prior to April, 1918, when there was an increase of explosive character to 1,189 for the month, with almost as sudden a termination.177 Only a few further cases occurred until September, when 211 were reported for the month. There were 3,870 cases in October, and a comparatively small number in November.

Only 56 cases of pneumonia occurred during 1917, the majority being of the lobar type.177 Cases occurred through the year 1918, but there was no great increase in the incidence except in October, when there were 441 cases. The great majority of the deaths from pneumonia for the entire camp period occurred in October, 1918, when there were 142.

Eleven cases of typhoid occurred in 1917.177 Six cases occurred in the auxiliary remount depot in July, 1918, all at about the same time, the source of the infection not being discovered.187

The number of orthopedic conditions in Camp Sheridan was unusually small, estimated to have been less than 1 per cent of all troops affected.188 This was attributed not only to careful enlistment examinations but also to the weeding out of such cases during previous service on the Mexican border.

No separate quarantine or detention camps were established.189  A provisional depot brigade included the functions of a detention camp in the spring of 1918, the quarantining of contacts being provided for in organization areas. The depot brigade, organized in June, 1918, served as a detention and quarantine camp.173

One development battalion was organized here.190  Since medical supervision of the men received too little consideration in their transfer from the battalion, often being done without the knowledge or recommendation of a medical officer, its operation was reported as having been unsuccessful. There were 1,831 men in the battalion in November, 1918.190

Confusion existed in February, 1918, as to the proper disposition of convalescents.191 Four different organizations were in existence and no one had a


228

very definite idea as to their purposes. There was a convalescent center for overseas cases and another for domestic cases, the base hospital conducted a convalescent detachment, and there was an overseas casual detachment. The separation of the first two was more apparent than real, and due mainly to the housing of the overseas men in barracks and the domestic cases in tents.192 The convalescent center never contained much over 30 men.

The sanitary conditions in Montgomery and its environs were not good.181 Though local and State health authorities at first seemed to be anxious to cooperate with the Army and the United States Public Health Service,181 opposition from residents of Montgomery and apathy of the local board of health soon developed, making it practically impossible to maintain sanitary standards.183

The continuity of dental service was interrupted, as was the medical, by the departure of the 37th Division, all records then being removed from the camp.193 A dental survey of all men in the camp was made in August, 1918, and appointments were made with the worst cases without waiting for acute trouble to develop.173

There is not much of record concerning the veterinary service at this camp. A sudden and extreme fall of temperature in December, 1917, caused a large number of cases of influenza and pneumonia in the unacclimated animals, with a high mortality.194 Only three cases of glanders were discovered during the entire camp period.

The team to conduct the physical examinations made prior to discharge consisted of 16 officers.195 It examined 8,265 men prior to March 15, 1919, and found 1,129 of these with disabilities. Of this latter number, 915 were found in the first 1,616 men examined. Camp Sheridan was closed about March 15, 1919.173

CAMP WADSWORTH, S. C.

The site of Camp Wadsworth was a rolling, windswept plateau 3 miles from Spartanburg, S. C.196 This was intersected by many small streams and contained several swampy areas.197 Clay formed the soil, which became extremely dusty in dry weather and muddy in wet weather.198 There were no hard-surfaced roads in the vicinity, and these unimproved roads became almost impassable after heavy rains. A modern highway to Spartanburg was not constructed until November, 1918, and then was made available only by the construction by the quartermaster of a connecting road 1 mile in length. The

daytime temperature was high during the summer, but the nights were cool. The short winters were severe for that latitude.

The 27th Division, composed of National Guard troops from the State of New York, arrived in Camp Wadsworth in September, 1917, to the number of about 30,000 men, and left for overseas service in May and June, 1918.171 Those men of the 27th Division who were not required by a new table of organization were formed into a provisional depot for corps and army troops in January, 1918.198 About one-half of the 6th Division, Regular Army, arrived in the camp in May, 1918, and left for overseas service in July, 1918.199 The 96th Division, National Army, was formed in October, 1918.200 The maximum of population of the camp, about 34,000, was attained in April, 1918.177


229

All sources of water on the reservation except two springs were condemned for human use before the camp was occupied by troops.201 One of these remaining springs was condemned about August 15, 1917, and the chlorination of water from the other was ordered pending the introduction of the city supply. The city of Spartanburg derived its water supply from three small streams, and in turn supplied the camp.202 Three wooden tanks, with a capacity of 600,000 gallons, provided storage in the camp. The water was filtered and chlorinated before delivery, and showed only occasional gas-producing organisms.

Until the fall of 1918, when the camp sewerage system was installed, the following methods of disposing of waste water from kitchens and baths were used: Incinerators were used for the disposition of dishwater, while bath water was carried away in surface ditches.203 The disposition of water from the bathhouses was rendered unnecessarily difficult by their construction, in that the roofs and floors sloped in opposite directions, thus necessitating ditches on both sides. A change in the method of disposal of liquid kitchen waste was made in the summer of 1918, pending the completion of the sewerage system.204 Soakage pits were dug, 6 feet wide, 8 feet long, and 16 feet deep, with an improvised grease trap 3 by 4 by 4 feet. One of these pits proved to be large enough to dispose of the liquid from 2 companies of 250 men each. Another method used in some organizations was to place "niter cake " in a grease trap to saponify the fats.205 The effluent from this process was more or less unsightly, but did not attract flies and therefore could be discharged into surfaces ditches.

The pit latrine system was a difficult problem, as subsoil water was encountered at a depth of 4 to 6 feet in the lower parts of the camp.197 Although the pits were dug to a depth of 18 feet and in an area much larger than the seat area, the excess being covered over with a roof of logs and earth, the seating capacity provided was only for 5 per cent of the command and necessitated the digging of new pits every three or four months.206

A sewerage system, with disposal plant, for the base hospital was completed early in the spring of 1918,203 and a system for the camp in October, 1918.207

Though local farmers hauled away the garbage during the early part of the camp period,208 a contract was awarded for its removal a month or so after the camp was established.209 Removal under this contract was satisfactory for a while, the collector equalizing removal by taking one can from each company on his first trips and removing the others later. This system of removal failed completely when the roads became impassable in the winter of 1917-18; so the garbage then was hauled to a farm 3˝ miles distant, the owner of the farm agreeing to spread it and plow it under.210 Some of it, however, was sometimes buried in the company streets or dumped along the road,198 and being inadequately covered fly breeding resulted therefrom throughout the following summer.211 The garbage was separated into the following three classes by the organizations in the spring of 1918:203 Fats, garbage for hogs, citrus fruits, coffee and tea grounds, fish heads, etc. The first two classes were hauled to a hog farm and the third was destroyed in the incinerators. The practice of giving the garbage to various farmers was continued during the greater part of the year 1918, no responsible person being found who would contract to remove it all until late in the year.198 These individuals were required to con-


230

form to specified rules governing the cleanliness and methods of removal. When the garbage was later removed by a contractor to a pig farm, the proceeds were such that the net cost to the Government for haulage and labor was approximately 2 cents per pound. When the messes were managed economically, it was found that 500 men produced daily one 30-gallon can of garbage suitable for hog feeding.204 While a garbage transfer station was maintained, it included no provision for the cleansing of the cans.212

A contract was in force in the winter of 1917-18 for the removal of manure to neighboring farms, but the long hauls and the condition of the roads led to the formation of a compost pile 2˝ miles from camp.198 Manure disposal from the auxiliary remount depot did not keep pace with its production, due to poor roads and the 2˝-mile haul to the disposal point.211 In October, 1918, arrangements were made for its removal by railroad, the manure being piled in a convenient location in the depot as removed from the corrals. The edges of this pile were sprayed with a borax solution, and the heat generated within the pile was sufficient to prevent fly development. By this method the amount of manure removed from the corrals was increased 400 or 500 per cent.

The physical examination of drafted men was under the immediate control of headquarters, provisional depot for corps and army troops, and authority was given to the depot surgeon to make such changes in the personnel of the examining board as became necessary.211 The board was divided into 2 teams, each of which could examine from 700 to 800 men each day. Fifty-five thousand men were examined by these teams, using a one-story and a two-story infirmary.

During the fall of 1917 and the following winter there was an absence of any large number of cases of measles.177 Small numbers of cases of German measles were reported each month with a maximum of 157 in January, but true measles was almost nonexistent. After February, 1918, very few cases of the former disease occurred and only comparatively small numbers of the latter.

A mild type of influenza was prevalent at Camp Wadsworth from the first. There were two waves of incidence, the crest of the first being 124 cases in December, 1917, that of the second being 779 cases in April.177 The epidemic in the fall of 1918 began September 24 and was largely over by October 10.213 In comparison with other camps, the disease was of a mild type. The epidemic type of disease affected the colored troops first. The personnel of the auxiliary remount depot was the only organization housed in barracks, and this was the first white organization affected and showed the highest rate for pneumonia. One thousand nine hundred and thirty-one cases were reported during the months of September and October, with only five deaths.177 This latter figure is evidently misleading, as the deaths from primary pneumonias during the same period were inordinately high-139 against 21 for the next highest two-months' period. As general preventive measures, a rigid quarantine of the camp was effected, congregations of men were prohibited, tents were furled at night, and all arrivals were quarantined for five days.213

Pneumonia, mostly lobar, was present throughout the camp period, its incidence waves corresponding rather closely to those of influenza.177 The proportion of bronchopneumonia was small except in April, 1918, and after August,


231

1918. Beginning with October, there were few cases of the lobar type. The moderate increase in pneumonia which occurred in the spring of 1918 was considered to have been due largely to the hemolytic streptococcus, and plans were laid to culture a portion of the command in order to estimate the prevalence of carriers of this organism.198 The work was not undertaken in full until September and October. Varying numbers of the different organizations were cultured, 11 per cent of these showing the streptococcus in September and 17.2 per cent in October.214 The streptococcus isolated from pneumonia cases in the spring of 1918 appeared to be identical with the strains isolated in the fall, except in degree of virulence.198 Influenza and 95 per cent of the cases of pneumonia occurring in the early fall were attributed to this streptococcus, and new arrivals who were placed in the detention camp were not released while streptococci were present in their throat cultures.198 213

The situation as regards mumps was also exceptional at Camp Wadsworth, in the small incidence of this disease.177 There was almost none in 1917, and the highest monthly occurrence was 112 cases in April, 1918.

The orthopedic work was conducted in a systematic manner in 1917, and results were prompt.215 Lectures were given to medical, line, and noncommissioned officers, organizations examined, and an orthopedic dispensary was established. This prophylactic work was so successful in results accomplished that the number applying for treatment had decidedly lessened by December 1.

All men in the camp in 1918 who came from Southern States were examined for hookworm.198 Of 18,786 examined, 2,844, or 15 per cent, were found positive.

No permanent quarantine or detention camps were established.203 The only time when routine use was made of such a camp was during the influenza epidemic in the fall of 1918, when all incoming men were sent from the trains directly to a detention camp.205

A representative of the United States Public Health Service assumed charge of the extra-cantonment zone early in September, 1917.208 The city health officer of Spartanburg was active at that time, but sanitary measures were difficult to enforce. The Army authorities considered that oversight of all activities should be maintained by them, although the Public Health Service felt that it was no longer necessary by January, 1918.210 Local boards of health were then considered valueless.

The development battalion at first was composed entirely of about 500 men with physical or mental defects.216 The strength had been increased to 832 by the middle of August, 1918,217 and to 2,000, in two battalions, by the last of September.218 All venereal cases were in 1 battalion, but 496 colored venereal cases were not in the development battalion at all.218 Classification of the men was made by a board, which did not examine the men but based its conclusions on the findings recorded by the specialist examiners. The strength had been reduced to about 1,000 men by January 1, 1919.219 There were 330

men remaining late in the month, the battalions being used as demobilization units.220

The convalescent center was officially organized January 6, 1919,220 but in reality was only a change of name for the convalescent camp of the base hospital until about February 1.221 The center had its greatest number of occupants at that time, about 180, and was closed February 25, 1919.


232

Two portable dental outfits and an extra dental chair constituted the camp dental equipment available September 10, 1917.222 Instruments were borrowed from the two outfits and from the personal stocks of officers and added to the spare chair to make a third set of equipment. The camp was then divided into three sections and one dental outfit was assigned to each. Rosters of all organizations in each section were obtained and a systematic dental survey was made, the men being placed in one of three classes according to conditions found. The equipment necessary in the camp was completed in December, and the major dental defects of the men were corrected before the division left for overseas service. Twenty-two dental officers and one portable outfit were available for the work in the early period of the provisional depot for corps and Army troops, so the officers were directed to attend a course of instruction given for medical officers. Dental equipment arrived after a few weeks and was set up in unfloored tents. Water was carried from the nearest spigot and heated by the Sibley stove. Two dental infirmary buildings were occupied in August, 1918, and the work conducted in them was highly specialized.

The camp veterinary service supervised the meat and dairy inspection of the extra-cantonment area, as well as that of the camp, until February 1, 1918, when the extra-cantonment work was taken over by the United States Public Health Service.196 Early inspections of dairies in the vicinity showed a poor condition of both the dairies and the animals, so the entry of raw milk into the camp was prohibited. The supervision of meats purchased locally by organizations was left to the extra-cantonment activities of the United States Public Health Service until the first of the year 1919, when its inspection after delivery to the organization was inaugurated.223 As no system of control previously had been established, this was more or less wasted effort until a central inspection post was established in February, 1919.224

The sheds in the corrals in the remount depot were originally of the open type, but later the north sides were closed. Further inclosures were made until many of the sheds eventually became stables.225 An unusual amount of rain in the summer of 1918 emphasized the value of clean corrals.226 The adoption of the temporary disposal method of piling the manure removed in a near-by area and the detail of 100 men from a labor battalion had permitted the cleaning of half of the corrals. These were dry and in good condition, while the others were covered with semiliquid manure and mud to a depth of from 4 to 12

inches. There was a shortage of feed during the summer, a shipment of shelled corn heating and the substitution of straw for hay becoming necessary.225 The animals became weak and emaciated, sand ingestion caused the loss of many from impaction colic, and the starved animals literally ate their way through the fences in some instances.

Commissioned veterinary personnel arrived in August, 1917, for duty at the remount depot hospital, but enlisted veterinary personnel was not authorized until about three months later.225 Meanwhile civilian colored laborers were employed instead, but were very unsatisfactory in caring for the shipments of animals received. The wards consisted of open stalls, except for one closed stall. The diseases which showed the highest incidence were as follows: Influenza, 1,910 cases; wounds, 771; pododermatitis, 684; pneumonia, 445; dermatitis gangrenosa, 427; strangles, 283; glanders, 173. The influenza occurred


233

mostly in the winter of 1917-18. Glanders was first discovered after the departing 27th Division had turned in their animals to the depot. The corrals were overcrowded, poorly arranged, and so filthy that any attempt to disinfect them was useless. Consequently, no headway in controlling glanders could be made until conditions were changed. A new commander of the remount depot caused all corrals to be cleaned and double fenced, and obtained the use of clean sheds in the main camp. All animals not reacting to the mallein test were removed to these clean sheds, hay racks and stalls were built in the corral shelters, and the remaining animals were tied there. It was then feasible to clean and disinfect corrals as required, and the disease was eventually eliminated about the first of the year 1919.

The demobilization period extended from November 21, 1918, to March 20, 1919.227 The 96th Division was completely demobilized on January 7, 1919, and the provisional depot for corps and Army troops ceased to exist on January 15, 1919. During the demobilization period 11,431 men were examined physically. Only 163 of these were found to have a disability.228 The camp was officially closed on March 25, 1919.227

CAMP WHEELER, GA.

Camp Wheeler was located 6 miles from Macon, Ga., a city of 50,000 inhabitants, in a region of gently sloping hills.229 The natural drainage was good, except that the camp was bisected by one swampy area and nearly surrounded by others. The soil consisted of a sandy loam overlying a subsoil of sand with streaks of clay and kaolin. One road leading to Macon was partly of concrete, but most of the roads were unimproved.230 While the climate was mild, there was much cold and rainy weather during the winter.229

The 31st Division was formed here from National Guard troops from Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.231 The large majority of 11,000 men arrived at Camp Wheeler from September 5 to September 20, 1917. Approximately 3,000 of them were recruits of about three months' service, the remainder having over one year's service. Drafted men to the number of 10,000 were added in October, 1917. The division left the camp in September, 1918, and the organization of the 99th Division was begun in October.232 The maximum strength of the camp was about 35,000, in August, 1918.233

A local spring served as the source of the water supply of the camp during its earliest period,234 and a creek was used for another short period.235 Although water from the latter source was filtered and chlorinated, laboratory reports consistently showed the presence of gas-forming bacteria, probably from dirt in the mains, and all water used for drinking purposes was boiled.235 This supply was maintained for emergency use after connections were made with the city supply system, and the plant was operated for one hour daily to keep it in condition.236 The use of water from the city supply system began about

November 1, 1917.237 This supply was drawn from the Ocmulgee River, and there was no town above the intake for a distance of 20 miles.238 Owing to the fact that the city did not have a trained man in charge of its plant, the water was again chlorinated at the camp,236 although it was reported to have been of excellent quality soon after its use was begun.237


234

Before the sewerage system was inaugurated, attempts to dispose of the water from bathhouses by subsoil tiling were not satisfactory,237 and its removal by surface ditches was adopted. This proved to be satisfactory.229 Kitchen liquid wastes were disposed of by incinerators.239

Pit latrines, most of them about 20 feet deep, were used.240 Objection to this system was made, on the grounds that they tapped the groundwater level and therefore filled rapidly after rains, and that they contaminated the water supply of neighboring farms, including a dairy. One spring on a small private reservation within the camp boundaries was used for bottling purposes, and the owners filed a suit against the Government because of its alleged contamination. As a rule, the latrines did not require frequent renewal, as the sandy soil permitted adequate seepage.241

A sewerage system was provided for the base hospital in the early part of 1918, and the construction of a camp system was begun in the spring of that year.229 The latter was in use in some parts of the camp in September, 1918, but was not completed until December.

At first, some of the camp garbage was given to farmers and the remainder was burned in extemporized incinerators.233 A contract was made for its removal about October 1, 1917,233 but this was still operated with only one set of cans in November and was not entirely satisfactory.237 The cans were at first whitewashed, and this was approved by the division surgeon on account of the difficulty of disposing of the wash water used when they were scrubbed.229 This practice was stopped when the sewerage system was constructed. There is no apparent reason for its approval at any time, as the terms of the contract required that the cans be cleaned and sterilized by the contractor.242 An excellent garbage transfer station was constructed in the summer of 1918, consisting of a wooden platform over a drained cement base, with a house at one end in which to clean the cans.233

The disposition of manure was neglected during the earliest days of the camp, having been gathered into trash piles and not burned.234 No farmers were found who would remove the manure, although the soil of their farms was impoverished.229 The manure was burned until a field agent of the Department of Agriculture interested a group of farmers, when a contract was made by which it was removed on the railroad. Late in 1918, when the quantity of manure produced by the camp was small, it was hauled to adjacent farms by the organizations.243

Two dumps for noninflammable rubbish were maintained in a most excellent condition in ravines.229 Tin cans and similar articles were placed at the bottom and covered with ashes and dirt, the top being leveled as the dump was extended.

The camp medical authorities were confronted by a potentially grave situation at Camp Wheeler from the time of the selection of its site for a mobilization camp.229 Traversed by one swamp and bounded on three sides by others which could be controlled only at great expense, with a large swamp to the south which could not be eliminated, and with civilian reservations within the boundaries of the camp site, the first medical inspectors to visit the camp doubted that such a place in a malarial country could ever be made healthful


235

for troops.244 While malaria did not prove to be serious, approximately $100,000 was expended in drainage projects.229 In addition to routine drainage of the swamp area, the swamp which bisected the camp area contained two small lakes which required attention.233 It was not practicable to drain one of these, but the second one was drained. Unfortunately, the maintenance cost of drainage ditches in the bed of this lake proved to be so high that it was later deemed advisable to refill the lake.243

The local board of health was active when the camp opened234 and the United States Public Health Service sent a representative to Macon shortly after.235 The latter subsequently was appointed local health officer, and was very active in mosquito prevention work, the control of contagious diseases, the regulation of eating places, the improvement of dairies, and the replacement of privies by cement vaults.242

Medical infirmaries were used for the physical examination of draft increments, 4 teams of 12 officers and 24 enlisted men each functioning in 2 infirmaries.245 Thirteen hundred men daily was the average rate maintained and 1,500 could have been handled. The infirmaries were not sufficiently large to provide the facilities for undressing and bathing which were desirable.233

Measles had existed in all the regiments of the 31st Division since their Mexican border service, but there were only 22 cases in the division when the draft troops arrived.231 Every trainload of these troops contained measles cases, and an epidemic was soon under way which produced approximately 3,000 cases before the 1st of December, 1917. However, at no time during the following year did measles even threaten to assume epidemic proportions.244 A few cases of German measles were differentiated during the fall of 1917 and the following winter.

Influenza cases were present at Camp Wheeler in large numbers during the fall of 1917 and the following winter and spring.244 The monthly incidence rose steadily to 508 in January, 1918, dropped to 236 in March, and suddenly increased to 1,922 in April. The figures during the summer were much less, and no cases of the endemic type occurred until October 9. Meanwhile preventive steps had been taken, and the ensuing epidemic was neither as extensive nor as severe as in most of the camps. Some 4,000 men were given prophylactic treatments with an influenza vaccine, without any appreciable result. The number of cases of influenza that occurred is problematical, as a positive laboratory culture of the Pfeiffer bacillus was required before the diagnosis of influenza was permitted. This measure was prescribed for the infirmaries to promote accuracy in diagnosis and to prevent the flooding of the base hospital with cases of a trivial nature which were not influenza, but there is no apparent reason why it should have been adopted by the hospital except through a misunderstanding as to its import. It was also apparent that many cases among arriving draft troops which showed a frank pneumonia when first seen and were classified as primary pneumonia, should have been accredited primarily to influenza.229 The epidemic spent its force in October, and the number of cases for that month was estimated to have been not over 2,000, in a population of 15,000.


236

Pneumonia was uncommonly prevalent in Camp Wheeler in the fall of 1917 and the following winter, and continued through the spring and summer of 1918 in unusually large numbers.244 The occurrence of 153 cases in August, 1918, was not unusual, as the summer incidence is usually low. Almost 91 per cent of all cases arising prior to September 1, 1918, were reported as being of the lobar type. The division surgeon required isolation of all cases of pneumonia from the time of the appearance of the first one in the field hospital in October, 1917.229 While in only about 30 per cent of cases arising in the fall

of 1917 could a connection with measles be traced, the paralleling of the measles curve in graphic charts by that of pneumonia convinced him that the latter was dependent upon the former in some unexplained manner. The high incidence was attributed largely to the poor physical condition of the men from the Southern States, particularly Florida, men from this State showing a morbidity of 5.9 per cent. The relation of length of service to pneumonia in the fall of 1917 is surprising-91 per cent of the men who contracted pneumonia had had less than eight months' service.231 The proportion of men in the camp with this short service is not stated, but it was approximately 18,000 of the 25,000 in camp.244 There were 624 cases of pneumonia among this 18,000 men.231 On this basis, 7,000 men, the number with eight or more months' service, would have had 243 cases. Actually they had only 60.231  With this previous record, the incidence of pneumonia was not as high in the fall of 1918 as might have been expected, the total reported for four months being 671, with an average strength of 15,000 or less.244 The continuing predominance of the lobar type does not correspond to the findings in the majority of the

camps. The case mortality was 17.7 per cent prior to September 1, 1918, and 21.5 after that date.244

Camp Wheeler showed an unusual number of mumps cases (631) in September, 1917.244 The admissions in October were comparatively negligible, then increased rapidly to 1,923 in December and 2,236 in January, 1918. As no particular effort was made to limit the spread of this nonfatal disease, the nonimmune element in the command had largely disappeared by reason of attacks of the disease before the end of February, and mumps did not again become a factor of any considerable importance. There were 5,654 cases prior to March, 1918.

Cases of cerebrospinal meningitis occurred each month from October, 1917, to October, 1918, inclusive, with a total of 46.244 Twenty-eight of these occurred prior to February, 1918. The treatment of carriers consisted of a 30-second exposure to chlorine gas in a strength of about 1 to 150,000.246  Fifty-five per cent were freed from the bacteria in one or two treatments. As the number of treatments required extended to as much as 15, no particular advantage of this method over others was claimed except the ease of application.

Malaria did not prove to be the problem that it was feared would be the case.244 Only 1 case was reported in 1917 and 155 cases in 1918. In the great majority of these cases the disease was probably contracted prior to arrival in Camp Wheeler, as 4.1 per cent of 700 men examined were found to have been malaria carriers.241


237

The orthopedic work at Camp Wheeler was not well advanced in the spring of 1918.247 There had been some confusion in the assignment of the orthopedic surgeons, some lack of support by the division surgeon, and the small orthopedic dispensary established at the base hospital was 4 miles from the quartermaster's shoe repair shop, with no transportation assigned. Conditions had improved by July, however, and visits of the orthopedic surgeons to regimental infirmaries were arranged, instead of establishing a central orthopedic dispensary.248 The greater part of the camp orthopedic work was centered in the development battalion after this period.249

A development battalion organization was formed at Camp Wheeler, May 16, 1918.250 There were 1,312 men in the battalion at the end of July, approximately 1,200 of whom were physically unfit. There were 483 orthopedic cases, classified as follows: Minor foot conditions, 108; old injuries, 137; loss of transverse arch of the foot, 15; pronated feet, 155; arthritis, 83. The venereal cases amounted to 314 of whom 200 were chronic cases of gonorrhea and 28 were syphilitics. The enlisted medical personnel of the training cadre were composed of men with some physical disability or who were illiterate,

and consequently were ineffective. The strength of the battalion had increased to 1,642 in August,251 with 10 medical officers and 20 line officers on duty. The strength was about 2,500 late in September, 1918.249 In November, the 2,370 men present were divided into 4 battalions with 18 companies.252 The venereal cases were all in two companies, but there were other types in these companies also. The venereal cases each wore a red patch on the right side of their outer clothing and were restricted to their company streets. The drill schedule eliminated the medical officers from any participation in the supervision of the training, and the schedule was frequently interrupted by changes in organization and by transfers of men. The men were indiscriminately transferred from the battalion by higher authority regardless of their condition or the course of treatment which they were undergoing, thus defeating the purpose of the battalion. Many men who would have made overseas material were transferred

to the United States Guards or similar organizations.252

There were 27 dental officers on duty in the camp in July, 1918, and 17 of their enlisted assistants had a dental education.253 Two new dental infirmary buildings were completed but used for other purposes, the dental surgeons still working in the regimental infirmaries. The location of the two infirmaries only 40 feet apart and in a place where they were convenient for only a small part of the camp was ill-advised.

The camp veterinary service during the period the 31st Division occupied the camp did not cooperate well with the auxiliary remount depot, retaining many operative cases in the camp until recovery could not be hoped for.254 This tendency may be partly accounted for by the distance, about 4 miles, intervening between the camp and the remount depot.

The remount depot was more efficiently planned than were those at many other camps.255 Some of the corrals were small and there was one chute that was particularly useful. This latter was 26 inches wide, 70 feet long, solidly constructed, and could be quickly divided into sections with bars. Its exit led indirectly into any one of five small corrals or pens, or into a larger corral.


238

The large number of corrals, their variations in size, their arrangement in blocks and double fencing between corrals all were conducive to the easy and efficient handling of communicable diseases.254 The four wards of the veterinary hospital were originally open sheds, but these were later inclosed, three being converted into box stalls and the fourth into an open stable. Records prior to August, 1918, are not available, but no cases of glanders were discovered after that date. One animal which gave a positive reaction to the serological test for glanders was found negative at autopsy. Pneumonia, gangrenous dermatitis, colic, and thrush were the diseases causing the greatest numbers of admissions.256 Pneumonia was particularly prevalent in 1917, and is estimated to have affected 850 animals and caused 187 deaths.

Demobilization at Camp Wheeler began November 29, 1918, and was largely completed before the end of the year,229 although not entirely discontinued until April, 1919.257 Of 12,534 officers and men examined, 1,528 were  found to have a disability.257

Camp Wheeler was closed April 10, 1919, and all records, including those of the base hospital, were transferred to Camp Gordon, Ga., for storage.

REFERENCES

(1) Letter from the division surgeon, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, undated. Subject: Yearly report, for the period August 20 to December 31, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Logan) D.

(2) Letter from Lieut. Col. R. E. Noble, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 12, 1917. Subject: Inspection of Camp Logan, Houston, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.4 (Camp Logan) D.

(3) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., special sanitary inspector, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 11, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection of Camp Logan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Logan) D.

(4) Medical history of Camp Logan, Tex., by Maj. Henry P. Carter, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(5) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 414-424.

(6) Brief histories of divisions, U. S. Army, 1917-1918, prepared in the Historical Branch, War Plans Division, General Staff, June 12, 1921.

(7) 1st ind., division surgeon, Hdqrs, 5th Division, Camp Logan, Tex., January 12, 1918, to the Commanding General, 5th Division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.9 (Sanitary Squads, Camp Logan) D.

(8) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 10, 1919. Subject: Medical history of war. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(9) Medical war history, 15th Division, from its organization to December 31, 1918, Camp Logan, Tex., by Lieut. Col. C. M. Walson, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(10) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 26, 1918. Subject: Water supply. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Water Supply, Camp Logan) D.

(11) 4th ind., office of the camp surgeon, Camp Logan, Tex., January 27, 1919, to the commanding general, Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Logan) D.

(12) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 26, 1918. Subject: Sanitary report, Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Logan) D.


239

(13) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Logan, Tex., by Senior Surg. J. H. White, U. S. P. H. S., May 18, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Logan) D.

(14) Sanitary report for the month of June, 1918, at Camp Logan, Tex., from the camp surgeon to the commanding general, Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Logan) D.

(15) Letter from Capt. Charles A. Haskins, S. C., to the Surgeon General, September 6, 1918. Subject: Inspection of Camp Logan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Logan) D.

(16) Sanitary report for the month of September, 1918, at Camp Logan, Tex., from the camp surgeon to the commanding general, Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Logan) D.

(17) Report of collection and disposal of garbage and other wastes at Camp Logan for November, 1918, by Second Lieut. Herbert H. Bartlett, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Logan) D. Storage 1918.

(18) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, November 28, 1917. Subject: Sanitary report, 33d Division, Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Logan) D.

(19) Letter from the division surgeon, 33d Division, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February, 25, 1918. Subject: Personnel, division surgeon's office. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 320.2 (Camp Logan) D.

(20) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 10, 1918. Subject: Inspection of camp surgeon's office and plans for examination of drafted men. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Logan) D.

(21) Letter from the division surgeon, 15th Division, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 27, 1918. Subject: Required Medical Department personnel, 15th Division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Logan) D.

(22) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 8, 1918. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Logan) D.

(23) Letter from the division surgeon, 33d Division, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 21, 1917. Subject: Infirmaries. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632-6 (Camp Logan) D, 1917.

(24) Letter from the surgeon, 5th Illinois Infantry, Camp Logan, Tex., to the division surgeon, 33d Division, Camp Logan, Tex., September 30, 1917. Subject: Sanitary report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.4 (Camp Logan) D.

(25) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, September 10, 1918. Subject: Malaria prevalence, July and August, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 725.11-1 (Camp Logan) D.

(26) Letter from Maj. Richard H. Hutchings, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, November 27, 1917. Subject: Report on psychiatric work at Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-3 (Camp Logan) D, 1917.

(27) Letter from First Lieut. R. L. Rutledge, chief surgeon, orthopedic division, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 15, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Base Hospital, Camp Logan) D.

(28) Letter from the orthopedic department, Base Hospital, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 15, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Base Hospital, Camp Logan) D.

(29) Letter from Capt. Scott D. Breckenridge, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, February 7, 1918. Subject: Inspection of orthopedic service, Camp Logan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Logan) D.

(30) Letter from Capt. Edward A. Rich, M. R. C., district inspecting orthopedic surgeon, U. S. Army, to the Surgeon General, February 22, 1918. Report of orthopedic conditions at Camp Logan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics Camp Logan) D.


240

(31) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 13, 1919. Subject: Medical history of the war from January 1, 1919, to present date. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp Logan) D.

(32) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, September 5, 1918. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Logan) D.

(33) Letter from Maj. Edward A. Rich, M. C., supervising orthopedic surgeon, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 21, 1918. Subject: Report of orthopedic conditions at Camp Logan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Logan) D.

(34) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, October 15, 1918. Subject: Development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Bn., Camp Logan) D.

(35) Letter from Capt. William J. Hammond, M. C., Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General, October 27, 1918. Subject: Development battalion, Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Bn., Camp Logan) D.

(36) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 8, 1918. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection of development battalion. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Base Hospital, Camp Logan) D.

(37) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 28, 1919. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Logan) D.

(38) Letter from Capt. J. Gurney Taylor, M. C., to the Surgeon General, February 12, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Logan) D.

(39) Weekly reports of convalescent center, Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Logan) D.

(40) Letter from the division surgeon, 33d Division, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 17, 1917. Subject: Sanitary inspection of restaurants, etc. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.9 (Camp Logan) D.

(41) Letter from the dental surgeon, Camp Logan, Tex., to Maj. William H. Logan, M. R. C., in charge, dental division, S. G. O., October 19, 1917. Subject: Report on personnel, Dental Corps, this camp. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 330.3-1 (Dental Corps, Camp Logan) D.

(42) Telegram from Hathaway, division surgeon, Houston, Tex., to Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 20, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Logan) D.

(43) Letter from the camp dental surgeon, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 13, 1919. Subject: History of dental service. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Logan) D.

(44) Letter from the division veterinarian, 15th Division, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 1, 1919. Subject: Questionnaire on meat and dairy inspection. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 400.16 (Meat and Dairy, Camp Logan) D.

(45) Letter from the division veterinarian, 15th Division, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 8, 1918. Subject: Questionnaire for veterinary history of the war, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 325. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History of the War, Camp Logan) D.

(46) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 325, Camp Logan, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, A. R. C. No. 325) R.

(47) Office memorandum, S. G. O., for Veterinary Division, March 19, 1919. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(48) Monthly reports of physical examination prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability, at Camp Logan, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Logan) D.


241

(49) Letter from Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War, to Hon. J. P. Buchanan, House of  Representatives, Washington, D. C., February 28, 1921. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 330.14-1 (Camp Logan) D.

(50) Letter from the division surgeon, 7th Division, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 17, 1918. Subject: Medical history of Camp MacArthur, Waco, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Medical History, Camp MacArthur) D.

(51) Medical histories of the units of the 32d Division, by Col. Gilbert E. Seaman, M. C., division surgeon, 32d Division. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(52) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, Vol. I, 1919, 426-439.

(53) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., sanitary inspector, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 7, 1918. Subject: Special sanitary report on Camp MacArthur, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(54) Medical history of the 7th Division, by Col. A. W. Williams, M. C., division surgeon. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(55) Annual report, for calendar year, 1918, Camp MacArthur, Tex., by Lieut. Col. E. F. McCampbell, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(56) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 1, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection, Camp MacArthur. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(57) Letter from Capt. Robert H. Craig, S. C., Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the commanding general, Camp MacArthur, Tex., January 14, 1919. Subject: Special investigation of water supply. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.2-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(58) Letter from Maj. James T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 7, 1918. Subject: Inspection of water supply and sewage disposal plants at Camp MacArthur, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(59) Letter from Lieut. Col. Robert E. Noble, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 14, 1917. Subject: Inspection, Camp MacArthur, Tex., October 13 and 14. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333.1-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(60) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 19, 1917. Subject: Inspection made November 2 and 3. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(61) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., special sanitary inspector to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 25, 1918. Subject: Report of special inspection made of Camp MacArthur, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(62) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp MacArthur, Tex., May 9 and 10, 1918, by Senior Surg. J. H. White, U. S. P. H. S. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(63) Letter from the commanding officer, base hospital, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 13, 1918. Subject: Annual Report, to December 31, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Base Hospital, Camp MacArthur) D.

(64) Letter from the sanitary engineer, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 13, 1918. Subject: Special report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.2 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(65) Report from base hospital, Camp MacArthur, Tex., on admissions at camp for influenza and pneumonia, September 16 to November 15, 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(66) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 27, 1918. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection, Camp MacArthur. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(67) Letter from the commanding officer, base hospital, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General, December 30, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Typhoid, Camp MacArthur) D. 


242

(68) Letter from the president, tuberculosis examining board, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 12, 1918. Subject: Tuberculosis survey, Camp MacArthur. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Tuberculosis, Base Hospital, Camp MacArthur) D.

(69) Summary of work of nervous and mental board at Camp MacArthur, Tex., May 1, 1918, to July 10, 1918, by Maj. Frank E. Leslie, M. R. C., president, neuropsychiatric board. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-3 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(70) Letter from Capt. Albert Vander Veer, jr., M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 21, 1918. Subject: Cardiovascular patients. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-2 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(71) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 15, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp MacArthur) D.

(72) Letter from Capt. Edward A. Rich, M. R. C., district orthopedic surgeon, to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 25, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic conditions at Camp MacArthur. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp MacArthur) D.

(73) Letter from the chief of surgical section, Base Hospital, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 16, 1918. Subject: Report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp MacArthur) D.

(74) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the commanding general, 7th Division, May 28, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic recommendations. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp MacArthur) D.

(75) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, July 16, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic report to date. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp MacArthur) D.

(76) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, September 30, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic report to date. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp MacArthur) D.

(77) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, October 1, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic report to date. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp MacArthur) D.

(78) Report of inspection of development battalion, Camp MacArthur, Tex., October 27, 1918, by Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(79) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp MacArthur, Tex., on January 20, 1919, by Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(80) G. O. No. 3, Hdqrs. Camp MacArthur, Tex., January 9, 1919.

(81) Descriptive and historical résumé of Camp MacArthur by Maj. Matthew Hansen, Q. M. C., Mich. N. G., constructing quartermaster. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp MacArthur) D, Storage.

(82) Telegram from Hutton, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to Surgeon General, December 20, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703-1 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(83) Letter from Maj. Clement D. Vignes, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, June 17, 1918. Subject: Inspection of the dental service at Camp MacArthur, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental, Camp MacArthur) D.

(84) A report on meat and dairy inspection, Camp MacArthur, Tex., July 23, 1918, to March 10, 1919, by Capt. Nathan N. Crawford, V. C., camp veterinarian. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(85) A veterinary history of the war, Camp MacArthur, Tex., July 23, 1918, to March 10, 1919, by Capt. Nathan N. Crawford, V. C., camp veterinarian. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(86) Veterinary history of war, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 324, Camp MacArthur, Tex., by Capt. J. L. Hartman, V. C. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.  

(87) Veterinary history of the war, data on certain diseases, May 1, 1918, to May 9, 1919, by Capt. J. L. Hartman, V. C. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.


243

(88) Monthly report of physical examination made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp MacArthur, Tex., December, 1918, to February, 1919, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(89) Telegram from L. O. Vorrus, Quartermaster, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to SURGWAR, Washington, D. C., March 24, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 323.7 (Camp MacArthur) D.

(90) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp MacArthur, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 7, 1919. Subject: Permanent personnel for subdepot supply office, camp utilities, constructing quartermaster and auxiliary remount depot remaining in Camp MacArthur on abandonment of camp. On file, Record Room. S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, Camp MacArthur) D.

(91) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp McClellan, Ala., August 31, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp McClellan) D.

(92) Report on camp sanitation from August 25 to December 31, 1917, Camp McClellan, Ala., by Lieut. Col. J. Harry Ullrich, M. C., N. G. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(93) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 440-451.

(94) Brief histories of divisions, U. S. Army, 1917-18, prepared in the Historical Branch, War Plans Division, General Staff, June, 1921, 36.

(95) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp McClellan, Ala., July 15, 1918, by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp McClellan) D.


(96) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp McClellan, Ala., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 1, 1919. Subject: Medical history, Camp McClellan, Ala., July 1 to December 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp McClellan) D.

(97) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp McClellan, Ala., to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 9, 1918. Subject: October report on water supply, sewerage and waste disposal. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp McClellan) D.

(98) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, October 12, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp McClellan, Ala., October 2, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp McClellan) D.

(99) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp McClellan, Ala., October 26. 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp McClellan) D.

(100) Sanitary report for the month of March, 1918, at Camp McClellan, Ala., by Maj. Jean A. Wolfe, M. C., N. G., sanitary inspector, 29th Division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp McClellan) P.D.

(101) Letter from Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., division of field sanitation, to the Surgeon General, January 16, 1918. Subject: Special sanitary inspection, Camp McClellan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp McClellan) D.


(102) Medical history of the 29th Division, undated and unsigned, compiled for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(103) Sanitary report for the month of December, 1918, at Camp McClellan, Ala., by Capt. John M. Lee, M. C., camp sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp McClellan) D.

(104) Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp McClellan, Ala., made by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C., September 23, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp McClellan) D.

(105) Report of disposal of garbage and other wastes at Camp McClellan, Ala., for November, 1918, by Capt. Chester A. Smith, S. C., camp sanitary engineer. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.6-1 (Camp McClellan) D, storage 1918.

(106) History of malaria control, Camp McClellan, Ala., by Maj. G. R. Bascom, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 725.11-1 (Camp McClellan) D.

(107) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp McClellan, Ala., on January 16, 1919, by Lieut. Col. H. B. McIntyre, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp McClellan) D.


244

(108) 2d ind., camp surgeon's office, Camp McClellan, Ala., August 12, 1918, to the camp commander, Camp McClellan, Ala. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Bns., Camp McClellan) D.

(109) Special report of the sanitary inspection of the development battalion, Camp McClellan, Ala., September 23, 1918, by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp McClellan) D.

(110) Letter from Maj. A. S. McClain, M. R. C., Camp McClellan, Ala., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 23, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center, Camp McClellan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp McClellan) D.

(111) Letter from Capt. F. K. Nichols, M. C., consultant and instructor, convalescent centers, to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 31, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center at Camp McClellan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp McClellan) D.

(112) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the camp surgeon, Camp McClellan, Ala., February 14, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center weekly report, February 8, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp McClellan) D.

(113) Letter from the department veterinarian, assistant to department surgeon, Panama Canal Department, Cristobal, Canal Zone, to the Surgeon General's Office, Veterinary Division, March 14, 1919. Subject: Questionnaire for a veterinary history of the war. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(114) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp McClellan, Ala., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 16, 1919. Subject: Closure of camp surgeon's office. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 323.7 (Base Hospital, Camp McClellan) D.

(115) Medical history of Camp Sevier, by Maj. Baxter R. Hunter, M. C., N. G., assistant camp surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Medical History, Camp Sevier) D.

(116) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Sevier, S. C., April 16, 1918, by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(117) Brief histories of divisions, U. S. Army, 1917-18, prepared in the Historical Branch, War Plans Division, General Staff, June, 1921, 37.

(118) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 492-503.

(119) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Sevier, S. C., August 23, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(120) 4th ind., Hq. 60th Infantry Brigade, A. E. F., August 8, 1918, to the commanding general, 30th Division, A. E. F. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Sevier) D.

(121) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Sevier, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 13, 1919. Subject: Medical history of Camp Sevier. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(122) Letter from the division surgeon, Camp Sevier, S. C., to the Surgeon General. U. S.  Army, March 14, 1918. Subject: Annual report for 30th Division for the period from August 25, 1917, to December 31, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(123) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Sevier, S. C., June 23-24, 1918, by Senior Surg. J. H. White, U . S. Public Health Service. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(124) Letter from Capt. Charles A. Haskins, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 15, 1918. Subject: Report on investigation of sewer system and sewage disposal plants, Camp Sevier, S. C., October 18, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. 672 (Camp Sevier) D.

(125) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Sevier, S. C., on January 11, 1919, made by Lieut. Col. H. B. McIntyre, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(126) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Sevier, S. C., August 31, 1918, by Col. E. R. Schreiner, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sevier) D.


245

(127) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Sevier, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 9, 1918. Subject: Report for November, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.2-1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(128) Letter from Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 25, 1918. Subject: Inspection of Camp Sevier, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(129) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Sevier, S. C., by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., June 2, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(130) Report of inspection in relation to the epidemic of influenza and pneumonia at Camp Sevier, S. C., by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C., October 25, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Influenza, Camp Sevier) D.

(131) Letter from Capt. Henry P. Mauck, M. R. C., Camp Sevier, S. C., to the Surgeon General, August 15, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Camp Sevier, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Sevier) D.

(132) Letter from Maj. J. C. Friedman, M. R. C., base hospital, Camp Sevier, S. C., to the commanding officer, Base Hospital, Camp Sevier, S. C., August 13, 1918. Subject: Preliminary report on the work in the development battalion. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Bn., Base Hospital, Camp Sevier) D.

(133) Letter from Maj. J. R. McDill, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, October 11, 1918. Subject: Development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.171-1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(134) Letter from Capt. George H. Steele, M. C., Camp Sevier, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 23, 1919. Subject: Care of convalescent cases at Camp Sevier. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Sevier) D.

(135) Telegram from Whaley, Camp Sevier, S. C., to Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 18, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Sevier) D.

(136) Letter from First Lieut. R. F. Patterson, D. C., Camp Sevier, S. C., to Maj. W. H. G.  Logan, M. R. C., in charge Dental Division, December 27, 1917. Subject: Result of oral examination of enlisted men of the 30th Division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703-3 (Camp Sevier) D, Storage, 1917.

(137) Letter from the camp dental surgeon, Camp Sevier, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 11, 1919. Subject: History of dental service. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Sevier) D.

(138) Data for a veterinary history of the war for Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 310, Camp Sevier, S. C., by Capt. Howard C. Gale, V. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 310) R.

(139) Monthly reports of physical examinations made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Sevier, S. C., for the months of November, 1918, to April, 1919, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Examinations, Camp Sevier) D.

(140) 1st ind., office of the camp surgeon, Camp Sevier, S. C., March 5, 1919, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 323.7 (Camp Sevier) D.

(141) Medical history of Camp Shelby, Miss., undated and unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(142) Letter from the division surgeon, 38th Division, Camp Shelby, Miss., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 9, 1918. Subject: Report for the year ending December 31, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(143) Letter from Maj. John H. Evans, M. C., Camp Shelby, Miss., to the Surgeon General, January 3, 1919. Subject: Medical history. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(144) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 504, 515.

(145) Letter from the sanitary inspector, Southeastern Department, to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 22, 1917. Subject: Sanitary inspection, Camp Shelby. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(146) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Shelby, Miss., September 4, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.


246

(147) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Shelby, Miss., November 2, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(148) Memorandum from Maj. James T. B. Bowles, S. C., to Col. Howard, M. C., January 29, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.21-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(149) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Shelby, Miss., November 26, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(150) Report of Camp Shelby water supply inspection, August 1, 1918, by Capt. E. J. Tucker. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.21-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(151) Report of water supply at Camp Shelby, Miss., for April, 1919, from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Shelby, Miss. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Shelby) D.

(152) Letter from Maj. James E. Baylis, M. C., Camp Shelby, Miss., to Maj. T. H. Johnson, Surgeon General's Office, August 16, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.15-2 (Camp Shelby) D.


(153) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Shelby, May 22 and 23, 1918, by Senior Surg. J. H. White, U. S. Public Health Service. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(154) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Shelby, Miss., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 8, 1919. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(155) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Shelby on August 24, 1918, by Col. E. R. Schreiner, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(156) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Shelby, Miss., to Col. Jere B. Clayton, M. C., November 15, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(157) Letter from Maj. G. R. Bascom, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, July 15, 1919. Subject: Report of inspection, Camp Shelby, Miss. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(158) 2d ind., War Dept., S. G. O., April 12, 1919, to The Adjutant General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 725.11 (Camp Shelby) D.

(159) Letter from board of medical officers, Camp Shelby, Miss., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 3, 1918. Subject: Epidemic diseases and Medical Department officers at Camp Shelby. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (General, Camp Shelby) D.

(160) A history of the influenza epidemic at Camp Shelby, Miss., entitled Camp Shelby, undated and unsigned. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (Camp Shelby) D, Storage.

(161) History of Malaria Control, Camp Shelby, Miss., by G. R. Bascom, Maj., S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 725.11-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(162) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Shelby, Miss., on April 21, 1919, by Col. J. B. Clayton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(163) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Shelby, Miss., April 2, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(164) Letter from Capt. Henry P. Mauck, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, June 15, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Camp Shelby. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Shelby) D.

(165) Report of sanitary inspection of development battalion at Camp Shelby, Miss., on November 14, 1918, by Col. Jere B. Clayton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(166) Letter from Capt. F. K. Nichols, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 3, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center at Camp Shelby. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2 (Camp Shelby) D.

(167) Weekly strength reports from the convalescent center, Camp Shelby, Miss., February 1, 1919 to July 18, 1919, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Shelby) D


247

(168) The dental history of Camp Shelby, Miss., by Maj. Wilfurth Hellman, D. C., camp dental surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703. (Camp Shelby) D.

(169) A history of meat and dairy inspection at Camp Shelby, Miss., by Capt. David M. Hoyt, V. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 400.16 (Camp Shelby) D.

(170) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Shelby, Miss., for the year 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Examinations for demobilization, Camp Shelby) D and 370.01-2 (Camp Shelby) D.

(171) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Shelby, Miss., to the Surgeon General of the Army, June 9, 1919. Subject: Report on examining board, Camp Shelby, Miss. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 334.1-1 (Camp Shelby) D.

(172) A medical history of Camp Sheridan, Ala., undated and unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(173) Medical history, Camp Sheridan, by Maj. William O. H. Prosser, M. C., assistant camp surgeon, Camp Sheridan, Ala. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(174) Letter from the sanitary inspector, Southeastern Department, to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 27, 1917. Subject: Sanitary inspection, Camp Sheridan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(175) Brief histories of divisions, U. S. Army, 1917-18, prepared in the Historical Branch, War Plans Division, General Staff, June, 1921, 50.

(176) Ibid., 18.

(177) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 516-529.

(178) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Sheridan, Ala., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 30, 1918. Subject: Report for November, 1918. On file, Record Room., S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(179) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Sheridan, Ala., November 5, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(180) Letter from Capt. John H. O'Neill, S. C., Camp Sheridan, Ala., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 25, 1918. Subject: Report on water supply and waste disposal at Camp Sheridan, D, Storage, 1918.

(181) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Sheridan, Ala., September 1-2, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Inspection, Camp Sheridan) D.

(182) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, October 12, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Sheridan, Ala., October 12, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(183) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Sheridan, Ala., April 14, 1918, by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(184) Letter from Senior Surg. J. H. White, U. S. P. H. S., and Lieut. Col. Wm. D. Wrightson, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 23, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection of Camp Sheridan, Ala., February 18 and 19. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(185) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Sheridan, Ala., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 31, 1918. Subject: Report for December, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(186) Letter from the division surgeon, 37th Division, Camp Sheridan, Ala., to the Surgeon General, March 23, 1918. Subject: Report on mosquito prevention. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 725 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(187) A report on sanitation, Camp Sheridan, Ala., July 1 to December 31, 1918, by Col. W. M. Smart, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(188) Letter from Capt. Scott D. Breckenbridge, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 22, 1918. Subject: Inspection of orthopedic service, Camp Sheridan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Sheridan) D.

(189) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Sheridan, Ala., July 13, 1918, by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sheridan) D.


248

(190) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Sheridan, Ala., on November 14, 1918, by Col. Jere B. Clayton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sheridan) D, Storage, 1918.

(191) Letter from Capt. F. K. Nichols, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 6, 1919. Subject: Report of convalescent center at Camp Sheridan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(192) Weekly strength reports of convalescent center, Camp Sheridan, Ala. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(193) Letter from Maj. Clement V. Vignes, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 25, 1918. Subject: Inspection of the dental service at Camp Sheridan. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental Inspection, Camp Sheridan) D.

(194) History of Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 312, Camp Sheridan, Ala., August 1917, to May, 1919, compiled by Capt. Herbert S. Chase, M. C., historical officer. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(195) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Sheridan, Ala., December, 1918, to March, 1919, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Sheridan) D.

(196) Medical history of the 27th Division while at Camp Wadsworth, S. C., by Lieut. Col. E. R. Maloney, M. C., N. G., division surgeon. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(197) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., August 22, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(198) Sanitary history of Camp Wadsworth, by Maj. G. S. Goler, M. C. Subject: Sanitary history of Camp Wadsworth. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(199) Medical history of the units of the 6th Division, by Lieut. Col. Paul L. Freeman M.C., division surgeon. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(200) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 18, 1918. Subject: Medical history of Camp Wadsworth. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(201) Letter from the sanitary inspector, Southeastern Department, to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 15, 1917. Subject: Sanitary inspection of Camp Wadsworth, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(202) Notes on Camp Wadsworth water supply, by Charles A. Haskins, undated. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.2-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(203) Special sanitary report of Camp Wadsworth, S. C., April 20, 1918, by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(204) Letter from the assistant to the sanitary inspector, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 10, 1918. Subject: Garbage disposal. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.7 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(205) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., November 8, 1918, by Col. J. B. Clayton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(206) Letter from Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 25, 1918. Subject: Report of inspection of Camp Wadsworth, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(207) Letter from Capt. Charles A. Haskins, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 29, 1918. Subject: Special report on investigation of water supply at Camp Wadsworth, October 16, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Water supply, Camp Wadsworth) D.

(208) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., September 29, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D, 1917 Storage.

(209) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, October 12, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Wadsworth, S. C., September 27, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.


249

(210) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., January 4 and 5, 1918, by Lieut. Col. C. F. Morse, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(211) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 30, 1918. Subject: Report of disposal of garbage and other wastes at Camp Wadsworth, S. C., for November and December, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.7 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(212) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 5, 1919. Subject: Monthly report, January, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(213) Report of sanitary inspection with especial reference to the influenza epidemic at Camp Wadsworth, made October 11, 1918, by Lieut. Col. Joseph L. Miller, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(214) Tables, Streptococcus heemolyticus survey, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., September, 1918, and October, 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(215) Letter from Capt. James T. Rugh, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 1, 1917. Subject: Semimonthly report on progress of prophylactic orthopedics in camp. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Wadsworth) D.

(216) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., made July 19, 1918, by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(217) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 15, 1918. Subject: Concerning development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalion, Camp Wadsworth) D.

(218) Letter from Maj. John R. McDill, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, September 30, 1918. Subject: Consultation and instruction, development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.171-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D, 1918.

(219) Letter from Maj. Marcus A. Rothschild, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 9, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center at Camp Wadsworth, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(220) Letter from Capt. George H. Steele, M. C., Camp Wadsworth, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 22, 1919. Subject: Care of convalescent cases in Camp Wadsworth. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(221) Weekly strength reports of convalescent center, Camp Wadsworth, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(222) A medical history, dental service at Camp Wadsworth, S. C., by Maj. C. D. Dayton, D. C., camp dental surgeon. On file, Dental Division, S. G. O.

(223) Letter from the camp meat inspector, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., to the camp veterinarian, January 25, 1919. Subject: Inspection of meat food products purchased locally. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(224) G. O. No. 26, Hq. Camp Wadsworth, S. C., February 22, 1919.

(225) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 307, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 23, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of the War, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 307. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(226) Letter from Dr. John W. Adams, contract veterinarian, to the director of the Veterinary Service, office of the Surgeon General, August 4, 1918. Subject: Veterinary service, Camp Wadsworth, auxiliary remount depot. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 484.3 (Camp Wadsworth) D.

(227) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Wadsworth, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 25, 1918. Subject: Medical history of Camp Wadsworth. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp Wadsworth) D.


250 

(228) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Wadsworth, S. C., December, 1918, to March, 1919, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, Camp Wadsworth) D.

(229) A medical history of Camp Wheeler, undated and unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file Historical Division, S. G. O.

(230) A medical history of Camp Wheeler, by Lieut. Col. Louis C. Duncan, M. C., division surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp Wheeler) D. 

(231) Annual report of the division surgeon, 31st Division, Camp Wheeler, Ga., 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(232) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Wheeler, Ga., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 4, 1919. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(233) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Wheeler, Ga., October 6, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(234) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Wheeler, Ga., August 28, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(235) Letter from Raymond C. Turck, M. R. C., Hq. 31st Division, to Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., September 18, 1917. Subject: Sanitation at Camp Wheeler. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5-1 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(236) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 6, 1918. Subject: Special report, water supply and sewage disposal, Camp Wheeler, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(237) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Wheeler, Ga., November 18, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(238) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Wheeler, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 14, 1918. Subject: Preliminary report upon water supply. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.1-1 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(239) Letter from the division surgeon, 31st Division, Camp Wheeler, Ga., to the commanding general, July 17, 1918. Subject: Report for the inspector general. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Base Hospital, Camp Wheeler) D.

(240) Letter from Past Assistant Surgeon C. L. Williams, U. S. P. H. S., to the Surgeon General, U. S. P. H. S., October 11, 1917. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 672-2 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(241) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Wheeler, Ga., by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., May 10-11, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(242) Letter from Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., Division of Field Sanitation, to the Surgeon General, January 21, 1918. Subject: Special sanitary inspection, Camp Wheeler, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Pneumonia, Camp Wheeler) D.

(243) Letter from First Lieut. H. J. Buncke, camp sanitary engineer, Camp Wheeler, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 31, 1918. Subject: Report for December 1, to December 31. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(244) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, 1919, I, 604-617.

(245) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Wheeler, Ga., by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., on May 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(246) Report on the treatment of meningitis carriers with chlorine gas, Camp Wheeler, Ga., by Lieut. Col. Louis C. Duncan, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Meningitis, Camp Wheeler) D.

(247) Letter from Capt. Scott D. Breckinridge, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 2, 1918. Subject: Inspection of the orthopedic service, Camp Wheeler. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333.9 (Inspection of the Orthopedic Service, Camp Wheeler) D.

(248) Letter from Capt. Henry P. Mauck, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, June 21, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Camp Wheeler. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Wheeler) D.


251

(249) Letter from Capt. O. L. Miller, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 25, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Camp Wheeler. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Wheeler) D.

(250) Report of the commanding officer, development battalion, Camp Wheeler, Ga., by Capt. Ralph A. Sturgeon, Inf., O. R. C., July 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Bn., Camp Wheeler) D.

(251) Letter from the division surgeon, Camp Wheeler, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 23, 1918. Subject: Information concerning development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Bn., Camp Wheeler) D.

(252) Report of sanitary inspection of the development battalion, Camp Wheeler, Ga., on November 11, 1918, by Col. Jere B. Clayton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Wheeler) D.

(253) Letter from Maj. Clement V. Vignes, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. Subject: Dental inspection at Camp Wheeler, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental Camp Wheeler) D.

(254) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 311, Centaur, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 28, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary history, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 311) R.

(255) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 311, Centaur, Ga., to the Veterinary Division, S. G. O., February 16, 1919. Subject: Supplemental veterinary history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History,  Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 311) R.

(256) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 311, Centaur, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 15, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, Auxiliary Remount  Depot No. 311) R.

(257) Monthly reports of physical examinations made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Wheeler, Ga., for the months December, 1918 to April, 1919, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Wheeler) D.

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS