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Chapter IV

Contents

CHAPTER IV

NATIONAL GUARD CAMPS

CAMP BEAUREGARD, LA.

Camp Beauregard was located at the approximate geographical center of Louisiana, 6 miles from Alexandria, a city of 20,000 inhabitants, and about 125 miles from the Gulf of Mexico.1 This section of the State is rolling country, with forests of pine and oak; many pine trees were standing on the camp site. The character of the soil-2½ feet of loam overlying many feet of red clay-was conducive to the formation of mud and high-flying dust. The Red River lay several miles south of the camp and Flaggon Bayou along its northern boundary. A number of small streams intersected the camp site and provided

excellent surface drainage to the north and the south, but a number of swamps surrounded the camp in the extra-cantonment zone. There were no improved roads in the vicinity. The climate here is warm, in general, although the yearly variations are from 100° to 14° F. above zero. The humidity is uniformly high, with a heavy rainfall. High winds are common during the summer.

The first troops sent to Camp Beauregard were members of the National Guard from the States of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, 7,000 in number.2 Subsequently, during 1917, the strength of the camp was increased by increments made up from drafted men who had been sent to other camps; so that the strength gradually increased, giving a monthly average of approximately 20,000 in December. The 39th Division was organized here and moved overseas about August, 1918. After this division left, the 17th Division was organized. During 1918, large numbers of men were sent here. A large number came from the State of Louisiana. In the month of September, 670 men (Porto Ricans) were received from the Canal Zone. Increments were also received from other camps. After the 39th Division left in August, 1918, the strength for the camp was low, averaging approximately 10,000 or less. But few colored troops were in this camp at any time, the monthly average being less than 100 for any month before October, 1918, when it was less than 1,000.

As was true of the other tent camps, the base hospital and a few other buildings were of frame construction. The camp was very much overcrowded during the early months of 1917.2

The water supply of the camp was originally derived from four artesian wells for the main camp and one at the base hospital.3 Owing to the appearance of an excessive amount of salt in the water from one well and the increased demands occasioned by the onset of warm weather, this number of wells was later increased by two at the base hospital and four for the main camp.3 Except for one well, which was abandoned for drinking purposes as the result of bacteriological examinations,3 the quality of the water was uniformly good.2

The installation of a sewerage system was begun in the fall of 1917, but the plumbing was not completed at the end of the year 1918.4 Most of the


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latrines and kitchens were connected, however, and grease traps were installed for both of these connections.5 The kitchen traps were placed in the consolidated regimental sewer lines rather than in those leading from individual kitchens, and this location led to the criticism that the distance from the kitchens would cause the deposition of grease in the pipes between, and the size of the traps would cause them to act as septic tanks.5 The general disposal work of the sewerage system consisted of a large grease trap, a distribution chamber, and a septic tank, constructed in accordance with plans sent from the War Department. The camp sanitary engineer expressed the opinion, before the disposal works were put in operation, that the grease trap was overbaffled. This overbaffling could result only in the filling of the first chamber with sludge which would have to be blown out before it had ripened; furthermore, septic action in both the grease trap and the distributing chamber was inevitable and since no method was provided for disposing of the sludge from the grease trap, this sludge would have to be blown out onto the ground.5 His opinion proved to be correct, although the failure of the system to function satisfactorily was due in part to the fact that the expected volume of sewage had been decreased and concentrated by the failure to connect the bathhouses with the system.6,7 The excellent natural drainage of the camp site made easy the disposal of waste water from bathhouses, by surface drainage, but even with this natural advantage, continuous care was required in order to prevent the formation of areas which would attract flies or furnish breeding places for mosquitoes.5

The liquid waste from the kitchens was evaporated in open pans of Guthrie incinerators, one for each mess hall, pending the completion of the sewerage system.1

Originally, deep pit latrines were provided for the disposal of human excreta. These were the source of much trouble, because5 the clay subsoil permitted no seepage and caved in readily, thus requiring lining all pits with wood and removing liquids by pumping. A pumping detail of about 18 men from the labor battalion was constantly employed under the supervision of 2 men from the camp sanitary squad. The detail was equipped with five or six tank wagons. Each latrine required pumping about once a month and the removal of three tanks full each time, the contents of which were emptied into a running stream two miles distant.8 The presence of the excess amount of liquid prevented the thorough burning out of the pits with crude oil, and allowed the breeding in them of flies, and even mosquitoes.4 The pits were 12 to 16 feet deep, and the average period of use for each was less than four months.5

Garbage was removed by a contractor in the cans to a pig farm 5 miles north of the camp, where the cans were sterilized before return.1 The system was not entirely satisfactory, because it was practically impossible to avoid spilling the garbage on the ground, and muddy roads sometimes prevented its removal from the camp.

At first the manure was scattered on near-by farms, with much resultant fly breeding, or burned at specific places.1 8 By the end of the year 1917, the manure was loaded into cars on the railroad and dumped in a ravine situated over a mile from the base hospital and 3 miles from the main camp.9 Investiga-


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tion of this dump indicated fly breeding to some extent in the loose material at the edge, but the internal temperature of the dump was too high to be comfortably borne by the hand or to permit fly breeding. The railroad company was expected to dispose of the manure, but the shortage of labor led to the failure to remove cars from the camp for several days at a time, and necessitated the detail of camp personnel to do the unloading.

All kitchen waste not suitable for hog feed, and all rubbish, were burned in the incinerator.1 The resultant refuse and ashes were hauled to two authorized dumps.

The high admission rate for communicable diseases at this camp led to investigations of conditions there, among others, by the Surgeon General, in December, 1917.2 It was his opinion that the lack of woolen clothing and the overcrowding in tents were causative factors. Sufficient woolen clothing to supply all demands was not available until late in December, 1917.1 The number of men quartered in each tent was reduced to eight on December 1, 1917, with cots so arranged that head and foot alternated.8 The number per tent was later reduced to five, and the men were required to sleep with the flaps of the tent

turned back and two sides rolled.7

Measles was the first of the communicable diseases to appear in epidemic form.8 A few cases were present from the time the camp was organized, and arriving National Guard troops caused an increase, but it was not until after the arrival of the first draft contingent that the number of cases increased to any considerable extent. Nine thousand drafted men arrived from Camp Pike, Ark., between November 10 and 20, 1917, and the maximum number of measles cases was reported on November 19, when 1,258 were under treatment. Construction of the base hospital was not yet complete, and even its authorized maximum capacity would have been insufficient to have met the demand for beds; so field hospitals were set up to supply the deficiency, and regimental isolation camps were established to care for the milder cases. The usual measures of sanitation and segregation were adopted, but were unusually stringent, the entire camp being placed under quarantine. The incidence of this disease rapidly declined during December, 1917, 156 cases remaining at the end of the year, with a total of 2,606 eases. The incidence again slowly increased throughout the year of 1918, but did not assume epidemic proportions.4

Influenza was first reported in October, 1917, with 480 cases in December.2 The incidence then decreased until April, 1918, when there was a marked increase which extended into May. A decrease again occurred during the summer months, but on September 28, 1918, there was a great increase of an explosive character which expended its force during the succeeding two weeks. The great

majority of the 7,181 cases reported from this outbreak arose during those two weeks.4 Upon the outbreak of the epidemic, the regiment in which the first cases arose was quarantined against the remainder of the camp, and its companies were quarantined against each other.7 After the disease had spread to other regiments, the entire camp was put under close quarantine, except that individuals whose duty required their presence in Alexandria were given passes.7

During 1917, 296 cases of bronchopneumonia were reported, with 87 deaths, and 65 cases of lobar pneumonia, with 19 deaths.8 Of these, 159 cases of broncho-


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pneumonia were attributed to measles.2 Both types of pneumonia were present in small numbers throughout the months of 1918 prior to the epidemic of influenza, and both types increased in numbers coincident with the increase in influenza, both in the spring and fall of 1918.2 The camp surgeon's statement that 1,370 cases of pneumonia developed as a result of the influenza epidemic of 1918,4

while the official figures are only 1,077,2 would make it appear that the majority of the cases reported as primary pneumonia were considered to have had a more or less direct etiology in influenza.

Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis first appeared in this camp on November 9, 1917.2 The number of cases gradually increased until about January 1, 1918, when there was an extremely sharp rise, 28 cases occurring in one week. The incidence then steadily decreased until the last case was reported in March, 1918, with a total of 132 cases and 71 deaths.4 The occurrence was widespread, and in

only one instance did more than one case arise in a single tent. Control of the situation was obtained by the usual methods of culture of contacts, quarantine, and the isolation of carriers in three camps surrounded by barbed wire fences and under guard.8 Two hundred and fifty carriers were found in 7,754 men examined, and 1 carrier developed the disease. The base hospital laboratory was neither properly equipped nor situated to handle the task of examining for carriers, so the Louisiana State Board of Health generously placed laboratory cars on the railroad siding and at the disposal of the division surgeon.

The section of Louisiana in which Camp Beauregard was located being highly malarial, 3,559 men in the camp were examined in 1918 in an effort to determine the incidence of the disease in its chronic form.4 Of these, 16.6 per cent were found to have enlarged spleens.1 Daily doses of 30 grains of quinine in liquid form were administered to certain men, presumably the above noted 16 per cent, without interfering with their regular course of training. Three hundred and four cases of malaria had been admitted to sick report prior to May 16, 1918, but reports do not show the number of these which were contracted

prior to arrival at the camp.

Sanitary work in the extra-cantonment zone was under the direction of an officer of the United States Public Health Service, who worked in close cooperation with the division surgeon and with the local and State health authorities.7 The licensing of booths selling foods and drinks, mosquito control work, and the establishment of a hospital for the treatment of infected prostitutes were the principal phases of the zone work.

No depot brigade or general quarantine camp was maintained in Camp Beauregard, the sanitary functions of these organizations being performed by a detention camp, although there was a special quarantine camp for venereal cases. The capacity of the detention camp was 2,000, but an enlargement to 6,000 was planned shortly before the armistice was signed.

The usual methods were in force for the control of venereal diseases.2 Men who were receiving treatment on a duty status were quartered in a camp surrounded by barbed wire fence and under guard.7 In only one respect did the system for control differ from that employed at the majority of mobilization camps-the establishment of a prophylaxis station in the near-by city of Alexandria was not considered to be of sufficient value to be warranted.1


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The development battalion was originally established in March, 1918, as the "orthopedic foot-development camp," under the direction of two line officers and supervised by two orthopedic surgeons.10 This camp functioned as a distinctly military institution, the schedule comprising necessary shoe alterations, foot exercises, foot baths, and military drill. Men assigned to the organization were divided into classes, the assignments being based on the soldiers' ability to perform military duty. The advanced class was given the regular schedule of military training. Of 330 men assigned to the foot development camp in its first three months of existence, 137 were returned to either full or special duty and none was discharged for physical disability. The name of the organization had been changed to "development battalion " by the fall of 1918.11 Three battalions, with 3,172 men, were in the camp early in November, one of these including the venereal cases of the venereal quarantine camp. The battalions were not well organized for their purpose: Two had arrived from other camps and had not reported to the senior battalion commander; there was no battalion surgeon; there was no instruction in English for illiterates; an insufficient number of medical officers had been assigned, and these had supervision of the physical training of the orthopedic cases only; there appears to have been no provision for the special supervision of cardiovascular cases; and men from the battalion were used for duties which interfered with the fundamental purpose of the battalions-fitting the men for military service in the shortest possible time. An orthopedic infirmary was established in connection with the development battalions, where such foot conditions as corns and abrasions were treated by chiropodists who were serving as enlisted

men of the Medical Department and who had been given a special course of instruction in this duty.

The entire dental service within the confines of Camp Beauregard was under the supervision of the senior dental officer on duty in the camp, who arrived in the camp about September 1, 1917.1 Twelve dental officers of the National Guard arrived with the troops, and 17 from the Dental Officers' Reserve Corps arrived in September, 1917. These officers were assigned mainly to the two dental infirmaries, tentage being set up in the immediate vicinity as quarters for both officers and enlisted men on duty there.1 12 Bimonthly reports showing the amounts and classes of work performed by each dental officer enabled the dental surgeon to insure that the proper proportionate time was devoted to the different classes.12

The status of the veterinary officers was not satisfactorily determined until one was assigned as "divisional veterinarian" in April, 1918.1 There were 19 veterinary officers on duty at that time. The veterinary personnel of the 39th Division consisted of a division veterinarian, a division meat inspector, 3 brigade units and 3 field units of 1 officer and 3 enlisted men each, and 1 mobile section of 1 officer and 21 men. The early veterinary administration of the camp naturally fell into three divisions-the camp proper, the auxiliary remount depot, and the camp quartermaster's food inspection service.13 This division resulted from the fact that a mile intervened between the remount depot and the camp, from the semi-independent status of the remount depot, and from the fact that the food inspection service of the camp quartermaster


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was directed by a representative of the Federal Bureau of Animal Industry from whom little cooperation was received. Subsequently, the food inspection service of the camp area was performed entirely by Army personnel. Storage for fresh meats was provided by retaining the refrigerator cars on a sidetrack prior to April, 1918. During the remainder of the camp period, cold-storage warehouses in the camp were available.

The remount depot was well ditched for natural drainage, but the clay subsoil and the overcrowding of too large corrals resulted in an extremely bad condition, the deep mud preventing the proper removal of the excessive quantity of manure.14 Animals mired in corrals were sometimes unable to get to their feet without assistance, and the accumulation of mud and manure was held responsible for nearly 1,000 cases of dermatitis gangrenosa. To the crowded condition of the corrals was attributed the majority of some 550 cases of wounds and contusions. Glanders was the only disease of epidemic type which caused any particular apprehension. An outbreak in the auxiliary remount depot was eradicated in the spring of 1918. All animals left behind by the 39th Division when it left the camp were mallein tested, and over 30 of them gave a positive reaction.

The demobilization period at Camp Beauregard extended from March 1 to March 17, 1919, inclusive, during which time 2,042 officers and men were examined physically.15 Five teams were employed, each composed of the following special examiners: One cardiovascular, 1 genitourinary and orthopedic, 1 ophthalmologist, 1 otolaryngologist, and 2 for tuberculosis. Of the total examined, only 44 were found to have had a permanent disability. The camp was officially closed March 18, 1919,16 and the detachments remaining were transferred to the jurisdiction of the department commander.17

CAMP BOWIE, TEX.

Camp Bowie was located in the suburbs of the city of Fort Worth, Tex., on rolling terrain with very few trees.18 The soil soon ground to a fine powder which was easily carried by the nearly constant winds, and formed a tenacious mud in wet weather. As in other sections of the State, rapid and marked falls in temperature were common during the winter months with the onset of "northers." A small stream flowed along the eastern boundary of the camp.18


The first increment of troops sent to this camp were National Guard men from Texas and Oklahoma.19 These troops began to arrive about August 25, 1917, and by the latter part of September, 17,000 had arrived. This number was gradually increased by increments of drafted men from other camps, largely from Camp Travis, up to an average of 26,000 in November. The 36th Division was organized here and moved overseas about July, 1918. After the division left, the camp was used as an Infantry replacement training camp. During 1918 moderate numbers of drafted men were received, largely from Texas

and Oklahoma. After the 36th Division moved overseas in July, the strength of the camp was relatively small, the maximum for any month averaging 10,000, which was for the month of October. No colored troops were received in this camp until September, 1918, when the strength of these troops was reported as 310. This strength increased to 2,808 in October.19


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The water supply of the camp was the same as that of the city of Fort Worth. The source was an artificial lake 4 miles from the camp. The lake was formed by damming the waters of the west fork of the Trinity River. The purification system consisted of rapid sand filtration and chlorination.18 The water was coagulated with iron sulphate and hydrated lime and sedimented before filtration.

The waste of the camp was disposed of by the camp salvage department.19 Garbage was collected and disposed of by private contract, the edible portion of the garbage being fed to bogs on a farm 5 miles distant from the camp. The waste disposal was reported by the camp surgeon to be satisfactory. Originally, the camp was constructed as a deep-pit latrine camp, but during the fall of 1918 a sewer system was completed and the pit latrines were closed and filled. All bathhouses and kitchens were connected with the sewer system when installed. The sewage was not treated, but was discharged into the sewerage system of Fort Worth.19

The manure was hauled away and given to farmers in the adjacent territory during the early period of the camp.18 It was later mainly hauled to dumps outside the camp, although a portion was still given to farmers.20 The long hauls and insufficient labor sometimes prevented proper cleaning of the corrals of the remount depot.

Measles was brought to Camp Bowie by the troops first to arrive, but did not become epidemic until October, 1917.21 The crest of the wave occurred during the week ending November 23, 1917, when 1,882 cases were in hospital. There had been a total of 3,367 cases on December 19, and only about 140 remained at the end of the year. While a differential diagnosis was not attempted, a large proportion of the cases was considered to have been German measles. No unusual sanitary methods were employed.

The first report of the presence of influenza in the camp was made by a sanitary inspector on March 25, 1918, when 16 cases were on sick report.22 The fall epidemic began about September 24, 1918, and terminated about November 5, 1918, during which period there were 4,439 cases.20 There were two crests in the wave of cases, each corresponding to the arrival of some 3,000 drafted men. Three-fourths of all cases arose in the detention camp, although that camp was quarantined while the remainder of the camp was not. Sporadic cases arose in the succeeding months. All men throughout the camp

were examined twice daily during the epidemic, their noses and throats were sprayed, and winter clothing was issued to those who had none. Influenza patients were kept under observation for a period of five days after discharge from the hospital. In the detention camp, the woodwork of tents and buildings was sprayed with a chlorinated lime solution and the canvas with a formalin solution.

Pneumonia was present during the early fall of 1917, some cases following  measles but many having no discoverable relation to that disease.21 There were 500 cases in November, with 40 deaths, which brought the assistance of the Rockefeller Institute Red Cross laboratory car and a visit from an investigating committee headed by the Surgeon General of the Army. A study of 102 cases revealed 63 of the lobar type and 39 of bronchopneumonia. Of these,


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30 autopsies showed only 3 cases of lobar pneumonia, the high mortality in the cases of bronchopneumonia being due to a virulent streptococcic infection which developed empyema. The greatest number of cases of pneumonia on sick report during this first epidemic was 496 in the week ending December 14, 1917. By March 25, 1918, there were 75 cases remaining, all lobar,22 and further cases arose until   there had been a total of 1,009 cases of lobar pneumonia and 390 of bronchopneumonia for the period October, 1917, to May, 1918.20 A second epidemic of pneumonia began about October 1, 1918, directly due to influenza, and the two crests of the pneumonia wave followed closely the two crests of the influenza wave.20 The proportions of lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in this second epidemic were the reverse of those occurring in the first one-141 cases of lobar pneumonia to 663 of bronchopneumonia during the last four months of 1918. In the treatment of influenza cases during this influenza-pneumonia epidemic, there was a progressive tendency to move them as little as was practicable. Eight mess halls in the detention camp were set aside for observation wards. Five hundred and sixty-nine cases were treated in these wards during the first part of the epidemic, of which 264 were eventually transferred to the base hospital; during the second period, 674 were treated and 173

of these were sent to the hospital.

Mumps assumed epidemic proportions in November, 1917, as the measles declined.21 The peak occurred about the middle of December, when 230 new cases were recorded for the week. There were still 210 on sick report on March 25, 1918.22 There were 1,502 cases during 191720 and 547 during 1918, only 30 of these arising after July 1, 1918.19 Mumps cases were isolated under canvas in regimental quarantine camps and contacts were examined daily.21

The first case of cerebrospinal meningitis occurred about the middle of October, 1917, followed by 5 cases in the week ending November 24.21 In the first week following this latter date there were 3 new cases, 10 in the second week, 5 in the third, and 2 in the fifth.20 There were 27 cases, with 7 deaths before the end of the year;21 9 more deaths occurred during January and February, 1918.22 Contacts were cultured for carriers first, and later the remainder of each company in which a case had arisen.21 Carriers were treated in the base hospital. The entire camp was quarantined from November 28 to December 19, 1917.

The placing of 9 men in each pyramidal tent (16 feet by 16 feet) and the scarcity of woolen clothing, especially overcoats, were considered to have had a definite bearing on the incidence of the acute infectious diseases.21 The greater immunity of an urban population to the acute contagious diseases as compared with a rural population was shown by the incidence of three of these diseases

in the regiments of the division. One regiment was composed largely of men from cities, while the others were recruited mainly from small towns and country districts.19 The former regiment had 6 cases of mumps against 21 to 165 cases in the other regiments, 16 cases of pneumonia against 36 to 178 cases in the others, and 87 cases of measles against 202 to 817 cases in the others.21

As a result of the Surgeon General's visit to Camp Bowie, 1,000 tents and stoves were ordered shipped by express and no more men were sent to the camp until conditions improved.23 The Surgeon General stated that the sanitary


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conditions in Camp Bowie were more serious than those found at other camps visited, and that there was a great deal of uneasiness and criticism among the civilians with regard to conditions there.24 The State health officer of Texas made an investigation and report which resulted in specific recommendations from the Governor of Texas to the commanding general of the camp as to measures which he considered necessary in order to improve conditions.25 A sanitary inspector reported that the repeated recommendations of the division surgeon and sanitary inspector had accomplished little in the organizations.26 Both of these officers had called the attention of the camp commander to the dangers of overcrowding in tents on September 6, 1917, and recommended its correction. Definite instructions were given to organization commanders on November 4, 1917, as to the adjusting of the metal cowls of the tents so as to give ventilation, and the instructions were repeated on November 27 in a division memorandum; yet an inspection on December 1 failed to show a single tent which was properly ventilated.26 This inspector also reported that there was not a sufficient number of medical officers at the base hospital who were qualified as internists; that measles patients had been returned from the hospital when they should have been retained; that some regimental surgeons had failed to detect measles cases

and send them to the hospital as soon as they should have, and to give constant and intelligent observation to convalescent cases returned from the hospital to a "quarters" status; that a lack of sufficient bedding and proper clothing had been an important factor in the epidemic of measles and pneumonia.

During 1918 a hookworm survey was made at this camp. Men from the draft to the number of 12,282 were examined for hookworm infection, and 1,135 positive cases found.20

The extra-cantonment area was under the supervision of the United States Public Health Service.22 The Army medical authorities, however, assumed responsibility for the inspection of premises in immediate proximity to the camp. The engineering work of the Public Health Service was discontinued February 1, 1919, and these duties within a mile of the camp were assumed by the camp sanitary engineer.27  One swampy area, largely due to the discharge of water from camp bathhouses through surface ditches, was drained, and the explosion of dynamite in holes bored in the bottoms of several quarries successfully provided "perpendicular drainage."22

There was a detention camp here, under tentage, and with a capacity of 1,000.22 There was no fence around it. In an effort to avoid contact infection the tent groups were kept separate, messing troops were placed 10 feet apart, and every other lid of the latrine seats was nailed shut.

The development battalion was organized June 20, 1918.28 Four months later, it consisted of four companies, assignment to companies being made on the following classification: Convalescents, other than orthopedic, venereal, heart, and lung conditions; those unable to read and write or to comprehend orders, and aliens unable to speak English; orthopedic cases; venereal cases. Two medical officers were on duty with the battalion, but the personnel adjutant acted only temporarily. An orthopedic surgeon, with a sergeant who was a graduate osteopath as an assistant, made daily visits. The number of line

officers assigned is not known. The enlisted personnel consisted of one non-


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commissioned officer and three privates. Each man in the battalion was examined at least weekly, the results were noted on the personnel cards, and a clinical record was kept. Changes in the treatment or excercises prescribed were noted on the back of the personnel cards. Cardiovascular cases having dyspnea, precordial pain, or tachycardia were not permitted to do any duty and were reported to the disability board for discharge; the others were given drill and exercises which required only moderate exertion. The camp disability board met daily at the battalion infirmary. All men were temporarily classified on admission, the permanent classification not being made until shortly before they were to be transferred from the battalion.

The convalescent center was established in January, 1919, and 160 men were accounted for on the first weekly report.29 A total of 672 men had been received when the convalescent camp closed March 7, 1919, 377 of these being overseas cases.

The status of the division dental surgeon as concerned the scope of his authority and responsibility, was still undetermined in June, 1918, and was at least partially responsible for an unusual degree of inefficiency in the dental service throughout the camp.30 There was one special dental infirmary building, not fully equipped, so the camp dental work was still being done in the organization infirmaries. The operative work of the dental officers was poor, with a few exceptions, and their enlisted assistants were poorly trained and not properly disciplined. There was a lack of cooperation and coordination

throughout the camp-the required instruction in drill interfered with the working hours of the assistants, the only dental officer at the base hospital wished to practice his specialty to the exclusion of general dentistry, and some line officers refused to permit their men to keep dental appointments.

The remount depot was in a very undesirable location, lying too low for good drainage.31 Fully 10 feet of water stood on one corral after an exceptionally heavy rain,31 and the mud elsewhere was from 15 inches to 3 feet deep in the corrals.32 Consequently, the removal of manure from the corrals during the season of rains was out of the question. This condition of the corrals was responsible for much of the disability occurring among the animals, especially dermatitis in its various forms.32  The records for animal disease are incomplete, but the following cases of the more serious disabilities were reported as of record prior to June 10, 1919: Dermatitis gangrenosa, 136; glanders, 115; influenza, 1,122; pneumonia, 650; strangles, 640; thrush, 486; and wounds 445.33

The most important duty of the Medical Department during the demobilization period was the physical examination of the troops.34 The plant was the same as that used during the examination of the draft increments in 1918-three buildings connected by covered corridors, all well lighted and heated. The men to be examined were passed through with all clothes removed, receiving the general examination process in the first building, the chest examination in the central building, and passing the chief examiner, board of review, compensation clerk, representative of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, and the

vocational officer in the third building.35 Demobilization having been completed, the camp was closed August 15, 1919.


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CAMP CODY, N. MEX.

A flat, sandy mesa in New Mexico, 40 by 100 miles in extent, furnished an admirable location for the training of troops, and Camp Cody was there located, on the outskirts of the town of Deming.36 The 4-foot depth of sand eliminated the interference with training that was present in the majority of camps during rainy weather, and there were only about 35 days in the year which were not sunshiny. These conditions were not an unmixed blessing, for high winds which produced sand storms were particularly consistent in daily occurrence during the winter and spring. The seasonal variation in temperature was not extreme, but the variation between that of the day and of the night ranged from 20° to 50° F. The average annual temperature was 59° above zero.36

The first increments of troops sent to this camp were National Guard men from Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.37 About 12,000 of these National Guard troops arrived between the 1st and 30th of September, 1917. The strength of the camp gradually was increased by increments from other camps, so that the average strength for the month of December was 21,000. The 34th Division was organized here. During 1918, and especially after May, increments of troops were received from New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Kansas. Some were received

from other camps. The 34th Division moved overseas about August, 1918. After this time, the strength of the camp was small, the maximum strength being in November, when it was approximately 9,000.37

Underground water was the source of the camp supply, three wells serving the entire area.38 The geological formation of stratum of clay overlying the water-bearing sand stratum was supposed to furnish protection from surface contamination, but this did not prove to be the case.39 When early examination of water specimens showed the presence of colon bacilli, the contamination was attributed to new installations in the system, although stables and a privy were within 80 yards of a well.40

Originally, the camp was supplied with pit latrines for the disposal of excreta. At first, these latrines were burned out daily with straw and crude oil,41 but spraying of the pits with lampblack and crude oil was introduced in the fall of 1917.42 Bathhouse waste was conducted away by surface ditches, and the liquid waste from kitchens was evaporated at the incinerators.36  A sewerage system for the entire camp was nearly completed at the time of the signing of the armistice.43 That for the base hospital consisted of a separate plant and was installed during the winter of 1917-18. Both plants discharged

the effluent into a dry river bed.

Garbage was removed from the camp twice daily under contract; the cans were disinfected and dried before being returned to the kitchens.41

For the most part, the manure was hauled to a dump and burned,41 though a certain amount was removed by local farmers.42

The introduction of influenza into Camp Cody was definitely traced to the following outside sources:44 A detachment of prisoners arrived from Camp Dix, N. J., on September 24, 1918, with one guard ill with influenza. One


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man suffering with influenza arrived from Fort Riley, Kans., on September 26, 1918.45 However, the epidemic which ensued attained alarming proportions only after the arrival of draft troops in October.45 Within four days after arrival, 50 per cent of these men were in hospital. As measures of control, the camp was placed in quarantine October 3, 1918, and unusually strict and thorough regulations were imposed within the camp. All places of amusement and recreation were closed and gatherings of all kinds prohibited; only two men were allowed to each tent; tents were furled and bedding exposed to the

sun from 8 a. m. to 5 p. m. daily; night inspections were made by commissioned officers to insure the proper ventilation of all sleeping quarters; meals were eaten out of doors; sick call and inspection of the entire command were held twice daily; every effort was made to detect and isolate cases as early in the disease as possible, and to prevent infection, by the wearing of masks and the sterilization of bedding and dishes. By November 9, 1918, the cases numbered 2,819. A striking peculiarity of the mortality rate was the difference between that among recruits and the men originally of the 34th Division, on the one

hand, and between the two components of the original 34th Division, on the other.44 That of the troops who were in Camp Cody prior to the arrival of draft increments in October was 0.8 per cent; that of the 34th Division in Camp Dix was 1.9 per cent; and that of the entire population of Camp Cody for the period of the epidemic was 3.3 per cent.

Lobar pneumonia in Camp Cody in 1917, as in the other camps, was in some way related to measles although quite apart from that disease.46 Of the 213 cases of pneumonia which had occurred by the end of the year, 186 were of the lobar type and 27 were bronchopneumonia. Forty-nine of the former and 19 of the latter were secondary to measles. The epidemic of pneumonia continued to rise when that of measles was subsiding. A large number of the cases of primary pneumonia were preceded by the milder acute respiratory diseases. The incidence of pneumonia continued to rise until about the middle of February, 1918, and decreased sharply at the end of that month.47 There had been 322 additional cases by that time. There had been 128 deaths, of which 3 were attributed to bronchopneumonia, 9 to empyema, 17 to pneumonia following measles, and 90 to lobar pneumonia. A two weeks' cessation of drills, exercises, etc., was inaugurated in the latter part of February, with the idea that the strenuous schedule was prolonging the epidemic. The almost immediate decrease in incidence of the disease appeared to justify the conclusion. A previous action supplying an additional 2,000 tents and stoves and 10,500 blankets late in December, 1917, had no immediate effect. There was a sharp rise in the incidence of pneumonia in the spring of 1918, 56 cases occurring in April, of which only 3 were bronchopneunionia.48 The number of cases occurring among the old population of the camp then decreased rapidly until none was being reported by July 1, but 73 cases occurred in June in newly arrived

draft troops. This latter high incidence was of short duration, however, only 11 cases being reported during the first 19 days of July. Contrary to the proportions existing in cases occurring among the older troops, nearly 50 per cent of cases from the recently arrived troops were bronchopneumonia. The severity of the disease was less than was the case prior to the spring of 1918-8 deaths from 122 cases in May and June, 1918, and 7 cases of empyema.


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Measles and bronchitis likewise increased with the increase in pneumonia and occurred principally among the new troops.48 Pneumonia occurred only twice as a complication of measles. The large majority of the cases of pneumonia developing in the new draft troops occurred in the first increment to arrive. This first group was given a very active drill schedule, while the group which arrived later had a lighter schedule.

In the influenza epidemic, admissions for pneumonia first appeared about a week after the onset of the epidemic, rose sharply to 38 in one day a few days later, and fell rapidly to a few daily admissions before the arrival of draft troops on October 23, 1918.45  Within a week from that time the rate rose rapidly to 66 admissions on October 31, then decreased to 9 admissions on November 9, 1918. There were 592 cases, with 170 deaths, during this period, with many cases remaining who were still desperately ill. Pleural effusion had developed in only a few cases and only one had been operated upon for

empyema prior to November 9.

An unusual feature of disease conditions at Camp Cody was the large number of cases of acute articular rheumatism, attributed largely to the very common acute respiratory conditions there.46 Something over 100 cases were in hospital in the latter part of December, 1917.

The tuberculosis survey made by the special tuberculosis examiners disclosed only one-half of 1 per cent of cases which had not been eliminated at the time of the examination of the draft.49 This small number was considered to indicate that such a survey was an unnecessary expense, and that the 100 or more cases discovered would have been eventually reported by the regimental surgeons.

The control of the territory surrounding Camp Cody was invested in the local health authorities.36 Until the armistice was signed, their enthusiastic cooperation with the division surgeon resulted in unusually satisfactory conditions47 regarding such places as restaurants and soft-drink parlors. The drug stores agreed to sell no patent or proprietary medicines to men in uniform except on a physician's prescription, particular emphasis being placed on drugs concerned in the self-treatment of venereal disease. Saloons were abolished in Deming within one week after the camp was established, and the town was

kept clean so far as moral conditions were concerned. No houses of prostitution were operated within 50 miles of Camp Cody, but small towns outside of this radius operated "wide open" until investigated and forced to clean up.42 50 The excellent cooperation of the local health authorities with those of the Army changed markedly after the signing of the armistice, there being no further cooperation and supervision on their part.51

A depot brigade for the reception and preliminary training of recruits was established with the arrival of the first draft contingent.36  Toward the end of the year 1917 this was replaced by a casual camp where the recruits were kept in close quarantine for three weeks, meanwhile receiving training. This camp had a capacity of 3,000 in March, 1918,47 and was administered by a field hospital company.32

A "contact camp" was maintained which was administered by an ambulance company.52  The camp was composed of tentage arranged to form eight


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company streets and each street was designed to house one class of occupants, the classes consisting of recruits and contacts or carriers of the various types of communicable diseases. Tentage was furnished by the quarantine camp for individual contacts or carriers, but when a tent squad was involved the members brought their own tents. Each class went separately to the kitchen for its food and returned to its own company street to eat and to wash its dishes. Similar methods controlled bathing, drill, and attendance at an open-air theater.

One hundred and ninety-one men had been discharged at Camp Cody for various foot ailments by the end of the year 1917.53 Flat-foot furnishing an excuse for the avoidance of strenuous duty, the 34th Division suffered from an epidemic of this complaint at the close of the year 1917.54 To counteract this and in an endeavor to improve the foot conditions of those who actually had a cause for such complaint, an orthopedic casual detachment was organized for the camp on January 4, 1918. This organization represented one of the pioneer efforts in this line of the division of orthopedic surgery in the Surgeon

General's Office.55 The primary purpose of the orthopedic casual detachment was to treat only those men with foot complaints.54 The severest cases were given foot exercises; moderate cases, and severe cases which had improved, were given drill without a pack; the slighter cases were given drill with a 40-pound pack. These men were given instruction in signaling, guard duty, etc., between drills, in a deliberate effort to make this casual detachment an undesirable place for those who were merely seeking an opportunity to avoid duty. The detachment was commanded by a line officer and the medical supervision was directed by a medical officer.53 The administrative personnel of the detachment was detailed from divisional organizations.56 Carpentry and woodwork had been added to the facilities for physical training by May 1, 1918. Convalescent empyema and pneumonia cases were admitted in order to build up their strength before they were returned to duty.52 In May, 1918, the old hospital buildings in Deming were altered and assigned to the orthopedic casual detachment which furnished it with barracks, drill rooms, dispensary, and workshop. When the detachment ceased to function as such, 29 men remained enrolled and only 4 per cent had been discharged for disability.52

The orthopedic casual detachment was reorganized into a development battalion on June 30, 1918.57 During the succeeding few months, 1,754 men were received in the development battalion. Of these, 168 had been discharged for disability by November 1, 1918, and 568 remained in the battalion, the remainder having been returned to duty. All venereal cases of the camp were not assigned to the battalion, as it was intended they should be, about one-half being "attached'" for treatment only. The disposition of class D men was so slow that a separate disability board for the battalion was appointed. The

number of class D men in the battalion was 34 per cent in October.57 There was sometimes a difference of opinion between the battalion officers and the disability board as to the existence of conditions in individuals warranting discharge, with the result that some cases, particularly cardiac and orthopedic conditions, were held for several months when the battalion officers considered them to be entirely useless from a military standpoint.58 Of 1,131 men who had been separated from the battalion, only 159 had been discharged from the service.58


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The dental personnel of the camp numbered approximately 30 officers and 24 enlisted assistants.36 At first the dental officers were assigned to regiments; later, four dental units were organized for a corresponding number of sections of the camp. Still later, the work was concentrated in two dental infirmary buildings. A dental survey of the entire camp was made.

The remount depot comprised corrals, a veterinary hospital, and buildings for barracks, offices, storage, and other purposes.59 The corrals were divided into eight sections by double fences which formed separating alleyways. The fences were of woven wire with a 2 by 6 inch plank at top and bottom, and their stability was satisfactory. The sandy soil absorbed all water so completely that drainage was unnecessary. The capacity of the depot was increased from 5,000 to 7,500 in 1919. There were 6 veterinary officers and 75 enlisted men on duty before the increase in capacity of the depot. These numbers

were then increased to 9 officers and 100 men. One veterinary officer was in charge of the school for horseshoers, with 6 sergeants as assistants. The enrollment of the school was 206. The veterinary hospital comprised both buildings and corrals, and was located between the receiving corral at the railroad and the main corrals. Drainage in the hospital was stated to have been unnecessary. The hospital corrals were separated from other parts of the remount by a distance of 30 feet. Five cases of glanders were detected from December, 1917, to June, 1918. Seventy-five "reactors" were found among the animals turned in when the 34th Division left the camp in August, 1918. All corrals for the reception of healthy animals were freed from loose material and all structures in them scrubbed with a brush and soap or lye, followed by the application of a disinfectant solution. Controlling the disease was influenced by too-large corrals, lack of double fencing separating corrals, and a chute common to all corrals and therefore requiring disinfection after use for each corral group of animals.

On April 1, 1919, Camp Cody was transferred to departmental jurisdiction, no troops remaining except at the camp hospital, at the auxiliary remount depot, and a salvage detachment.51

CAMP DONIPHAN, OKLA.

Camp Doniphan was located on the southeastern slope of the Wichita Mountains, within the Government reservation of Fort Sill, Okla., and not far from the permanent post there.60 The area occupied by the camp was gently rolling, with considerable flat country to the south and west. The city of Lawton, with 8,000 inhabitants, lay about 5 miles to the south. The soil was a sandy clay, impervious to water, and appeared to contain an admixture of sharp, disintegrated granite which was irritating to the respiratory passages when carried in vast clouds of dust during the frequent dust storms. Surface water drained off rapidly following the infrequent rains and penetrated the soil to such a slight depth that mud was not much in evidence. There were no streams of any size in the vicinity of the camp. Dry winds of high velocity were frequent, and ranges of temperature of from 40° to 50° F. within a few hours were not uncommon. The temperature varied from less than zero Fahrenheit in the winter to several degrees above 100 in the summer.


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The first troops received were the National Guard troops from Kansas and Missouri.61 They began to arrive in September, and by the end of October the strength of the camp was approximately 22,000. Increments were received from time to time from other camps, and during the month of December the average strength was approximately 27,000. The 35th Division was organized here and moved overseas about April, 1918. After this division left, the camp was used as a Field Artillery training school, and the strength of the camp was always small, particularly after the month of June.

The troops were quartered in tents, which, during 1917, were very much overcrowded.61 Here, as in other camps, difficulty was experienced in obtaining sufficient warm clothing, and the troops suffered during the early severe weather in the fall and winter of 1917.

The water supply of the camp was obtained from an artificial lake in the Wichita Mountains, in common with that of Lawton and of Fort Sill.62 Algæ were present in large quantities but were removed during the early period of the camp by straining the water through cheesecloth and chlorinating in Lyster bags. Later, copper sulphate was used in the lake, with chlorination at the outlet. This method of treatment did not prove to be entirely sufficient, as visible crustacean forms were not removed, and the disagreeable taste was still present.63 Before the cold weather killed the alga the water was nauseating, and the disagreeable taste and odor did not entirely disappear when used in making coffee and tea.64 As little of it was used for drinking purposes as possible, and it was objectionable even for bathing purposes. The available supply was reduced to 20 per cent of the capacity of the storage reservoir by May 7, 1918; and as it was being rapidly exhausted, an investigation of the ground water resources in the vicinity was conducted. The early abandonment of the camp, however, removed the necessity for further action.65

Waste from the bathhouses was carried away by surface ditches.60 Conley incinerators were provided for the company kitchens, but the small size used was insufficient in capacity to handle the liquid wastes from a mess until the utilization of the removable ash pan as an evaporating pan was introduced. This modified incinerator was very economical in fuel, but was not of sufficient capacity in the hands of all kitchen forces, and necessitated the disposal of excess liquids in latrines or in drainage ditches.60 66

Edible garbage was at first hauled to a pig farm by the quartermaster, the contractor paying 42 cents per month per company mess. The cans were washed and steamed before return.60 The contractor was later required to remove the garbage from the camp and clean the cans.67

Pit latrines were used throughout the period of the camp, each latrine having a galvanized-iron box seat with wooden covers.60 Since the sides of the pits had a tendency to cave in, their conversion into cesspools by concreting was being considered when the 35th Division left the camp. Seepage from old pits into new ones developed after the camp had been occupied for a few months.64

Manure was at first removed by a contractor; later it was burned on a dump outside of the camp.64


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A very mild exanthematous disease was introduced into Camp Doniphan by the National Guard troops arriving in September, 1917.61 The differential diagnosis was doubtful, but the presence of Koplik's spots in a few cases led to the conclusion that it was very mild measles. In spite of the prompt quarantining of the first organization to arrive with the infection, the disease gradually spread through the camp and assumed epidemic proportions in November, 1917. The peak of the epidemic occurred on December 24, 1917, with 486 cases. There were 186 admissions in January, 1918, and 51 in February.61

Camp Doniphan had a large number of admissions in 1917 and the spring of 1918, which were attributed to influenza, the greatest number being 714 in April, 1918.61 Very few such cases were admitted during the summer of 1918, but an increase occurred in September. The main force of the epidemic in the fall of 1918 was expended in October, although several hundred cases occurred in November and an even greater number in December. There was a total of 5,088 cases of influenza admitted to sick report during the year 1918, but only 2,752 of these occurred during the fall epidemic.

The epidemic of pneumonia in 1917 and early 1918 was at its height in January, 1918, with 110 cases, but extended into May, 1918.61 The type was predominantly lobar.

Cerebrospinal meningitis was introduced into the camp by incoming troops early in November, 1917, a total of 18 cases occurring by December 31, 1917.61 Twenty cases occurred in January, 1918, 8 in February, 5 in March, and sporadic cases throughout the remainder of the year. Criticism was made in January, 1918, of the method of handling meningitis suspects, in that they were placed in the wards with actual cases.68 In one company, in which a number of cases occurred, each case was traced to communication with one meningococcus carrier from the company.68 This disease resulted in death in

21 instances in the years 1917 and 1918.61

Soon after the camp was organized, the local health authorities agreed to cooperate with the sanitary inspector of the division in promulgating and enforcing such sanitary regulations as he considered advisable for the control of the county and the city of Lawton.64 A medical officer from the camp was later appointed as assistant health commissioner of Lawton and served in this capacity until supervision of the extra-cantonment work was taken over by an officer of the United States Public Health Service in March, 1918.60

The necessity for a quarantine camp for the segregation of men who had come into contact with cases of contagious diseases and for a detention camp for new arrivals was pointed out by the Surgeon General after his inspection of the camp in December, 1917.69 Subsequently these were established under tentage.

Camp Doniphan was discontinued as a separate camp on July 31, 1918.70

CAMP FREMONT, CALIF.

Camp Fremont was located 30 miles south of San Francisco, Calif., lying partly within the town limits of Palo Alto and Menlo Park,71 between the Santa Cruz Mountains on the west and San Francisco Bay on the east. Extensive marshes 3 miles distant furnished a breeding ground for many mosquitoes.


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The camp site was flat and dotted with groves of live oaks, the maneuver area was in the rolling country of the neighboring foothills, and an arroya which drained the foothills passed through the camp. The soil of the camp site was adobe with a clay subsoil, except on the higher ground, where it was gravel and sand. Mud and dust were troublesome. The climate was equable, with light breezes during the greater part of the year.

It was the original intention of the War Department to mobilize and train the 41st Division, a National Guard division, at this camp, and some organizations of the division were mustered into the service there, but soon were transferred to points east.72 On December 17, 1917, the 8th Division, Regular Army, was organized here. In August, 1918, 5,000 men of this division were transferred to the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia. Then the division was recruited to full strength, and on October 30, 1918, began to embark for France.

Water for the camp was supplied from an existing system which extended across San Francisco Bay from a reservoir in the mountains, and was satisfactory in quality and quantity.71

It had been planned to use pit latrines for this tent camp, but the California State Board of Health urged the installation of a water-carriage sewerage system, to be connected with a proposed system for the local communities.73 The lack of agreement on this proposition led to the abandonment of the camp as a National Guard mobilization camp. Subsequently, however, when it was decided to mobilize the 8th Division here, a water-borne sewerage system was installed, which, in March, 1918, covered only part of the camp; the bathhouses of two organizations were connected with the sewer, but the remainder were furnished with cesspools.74 About half the camp was using pit latrines a month later, and all of the bathhouses had been connected with the sewers.71 No further extension of the sewerage system appears to have been made.

Garbage was removed by a contractor who paid at the rate of $3 per month for each 100 men.71 The contractor was not required to clean the cans. They were at first burned out after being emptied,75 but later the contractor collected the garbage in covered iron wagons and the cans were washed at the kitchens.76

A contractor removed the manure and paid at the rate of $9 per month for each 100 animals.71 This method of disposal was discontinued during the later period of the camp, when the manure was removed to a dump some 3 miles distant on the west shore of San Francisco Bay.77

Each company had a Guthrie incinerator with evaporating pans, but these were used only for disposing of rubbish and for heating water.78 Tin cans were passed through the incinerator and then hauled to a public dump 6 miles distant.76

Since Camp Fremont was not opened, practically, until December, 1917, the effects of the epidemics of that fall as seen in other camps were missing there.72 Measles, mumps, meningitis, and other acute infectious diseases at no time were present in alarming numbers. The period during which communicable diseases in the early part of 1918 were more or less common was extended in this camp to include June, instead of terminating in May, as was usual in other camps. Common respiratory affections were prevalent throughout the year, with from approximately 150 to 750 cases each month until October, when there were 1,596.


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Few cases were diagnosed as influenza prior to the fall of 1918, except in April, when there were 420.72 The first cases of the fall epidemic occurred September 28.78 The epidemic definitely expended itself in October, with 536 cases reported during that month. Doubtless many cases classed as common respiratory diseases and as primary pneumonias in October would, in other camps, have been considered to have been influenza.72 There were 62 deaths, attributed to influenza, which were due to complicating pneumonia.

Pneumonia, predominantly lobar, was present from the beginning of the year 1918, and the predominance of the lobar type was maintained through the epidemic of influenza to the end of the year.72 There was a total of 513 cases of pneumonia in 1918, with 157 deaths. The extreme variation in the number of cases of primary pneumonia occurring in October, 1918, from that of other months of the year led to the conclusion that many of them were of influenzal origin.

Neuropsychiatric examinations during the first half of 1918 were made by one medical officer.79 The appointment of a board of three members about the 1st of June greatly facilitated an increase in the scope and systematization of the work. In the early period, it was first necessary to interest the regimental surgeons. General lectures, conferences at the infirmaries, and practical work in examinations aroused real enthusiasm on the part of both medical and line officers. The work consisted of examinations of men evidencing peculiar or unusual conditions, of conscientious objectors, of malingerers, of court work

for the Judge Advocate General's Office, of work for the personnel and disability boards, and of the examination of all recruits enlisted in the camp. Every man was retained in the service who could be fitted into some position; only those men who were incapable of being trained were classed as mental defects. Those who seemed dull on account of lack of education or of opportunity were segregated for special instruction, and many of them eventually made fairly good soldiers. The conduct of men during field training was observed as an aid in determining their individual ability.79

The organization of the orthopedic work in Camp Fremont was completed in May, 1918.80 By this time, instruction of medical and line officers was in progress, 3,600 men had been inspected, and an orthopedic dispensary established. Meanwhile, a number of minor orthopedic cases had been sent to the base hospital by regimental surgeons, when these cases could better have been handled by the camp orthopedic surgeon. Consequently, orders were issued by the divisional surgeon that no case would be sent there without the approval of the camp orthopedic surgeon.80 One of the medical officers attached to each organization was detailed to supervise its orthopedic work, and an orthopedic disability board was appointed. In the summer of 1918 a school for enlisted men was established, wherein instruction in the care of the feet was given. In September, 65 were in attendance. Cobblers were assigned for work in the orthopedic dispensary, and a graduate chiropodist was placed on duty there to care for minor foot ailments.81 The foot and chiropody school completed its course in October and the students were sent back to their regiments.82  Pediograms were made of every case treated and were filed with the soldier's service record. During the period September 1 to November 15, 1918, 1,407 cases


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were examined at the camp orthopedic dispensary.83 Of these, 887 were returned to full duty, 434 to limited service, and 23 were discharged for disability. During the same period, 1,040 cases were treated in the development battalion, and 111 returned to full duty, 730 to limited service, and 199 recommended for discharge for disability.

The function of a quarantine camp was performed by a casual camp in January, 1918.84 This was converted into a quarantine and detention camp in February.76 All incoming men were detained in the camp for at least two weeks, until the arrival of a large draft contingent in May necessitated their quarantine in regimental areas.76 

The development battalion was established about July 1, 1918, and contained 863 men at the end of the month.76 An orthopedic surgeon was detailed for full-time duty with the battalion in September, and a cobbler trained in shoe alterations was assigned to the shop which had been equipped by the American Red Cross.81 85 There were 2,342 men in the battalion in November, 1918, about 160 being venereal cases.86

A division dental surgeon was assigned in April, 1918, and by June 1 about 30 dental officers and their assistants were in camp, assigned to the various organizations.87 Upon the completion of two dental infirmary buildings in July,87 the dental service of the camp was reorganized by concentrating the work in the infirmaries directly under the supervision of the camp dental surgeon.88 These infirmaries were close together, and tentage was pitched in the vicinity as quarters for both dental officers and their enlisted assistants. Prior to this time, dental surgeons had been permanently assigned to the various organizations and were therefore entirely under the control of their respective organization commanders. In order to retain the control in the office of the division dental surgeon when a separation of the personnel should become necessary after leaving the camp, dental officers were only temporarily assigned to organizations, which status practically amounted to an assignment for quarters and rations only. Additional administrative commissioned personnel consisted of a detachment commander, a property officer, and a personnel officer.

The auxiliary remount depot was situated almost adjacent to the base hospital, thus creating a potentially dangerous situation because of flies. Since its location was flat, proper drainage was difficult,75 and though there were 750 men present there in the summer of 1918, to care for the 3,400 animals, and the corrals were well cared for, flies were present in great numbers.76  Among other sanitary defects noted, no provision had been made for the supply of hot water in the veterinary hospital, there were no sewerage connections in the depot, and the waste water from the kitchen and bathhouses was collected

into pits from which it was removed by tank wagons.76 The Medical Department personnel of the depot consisted of 6 officers of the Veterinary Corps and 75 men of the Veterinary Department in June, 1918, when the detachment was first completely organized.89 Two medical officers and 8 men of the Medical Department were attached during the same period.76 Animals showing a poor type and conformation or indications of a lack of stamina were rejected upon receipt during the early period of the camp.77 In order to make the best use of public animals, this practice was later discontinued and all animals which


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were not actually unhealthy were retained. Influenza, colic, laminitis, and strangles were the more prevalent diseases, but glanders was the most serious.89 In testing for glanders, the serological test proved to be more reliable than the ophthalmic.89 Some 1,475 animals which were negative to the latter test yielded 52 positives to the serological test, and these 52 when autopsied were found to have the disease. One hundred and thirty-two animals were destroyed on account of glanders from March 18, to December 4, 1918.

The California State Board of Health very satisfactorily supervised the sanitary control of the area adjacent to the camp. Public eating houses of all kinds, markets of all varieties, barber shops, etc., within a radius of 25 miles were posted with a set of the requirements of the United States Public Health Service and of the Army, and the disposal of waste of all kinds was supervised. Three venereal prophylactic stations were established in San Francisco, one in Redwood City, and one in San Jose by this board. The local health authorities also were active and willing to cooperate with the Army.74

Camp Fremont was turned over to the United States Public Health Service about April 1, 1919.90

CAMP GREENE, N. C.

Camp Greene was located near the southern boundary of North Carolina, 180 miles from the sea and 100 miles from the foothills of the mountains.91 Charlotte, a railway center of 35,000 inhabitants, was 1 mile distant. The terrain here is roughly rolling and partly wooded, with a soil of red clay which is impervious to water and extremely adhesive when wet. The camp surgeon reported that the camp site was poor, owing to the character of the soil.92 The drainage also was poor. During the early days of the camp the excessive mud made training work impossible. As a result, the men spent most of their time

inside their tents huddling around the stoves, thus enhancing the spread of communicable diseases.

Three divisions and a number of small organizations occupied the camp at various times. The 41st Division, the first to occupy the camp, was composed of National Guard troops from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, North Dakota, South Dakota, New Mexico, Wyoming, Montana, and the District of Columbia.73 Although the first of these troops did not arrive until about the middle of September, 1917, the construction work of the camp was only about two-thirds completed at that time. The strength of the division when it departed in October, 1917, was approximately 15,500.91 The 3d Division, Regular Army, was organized at Camp Greene in November, 1917, and the 4th Division, Regular Army, in December, 1917.93 The maximum population of the camp was reached in February, 1918,92 with approximately 41,000 men.94 The 3d Division left camp for overseas service in March, 1918, and the 4th Division followed in May, 1918.91 Various independent organizations were organized in Camp

Greene after July 1, 1918, the camp population fluctuating from approximately 8,000 in July to 28,000 in October, and rapidly decreasing thereafter.91 92

The camp water supply came from the Catawba River, the camp system  being an extension of the city system of Charlotte. The water was purified by sedimentation, slow sand filtration, and chlorination and was satisfactory as to


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potability.95 Though colon bacilli were isolated from the water when it was muddy, no cases of typhoid fever occurring in the city could be traced to the city water supply.96

A sewerage system was provided for the base hospital in the winter of 1917-18;97 a small section of the camp had a sewerage system installed by July, 1918,98 and one-half the camp was connected by November, 1918.99 The discharge of partly treated sewage into a neighboring small stream caused complaint from a mill that the stench would force its employees to move from the neighborhood

if not corrected.97 The adoption of certain corrective measures was recommended,97 but the recommendation was not carried out before the camp was abandoned.

Clay caused the same trouble with the pit latrine system in Camp Greene as in other areas, where it constituted the principal ingredient of the soil.100 With no seepage, the pits filled rapidly, and the frequent digging of new ones had already used the greater part of the available ground by the end of the year 1917. Excavators, improperly designated as odorless, were later employed to remove the contents.91 Surface drainage disposed of the waste water from bathhouses.101

The troops used the type of rock-pit incinerator that had been used on the Mexican border to dispose of the liquid kitchen waste, with unsatisfactory results.95 Incinerators of the standard Guthrie type were installed before September, 1917, and functioned satisfactorily until the fuel supply gave out when the roads became impassable in the winter of 1917-18.95 100 These liquid wastes were then emptied into drainage ditches for a time.

In the areas of the camp which were not provided later with sewer connections, an unusual method was used to so treat the liquid waste from the kitchens that it could be discharged into surface ditches with impunity.102 The waste was treated in "niter-cake barrels" which were so arranged that the contents were in constant contact with niter cake. This acid salt separated the emulsified grease, which was then removed from the surface periodically. The effluent was almost transparent and was repellant to flies and mosquitoes. The capacity of each barrel was 1,000 gallons per day.

Company incinerators disposed of the garbage during the early period of the camp.95 Removal by a contractor, who removed the garbage in the cans and returned cleaned cans, was introduced about October 1, 1917.103 The contract system failed in the winter of 1917-18 when the roads became impassable, and the garbage was piled on the ground in rear of the kitchens, or sometimes buried, as fuel for firing the incinerators was not available.100

Manure was burned on a dump until about October 1, 1917, when a contract was let for its removal.103 Weather conditions in the following winter interfered with removal, and the corrals were deep with a mixture of mud and manure.104 Some of this manure still remained in the corrals in March, 1919.105

A few cases of measles were brought to the camp by the troops of the 41st Division,103 in the early fall of 1917; there was a maximum admission of 447 cases in January, 1918.92 The comparatively small numbers of cases occurring through the succeeding months gradually decreased until none were reported in June, 1918. A total of 1,491 cases was reported prior to June 1,


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and a small number of cases occurred during the fall of 1918. German measles was not differentiated during 1917, but 18 cases were reported in 1918.

Numerous cases diagnosed as influenza were reported in 1917 and the spring of 1918.92 The increase in incidence was abrupt in December, 1917, when there were 565 admissions. January, 1918, showed 684 admissions, February and March each less than 300, and April, 976. The monthly admissions then dropped abruptly to small numbers. The first admissions for influenza of the type recognized in the epidemic of the fall of 1918 occurred on September 22, and September 29 marked the onset of epidemic proportions, with 30 cases.91 The height was reached on October 10 with 370 cases, after

which the rate of admissions declined rapidly to 9 on October 31, with a total of 4,570 cases. To care for this great number of patients, four infirmaries with tentage were organized into a supplementary field hospital, and a convalescent camp was established under canvas, these being in addition to the facilities available at the base hospital.91 The personnel required for these temporary organizations was drawn from the Medical Department personnel of the camp, from base and evacuation hospitals which had been mobilized there for overseas service, and from the school for bakers and cooks. Patients

in the supplementary field hospital were transferred to the convalescent camp after their temperature had remained normal for two days; they were retained in the convalescent camp for four days, and then were returned to a very light duty status for another four days. The supplementary field hospital treated 1,711 cases. The entire camp was placed in quarantine on October 3, roads and tent floors were oiled, tents were furled daily, and the throats of the entire command were sprayed twice daily with dichloramine-T. Only five deaths were reported as due to uncomplicated influenza.92

The curve of the admission rate for pneumonia in Camp Greene during 1917 and the first half of 1918 paralleled those for measles, "other respiratory diseases" and influenza more or less closely, particularly that for influenza.92 Cases of pneumonia were recorded in September, 1917, increasing in number through succeeding months, with a total of 163 cases for the year 1917. Only 8 of these were reported as complicating measles and 1 as complicating influenza. Twenty were of the bronchopneumonic type. The highest admission rate for these diseases was attained in January, 1918, with 152 cases of pneumonia,

and the epidemics of all had definitely run their courses before June 1, 1918. There was a total of 387 cases of pneumonia in the first five months of 1918, 20 being bronchopneumonia, 17 cases complicating measles, and 25 cases complicating influenza. Deaths from pneumonia totaled 105 prior to June 1, 1918, 16 of which were due to bronchopneumonia. Measles did not enter into the pneumonia situation in the fall of 1918, when there were 683 cases of pneumonia during the last four months of the year. Of these, 196 cases were reported as primary pneumonia. The unusual feature of this epidemic was that only

24 of these cases were reported as being of the bronchopneumonic type. There were 223 deaths from pneumonia during this period, only 11 of which were attributed to bronchopneumonia.

Mumps occurred in September, 1917,103 and increased to the high point of 660 admissions in March, 1918.92 Varying numbers of cases arose during


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succeeding months, with a definite small epidemic of 354 cases during the last four months of 1918.

Cerebrospinal meningitis was introduced into the camp in 1917, 5 cases occurring in October and 2 in December.92 Twenty-five cases developed in January, 1918, and 13 in February, after which small numbers occurred throughout the remainder of the year, with a total of 64 cases and 19 deaths. When a case of meningitis occurred in a company, the entire unit was placed in quarantine in quarters, under guard, for one week, and contacts sent to the quarantine camp.102

Fifteen cases of typhoid fever occurred during the last seven months of 1918.106 The first four cases occurred in June, and the remainder were scattered through the following months.92 The origin of the cases was supposed to have been the city of Charlotte, where there were about 60 cases,98 but 2 cases arose in the base hospital.106

The special boards to examine the 41st Division for cases of tuberculosis, cardiac, and nervous and mental diseases completed their work late in October, 1917.107 The tuberculosis board appears to have been the basis of the organization of the work, its examiners making a brief examination of the heart and referring all cases suspected of having a cardiac defect to the cardiovascular examiner. Five hundred to six hundred men were examined each half day.

The orthopedic work in Camp Greene was established in October, 1917,108 and was well organized, though not far advanced, by November.109 The supply of shoes for issue was inadequate and thereby prevented proper fitting, and the only shoe alteration facility available was an agreement by the American Red Cross to provide cobbling for patients in the base hospital.109 All progress in this work ceased after the departure of the 41st Division, and organization for the work was poor in January, 1918.110 Conditions were much improved by spring, but the main effort still was confined to the relief of foot disabilities by properly fitted and altered shoes.111 Treatment of orthopedic cases in the casual camp proved to be entirely unsatisfactory, and was later provided for by the creation of an orthopedic section in the development battalion.112 Little orthopedic work was being done in the development battalion late in August, 1918, as the time of the camp orthopedic surgeon was fully occupied in the examination of incoming drafted men.113 There were 150 men with orthopedic conditions in the development battalion by November, 1918.114 An orthopedic dispensary was now in operation in the battalion infirmary, and the alteration of shoes was being done in the near-by quartermaster's shoe repair shop.

A detention camp was established about the first of the year 1918, to which all who had come in contact with contagious diseases were sent.115 The camp became badly overcrowded about the 1st of February, and it was necessary temporarily to establish a quarantine camp in each regimental area. The detention camp was later officially designated as the quarantine camp.102

A casual camp was established in February, 1918, to which certain orthopedic cases, among others, were sent.112 There were 2,700 men in this camp in May, 1918.116 This camp was the predecessor of the development battalion, which contained 500 men before September 1, 1918, and over 2,000 early in November.


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The veterinary service of the camp was interrupted by the frequent departure of divisional troops until a camp veterinarian was assigned in May, 1918, a camp meat and dairy inspector in June, and enlisted veterinary personnel in June.117 The activities of the service in the camp proper and in the auxiliary remount depot functioned more or less independently. The camp service supervised the care, feeding and shoeing of all animals except those of the depot, and the inspection of meats, slaughter houses, meat markets, dairies, in general, required considerable attention before conditions became acceptable. Cases

of illness and injury of animals, other than minor ones, were sent to the veterinary hospital in the auxiliary remount depot for treatment.

Sanitary conditions in the remount depot were bad during the winter of 1917-18.118 Poor location of some corrals and impassable roads prevented the removal of manure. There were 6 veterinary officers, 75 enlisted men of the Veterinary Corps, and 250 enlisted men of the Quartermaster Corps on duty in January, 1918, to care for the 7,000 animals.100 Barracks were overcrowded, mess halls were inadequate, kitchens and guardhouse were filthy, latrines were not policed, and no provision had been made for drainage about the watering troughs. These deplorable conditions were due largely to two factors: The

medical officer on duty at this depot had allowed his recommendations to be ignored, and the camp surgeon had considered that the depot was not under his own jurisdiction. Nine hundred and thirty-six animals had died prior to March 1, 1918, principally from influenza and resulting complications.118 Fifty per cent of the deaths were attributed to the poor sanitary condition of the corrals. Glanders was the most serious animal disease occurring in Camp Greene.119 The first case was discovered in April, 1918, after departing divisions had turned in their stock, and 109 animals were destroyed during the remainder of that year.119 The quarantine which was established on the discovery of the first cases was maintained until January 3, 1919. Gangrenous dermatitis was continually present until measures were adopted which gave the animals dry standings and made it possible for them to obtain water and feed without wading through a deep mixture of mud and manure. In places, the animals would mire to their bodies. Relief was obtained by dividing the corrals into units of two, one being in use while the other was being drained and cleaned.

An officer of the United States Public Health Service assumed charge of the extra-cantonment zone in August, 1917.95 A small epidemic of typhoid fever in the summer of 1918 caused the camp to be quarantined against the city, when all measures recommended by the United States Public Health Service representative were adopted.103 98

Various organizations were demobilized at Camp Greene in December, 1918, totaling 8,000 men.91 The final demobilization occupied the month of March, 1919, when a team of 2 orthopedic examiners; 4 for tuberculosis; 1 for cardiovascular conditions; 3 for neuropsychiatry; 1 for ophthalmology; 1 for the ear, nose, and throat; 2 for genitourinary conditions; and 1 dental officer examined 1,350 officers and men.120


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CAMP HANCOCK, GA.

Camp Hancock was located on a rolling and wooded terrain, 3 miles from the center of Augusta, Ga., a city of 50,000 inhabitants.121 The soil was sandy, with a clay subsoil. Neither dust nor mud was very troublesome. There were marshy areas to both north and south, and the Savannah River lay about 3 miles to the north.122 The annual temperature varied from below zero to over 92° F., with 36 or more inches of annual rainfall.123

About 27,000 National Guard men from the State of Pennsylvania were sent to the camp between October 1 and 30, 1917.124 In addition, 5,000 men from Pennsylvania were received in December, and some from other camps. The strength during December was approximately 27,000. In 1918, 7,000 men came from New York and a few from other States. However, the camp was filled largely by drafted men sent from other camps. The 28th Division was organized here and sent overseas about May, 1918. After this division left, the camp was used as a machine-gun replacement camp.124

The men were quartered in tents.124 The base hospital here, as elsewhere, was a frame building.

A damming of the Savannah River above the city furnished the source of the water supply for the city of Augusta and for Camp Hancock.125 The watershed was sparsely settled and the nearest sewered town above the dam was 150 miles upstream. The water was pumped to a sedimentation basin where it was treated with alum and retained for about five days. The outflow from the basin passed through sand filters and was chlorinated as it entered the mains. The quality was usually satisfactory, but colon bacilli could be isolated at intervals. The auxiliary remount depot had a separate water supply derived from a neighboring creek, pumped into storage tanks, and the outflow filtered.126 During the earlier period of the camp, water used for human consumption was chlorinated in Lyster bags, as the Bacillus coli was present.127 Later it was chlorinated at the source and a special line was provided for human use, the flow from which was coagulated and filtered in addition to the chlorination.126

A sewerage system for the base hospital was completed early in the year 1918.128 One for the camp was constructed in 1918, but the main sewer was not completed until October, and almost no utilities were then connected.123 A large grease trap was installed in the sewer line leading from each regimental area, but as the kitchens were not connected, the grease recovery was small.129

Open dug ditches conducted waste water from the bathhouses to a sloping area where it was absorbed by the sandy soil.125 Kitchen waste water was disposed of in the same general manner, but a wider distribution was obtained either by pouring the waste into long troughs with the bottoms perforated at intervals, or filtering it through sand and gravel in deep, brick-lined pits, the effluent emptying into the ditches leading from the bathhouses. Two regiments used a subsurface irrigation system, consisting of the passage of the waste through two septic tanks into drains filled with flattened tin cans. As soon

as the sewers were completed, however, waste water from the kitchens was carried to manholes and poured into the sewer, resulting usually in a foul area about each manhole.130


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Attempts were made in August, 1917, to dispose of both garbage and manure by contract, but no bids were received.131 Farmers hauled the garbage away at that time,131 but later most of it was burned in the company incinerators, both the Guthrie and improvised types being in use.129 Garbage was disposed of mainly by battalion incinerators in the summer of 1918,121 although farmers were permitted to take a part of it.125 Those desiring to remove garbage from the reservation were obliged to obtain a permit to do so. They were required to use clean, covered metal containers in a clean wagon, and to take the garbage only at the incinerator, not at the company kitchens. This method was quite satisfactory, but the reclamation service made an agreement for its sale in September, 1918, by which that service hauled the garbage to a pig farm.123 Meat, bones, and grease-trap skimmings were boiled and the grease reclaimed by the contractor.132 The cans were washed at the farm by Army prisoner labor.123

Manure was hauled to farms by camp personnel during the earliest period,133 but later a certain amount was burned at the edge of the camp.134 A contract was in force by the first of the year 1918, by which manure was removed in cars on the railroad.135

Few cases of influenza were reported previous to the epidemic in the fall of 1918, except in April, 1918, when there were 298.124 The epidemic form was introduced at about the time of the arrival of troop trains from Camp Grant on September 30, 1918, when there were 700 admissions directly from the trains.136 The disease soon spread through the camp, and the epidemic continued until the last of October. At the height of the wave there were 3,760 cases in the base hospital and 1,600 in improvised hospitals. The disease was comparatively mild except among the troops arriving from Camp Grant.137

The total number of cases for the period was 7,717.136 All available space in the base hospital was used to care for cases, tentage was set up in adjacent areas, and nine provisional field hospitals were organized. One section of the tentage area was assigned to convalescents. Patients in the base hospital were placed in cubicles, but neither shelter halves, sheets, nor blankets were available for this purpose elsewhere.

A few cases of pneumonia were reported in the camp in the fall of 1917, none of which complicated other diseases.124 Cases of primary pneumonia occurred in somewhat larger numbers throughout the year 1918, and cases complicating other diseases arose. The incidence of primary bronchopneumonia exceeded that of primary lobar pneumonia only in November and December. The great majority of secondary pneumonias occurred with the influenza epidemic, and the bronchopneumonic type then predominated. The bronchopneumonic type of pneumonia was the more fatal, particularly in cases which

were secondary to other diseases.

The first case of cerebrospinal meningitis occurred in November, 1917; it was most prevalent in January and February, 1918, and sporadic cases appeared throughout the remainder of the year.124 There was a total of 42 cases with 12 deaths.


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Measles was a negligible factor in Camp Hancock until the fall of 1918, and did not then exceed 60 cases in any one month except November, when there were 162.124 Only 8 cases were reported prior to January 1, 1918.

A few cases of German measles were reported in the fall of 1917, with a rapid increase to 416 cases in January, 1918, and 199 in February.124 The incidence was negligible after that time.

Occasional cases of scarlet fever occurred during the year 1918, until November when the disease suddenly assumed epidemic proportions in an explosive outbreak.124 The last case to develop during the month occurred on the 26th instant.138 Approximately 400 cases were originally diagnosed as scarlet fever, but a visiting inspector stated that numerous cases had been so diagnosed on insufficient grounds and that cases of other diseases had been included. Only 89 cases showed a typical desquamation at that time. Three hundred and thirty-one cases appear in the official reports of the month and

388 for the entire year.124

As was true in other mobilization camps, the early activities of the orthopedic service at Camp Hancock were concerned principally with the feet.139 However, an orthopedic dispensary was established in November, 1917, whereby it was expected that the functions of the service would be broadened, but because of the lack of personnel and equipment the work done there was limited to consultations.140 In January, 1918, the personnel of the orthopedic service was augmented by assigning to it, as assistants to the camp orthopedic surgeon, one medical officer of each regiment.135 A foot survey now could be made of all the personnel in camp, and this was done. Gradually, the dispensary work was increased also, so that by the fall of 1918 three orthopedic dispensaries were in operation.141 These were located as follows: One in the main part of the camp; one in the ordnance training camp; one in the development battalion. In the first two named, cobblers were on duty to make the necessary alterations in shoes with the view of correcting foot defects.141

A development battalion was organized in the summer of 1918, its strength in August being 665.142 The physical training was conducted entirely by line officers, except for the following two classes of cases: Cardiovascular cases, which were referred to the camp specialist in that branch for recommendation as to suitable exercise, and orthopedic cases, over exercises for which the camp orthopedic surgeon had direct supervision. The 130 men in the latter class were mostly assigned to one company.143 Before January 1, 1919, there were 2,332 men in the battalion, 1,281 of these being classed as medical or surgical

conditions.144 Of the total, 1,411 men were fit for combat duty and 78 were to be discharged.

The convalescent center, established January 28, 1919, was formed from men transferred from the development battalion and convalescents from the base hospital, to which overseas patients from other sources were added.145 146 The largest number of men in the center at any one time was about 150.147

At Camp Hancock the dental officers of the 28th Division were so assigned to the infirmaries that one infirmary afforded dental service to each of the three brigades of the division.148 Twenty-nine dental officers thus were assigned, and three additional ones to smaller units. After the division left in the spring


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of 1918, no dental officers remained in the camp proper to care for the camp personnel;149 however, 16 soon were sent there, and this number was increased to 25 in June,150 and 41 in October.151 The two-story dental infirmaries were completed in July, 1918.152

The remount depot was located several miles from the main camp.153 While the natural drainage was generally good, there were several swampy areas within its boundaries which required ditching. Twelve buildings and one corral constituted the veterinary hospital.154 Division was made into four wards of 40 double stalls and 10 box stalls each, and the necessary dressing rooms, feed rooms, etc. Only two cases of glanders were detected. Lice infestation was common in the spring of both 1918 and 1919. Dermatitis gangrenosa caused the greatest number of disabilities, 1,321, due directly to

the condition of the corrals. Influenza and its complications caused the second greatest number of disabilities, 1,122.

Until the end of 1917, the supervision of the extra-cantonment zone was done by the local Army Medical Department in cooperation with the local health authorities.133 Early in January, 1918, however, the United States Public Health Service assumed charge of the sanitation of the extra-cantonment zone.135 Though the sanitary conditions of the area immediately surrounding the camp were good, those in Augusta were reported as being poor in general; therefore the United States Public Health Service inaugurated a campaign to cover a wide range of activities. These included an improvement in hygiene

and sanitary conditions, mosquito and fly extermination, supervision of the preparation and sale of food products, inspection of hotels, barber shops, and theaters, and the control of contagious diseases.123

During the demobilization period 16,833 officers and men were examined prior to discharge, 4,862 of whom were found to have permanent disabilities.155 About one-third of the 41 cases which were found to require immediate hospital treatment were cases of venereal disease and 7 were cases of active tuberculosis. Camp Hancock was discontinued as a demobilization camp and convalescent center on February 14, 1919, and all activities of the camp, so far as practicable, were discontinued by March 20.145 The caretakers remaining numbered about 1,000.156 The retention of the part of the base hospital necessary for the care of remaining troops was directed, and the remainder was turned over to the United States Public Health Service.157

CAMP KEARNY, CALIF.

Camp Kearny was located in southern California, 11 miles north of San Diego and 5 miles from the Pacific Ocean.158 The low plateau on which it was situated was bounded on both the north and south by deep arroyas, and was bare of all vegetation except sage brush.158 159 The soil of this plateau consisted of a reddish clay overlying an impervious stratum of "hardpan."160 The climate was very equable, the mean annual temperature being 61° F.161 The highest temperature that had ever been recorded in San Diego previous to the World War was 110°, and a freezing temperature had been recorded only seven

times subsequent to 1871. The average annual rainfall was about 10 inches, 90 per cent of this occurring in the rainy season between November 1 and May 1.


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Dense fogs occurred occasionally, but there were only about nine days each year which were without sunshine. Gentle winds prevailed, and dusty whirlwinds of moderate size were common during the dry season.

Between September 1 and September 30, 1917, the camp received 5,000 National Guard men from the States of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and California; 1,239 men were received from Utah in October, and 705 from Arizona.162 Large increments of troops, 13,680, were received from other camps in November. A few National Guard men were included in this number, but the increments largely were composed of drafted men. The mean strength of the camp for December was about 23,000. The 40th Division was organized here and moved overseas about August, 1918. After this division left the 16th Division was organized. During 1918 many men were received largely from other camps, though between August and November large numbers were received from the States of Arizona, California, and Nebraska, with a few from Utah and Colorado.

This was a tent camp with a capacity for one division.162 The base hospital was a frame structure and there were two barrack buildings utilized by the Ordnance Department. The camp was rectangular, extending east and west. The center was occupied by the parade ground, bounded on all sides by paved roads. The tents were the pyramidal type. With the exception of about six weeks prior to the departure of the 40th Division, all the troops had tents with floors.

Water from the San Diego city system was pumped into a concrete reservoir on the military reservation, and a reserve chlorination apparatus was installed for use in case of an accident to the city's apparatus.163  The wooden pipes that were used frequently developed leaks, which necessitated digging them up, and this resulted in numerous piles of earth and mud in all parts of the camp.164

During the early period of the camp, pit latrines were in general use,160 and it was necessary to use latrines in some portions of the camp throughout its existence.165 The attempt to prevent fly breeding by burning out the pits proved to be unsuccessful, so spraying with a mixture of crude oil and lampblack was adopted instead. Owing to the great difficulty in excavating latrines,163 the installation of a sewerage system was determined to be necessary at an early date.160 Work was under way early in October, 1917, and although blasting was required for all excavations, the work was completed before the

close of the year, and included connections to bathhouses, kitchens, and latrines.166 The sewage was passed through a septic tank, chlorinated, and discharged into a neighboring canyon. The base hospital had a similar but separate system.

The garbage contract required the contractor to furnish standard galvanized-iron cans, which were to be washed and steam sterilized before being returned to the kitchens.161 The garbage suitable for hog feed was separated from the remainder, and was sufficient to feed from 3,500 to 4,000 hogs.165

A daily average of about 125 tons of manure was delivered to the contractor at a railroad siding between the camp and the auxiliary remount depot.161 The contractor was required to furnish nets, which were filled by the organizations and hauled to the loading point where the loading was done by a derrick.165


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This contract yielded $1,200 per month to the camp. Corral sweepings from the auxiliary remount depot were spread on an adjacent garden tract where vegetables were raised for the personnel of the depot.161

The camp refuse was hauled to a dump in a deep canyon 2 miles from the camp and burned.163

Because of a large demand for replacement troops for overseas service in June, 1918, 5,000 men were sent from Camp Kearny. All of these men were given a thorough physical examination before departure, and medical officers accompanied the troop trains to the ports of embarkation. This movement left the 40th Division far below its normal strength, and it soon received a draft increment preparatory to overseas service. A physical examining board, consisting of 47 officers and 76 enlisted men, and a number of traffic orderlies and personnel to administer vaccinations, examined 5,743 men in seven days.167 An examination rate of 1,500 men per day was attained at times, though this was a higher rate than was necessary, since the men to be examined could not be passed through the personnel office so rapidly. Three mess halls connected by hospital ward tents were divided into "stations" for the various steps in the examination; each man examined carried his clothes in the form of a bundle in

order to avoid loss. Special examinations were made in the evening of the same day, so the examination of each lot of men was completed in one day. In the fall of 1918, the same rate per day was maintained, but eight mess halls now were used as examining rooms, these being vacated by troops and field kitchens used instead during the examination period.164

Cases that were diagnosed as influenza throughout the fall of 1917 were in sufficient numbers in November to have been considered as epidemic, 182 cases being reported.162 The incidence rose to 223 cases in January, 1918, decreased rapidly during the following two months, and suddenly increased to 705 cases in April. May showed a decrease of nearly 50 per cent, and only a moderate number occurred during the summer. The April increase was locally attributed to the visit of a squadron of Japanese warships to San Diego with several cases of influenza on board.158 The first case of the fall epidemic of 1918 was detected on September 24.168 October showed 2,162 admissions, and the total from the first case to the end of the year was 4,708.168 This epidemic caused 146 deaths. As combative measures, the entire camp was quarantined from October 9 to November 12, and all personnel of the camp were required to wear gauze masks for a period of 10 days beginning November 2. There was

a decided drop in the incidence of the disease four days after the beginning of the latter procedure.168

Both bronchopneumonia and lobar pneumonia were reported in the camp prior to October, 1917, and were present in almost epidemic numbers throughout the following fall and winter, the lobar type predominating in both the primary and secondary forms.162 The death rate was exceptionally high in the fall of 1917 in cases which were associated with measles, amounting to approximately 44 per cent. The spring of 1918 brought a great reduction in the number of cases, the low rate continuing until October. The fall epidemic of influenza caused an abrupt increase in the incidence, with 276 cases in October and

318 in November, nearly all of them being of the bronchopneumonic type.


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Measles was first reported in October, 1917, became epidemic in November, and caused 637 admissions in December.162 The incidence thereafter was negligible. Severe complications were relatively infrequent.158 German measles was prevalent in the camp throughout the fall of 1917, showed an occurence of 307 cases in December, and practically disappeared in January, 1918.162

Mumps was present in the camp in moderate numbers from its earliest period, the number of cases rising rapidly in early 1918 to 504 in March.162 The number of cases after July was negligible, but there were 1,585 cases in the year 1918.

The first cases of cerebrospinal meningitis, 2 in number, occurred in October, 1917, 12 occurred in November, and 8 in December, with 12 additional cases before July 1, 1918.162 One other case occurred in December, 1918. The death rate was unusually low in 1917, less than 14 per cent. A noteworthy point in connection with this disease at Camp Kearny was that the small outbreaks invariably followed dust storms.163

The tuberculosis board did not get its work fairly under way until about the middle of October, 1917.169 It examined about 400 men per day,169 and completed the examination of the division early in January, 1918.170 The discharge rate for tuberculosis in this camp was unusually high. This was attributed largely to the fact that some of the States from which the men were drawn contained an abnormally large number of people who chose to reside there as a result of pulmonary trouble, and that at the preliminary examination the men with tuberculosis had not all been eliminated.161

One medical officer constituted the cardiovascular board when it began work about October 1, 1917, but another officer was added later.171 Men to be examined were referred by the tuberculosis board or by the medical officers on duty with organizations. In the early period of the work the tuberculosis board was to detect and refer to the cardiovascular board all men with abnormal hearts, for it was presumed that the great majority of existent cardiac abnormalities would be detected in this way. However, the number of men referred directly to the cardiovascular board by regimental surgeons on account of the inability of the men to perform the duty required by the strenuous training schedule, continually increased until they averaged one-third of the total number of cases examined. These men had all been passed by the tuberculosis board as fit for any duty. Of the men referred by the tuberculosis board for cardiovascular examination, all but about 12 would have been detected by the functional test of actual duty. The cardiovascular board therefore considered that its purpose would be better served by eliminating the tuberculosis board cardiac examination and depending upon organization commanders to send in all men who could not perform double-time drill to a normal degree. In the earlier work of the board, numbers of men were seen with tachycardia and slight signs of mitral stenosis which were considered to have been simple febrile conditions due to infections. Numbers of men with similar manifestations were later observed to have "broken" under the strain of the training, and 100 who had previously been accepted with the above-named conditions were reexamined. Since the majority of these were found to have a broken compensation, and many were unable to do any work, the board gradually formed the opin-


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ion that, almost without exception, any pulse rate exceeding 100 per minute in the standing posture indicated a pathological condition, due to mitral stenosis or hyperthyroidism in the great majority of cases. It was the final opinion of the board that 1 examiner should make a maximum of 18 examinations in 1 day of 6 hours, as fatigue caused a loss of accuracy when more than this was attempted; that separate and quiet examining rooms were necessary; that 2 typists and 3 orderlies, 1 mounted, should be assigned to the board; and that 2 members of the board should constitute a disability board to act on all cardiovascular cases. Such a disability board for cardiovascular cases was appointed before the work was completed.

The first of the neuropsychiatric examiners reported in August, 1917, and the last member in October. The board first attempted to function in the room occupied by the tuberculosis and cardiovascular boards, but a separate room was found to be necessary.172 Three men, with experience in a hospital for the insane, and one typist were obtained as an office force, and meetings were held in tents. The work previously had consisted of the examination of such men as had been referred to the board from various sources. Nearly all of these cases had been examined by the end of October, and it was determined

to further systematize the work. It was believed by the neuropsychiatrists that all abnormal individuals among the National Guard troops would eventually come to the board through reference by organization commanders but that a survey should be made of the expected 15,000 drafted men. The survey was to include the Binet or similar test for mental capacity, and men showing defects were to be given more complete examinations. During this early period of the work it was considered that a mental survey was preferable to the method of trial by duty in a company in eliminating undesirable men; later,

however, the cooperation of the psychological examiner was considered to be desirable, but not essential, in eliminating those mentally deficient. It was believed that all these men should have a short period of training and that the observations of line and medical officers during this training period were of far greater value than a psychological rating in determining a man's ability and the place he should fill. Opinions were obtained from various commanding officers late in 1918 as to the value of routine psychological ratings.173 The majority of the commanding officers thought that the ratings were of assistance in assigning men to appropriate duties, particularly when the time available was short.

Orthopedic work while Camp Kearny was occupied by the 40th Division was limited almost entirely to efforts to correct abnormal foot conditions.174 Foot exercises were so arranged that they could be executed by command and "by the numbers," thus insuring proper execution as well as increasing their efficiency.175 Fracture cases in the base hospital were included as orthopedic conditions after the 40th Division had departed and special instruction of enlisted chiropodists for the 16th Division was initiated.174 In addition a system of six foot-and-leg exercises was evolved which was incorporated in the setting-up exercises for all organizations.176 Until August, 1918, any necessary orthopedic shoe alterations were made in the quartermaster's shoe repair shop, but because the ordinary repair work became so heavy in August, other provisions


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were necessary. The cobbler who had been doing this special work was transferred in order that he might work under the orthopedic surgeon, and his shop was installed in a tent.176

No quarantine camp was established before the summer of 1918, each organization isolating its own contacts under guard.177 A small detention camp was established in March, 1918, in which the tent groups were allowed to mingle freely at all times. A large quarantine camp was later established, and a portion of it sufficient to accommodate 5,000 men was set aside as a detention camp.178

A recruit camp was established early in 1918, the primary purpose of which was to hold unassigned, newly arrived men until the examination of their records, vaccinations, etc., could be completed and assignments to organizations made.159 It later became known as the casual camp and eventually became the center for the formation of the development battalion. Meanwhile, the recruit receiving camp was organized to handle the large draft increments of June, 1918. The organization here was more elaborate than that of the old recruit camp, being based on the reception of large masses of men rather than

individuals.

The convalescent company was a more direct predecessor of the development battalion than was the casual camp.161 It was established early in April, 1918, to accomplish two purposes-the removal from the hospital of cases no longer requiring hospital care but unable to perform full duty and the building up of their physical vigor to the point where they would be able to perform full duty. The company was a camp activity but was established in connection with the base hospital, and had both line and medical officers among its personnel. Patients transferred to this company were carried on a duty status. There were over 200 men in the company one month after its formation.

The development battalion, as originally formed, consisted of three companies-one to assume the functions of the convalescent company of the base hospital, one to handle incoming and outgoing casuals, and one to deal with those who were unfit for full duty from either physical, mental, or educational defects.159 Approximately 1,900 men were in the battalion by August 1, 1918, the majority of whom were considered to be unfit for duty even in the United States guards or labor battalions.178 Although 21 line officers and 4 medical officers were on duty, little could be done in the way of training, owing to the great demand for the men of the battalion to perform guard or police duty. There were 11 medical officers on duty with the battalion by the middle of August.179  An officer had been taken from the base hospital to act as battalion surgeon, and it was necessary for him to use as noncommissioned officers unfit men of the Medical Department who had been transferred to the battalion. Little progress was made until the battalion was reorganized on August 24.180 Line officers conducted the drills and athletics, but the medical officers maintained supervision over all physical training and were constantly present during

drills and physical exercises. Though no man was allowed to participate in any game without the specific approval of a medical officer, every man was required to do so unless excused by a medical officer. Competition between organizations was emphasized. Discipline was strict. The drills, exercises,


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and games developed the men physically, mentally, and morally. Of the 1,124 men in the battalion since its organization, 218 were returned to full duty and ratings of about 90 were changed, owing to improved physical condition. Forty conscientious objectors were reclaimed for active duty, and of the nine who formerly had refused to wear a uniform only one persisted in this refusal late in October.181 Chronic venereal cases were not transferred to the battalion as a routine late in November.182 The battalion had the best reports of sanitary inspections of any unit in the camp, and the effect on its morale was amply demonstrated.183 There were 815 men in the battalion in November. Of these 287 were orthopedic cases, 123 cardiovascular, and 42 pulmonary. Little or no results were obtained with orthopedic and heart cases, and only slight results with tuberculous cases. At the end of the year 1918 about 600 men had been returned to some class of duty, 400 had been discharged for disability, and about 700 remained, 350 being venereal cases.158

The convalescent center had a cadre of 18 line officers, 4 medical officers, and 131 enlisted men at the end of February, 1919.184 Drills, exercises, guard duty, policing, and games constituted the training schedule. The greatest number reported as present in the center was 245 on May 17.185 The center was closed May 31, 1919.186

Dental officers were first assigned only to the larger individual units, but furnished dental care for the smaller units also.159 They remained attached to organizations until the two dental infirmary buildings were completed in the summer of 1918, when they and their assistants were transferred to the infirmaries and organized into the camp dental detachment.187 Base dental outfits were not installed in these infirmaries until November 1. During the period August 1, 1918, to March 31, 1919, approximately 7 per cent of the military force in the camp were given dental attention monthly. In the 15,500 dental engagements filled during that period 2,822 teeth were extracted and 11,190 instances of dental caries, 1,304 of dental-alveolar abscess, and 1,317 cases of devitalized pulp were treated.

The camp veterinary service was organized October 1, 1917, with one officer and one enlisted man present.188 The veterinary strength during the period of the occupancy of the camp by the 40th Division is not stated;188 however, there were 38 enlisted men with the 16th Division, which was sufficient for its reduced strength.189 All orders drafted by the division veterinarian of the 16th Division

 were approved and published by division headquarters, and this undoubtedly had an influence in producing the low sick rate among the animals.189 Cooperative action with the veterinary hospital proved difficult, since all communication was required to be conducted through the commanding officer of the auxiliary remount depot, rather than directly with the veterinary officer in charge of the remount veterinary hospital.189

The remount depot was opened in September, 1917.190 It was situated astride a ridge, which resulted in excellent natural drainage. The corrals were scheduled to be cleaned once in six weeks, and this was satisfactory in results. Four long sheds constituted the wards of the veterinary hospital. Each shed was divided into about 20 box stalls, and 2 of these buildings could be closed in stormy weather. They were about 60 feet apart and parallel, and


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the intervening spaces were inclosed as corrals. The hospital group was separated from other buildings of the depot by a considerable space. The veterinary personnel of the depot was organized as a detachment February 1, 1918, with 4 officers and 71 enlisted men.191 Glanders was the most serious disease encountered. When the disease was first encountered the identity of animals which showed a positive serological test was lost; therefore the entire group of suspected animals was destroyed.190 A total of 130 animals was destroyed prior to June, 1918, on account of this disease. There was another outbreak of the disease later, the number of cases not being stated, but it apparently was small.

The health authorities of the city and county of San Diego were unusually active in their cooperation with the Army authorities from August, 1917, to the close of the camp.192 Sanitary supervision was maintained over all places dealing in foodstuffs and all firms desiring to sell food or beverages in the cantonment. Dealers of the last class were required to furnish a guaranty that their wares would comply with the requirements of the national pure food laws and with those of the city, county, and State. A medical officer visited the city of San Diego every 10 days to inspect food and drink establishments,

barber shops, and dance halls.193 These places were "out of bounds" for officers and men unless they displayed certificates from the camp medical authorities that their sanitary conditions were up to standard. The United States Public Health Service took no active part in the extra-cantonment zone except for its routine duties.178

The 16th Division had lost the greater part of its strength before January 1, 1919, and was officially demobilized during that month.194 The remainder of the year was occupied in demobilizing men sent from other places, the bulk of the work occurring during the first five months of the year, amounting to approximately 16,600 in a total of 17,000 for the year.

REFERENCES

(1) Medical history of Camp Beauregard, Alexandria, La., September, 1917, to May, 1918, by Lieut. Col. William G. Schauffler, M. C., sanitary inspector, 39th Division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp Beauregard) D.

(2) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 125-141.

(3) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to The Adjutant General of the Army, August 14, 198. Subject: Water supply, Camp Beauregard, La. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Water supply, Camp Beauregard) D.

(4) Annual report of the camp surgeon, Camp Beauregard, La., 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.6 (Camp Beauregard) D.

(5) Letter from camp sanitary engineer, Camp Beauregard, La., to the Surgeon General of the Army, September 30, 1918. Subject: Special report on sewage disposal. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 672 (Camp Beauregard) D.

(6) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Beauregard, La., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 26, 1918. Subject: Special report on sewage operation. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 672 (Camp Beauregard) D.

(7) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., U. S. Army, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C., November 5, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection, Camp Beauregard, Alexandria, La. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Beauregard) D.

(8) Annual report of the division surgeon, 39th Division, Camp Beauregard La., for the year 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Beauregard) D.


195

(9) 1st ind., Headquarters 39th Division, division surgeon's office, Camp Beauregard, La., June 5, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 464 (Manure, Camp Beauregard) D.

(10) Letter from Maj. Edward A. Rich, M. R. C., district orthopedic surgeon, to the Surgeon General of the Army, June 8, 1918. Subject: Report on orthopedic conditions, Camp Beauregard. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Beauregard) D.

(11) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 5, 1918. Subject: Inspection of development battalions, Camp Beauregard, Alexandria, La. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Development Bns. Camp Beauregard) D.

(12) Letter from Maj. Clement V. Vignes, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 8, 1918. Subject: Inspection of the dental service at Camp Beauregard, Alexandria, La. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental Inspection, Camp Beauregard) D.

(13) History of camp veterinary and camp meat and dairy inspection, Camp Beauregard, La., by the camp veterinarian, Camp Beauregard, La. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, Camp Beauregard) D.

(14) Veterinary history of Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 314, by Capt. Clemmense M. White, V. C., January 30, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 314) R.

(15) Final report of physical examinations made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate for discharge for disability at Camp Beauregard, La., March 17, 1919, by Capt. Frederick F. Miller, M. C., chief medical examiner. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Examinations, Camp Beauregard) D.

(16) Telegram from Wheate, Alexandria, La., to the Surgeon General of the Army, Washington, March 18, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, Camp Beauregard) D.

(17) Telegram from Harris to commanding general, Camp Beauregard, La., March 21, 1919. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, Camp Beauregard) D.

(18) A medical history of Camp Bowie, Tex., by Lieut. Col. R. P. Metcalf, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Medical History, Fort Worth) N.

(19) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 142-155.

(20) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Bowie, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 4, 1919. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Annual Report, Camp Bowie) D.

(21) Annual report of the division surgeon, 36th Division, Camp Bowie, Tex., 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Bowie) D.

(22) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Bowie, Tex., March 25, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Bowie) D.

(23) Letter from The Adjutant General to the Quartermaster General, December 3, 1917. Subject: Camp Bowie, Tex. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 424 (Camp Bowie) D.

(24) Letter from the Surgeon General of the Army to the Chief of Staff, War Department, dated at Camp Bowie, Tex., December 3, 1917. Subject: Conditions 36th Division, Camp Bowie, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Bowie) D.

(25) Letter from W. P. Hobby, Governor of Texas, to Brig. Gen. George Blakely, acting commander, Camp Bowie, Tex., December 2, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (Camp Bowie) D, storage, 1918.

(26) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., sanitary inspector, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 4, 1917. Subject: Report of disease conditions, Camp Bowie, Fort Worth, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.6-2 (Camp Bowie) D.

(27) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Bowie, Tex., to the camp surgeon, Camp Bowie, Tex., April 11, 1919. Subject: Mosquito control at Camp Bowie. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 725.11-1 (Camp Bowie) D.


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(28) Report of inspection of development battalion, Camp Bowie, Tex., October 24, 1918, by Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Bowie) D.

(29) Weekly reports of convalescent center, Camp Bowie, Tex., by the chief medical examiner, convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Bowie) D.

(30) Letter from Maj. L. G. Mitchell, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, undated. Subject: Dental inspection, Camp Bowie, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental inspection, Camp Bowie) D.

(31) Letter from Col. H. O. Williams, inspector general, to the Inspector General of the Army, June 14, 1918. Subject: Report of the inspection of the 328th Remount Depot, Camp Bowie, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Camp Bowie) D.

(32) Letter from Capt. Nicholas E. Dutro, V. C., to the director, Veterinary Corps, Washington, D. C., January 20, 1919. Subject: Questionnaire. On file, Record Room. S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary, A. R. D. No. 328) R.

(33) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 328, Camp Bowie, Tex., to the director, Veterinary Corps, Washington, D. C., June 10, 1919. Subject: Questionnaire. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary, A. R. D. 328) R.

(34) Monthly report of examination of drafted men at Camp Bowie, Tex., November 1, 1918, by Col. J. G. Ingold, M. C., camp surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 327-2 (Examinations, Camp Bowie) D.

(35) Letter from the camp surgeon Camp Bowie, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 2, 1919. Subject: Physical examinations prior to demobilization. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Bowie) D.

(36) Letter from the division surgeon, 34th Division, Camp Cody, N. Mex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 4, 1918. Subject: Preliminary data for medical and surgical history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Medical history, Camp Cody) C.

(37) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 156-169.

(38) Report of investigation of water supply of Camp Cody, N. Mex., prepared by Majors Anson Marston and Warren R. Thompson, 109th Engineers, August 19, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.2-1 (Camp Cody) D. 1918, Storage.

(39) Letter from the sanitary inspector, 34th Division, Camp Cody, N. Mex., to the division surgeon, 34th Division, October 29, 1917. Subject: Camp water supply.

(40) Letter from the sanitary inspector, 34th Division, Camp Cody, N. Mex., to the Division surgeon, 34th Division, November 30, 1917. Subject: Additional data regarding water supply, Camp Cody.

(41) Letter from Lieut. Col. Robert E. Noble, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 7, 1917. Subject: Inspection, Camp Cody, Deming, N. Mex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-7 (Camp Cody) D.

(42) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., special sanitary inspector, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 24, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary report of the 34th Division, Camp Cody, Deming, N. Mex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Cody) D.

(43) Letter from Capt. Charles A. Haskins, S. C., to the Acting Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 8, 1918. Subject: Report on investigation of water supply and sewerage systems, Camp Cody, September 13, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Cody) D.

(44) Report on the influenza epidemic at Camp Cody, undated and unsigned. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (Camp Cody) D, Storage (undated).

(45) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Cody, N. Mex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 14, 1918. Subject: Report on the influenza and pneumonia epidemic. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Influenza, Camp Cody) D.

(46) Letter from board of medical officers to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 30, 1917. Subject: Epidemic diseases at Camp Cody, N. Mex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (Camp Cody) D.

(47) Letter from Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 16, 1918. Subject: Special sanitary inspection, Camp Cody, Deming, N. Mex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Cody) D.


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(48) Letter from Maj. Eugene L. Opie, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 29, 1918. Subject: Pneumonia in Camp Cody among newly drafted men. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (Camp Cody) D, Storage, 1918.

(49) Letter from Maj. Bullock, Camp Cody, N. Mex., to Maj. E. H. Bruns, Surgeon General's Office, Washington, D. C., January 26, 1918. Subject: Tuberculosis, Camp Cody. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Tb., Camp Cody) D.

(50) Report on prostitution and the sale of alcohol at Lordsburg, N. Mex., by 1st Lieut. Paul Popence, S. C., December 12, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 250.1 (Camp Cody) D.

(51) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., U. S. Army, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 21, 1919. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Cody, N. Mex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Cody) D.

(52) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., U. S. Army to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 2, 1918. Subject: Inspection 34th Division, Camp Cody, N. Mex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Cody) D.

(53) Letter from Scott D. Breckenridge, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 31, 1918. Subject: Inspection of orthopedic service at Camp Cody, N. Mex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Cody) D.

(54) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, 39th Division, Camp Cody, N. Mex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 4, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic casual detachment. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Cody) D.

(55) Memorandum from Maj. A. S. Bagg, M. R. C., for Major Brown, Hospital Division, S. G. O., June 15, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Cody) D, 1918.

(56) Letter from Maj. Edward A. Rich, M. R. C., district orthopedic surgeon, to the Surgeon General, June 30, 1918. Subject: Report on condition of orthopedic service, Camp Cody. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Cody) D.

(57) Letter from Capt. LeRoy Crummer, Camp Cody, N. Mex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 14, 1918. Subject: Report on development battalion, Camp Cody, N. Mex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Bn., Camp Cody) D.

(58) Summary of development battalion reports, Camp Cody, by Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., undated. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.171-1 (Camp Cody) D.

(59) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 326, Camp Cody, N. Mex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, September 1, 1919. Subject: Questionnaire. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 404.3-1 (Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 326) R.

(60) Medical history of Camp Doniphan, by Maj. Carl Phillips, M. C., U. S. Army, division sanitary inspector, dated November 28, 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(61) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 226-237.

(62) Letter from the division surgeon, 35th Division, Camp Doniphan, Okla., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 29, 1918. Subject: Annual report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. 319.1 (Camp Doniphan) D.

(63) Letter from officer in charge of water supply, Camp Doniphan, Okla., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 7, 1918. Subject: Water supply conditions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Water supply, Camp Doniphan) D.

(64) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., sanitary inspector, to the Surgeon General, November 22, 1917. Subject: Report on 35th Division, Camp Doniphan, Fort Sill, Okla. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Doniphan) D.

(65) Memorandum from Capt. E. J. Tucker, S. C., for Col. D. C. Howard, May 23, 1918. Subject: Water supply at Camp Doniphan, Fort Sill, Okla. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Camp Doniphan) D.

(66) Letter from Maj. Phillip A. Shaffer, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 13, 1918. Subject: Report of visit to Camp Doniphan, Fort Sill, Okla., for inspection of food conditions, January 24-25, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.1 (Camp Doniphan) D.


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(67) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Doniphan, Fort Sill, Okla., March 23, 24 and 25, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Doniphan) D.

(68) Letter from B. A. Seiler, base hospital, Camp Doniphan, Okla., to Maj. E. K. Kerr, Fort Riley, Kans., January 12, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Camp Doniphan) D.

(69) Letter from the Surgeon General to the Chief of Staff, December 17, 1917. Subject: Sanitary conditions at Camp Doniphan, Okla. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Doniphan) D.

(70) G. O. No. 55, W. D., June 10, 1918.

(71) Data for medical and surgical history of the war, by Capt. F. M. Barker, M. R. C., assistant division surgeon, dated Camp Fremont, Calif., April 30, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp Fremont) D.

(72) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 252-263.

(73) Medical history of the 41st Division, by Col. O. G. Brown, M. C., depot surgeon. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(74) Telegram from George E. Bright, President California State Board of Health, San Francisco, Calif., to Secretary of War Baker, Washington, D. C., August 23, 1917. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 672-2 (Camp Fremont) D.

(75) Letter from Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 23, 1918. Subject: Special sanitary inspection, Camp Fremont, Palo Alto, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Fremont) D.

(76) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Fremont, Calif., made on July 27 and 28, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Fremont) D.

(77) Letter from the acting camp veterinarian, Camp Fremont, Calif., to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. Subject: Reply to questionnaire for veterinary history of the war. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(78) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Fremont, Calif., to the Surgeon General of the Army, December 31, 1918. Subject: Annual report, calendar year 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(79) Letter from the division psychiatrist, 8th Division, Camp Fremont, Calif., to Col. Pearce Bailey, M. C., N. A., July 12, 1918. Subject: Neuropsychiatric work. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Neuropsychiatric, Camp Fremont) D.

(80) Letter from Capt. John C. Wilson, M. R. C., U. S. Army, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 25, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic inspection at Camp Fremont, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Fremont) D.

(81) Letter from camp orthopedic surgeon, Camp Fremont, Calif., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 16, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly orthopedic report, September 1, 1918, to September 15,1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Fremont) D.

(82) Letter from the camp orthopedic surgeon, Camp Fremont, Calif., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 1, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly orthopedic report, October 15 to October 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Fremont) D.

(83) Correspondence, semimonthly orthopedic reports, Camp Fremont, Calif., period September 1 to November 15, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Fremont) D.

(84) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Fremont, Calif., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 17, 1919. Subject: Annual report for the calendar year 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(85) Letter from the camp orthopedic surgeon, Camp Fremont, Calif., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 1, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly orthopedic report, September 15 to September 30, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Fremont) D.


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(86) Letter from Capt. LeRoy Crummer, M. C., U. S. Army, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 13, 1918. Subject: Report on development battalion, Camp Fremont. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.171 (Camp Fremont) D.

(87) A history of the dental service at Camp Fremont, Calif., by Lieut. Col. R. E. Ingals, D. C., camp dental surgeon, Camp Fremont, Calif. On file, Dental Division, S. G. O.

(88) Letter from Lieut. Col. R. E. Ingals, D. C., camp dental surgeon, Camp Fremont, Calif., to Col. W. H. G. Logan, Dental Corps, Office of the Surgeon General, Washington, D. C., October 10, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Fremont) D.

(89) Veterinary history of the war, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 332 and attached veterinary hospital, Camp Fremont, Calif., by Capt. Willis A. Myers, V. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 332) R.

(90) Office Memorandum, W. D., Surgeon General's Office, March 10, 1919, unnumbered. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, Camp Fremont) D.

(91) A medical history of Camp Greene, N. C., undated and unsigned. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(92) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 306-317. 2d ind. from Maj., Clarence H. Green Q. M. C., N. G., Camp Greene, N. C., February 2, 1918, to the camp surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Greene) D.

(93) Brief Histories of the Divisions in the A. E. F., 41st Division, source unknown. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(94) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C., April 19, 1918, by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Greene) D.

(95) Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C., August 21, 1917, by Col, H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Greene) D.

(96) Description of water supply, made by the company supplying water to Charlotte, N. C., and Camp Greene, received in S. G. O., December 12, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.2-1 (Camp Greene) D.

(97) Letter from Capt. Chas. A. Haskins, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 4, 1918. Subject: Report on investigation of sewage disposal at Camp Greene, October 21, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Greene) D.

(98) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C., made on July 21, 1918, by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Greene) D.

(99) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Greene, N. C., on November 6, 1918, by Col. Jere B. Clayton, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(100) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C., January 2-3, 1918, by Lieut. Col. C. F. Morse, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Greene) D.

(101) A medical history of Camp Greene, N. C., unsigned. Prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(102) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Greene, N. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 16, 1919. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Greene) D.

(103) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C., by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., September 28, 1917. On file, Record Room. S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Greene) D, 1917.

(104) Letter from Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 14, 1918. Subject: Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Greene) D.

(105) Monthly sanitary report for the month of March, 1919, from Camp Greene, N. C. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Greene) D.

(106) Letter from the chief of laboratory service, base hospital, Camp Greene, N. C., to the commanding officer, September 2, 1918. Subject: Typhoid fever. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Base Hospital, Camp Greene) D.


200

(107) Telegram from Major Carrol, Camp Greene, N. C., to the Surgeon General, Washington, D. C., October 27, 1917. Letter from Capt. G. Kremer, M. R. C., to Maj. E. H. Burns, Office of the Surgeon General, October 25, 1917. Report, routine procedure of tuberculosis board at Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C. Both letter and report attached to above telegram. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-5 (Tuberculosis, Camp Greene) D.

(108) Letter from Capt. J. T. Rugh to the Surgeon General, October 11, 1917. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Camp Greene, N. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greene) D.

(109) Letter from Capt. James T. Rugh M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 20, 1917. Subject: Special report on orthopedic instruction and inspection in camps. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greene) D.

(110) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, Camp Greene, N. C., to the Surgeon General,  U. S. Army, January 20, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Camp Greene. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greene) D.

(111) Letter from Maj. James T. Rugh, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, March 6, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Camp Greene. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greene) D.

(112) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, Camp Greene, N. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 18, 1918. Subject: Report of orthopedic surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G.O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greene) D.

(113) Letter from Capt. Henry P. Mauck, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 28, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery, Camp Greene, N. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greene) D.

(114) Letter from Capt. Herny P. Mauck, M. C., to the Surgeon General, November 6, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery, Camp Greene, N. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greene) D.

(115) Letter from Lieut. Col. C. F. Morse to the Surgeon General, February 6, 1918. Subject: Report on special inspection at Camp Greene, N. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Greene) D.

(116) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, Camp Greene, N. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 17. 1918. Subject: Report of orthopedic surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greene) D.

(117) Detailed veterinary history of Camp Greene, undated and unsigned. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(118) Letter from the Surgeon General of the Army to The Adjutant General of the Army November 12, 1918. Subject: Special sanitary inspection, Camp Greene, N. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Greene) D.

(119) A veterinary history of the war, Auxiliary Remount Depot 306, Camp Greene, N. C., by Maj. E. B. Ackerman, V. C., U. S. Army. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(120) Final report of physical examinations made prior to separation from the Military Service, Camp Greene, N. C., by Maj. Edgar F. Haines, M. C., camp surgeon, March 29, 1919. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Greene) D.

(121) Medical history of Camp Hancock, Augusta, Ga., for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918, by Lieut. Col. W. M. Smart, M. C., camp surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Medical History, Camp Hancock) D.

(122) Letter from Capt. Russell W. Geiss, S. C., U. S. Army, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, undated. Subject: Malarial history of Camp Hancock, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 725.11-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(123) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 18, 1919. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(124) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 327-339.

(125) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 8, 1918. Subject: Monthly report on camp water supply, disposal of water, etc. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.2-1 (Camp Hancock) D.


201

(126) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 23, 1918. Subject: Report on water supply at Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 308 with recommendations. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730.2-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(127) Letter from the division sanitary inspector, 28th Division, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 15, 1917. Subject: Water supply, remount station. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Remount Station, Camp Hancock) D.

(128) Letter from Maj. James T. B. Bowles, S. C., N. A., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 7, 1918. Subject: Special inspection of water supply and sewage disposal, Camp Hancock, Ga., by Capt. E. J. Tucker, S. C. On file, Record Room,  S. G. O., 721 1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(129) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., N. A., to the Surgeon General, October 12, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Hancock, Ga., September 29, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(130) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Hancock, Augusta, Ga., on January 20 and 21, 1919, by Lieut. Col. H. B. McIntyre, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(131) Letter from the camp sanitary officer, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 31, 1917. Subject: Sanitary report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5-1 (Sanitary Report, Camp Hancock) D.

(132) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army Division of Sanitation, December 12, 1918. Subject: Monthly report, November, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(133) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Hancock, Augusta, Ga., August 27, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(134) Letter from the sanitary inspector, Southeastern Department, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 17, 1917. Subject: Sanitary conditions at Camp Hancock. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(135) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Hancock, Augusta, Ga., January 9-10, 1918, by Lieut. Col. C. F. Morse, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(136) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General of the Army, December 28, 1918. Subject: Report on influenza and pneumonia epidemic. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 711 (Epidemics).

(137) Report of inspection in relation to epidemic of influenza and pneumonia at Camp Hancock, Augusta, Ga., October 15, 1918, by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(138) Letter from Maj. W. W. Herrick, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 29, 1918. Subject: Investigation of scarlet fever epidemic at Camp Hancock, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Scarlet Fever, Base Hospital, Camp Hancock) D.

(139) Letter from the acting orthopedic surgeon, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the commanding officer, 111th Infantry, December 6, 1917. Subject: Shoe and foot inspection. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Hancock) D.

(140) Letter from Capt. James T. Rugh, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, Department of Military Orthopedics, November 19, 1917. Subject: Orthopedics at Camp Hancock, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Hancock) D.

 (141) Letter from Capt. Henry P. Mauck, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 15, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Camp Hancock. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Hancock) D.

 (142) 1st Ind. from the camp surgeon, Camp Hancock, August 8, 1918, to the Surgeon General. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.051 (Development Battalions, Camp Hancock) D.


202

(143) Letter from First Lieut. William Moncure, jr., M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 16, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report of orthopedic work in the development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.051 (Development Battalions, Camp Hancock) D.

(144) Letter from Maj. Marcus A. Rothchild, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 4, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center, Camp Hancock, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O.

(145) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 18, 1919. Subject: Report for 1919. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(146) Letter from Capt. George H. Steele, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 4, 1919. Subject: Care of convalescents at Camp Hancock, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(147) Weekly reports, convalescent center, Camp Hancock, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(148) Letter from the dental surgeon, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army November 24, 1917. Subject: Formation of dental units. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3-3 (Dental units, Camp Hancock) D.

(149) Telegram from Gaugler, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, April 24, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. 703 (Camp Hancock) D.

(150) Letter from the camp dental surgeon, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 5, 1918. Subject: Special dental report regarding deficiency of dental surgeons. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 211 (Dentists, Camp Hancock) D.

(151) Telegram from Hillman, camp surgeon, Augusta, Ga., to Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 12, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 211 (Dentists, Camp Hancock) D.

(152) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 7, 1919. Subject: Medical history of the war. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(153) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Hancock, Augusta, Ga., October 4, 1917, by Col. H. G. Fisher, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5-1 (Camp Hancock) D.

(154) A veterinary history of Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 308, Camp Hancock, Ga., undated and unsigned. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(155) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability, Camp Hancock, Ga., for the months of November, 1918, to February, 1919, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Hancock) D and 702 (Physical Examination, Camp Hancock) D.

(156) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army to the camp surgeon, Camp Hancock, Ga., March 1, 1919. Subject: Approximate date of abandonment of camp. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 323.7 (Camp Hancock) D.

(157) 1st ind., W. D., A. G. O., March 27, 1919, to commanding general, Camp Hancock, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.15 (Camp Hancock) D.

(158) Annual report of the camp surgeon, Camp Kearny, Calif., for the calendar year 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Annual Report, Camp Kearny) D.

(159) Medical history of the 40th Division, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office, U. S. Army, undated and unsigned. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(160) Letter from Lieut. Col. Robert E. Noble, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 5, 1917. Subject: Inspection of Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333.1-1 (Camp Kearny) D.

(161) Letter from Maj. M. P. Ravenel, M. R. C., Camp Kearny, Calif., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 29, 1918. Subject: Correction medical history Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(162) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. 1, 374-385.


203

(163) Report of division surgeon, 40th Division, August 25, 1917, to December 31, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Annual Report, 40th Division) G.

(164) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 9, 1918. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Kearny) D.

(165) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 21, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection, 40th Division, Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Kearny) D.

(166) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 31, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary report of the 40th Division, Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Kearny) D.

(167) Memorandum from Capt. Kenneth B. Turner, M. R. C., chief medical examiner, Camp Kearny, Calif., to the division surgeon, July 16, 1918. Subject: System used in physical examination of drafted men at Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 327.2 (Examinations, Camp Kearny) D.

(168) Medical history of the war, Camp Kearny, Calif., July 1 to December 31, 1918, undated and unsigned. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(169) Letter from the president, board of tuberculosis examiners, Camp Kearny, Calif., to the Surgeon General, November 22, 1917. Subject: Report of tuberculosis board, Camp Kearny. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 334.1-1 (Tuberculosis Board, Camp Kearny) D.

(170) 1st ind., from president, board of tuberculosis examiners, Camp Kearny, December 15, 1917, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army. Subject: Transfer of tuberculosis board. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 334.1-1 (Tuberculosis Board, Camp Kearny) D.

(171) Letter from Maj. Walter V. Brem, M. R. C., cardiovascular board, 40th Division, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 31, 1918. Subject: Report of the cardiovascular board, 40th Division; review of work and recommendations. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-2 (Camp Kearny) D.

(172) Letter from Contract Surg. R. L. Richards to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 27, 1917. Subject: Report of consultation and advice with the board of nervous and mental diseases. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 334.7-1 (Camp Kearny) D.

(173) Correspondence concerning subject of psychological examinations, Camp Kearny. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Psychological, Camp Kearny) D.

(174) Letter from Maj. Edward A. Rich, M. C., supervising orthopedic surgeon, to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 21, 1918. Subject: Report on orthopedic conditions and service at Camp Kearny. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Kearny) D.

(175) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, Camp Kearny, Calif., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 1, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Kearny) D.

(176) Letter from the camp orthopedic surgeon, Camp Kearny, Calif., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 4, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report of orthopedic surgeons. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Kearny) D.

(177) Letter from Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 21, 1918. Subject: Special sanitary inspection, Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Kearny) D, Storage 1918.

(178) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 6, 1918. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection at Camp Kearny. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Kearny) D.

(179) 2d Ind., from camp surgeon, Camp Kearny, Calif., August 17, 1918, to the Surgeon General U. S. Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Kearny) D.

(180) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 7, 1918. Subject: Inspection development battalion, Camp Kearny, Calif., On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Kearny) D.


204

(181) Letter from Maj. Herman C. Adler, M. C., to the Acting Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 24, 1918. Subject: Confidential report on neuropsychiatric work at Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-3 (Camp Kearny) D.

(182) Letter from Capt. Le Roy Crummer, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 27, 1918. Subject: Report on development battalion, Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalion, Camp Kearny) D.

(183) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 2, 1918. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection of development battalion, Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Kearny) D.

(184) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 25, 1919. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Kearny) D.

(185) Weekly reports of the convalescent center, Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Kearny) D.

(186) 1st Ind., from camp surgeon, Camp Kearny, Calif., June 2, 1919, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to Report of convalescent center, Camp Kearny, Calif., week ending May 31, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Kearny) D.

(187) History of dental service at Camp Kearny, Calif., for the period from August 1, 1918, to March 31, 1919, by Lieut. Col. R. E. Ingalls, D. C., camp dental surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Kearny) D.

(188) Letter from the camp veterinarian, Camp Kearny, Calif., to the Surgeon General, Veterinary Division, December 27, 1918. Subject: Veterinary history of war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7-2 (Camp Kearny) D.

(189) Letter from the division veterinarian, 16th Division, Camp Kearny, Calif., to the Surgeon General, Veterinary Division, February 17, 1919. Subject: Answers to questionnaire, S. G. O., dated December 27, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. 314.7 (Veterinary, Camp Kearny) D.

(190) A veterinary history of Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 330, by Maj. Walter R. Pick, U. S. Army, On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 330) R.

(191) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 330, Camp Kearny, Calif., to the director of the Veterinary Corps, Office of the Surgeon General, January 27, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 330) R.

(192) Letter from the division sanitary inspector, 40th Division, Camp Kearny, Calif., to the division surgeon, 40th Division, January 3, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection of restaurants, etc. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.9 (Camp Kearny) D.

(193) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 27, 1918. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Kearny, Calif. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Kearny) D.

(194) Report of medical activities, calendar year 1919, Camp Kearny, Calif., by Lieut. Col. G. H . McClellan, M. C., camp surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Kearny) D.

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