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CHAPTER III

Contents

CHAPTER III

NATIONAL ARMY CANTONMENTS (Continued)

CAMP LEE, VA.

Camp Lee was situated on a plateau 160 feet above sea level, 3 miles from Petersburg, Va., and 20 miles from Richmond.1 Its western margin was bounded by the tidal estuary of the Appomattox River. The soil was sandy loam, the drainage excellent. There were, however, some marshes, chiefly salt marshes, near the mouth of the Appomattox River, which were breeding places for mosquitoes.

The first troops were received between September 1 and 15, 1917.1 The strength at the end of 1917 was approximately 36,000. The 80th Division was organized here and moved overseas about May, 1918. After this division left, the camp was used as a replacement camp. During 1918, large increments of troops were received. There were a great many men from Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and a considerable number from other camps, as well as a few scattered men from other States. The maximum strength was for the month of July, 1918, when there were approximately 57,000 men in camp.1

The city of Petersburg supplied Camp Lee with water.2 The city supply was derived from two polluted streams,2 and the treatment and pumping plant was antiquated and in poor repair.3 The water was treated by sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, and chlorination, but its quality was open to suspicion at all times. The city made certain repairs and alterations in the plant late in 1917 and allowed the Army to station a chemist there to supervise its operation.4 Although 3,000,000 gallons of water were delivered to the camp daily in the summer of 1918, the leakage was so excessive that the amount was barely

sufficient for the camp needs.5 The possibilities in the situation were further complicated by the undependability of the emergency pump in the city waterworks plant.6 This pump was started by a small compressed air tank. If the pump failed to start on the first attempt, it required about two hours to refill the air tank by the only means available, a bicycle pump. A sufficient supply was provided before the end of the year 1918 by increasing the plant, and this allowed a reserve supply, which would flow by gravity, sufficient for 12 hours' use.7

Until the garbage disposal contract went into force in November, 1917, by which time the garbage transfer station had been completed, destruction of garbage by burning it in windrows was attempted.8 This method of disposal was unsatisfactory, because the destruction was incomplete. The contract was broken in March, 1918, and a small part of the garbage was then removed by farmers and the remainder burned in an incinerator which was far too small for the purpose. Experience in managing the incinerator so improved conditions that the method was satisfactory in May, but the cans could not be thoroughly washed in the large wooden tubs provided for the purpose at the transfer station.10 A new contract was in force in the fall of 1918, the contractor removing the garbage to a pig farm one-half mile distant.11


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Disposal of manure was first accomplished by gifts of portions of it to farmers, spreading it on neighboring fields, and by burning it.12 A contract for the removal of manure was let late in September, 1917,12 but a shortage of railroad cars resulted in large quantities being left about the camp. These conditions obtained until after June, 1918, and in addition difficulty was being experienced at the loading platform.13 This loading platform was large enough for carts only, so the manure was forked by hand from the wagons, in which it arrived, into the carts and from the carts into the cars, with spilling during

both transfers. Beginning at some date before the end of 1918, the organizations delivered the manure to the contractor at a compost pile on a near-by farm.11 A compost pile was formed near the remount depot in 1919, on a compact oiled base, and borax was used on the pile as a larvacide.14

The camp sewerage system was in use early, before the end of September, 1917.12 Since there was no disposal plant, the sewage was discharged untreated into a small creek, and complaints from landowners soon arose.8 A camp disposal plant was completed during the summer of 1918.15 As with other cantonment sewage disposal plants, trouble was experienced with sludge disposal from the septic tanks, and, in an attempt to overcome this grease traps were constructed at the kitchens and at the disposal plant.11 The creek carrying the effluent from the plant passed through a marshy area, just above tidewater, which became very foul,11 and a dredge was constructed to improve the channel.16 The operating crew of the dredge dammed the stream in order to float the dredge,16 and this soon resulted in a deposition of a semisolid mass of sewage 600 feet long and alive with fly larvę.17 This fly breeder filled the camp with flies and was discovered by a visiting entomologist who reported conditions

to both the Surgeon General and the Secretary of War, but the condition had been corrected before notices from those offices were received at the camp.16

Mumps was of considerable importance during the entire camp period prior to the spring of 1919, being constantly present and threatening.1 It attacked the camp in four waves, the two largest producing crests of 561 cases in September, 1917, and 990 cases in December, 1917. This second wave was prolonged, 2,708 cases occurring during the months December, 1917, to March, 1918, inclusive. The third wave crest amounted to 120 cases in July, 1918,1 and the fourth to 363 cases in January, 1919.18

The value of the psychological ratings was so highly considered by the authorities in Camp Lee that the tests were extended to include all officers and men in the 80th Division.19 The reports were in surprising agreement with other records in the personnel office, and the commanding general announced that they would be given considerable weight when considering the advancement of any officer or enlisted man.19

Each company commander was required to furnish a list of whom he considered his best 50 men and his poorest 50 men.20 These estimates conformed so generally to the psychological ratings that the

commanding general considered that the two together formed a valuable index to the company commander's ability to "size up" men.20  The psychological examinations, in 1917, were given to those enlisted men who were referred by their commanders, chosen because they were irritable, seclusive, sulky, depressed cranks, the butts of practical jokes, dull or stupid, showing marked emotional


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reactions, as vomiting or fainting at bayonet drill, slovenly in dress, etc.20 In testing the men, each group was first asked to fill in the answers to certain questions for general information on the forms used. Those who were unable to do so were at once assigned to the illiterate group, and were given a mechanical skill test instead. There was one mistaken impression which was almost universal among company commanders-the completed tabulations of the tests of organizations were considered to be indices of the total personalities of the men rather than of their mental abilities alone.21 Although the opinions

of the value of psychologic examinations, as expressed a year later, were not so comprehensively enthusiastic, they were still held as well worth while and as of particular value in a replacement camp as aids in eliminating the mentally unfit and in assisting the personnel force to select men with special qualifications to fill requisitions from the War Department.22

The neuropsychiatric work at first consisted also in examining men referred by company commanders and by psychologists.23 A special survey was conducted in November and December, 1917, in an effort to outline some system for the detection of the psychopathic cases which would be more comprehensive.23 The first trial was to select those men who had been placed in the low mental age groups by the psychologists, but the psychopathic cases were not thus reached. An effort was then made to select men by watching large groups assembled for psychologic examinations, drills, etc., but this was found impractical. The suggestion of a short interview with every man in camp would have taken too much time. Company commanders were asked to refer all men who should have been discharged, but this resulted in the reference, largely, of men the teaching of whom required merely the expenditure of considerable time and attention, and the psychopathic persons were still missed. It was finally decided that the original method of selection by company commanders was the most efficient that was practical, and that they would eventually refer most of the cases which should be examined.

The division surgeon, 80th Division, considered that foot problems and others of a similar nature were purely medical and to be met entirely by the medical officers of the division.24 He considered that it was distinctly prejudicial for a visiting consultant to bring these matters before other than medical personnel, and that medical officers who did not have sufficient knowledge of them for the purpose of their work were inefficient. This attitude was undoubtedly the correct one for an ideal organization, but ideal conditions had not been found to exist at other camps. Nevertheless, in deference to the division surgeon's wishes, the talks usually given to all officers were here confined to those of the Medical Corps. The division surgeon agreed that line officers should receive this instruction, but believed that it should be given by the divisional medical officers. The necessity for cobbling outfits was realized early and requisition for 19 for the division were forwarded in December, 1917.25 Six weeks later, these requisitions were found in the office of the Quartermaster General in Washington. As they had not specified the organizations for which the outfits were intended, no action had been taken except to pigeonhole them.


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Meanwhile, the camp shoe repair shop was attempting to do all repair work and shoe alterations for the camp and for the division by operating 24 hours each day.

The United States Public Health Service started work in the extra-cantonment zone at an early date.26 A sanitary survey for typhoid fever, and hookworm infection, of food venders, etc., was completed before the end of August, 1917, and sanitary privies were being installed. Harmonious relations existed between the Public Health Service, the Army, the county health officials, and the wideawake city health officer of Petersburg. Some booths where foods and drinks were sold were closed during the following month, and action against certain others was placed in the hands of the district attorney.12 Stringent

regulations were issued governing these places, and enforced.9 An officers' club was closed for two days for noncompliance with the regulations. The local boards of health were not very active in the following spring, but were fairly efficient under the urgings of the Public Health Service representative. Military personnel were not allowed to enter the town of Hopewell in August, 1918, owing to its lack of activity in sanitary matters.27

Construction of quarantine and detention camps was urged in June, 1918, on the grounds that their absence formed a continual menace from communicable disease and delayed the departure of troops ordered overseas through the necessity of retaining them as long as communicable diseases were found among them.5 A quarantine camp for 5,000 men, housed by squads, was recommended. Authority was received later for the construction of a detention camp with a capacity of 3,000.27

Three development battalions were organized in July, 1918, two of them being devoted exclusively to venereal cases owing to the presence of 4,000 such cases which had accumulated from various sources.28 One of these venereal battalions was reserved for colored men.27 Before the middle of August, the strength of the colored venereal battalion was 2,246, of the white venereal battalion was 2,311, and of the third battalion, 1,226. Each battalion was divided into four companies, and the training cadre of the 3 battalions included 73 officers, 12 of whom were medical officers. An additional battalion of 300 aliens had been formed by November, with a total strength in all battalions of about 6,800.29 The battalions became so reduced in the spring of 1919 that they were transferred into a "development company" at the base hospital.30 This company consisted of about 40 chronic venereal cases in July, with a training cadre of 3 officers and 29 enlisted men, and was dissolved about August 1, 1919.30

The convalescent center was established early in January, 1919.31 There were 711 men attached to the center by the middle of the month, but only 52 required further retention.32 Forty line officers, 5 medical officers, and 19 enlisted men of the Medical Department were on duty with the center. The training cadre totaled 356 a month later,33 with 559 convalescents in the center, 219 of whom needed further hardening.34 Seven of the cadre were medical officers, 94 were line officers, 4 were physical directors and 26 were enlisted men of the Medical Department.32 The center was well organized by March and

the men were contented.35 All treatments required other than physical exercises were given at the base hospital. The 591 men were organized into 2 battalions


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and 8 companies, with a training cadre of 396. Eight medical officers and 120 line officers were on duty. By June, there were only 291 men in the center and the training cadre had been reduced to 76, 12 of whom were themselves convalescents.14 The center was then known as "convalescent companies, demobilization group."

The first dental officer to report at Camp Lee arrived August 23, 1917.36 The delivery of his portable dental outfit was delayed, so an improvised chair, orange-wood sticks, and a few forceps from medical field equipment were used during the interim for such dental work as was permitted. Thirty-nine dental officers arrived in September.36 As there were only two portable dental outfits in camp, the majority of these officers were impressed to inoculate and vaccinate the arriving drafted men. One base dental equipment was received in November and installed at the base hospital. Fifteen more were received in

December and assigned to the base hospital and various regimental medical infirmaries, and an additional 15 men were received in February, 1918. The few dental officers remaining in the camp in May, 1918, were performing the proper amount of permanent work and were giving attention to the conservation of teeth.37 The dental assistants had been carefully selected and were unusually efficient. The first dental infirmary was nearly ready for occupancy in May, but as the plumbing and electric fixtures were not connected, the building was not occupied until July. A general reception room, a smaller one for officers, an office, X-ray room, and four operating rooms occupied the first floor. Each of the latter was large enough for two chairs, one was completely equipped for handling all kinds of extractions, and one was reserved for colored men. The second floor was occupied by an operating clinic with 14 chairs, a laboratory, two supply rooms, cloak rooms, and toilet. A mess hall in a medical infirmary

was utilized as a second dental infirmary, with seven chairs, and these two cared for the troops of the main camp. The mess hall in the veterinary training school was also converted into a dental clinic, at first with only one base equipment but later with three. The auxiliary remount station had one base outfit. Small offices with one or two chairs were established in various other organizations. Another 15 base equipment and authority to construct a second dental infirmary building were received in September, but this construction had not been started when the armistice was signed. Dental officers assisted in the

physical examination of 38,963 drafted men from June 8 to August 16, 1918. Of these, they rejected 618, found 371 fit for domestic duty only, and discovered that 10,596 were suffering from infected roots. From May, 1918, to February, 1919, inclusive, 61,543 initial dental examinations were made, 20,270 permanent and 2,328 temporary fillings placed, 3,081 root canal fillings made, 30,299 extractions performed, 312 dentures made, and 286 repairs made to bridges, crowns, and dentures. Calculi were removed in 7,863 cases and mouths freed from focal infections in 16,349 instances.

There were 247 animals left in the camp proper after the 80th Division had turned in its stock to the remount depot, but this number had increased to 1,124 in August, to 1,439 late in September, and to 1,643 early in November, 1918.38 The arrival of a portion of the 8th Division later increased the number to about 1,800. Ten shoeing shops were in operation during the period of greatest activity.


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Meat from packing plants was inspected and issued from refrigerator cars prior to the completion of the cold-storage plant in July, 1918.28 There was little or no control of meats and meat products purchased locally until the summer of 1918, when the purchase of such foodstuffs through the camp supply officer was directed. Inspection was then made at the time of issue. A Pasteurizing plant within the camp limits was the only authorized source of fresh milk, so the inspection of local dairies was not considered necessary.

The veterinary training school which was located at this camp was organized in the fore part of the summer of 1918 for the purpose of mobilizing and training organizations of the Veterinary Corps.37 The first group of organizations to be formed were Veterinary Hospital Units Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11, and Mobile Veterinary Hospital Units Nos. 1 and 2. These left camp late in July with a total strength of 43 officers and 1,662 men.39 Veterinary Hospitals Nos. 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, Base Veterinary Hospital No. 2, and Corps Mobile Veterinary Hospital No. 3 were then formed, and the list in September included Veterinary Hospitals Nos. 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21, Corps Mobile Veterinary Hospital No 4, and Section B of Army Mobile Veterinary Hospital No. 1.39 Veterinary Hospitals Nos. 19, 20, and 21 were composed of colored men. The above units and Mobile Veterinary Hospital Units Nos. 7 and 8 left for overseas service in October, with a total strength of 132 officers and 3,880 enlisted men.40

The following organizations only were reported in November: Army Mobile Veterinary Hospital No. 2, Base Veterinary Hospital No. 3, Corps Mobile Veterinary Hospitals Nos. 5, 7, 8, and 9, Replacement Unit No. 5, and Veterinary Hospitals Nos. 22, 23, 24, and 25.39 Veterinary Hospital No. 25, Corps Mobile Hospitals Nos. 7 and 8, and Army Mobile Veterinary Hospital No. 2 left in November, with a total strength of 15 officers and 355 men.40 The following organizations were authorized but not formed: Corps Mobile Veterinary Hospitals Nos. 6, 10, 11, 12, and 13, Veterinary Hospitals Nos. 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30, and Veterinary Replacement Unit No. 6.41 These organizations would have required a personnel of 47 veterinary officers, 5 medical officers, 2,075 enlisted men of the Veterinary Corps, and 55 enlisted men of the Medical Department.41

The corrals of the remount depot were at first placed largely on low land which became so muddy that it was necessary to move them to higher ground.42 The corral fences were more substantial than at many camps, being constructed with 2 by 6 inch planks top and bottom and 2 by 4 inch between.43 The corral sheds were inclosed on three sides, some sheltering a feeding and hay rack. In addition to the larger corrals, there were 14 paddocks and small corrals which held an average of about 60 animals. The water troughs eventually used were of concrete and so shaped that they would not be damaged by freezing. The depot was suffering from a number of insanitary conditions in January, 1918.44 The barracks were overcrowded, great quantities of manure remained in the corrals, shelter and personnel were inadequate for the many sick animals, and the plumbing and sewers had not yet been connected, although ready for use since September 10. However, conditions here were very satisfactory in August, 1918, owing to an energetic and capable commanding officer.27

The veterinary hospital was of the usual type.45 An epidemic of contagious pustulous stomatitis started in October, 1917, and rapidly spread to all animals


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in the depot in spite of quarantine attempts. It produced no permanent disabilities in animals affected, one attack conferred immunity, and the epidemic had burned itself out in January, 1918. Influenza and strangles also involved most of the animals during the exceptionally severe winter of 1917-18. The first case of glanders was discovered in February, 1918, and testing resulted in detection of 14 more by May.45  The hospital was taken over by the veterinary training school in November, 1918, and operated as a camp hospital in order to provide practical instruction for the officers and men assigned to the school.46

The physical examinations on demobilization were so regulated as to give the maximum degree of completeness commensurate with practicability.47 The eyelids were not ordinarily everted, for such practice would have required the washing of the hands preceding each examination and the use of three examiners instead of one. Direct examination of the external auditory canal and of the nares with reflected light was considered sufficient for the ordinary case. Tongue depressor and mirror were used for the throat examination. Men who were being sent to other camps for discharge were at first not given a chest examination, as they would be examined again at the place of discharge. This was later changed to include an examination of the heart and lungs. A visiting medical inspector approved the methods employed, but considered that the examination of men transferred to other camps for discharge was a waste of time and should be replaced by an inspection only, as the object sought was to prevent travel by

men who were physically unfit for the trip or were suffering from communicable conditions.14 From the beginning of demobilization in November, 1918, to the close of the year 1919, 138,520 men were examined, and 7,738 of these were found to have disabilities.48 The greatest number examined for discharge in one month was the 27,975 in June, 1919. In addition, 3,577 men were examined

in that month before transfer to other stations. These examinations were performed by two teams of about 20 officers each during the early part of the year 1919, but one similar team was sufficient in June.

CAMP LEWIS, WASH.

 

Camp Lewis was a U-shaped camp built on a rather narrow strip of flat land between hills, about 1 mile from American Lake,49 with the cities of Tacoma and Olympia, Wash., lying 16 and 17 miles to the north and west, respectively.50 The remainder of the 60,000-acre reservation consisted of large areas of gently rolling prairie and occasional hills covered with a heavy growth of fir,51 though one area of swamp existed in the vicinity of the camp. Moderate rainfalls prevailed from about October 15 to June 1, with an average monthly precipitation of 4.95 inches during the period October to May, inclusive, in 1917-18.50 The hills contiguous to the camp acted as watersheds which, during heavy rains, caused considerable water to flow through the camp.49 While the soil of the greater part of the reservation consisted of a few inches of loam overlying gravel, and was so porous that it was suitable for maneuvering troops within a few hours after a heavy rain,51 the continual drilling later caused the camp area to

 become nearly impervious to water and extensive surface ditching was necessary.52 The light top soil was ground into great quantities of impalpable dust during the dry season, which extended from about June 15 to September 15.50


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There was no excessive heat in the summer and the nights were so cool as to require light wraps for complete comfort. There was usually a period of about 10 days each winter which was clear and cold, the thermometer falling to the neighborhood of zero. A paved road connecting Tacoma and Olympia passed through the camp.

The first increments of drafted men arrived at Camp Lewis between September 1 and 15, 1917.53 During 1917 the troops came from Washington, Montana, Utah, California, Idaho, Wyoming, and, during November, a few from New York. The mean strength for December, 1917, was approximately 37,000. The 91st Division was organized here and moved overseas about July, 1918. After this the 13th Division was organized. Large increments of troops were received during 1918 from the States mentioned. In addition, there were 4,714 from Minnesota and a considerable number from North Dakota, Colorado, Nevada, and Georgia. The maximum strength was in June, 1918, when the mean strength for the month was approximately 44,000.53

A large spring at the head of Lake Sequallitchew, 1 mile from camp, made available an estimated quantity of 3,500,000 gallons per day of water.51 The water was practically sterile,51 so though a chlorinating apparatus was installed its use was unnecessary, and it was operated only once every 15 days, as a test. Storage tanks were provided, with a capacity of 600,000 gallons. The pumps which lifted the water to the storage tanks were electrically driven and the tank capacity was sufficient for only six hours' use. An interruption of the power line on one occasion resulted in the draining of all tanks and water lines before discovery, and serious damage to water-heating apparatus was narrowly averted.54 Later eight driven wells were added to the system as an emergency source of supply should the spring ever fail.55

The sewerage system was completed before the end of September, 1917.52 The outfall sewer terminated in Puget Sound at the main tide level. Since there was no treatment of the sewage, a number of complaints were made by owners of land in that neighborhood, but these complaints diminished in frequency until none were being received a year later.55

An unusual expedient was used in the disposal of excreta during the construction period, and continued for the use of outlying details of men, etc., during the entire camp period.52 Dry-earth closets were mounted on skids, which made them easily removable to any point desired.54 These latrines were in use throughout the camp when the first draft increment was received.

A contract for the disposal of garbage was let before the end of September, 1917, under which the Quartermaster Department removed the garbage in cans from the organizations, delivered it to the contractor at the transfer station, one-half mile outside of camp, washed the cans and returned them to organizations.54 Under this system the garbage was used for feeding hogs on a farm 6 miles from camp. Waste in the messes was gradually reduced until the contractor received only 10 ounces of garbage per man daily in the summer of 1918.56

The contractor was to receive the manure at a station near the auxiliary remount depot and sell it to farmers in the neighborhoods Since the terms of the contract allowed him to refuse all manure which contained a large proportion of extraneous matter, such as corral scrapings, it was necessary to spread


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this latter material thinly on open spaces at some distance from the camp. The contractor could also refuse to accept all manure when he had no market for it.51 These phases of the contract were objected to locally on sanitary grounds and resultant conditions came to a crisis in the summer of 1918,54 when the contractor ceased to take the manure. Efforts were made then to burn it.57 However, a great deal of manure had collected in the corrals of the remount depot during the winter and immense numbers of flies were present in all parts of camp. Since little effort was being made locally toward exterminating them49 and considerable carelessness was evident in the protection of food,57 several small outbreaks of diarrhea among the command were considered to have a possible connection with the prevalence of flies.58 The policing of all corrals, left unoccupied by the departure of the 91st Division, was completed in August and the cleaning of the remount corrals was continued.58 Approximately 6,000 tons of manure

were disposed of in August, 1918, mainly from the remount depot. The situation was entirely under control by September.55 Identical conditions again arose in the remount depot in the following winter,59 but energetic action resulted in clean corrals, and almost no flies were in evidence when the warm weather again arrived.60

Camp Lewis was fortunate in the selection of drafted men for service in the Medical Department, in that the camp commander realized the necessity of furnishing that department with men of a high type and allowed the personnel officer to assign men with premedical and hospital experience for duty with Medical Department organizations.50 There were 286 officers and 2,284 men of the Medical Department on duty in the camp in May; 1918, 108 officers and 1,236 enlisted men being assigned to the 91st Division. Of the total within the camp limits, 31 were dental officers on duty with the division and 22 more were on camp duty; 12 officers and 46 enlisted men of the Veterinary Corps were on duty with the division, and 18 officers and 77 enlisted men were on duty with camp organizations.

The enlisted personnel of the sanitary train of the 91st Division was composed very largely of volunteers, and about one-half of them were men with college or hospital experience.50 The first of the organizations to arrive were Provisional Ambulance Company D, from San Francisco, Calif., and Provisional Hospital Company B, from Portland, Oreg., in July, 1917.61 A provisional field hospital detachment arrived from the medical training camp at Fort Riley, Kans., in August, 1917,50 and two more provisional ambulance companies reported.61 American Red Cross Ambulance Company No. 14,

organized at Eugene, Oreg., and American Red Cross Ambulance Company No. 19, organized at Portland, Oreg., reported in September, 1917.62 From these organizations and some drafted men, the four ambulance companies and four field hospitals of the sanitary train were organized.

The Oregon State Council of Defense gave to each drafted man from that State a leaflet which emphasized the importance and duty of every man to keep himself physically fit to perform the duties of a soldier, and referring particularly to venereal disease.50 Since men in the camp from Oregon showed a lower rate for communicable diseases than did those from other States, an effort was made to have the governors of all States sending troops to Camp Lewis to instruct their men in the same way, with what result is not known.


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There was no camp laundry, so some organizations installed one small washing machine for each two companies in latrine buildings.50 This plan was not generally adopted and was not satisfactory; the capacity of the laundry was too small; the water was not hot enough; the capacity of the baths was reduced by two shower heads; the building was crowded and the floor flooded. One drying house was built in 1918 for each two companies, the many rainy days during the late fall, winter, and early spring making some arrangement for the drying of clothing necessary.50

The best method of handling the discharge of soldiers on account of physical disability was a problem.63 Several disability boards existed in the camp in the summer of 1918, and it was found that frequently when one board refused to recommend discharge, the man's commanding officer would refer his case to other boards until he found one which was more obliging. This practice led to the dissolution of all these boards except one, but this one soon had many waiting cases and was in constant conflict for refusal to discharge men when so recommended by the specialists. These conditions resulted in

the formation once again of several boards, seven in number, each composed of one class of specialists, except for one general board. The development battalion had its own disability board during its existence, for, after a specialist had recommended a man for a period of training, it was difficult to convince him later that the man would never be of any particular value as a soldier.

It was planned to use the regimental infirmaries as examination buildings for the first draft increment, but, as the infirmaries were not then completed, four wards of the base hospital were utilized instead.54 The examination of a maximum of 2,200 men per day was attained by using a large force and working 11 to 12 hours daily; however, the frequency of errors resulting confirmed the opinion that this was too rapid for accuracy, and examinations of the second increment were limited to 1,000 per day. The procedure in 1918 differed from that employed at other camps, in that two days were required for completion of the examination.57 The first day was taken up by the special boards consisting of 23 tuberculosis, 12 cardiovascular, 6 orthopedic, and 4 neuropsychiatric examiners, with 50 enlisted assistants. These boards occupied an entire barrack. On the second day, the men received the general physical examination in another building where 10 medical officers and 41 enlisted men from the line were working. About 1,300 men per day were examined. While this method caused much confusion and lost motion and required an excessive personnel, the quality of the work was exceptionally good.

German measles was prevalent early in Camp Lewis.53  There were 316 cases in September, 1917; then it practically disappeared, only to rise suddenly to 1,063 cases in December. It was of little importance after January, 1918. On the other hand, true measles was surprisingly infrequent, 92 cases in February and 91 in October, 1918, being the highest points.53

Influenza affected the camp throughout the period of 1917-18, in what was practically one long wave with two major and two minor crests.53 In only 3 months of the 16 concerned did the incidence fall below 200, and it was never below 100 after September, 1917. The first minor crest arrived late in the fall of 1917 with 552 cases in November and 549 in December. The next in order


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was a major crest in the spring of 1918, with 1,291 cases in March and 1,518 in April. The second minor crest followed, with 493 cases in July. The highest of all was caused by the epidemic, in October, and the rise and fall of this crest were much sharper, although the base was gradually extended in both directions. There were 2,129 cases during October. The daily incidence never attained 100 after October 24, yet it did not remain persistently below 20 until another month had elapsed. The morbidity and mortality rates were lower than at most camps and lower than in surrounding cities.64 This favorable

status was attributed to the preventive measures adopted-the usual ones, in general, but, in addition, the avoidance of chilling and fatigue among the well men and the hospitalization of every case of fever.64

Lobar pneumonia was the predominant type in 1917, also it occurred in the majority of cases of pneumonia during the early part of 1918, but was very much in the minority after July, 1918.53 An increase in the incidence of pneumonia was evident in September before influenza had attained epidemic proportions, and, like the same disease, the high incidence was maintained for a considerable time after the real epidemic was past.64 The extraordinary number of primary cases of pneumonia reported in the fall of 1918 would indicate that many of them would have been attributed to influenza at other camps.53 The mortality rate for all types was under 10 per cent both during the fall of 1918 and before.

The presence of mumps in the camp was a constant source of annoyance throughout 1917 and 1918.53 Its highest rate of occurrence came at a period somewhat later than in other camps, 1,109 cases developing in March, 1918. There was a total of 3,554 cases for that year.

As regards special professional work, the neuropsychiatric board examined only the men referred to it by the recruit examiners, organization commanders, etc., in the fall of 1917.65 These numbered 778 cases in September and November, 228 of whom were rejected. An attempt was made to select the men who should be so examined by observing them while they were awaiting examination by

the tuberculosis board, but without success. The examinations revealed several interesting conditions, among others being the development of acute phases in men with psychoneurosis, brought about by the moderate stress of camp life, and the fact that men with juvenile court records frequently were not favorably influenced by the camp discipline.

Experience with psychological ratings by the end of the year 1918 led to the opinion on the part of the camp commander that these were of decided value, largely through a saving in time in arriving at conclusions that would eventually be attained by other methods.66 While he believed they should be used as a guide in conjunction with other methods rather than as an infallible rule, they proved of value in selecting men for special duties or training, including candidates for officers' training camps, and in eliminating promptly men who were inapt, troublesome, or of defective intelligence. He considered that the

work was more closely related to that of the personnel officer than that of the medical officer and should be transferred to the former branch; also, that the psychological rating might replace the system then in use for the intelligence rating of officers, as it had been found that the former method gave about the


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same results as the average of the combined opinions of several superior officers, the method then in use.

Of the 46,750 men examined in the camp prior to November 22, 1917, 1,646 were referred to the cardiovascular board, and 416 of these were rejected.67 The proportion of cases referred by the general board decreased as the members of the latter became more experienced and relied more on their own judgment. Of 22,000 men examined in the spring of 1918, 5,000 had thyroid enlargement.50 These goiter cases at first were referred to the neuropsychiatric board for final decision as to acceptance or rejection, but later this determination was made by the cardiovascular board. Comparatively few of all cases gave a definite history of rheumatic fever, but such history was usually present in the cases of organic heart disease. The blood pressure was taken before and after exercise in the early period of the work, but the difference was so slight that it was immaterial and this phase of the work became impracticable when the volume of the work increased. The system of depending on the examination of only

those men who should be referred to the cardiovascular board did not result satisfactorily, for many men were accepted who were later found to be unfit.68

The system was changed in July, 1918, a board of 12 officers being divided into two sections, one rapidly examining all recruits and referring cases to the second section of seven officers for careful examination.68 The men were presented to the preliminary examiners in groups of 40, stripped to the waist. The examiners rapidly passed down the line observing, palpating, and auscultating the cardiac area in order to rule out cases which should not take active exercise. An enlisted drill master then had the men bend forward and touch the floor, rapidly, 40 times. This exercise was used because it was both vigorous and noiseless. The examiners then again examined the men, more carefully this time. In the second section, enlisted men took the pulse, standing and supine, had the men hop on 1 foot 100 times, counted the pulse immediately in the supine position and again after two minutes had elapsed. The medical officer then completed the examination. Men with goiter were not rejected for enlargement of the thyroid alone unless it was of sufficient size to prevent the wearing of the military coat without alteration of the collar, as toxic symptoms had been found to be extremely rare. Under the old system, of 40,851

men examined, 2,474 were referred to the cardiovascular board and 411 of these were rejected, 1.2 per cent.68 Under the new system, of 30,697 men examined, 4,213 were referred and 873 rejected, 2.8 per cent. The strenuous exercise made for more accurate diagnosis, tending to accentuate murmurs at the apex and to cause those at the base to disappear, and bringing out presystolic and diastolic murmurs. Tachycardia without a history of previous trouble was found to be very suspicious of the impending onset of an acute infectious disease.

Neither a quarantine nor a detention camp was established as such; however, a section of the depot brigade was set aside for detention purposes in April, 1918.49  The buildings in this section belonged to several designated companies to which all arriving men were assigned.63 Organizations were quarantined in their own barracks when the necessity arose. That this method of handling infectious diseases appeared to be successful was shown by the results after the reception


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of the draft increment in June, 1918, when 28 cases of measles occurred.16 Only 10 of these were secondary cases; the original 18 cases occurred in 17 separate organizations; the 10 secondary cases were confined to five companies.

Organized in the summer of 1918, the strength of the development battalion was 1,493 on August 20, 1918,69 and reached 2,158 early in October.70 As regards the latter number, there were at least 300 men in camp who should have been transferred to the battalion, but this could not be done because buildings were not available.71 Furthermore, the work was not well organized, and medical officers in general were still confused as to the difference between the proper functions of a disability board and the development battalion.71 No venereal cases were transferred to the battalion until December, 1918, and then only the cases of chronic gonorrhea. There were then about 1,200 men in the battalion, about 100 being venereal cases. When the battalion was absorbed by the convalescent center, the venereal cases were formed into a separate venereal detachment.73

Personnel and facilities for conducting the convalescent center were excellent.73 The organization provided was for battalions of 500 men, 4 companies to each, to include all convalescents not ready for full duty and all members of the development battalion except the venereal cases. All men in the center were on a duty status, and those who had started prevocational work while in hospital were sent to the base hospital reconstruction service as day pupils. All convalescent detachments received at the camp were first assigned to the convalescent center for classification, men requiring further treatment being then transferred to the base hospital. The records that were used consisted of cards and reports, the outstanding feature of which was the medical classification by a series of colors. Individual filing cards showed this classification by a colored celluloid sticker which projected above the top of the card. Separate rosters were made of all men classified under each color. The number of convalescents in the center was highest about February 22, 1919, gradually declining from that time to about 160 before the center was closed May 31, 1919.74

There were 2 dental officers (1 Regular Army and 1 National Guard) in the camp when the first camp dental surgeon reported on September 2, 1917.75 The equipment available at this time consisted of one complete field outfit and one field chair. Twenty field outfits arrived early in October and nine more a month later, but these were incomplete in instruments and appliances of various kinds. These field outfits were later replaced by base outfits. Dental officers were first assigned one to each regiment, but later, one or two additional were assigned according to the strength of the organizations. Instruction in pertinent

administrative work was given, and road marches and physical exercise were conducted as day courses while awaiting the arrival of equipment; following receipt of this, semiweekly evening instruction was given. A dental survey of all troops in the camp was made in December, 1917. A dental infirmary building, having 20 chairs, was opened May 1, 1918, and a second infirmary with 12 chairs was opened September 4. A summary of all dental work performed from October 4, 1917, to February 28, 1919, included the treatment of 47,635


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individuals, 18,432 extractions, 26,805 amalgam fillings, and 18,863 other fillings of various kinds.

The veterinary personnel of the camp area in the spring of 1918 comprised 30 officers and 123 enlisted men, 12 officers and 46 men being assigned to the division.50 The only connection which the camp veterinarian had with the auxiliary remount depot was the supervision of strictly sanitary conditions which might affect the health of animals, and this amounted to only a reporting duty. All fresh milk and vegetables used in the camp were purchased from a local firm which had been given a concession and had erected a large cold-storage plant within the camp limits.50 During one month 29,124 gallons of

milk were sold in the camp, and only 10,545 gallons of this were sold in bulk.59 No provision was made at any time for the inspection of meats purchased locally by organizations.76 Dirt flooring of stables and picket lines was very unsatisfactory at Camp Lewis owing to the nature of the soil.77 No hard standings were constructed until after the camp was occupied by the 13th Division. Eventually nearly all stables and picket lines were very greatly improved by constructing standings from available material-cobblestones, planks, or wooden blocks.

The remount depot covered an area of approximately 40 acres, and was situated at the end of the southern arm of the camp.50 The natural drainage was poor, the mixture of mud and manure became deep after the fall rains of 1917 set in, and scratches became so prevalent that all animals except the sick were removed to pastures several miles distant. Extensive drainage ditches were dug and the manure was removed in the summer of 1918, but the depot was not in good sanitary condition until some time in August.58 The removal of manure required an enormous amount of work.56 When this was being expedited

after the departure of the 91st Division, a force of 2 commissioned officers and 130 men removed 1,368 wagon loads in six days. Glanders was present to an alarming degree while the camp was occupied by the 91st Division, and the disease was not entirely eradicated until November, 1918.37

The organization necessary for the physical examinations of demobilization consisted of the physical examining board for recruits reorganized into one team.78 This board, comprising 32 officers and 40 to 50 enlisted men, operated in a barrack building remodeled for the purpose. This building was so subdivided by partitions and railings as to enable large bodies of men to be handled without confusion or delay, but the noise and dirt incident to the large numbers of men passing through were constant sources of annoyance. An X-ray equipment in the building avoided the delay which would have arisen

had this work been done at the base hospital. Large tents and canvas shelters were erected during the rainy season as waiting rooms. The men to be examined were ordered up at stated hours by organizations or in groups. Each man brought with him his Form 135-3 A. G. O., with the first two pages completed. A clerk took this form as the man entered the building and transferred the name, rank, organization, and Army serial number to a Form 88 M. D. The man, carrying his papers, then entered a room, removed all clothing and placed it in a pigeonhole open at both ends. The line then passed across an elevated platform where the feet were examined, passed the general examiners,


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and, in groups of 20, on to where a series of exercises demonstrated the degree of function in all joints. Clothing was then resumed to the waist and the remainder carried upstairs to the eye, ear, nose, and throat and to the dental examiners. Examination by the tuberculosis and cardiovascular specialists followed, the latter examiners putting the men through exercises in groups of 20. The neuropsychiatric section then completed the examination. Clerks made the requisite entries on the forms at each station. The men then returned downstairs, turned in their papers, and completed dressing. The proper entries

were made on the papers and verified, the papers signed by a medical officer, and all men whose papers showed no disability claimed or found were dismissed. The technique of the examination included eversion of the eyelids, speculum examination of the ear drum and nares and the use of head mirror and tongue depressor in every case.79 There was a decided tendency on the part of the camp authorities to speed up demobilization by prolonging the working hours of the examining team.78 The added fatigue reduced accuracy, and an agreement was finally reached which fixed a maximum number to be examined daily. The final conclusion was that a board to examine 1,000 men per day should be composed of 1 chief examiner, 1 dental officer, 2 for the ear, nose, and throat, 2 for the eye, 5 each of general orthopedic, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular examiners, and 10 tuberculosis examiners, with a liberal allowance of clerks and orderlies. During the demobilization period, from December 1, 1918, to

October 6, 1919, 66,190 men were examined and 1,175 found with disability.80

CAMP MEADE, MD.

Camp Meade was situated nearly midway between Baltimore, Md., and Washington, D. C.81 The elevation here is between 100 and 200 feet above sea level. The soil was sandy loam, and the ground well drained by the Patuxent River, which borders the western boundary of the camp. Near the river there was some springy ground, during the war, and some Anopheles mosquitoes were found in the summer and autumn, when the camp first was established.81

The first increments of drafted men reported during the month of September, 1917, coming from the States of Maryland, eastern Pennsylvania, and a few from the District of Columbia.81 During the latter part of October a little over 1,000 men were received from the State of Tennessee. The mean strength for the month of December, 1917, was approximately 37,000. The 79th Division was organized here and moved overseas about July, 1918. After that time the 11th Division was organized here. The camp was used also as an embarkation camp. A large number of drafted men were received during the year 1918. These men came from Maryland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, District of Columbia, Delaware, Tennessee, Ohio, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, North Carolina, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Georgia, and Virginia. Also considerable numbers were sent from other camps. The maximum strength was in the month of October, 1918, when approximately 48,000 men were in camp.

The men were quartered in frame barracks of the northern cantonment type, laid out in the straight-line plan.81


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The water supply for the camp was derived from the Little Patuxent River, a small and muddy stream about 50 feet in width, 3 in depth, with a fairly rapid flow.81 This stream flows through a relatively thickly settled community, thus receiving considerable pollution. Two miles up the river from the intake is located the Maryland State Reformatory, which, during the earlier camp period, emptied its raw sewage directly into the stream. Later, however, efficient Imhoff tanks and sprinkling filters were installed at this institution, thus eliminating one source of gross pollution of the Little Patuxent River. The water for the camp was pumped from the intake station by electric-driven pumps to the filtration pump in the camp. At the intake station there was a device for adding lime when the alkalinity of the water decreased sufficiently to render it necessary. At the filtration plant alum was added to the water in the sedimentation tank. The water then passed through rapid sand filters and was chlorinated. From the clear-water tanks the water was pumped electrically to the distributing tank, located on a near-by hill. The water was examined daily by the Quartermaster Department and by the laboratory at the base hospital. The supply was steady and satisfactory.

A water-carriage sewer system was used in the camp, with the exception of several small groups where the pit latrine system was used.81 The sewage disposal plant, 1½ miles south of the camp, consisted of a battery of septic tanks, the effluent of which emptied into the Patuxent River 1½ miles lower down. Although the disposal plant was successful in theory, practically it failed from two causes: The tanks were on a single battery allowing no opportunity to divert the sewage into other tanks, while the sludge in the first set was undergoing decomposition; grease from the company kitchens flowed without stoppage to the septic tanks, giving rise to the collection of a hard layer on the surface of the sludge and otherwise interfering with septic action. The original grease traps for the company kitchens were too small, were buried underground, and were never cleaned. Even had they been cleaned, their size was inadequate to stop grease from reaching the mains. In July, 1918, the septic tanks broke down completely, being filled with sludge. At this time, raw sewage was diverted into a brook, which emptied into the Little Patuxent River at the camp target range. The sludge remaining in the tanks was removed by shoveling it into wheelbarrows, and later by an ejector. The situation was deplorable-large numbers of flies were bred in the sludge, and the odor at both the disposal plant and target range was highly offensive. Constant complaints were received at the camp from the civilian population on the banks of the Patuxent below the camp. Rebuilding of the whole disposal plant in a much larger form was necessary before satisfactory results could be obtained, but the new plant was not completed until 1919.

For the disposal of garbage during the construction period of the camp, the building contractor had constructed one Woodruff incinerator. This was of insufficient size, however, to care for all the garbage, and led to the dumping of the excess on the ground back of the kitchens.82 Removal by contract did not begin until about two months after the camp officially was opened.83 Meanwhile, neighboring inhabitants removed a portion of the garbage and the remainder was destroyed in large "rock-pile" incinerators which, at the


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same time, sterilized the cans. The contractors removed the garbage in trucks until the roads became impassable early in 1918,84 when gondola cars were utilized in hauling it to a pig farm 2 miles distant.85 Complaints from neighboring residents led to the abandonment of the pig farm in the summer of 1919 and the removal of the garbage to an abattoir in Baltimore.86 An unusual feature of the garbage transfer station in Camp Meade was the early (about February, 1918) installation of a thoroughly efficient can-washing machine, at a price of $600.87

Manure also was disposed of by contract.85 Under this contract, organizations were to deliver the manure to a loading platform on a railroad siding. At first this arrangement was decidedly unsatisfactory, for it was impossible to prevent the ground along the sides of the tracks from becoming saturated with manure.81 Though every effort was made to keep the place clean, and though the ground was kept thoroughly oiled, these means proved ineffective. After repeated efforts, authority was obtained to build a concrete loading platform.81 This authority was several times granted and then revoked, but finally a concrete platform was constructed in the fall of 1919. The manure was hauled away from the loading platform in railroad cars. There is no discoverable record of a shortage in railroad cars for the purpose, until the latter part of 1919, when, as an expedient, a compost pile was authorized by the camp commander, to be located about 1½ miles from the remount depot, and for use when railroad cars were not available.88

In the main, the medical officers were secured from medical officers' training camps, and the Medical Department enlisted men from the draft.89 The total strength of Medical Department personnel in the camp during the time it was occupied by the 79th Division was about 152 medical officers, 28 dental officers, 7 veterinary officers, and 1,106 enlisted men, a grand total of 1,293.89 One field hospital and one ambulance company of the sanitary train of the 79th Division arrived from Camp Greenleaf late in August, 1917; two ambulance companies were American Red Cross organizations and the remainder of the

 train was organized from drafted men.89

A camp surgeon was designated in May, 1918, and an office organized in order to accomplish two purposes: To enable the division surgeon to devote all of his attention to the task of preparing for overseas service, and to insure the continuity of camp medical supervision after the departure of the divisions.90 The enlisted personnel of the office consisted of seven men. The camp surgeon was empowered in the fall of 1918 to issue orders locally affecting personnel of the Medical Department without reference to the chief of staff.91

The physical examination of the drafted men ordinarily was conducted in an infirmary building by one board.90 When necessary, additions were made to the board and one or more additional infirmaries used. About 800 men could ordinarily be examined in one day, the maximum attained being 1,500. The arrangement of the examining stands was somewhat objectionable, in that crossing of the traffic streams was involved at two points.

German measles was present throughout the camp period.81 Though never present in large numbers, its cases exceeded those of true measles until February, 1918. The differentiation of German measles and mild cases of


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scarlet fever encountered was reported as being difficult.87 Measles did not reach epidemic proportions at any time, the high points of incidence being 112 cases in January and 139 cases in November, 1918.81

Influenza was present, but to a moderate degree, during the winter of 1917-18 and the following spring.81 There was a sudden increase to 372 cases in December, 1917, and a recrudescence to 359 in the following March. Very few cases occurred during the summer months. The fall epidemic began with the appearance of a few cases September 17, 1918, but the onrush began with 286 cases on September 22.84 Advance preparations had been made upon receipt of news of the epidemics raging at Camp Devens and Camp Dix, many patients being removed from the base hospital wards to tentage, and the

personnel of the regimental infirmaries being similarly quartered. The disease spread so rapidly, however, that these measures were entirely insufficient. The base hospital was expanded to 3,700 beds, infirmaries were filled, two regiments of Infantry were ordered to the target range under canvas and their vacated barracks opened as auxiliary hospitals by the sanitary train of the 11th Division,84 and an evacuation hospital took over the buildings of the welfare organizations.91 The evacuation hospital treated a maximum daily number of about 2,000 cases, the two field hospitals about 4,000, and the infirmaries about 1,000. There was a total occurrence of 11,400 cases before the epidemic terminated rather abruptly about October 15, after affecting about 25 per cent of the population.84 The line organizations furnished officers and men freely to relieve the medical personnel of all hospitals of nonmedical duties.

Pneumonia, mostly primary and lobar, was common prior to the summer of 1918, but during the following fall81 it was mostly secondary and broncho-pneumonia. The amount of floor space allotted to each influenza case had no influence on the percentage of those developing pneumonia, this being the same, 25 per cent, in a temporary hospital where the allowance was 50 square feet, as in others where it was 100 square feet.84

An important feature of the early work of the cardiovascular board was the large group of cases of hyperthyroidism found in drafted men.92 This class proved, after trial, to be of no use as soldiers, easily becoming physically and mentally exhausted.

Camp Meade adopted an unusual and very effective method for the prevention of the aggravation of existing orthopedic conditions during the early and strenuous days of the military life of a recruit.93  Border-line cases, who would be liable to acute strains if forced to undergo the routine early training, were placed in special training detachments under selected line officers and with a modified training schedule.

The special battalion formed in the spring of 1918 and designated solely for the reception of venereal cases was the forerunner of the development battalion.94 The original plans set aside a portion of the depot brigade area sufficient for four battalions, with about 700 men for assignment to them. One company was reserved for white orthopedic cases and one for colored orthopedic cases.95 Some 2,500 men were added to this number when the 79th Division left for overseas and a number was received from Camp Upton, N. Y., the total number in the battalions on July 23, 1918, being 6,722.94 A cadre of 723 was


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assigned for administrative and training purposes. Two battalions were then practically reserved for venereal cases, with a few such cases in the others. One battalion was exclusively colored, nearly all cases being venereal, and another was largely colored and largely venereal. The two races were not entirely segregated in companies in the latter battalion. The strength had decreased to 4,900 by the last of October, in six battalions.96 Venereal cases still formed the largest class, with 1,917 men, and orthopedic cases were second, with 905 men. Fifteen medical officers were on duty with the battalions. The

venereal cases were segregated in separate companies and by companies into syphilitic and gonorrheal cases. They were not restricted to their company areas but only to the camp limits. There were only 726 men in the one remaining battalion early in February, 1919,97 those requiring further retention having been largely transferred to the convalescent center.

The convalescent center was organized as a separate battalion of the depot brigade and had a strength of about 1,800 on February 1, 1919.98 The training personnel consisted of 40 line officers, 15 medical officers, 6 physical directors,  and 28 enlisted men. The idea of having the center as a part of the depot brigade rather than as a separate organization was objected to by the Surgeon General's Office, on the ground that it was contrary to published orders. Much correspondence on the subject ensued, but the center remained in the depot brigade.99 Each man was required to carry a card showing his daily duty,

treatment, and exercise schedules. Participation in curative shop work was not voluntary, as in most other camps, but was assigned as a part of the treatment. The shops were so excellent in size, variety, and equipment that nearly every man was interested. These shops were all under the management of the educational officer of the base hospital. Five thousand three hundred and one men passed through the center before it was closed on May 17, 1919.100 Twenty were dropped as absent without leave at the time of closure.

As regards the Dental Corps, before the receipt of field dental equipment in October, 1917, the time was occupied by instruction of members of this corps along both military and professional lines.101 After their receipt, the portable outfits were used in the regimental infirmaries, but these buildings did not afford space sufficient to care for the great volume of work. A small building was therefore taken over and occupied as a dental dispensary about November 1, 1917, with chairs and cabinets from 10 base outfits. The electrically operated dental engines could not be used owing to the absence of the necessary electrical connections. The portable outfits in the regimental infirmaries were later replaced by base outfits and the former placed in storage. A standard dental infirmary building was occupied about March 15, 1918, with provision for 12 operators. A second building, previously used as a medical infirmary, was opened in July, 1918, as a dental dispensary, with 10 chairs. Another building of the same type was opened as a third dental dispensary in September, where 15 portable outfits were installed. There were about 55 dental officers on duty in the camp, and 6 of these were assigned to duty in the first dental infirmary to be opened, a similar number of portable outfits having been installed there in addition to the base outfits already present.


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The physical examinations prior to discharge were conducted in January, 1919, by a board of review of 5 members, a chief examiner and 4 assistants, and a team of 31 officers.102 The team consisted of 10 tuberculosis experts, 3 cardiovascular experts, 2 orthopedists, 5 ophthalmologists, 5 neuropsychiatrists, 3 otolaryngologists, 1 genitourinary expert, 1 surgeon, and 1 dental officer. The examining capacity of the board varied from 1,000 to 1,400 per day, as members were given short leaves of absence in order to sustain morale.97 The board consisted of 23 officers and 21 enlisted men in June, 1919.103 This was a greater number than was approved by the Surgeon General's Office, but was found necessary for accuracy when there was no prescribed maximum as to the number of men to be examined daily. The eyelids were everted, ears, nose, and throat examined with a speculum, and the stethoscope was used in all cases. The demobilization group was discontinued about September 30, 1919, the small number of examinations required thereafter being made by one medical officer at the camp hospital.104 Of the 96,075 total men examined, 2,313 were found to have a disability.105

CAMP PIKE, ARK.

Camp Pike was located on a high, timbered, rolling plateau 7 miles from Little Rock, Ark.106 Sandy loam, with clay in places, overlaid a rock formation to the depth of a few feet only. Several small streams flowed through the reservation and one through a corner of the camp. Though the excellent natural drainage led to quick drying after a rainfall, it likewise led to the production of much dust. The winters were mild; the summer days were hot and, for the most part, dry, but the nights were fairly cool. The average rainfall was about 50 inches, fairly well distributed throughout the year but gradually decreasing to the monthly minimum in October.

This camp received its first increment of drafted men in September, 1917.107 The men were from the States of Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. During the latter part of the year, additional troops were received from other camps. The strength for the month of December, 1917, was approximately 31,500. The 87th Division was organized here and moved overseas about June, 1918. After this division left the camp was used as a replacement camp. Large numbers of men were sent to this camp during 1918, a considerable number coming from the four States mentioned, as well as from Tennessee, New Mexico, Missouri, Iowa, and Oklahoma. A few were sent from other States and a few from other camps. The maximum strength was in September, 1918, when there were approximately 54,500 men in camp for the month.

The men were quartered in frame barrack buildings.107  The incoming draft of July and August, 1918, filled the barracks to their capacity, thus necessitating the use of tents and sheds for the overflow.

Five wells furnished water to the camp during the early construction period, but these were abandoned when the permanent supply system was completed.106 The city system of Little Rock furnished water for the camp, the main source being the Arkansas River, though water from several rather deep wells was added to reduce the alkalinity of the river water.108 Treatment


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consisted in sedimentation, coagulation, rapid sand filtration, and chlorination. The supply was inadequate in the summer of 1918,109 so additional quantities were hauled to the camp on one occasion in railroad tank cars, tank trucks, and galvanized-iron cans. Furthermore, at this time, the appearance of the colon bacillus in the camp supply was reported, the source of the contamination, however, being undetermined.110 Pollution was again reported in September, 1918, whereupon analyses were made by civilian agencies which practically proved that the technique of water examinations used in the base hospital laboratory was faulty and that there was no contamination of the water.111 An actual contamination occurred over a year later following the repair of a section of the main pipe line, but disappeared in a few days after draining flushing, and treating with chlorinated lime the seven 2,000,000-gallon storage tanks.112

The original plans for the sewerage system at Camp Pike called for the discharge of the effluent from a septic tank and sprinkling filter into a small stream which emptied into the Arkansas River 25 miles away.113 Since this stream was practically dry during the greater part of the year, the local representative of the United States Public Health Service objected early to the contemplated discharge of practically untreated sewage into such a small stream.113 However, the originally planned system, with the exception of the sprinkling filter, was completed in October, 1917.114 As was true at other cantonments, the septic tank was too small and was faulty in design.115 It had already filled with sludge when the sprinkling filter beds were put into operation, and because the amount of sludge discharged upon the latter threatened to clog the filter beds, their use temporarily was discontinued. A small sludge bed was constructed in February, 1918, but the sludge was in such condition that it promptly clogged the bed and a cesspool of decomposing sludge was formed. In April an attempt to pump the sludge into trenches for burial was not entirely successful. The filter beds still were not in use in May, 1918.116 By this time the septic tank had filled with sludge; therefore the sewage was passing through rapidly and without change, the nozzles and filter beds were clogged, and the raw sewage was being by-passed directly into the stream. These conditions resulted in a fouling of the stream bed for many miles, and innumerable complaints of the foul odors were being received both from within and without the camp. The septic tanks were then cleaned and operation of the sprinkling filter resumed, but the retention time was too short to prevent the finer suspended matter from passing to the sprinkling filter, and the effluent from the latter was very offensive in odor and appearance.109 As a remedial measure a large grease trap was constructed at the disposal plant in September, 1918,117 and later small grease traps were installed on each kitchen line.118 Then new septic tanks were constructed at the end of the year; construction of new filter beds had been begun but was discontinued after the armistice was signed.110  Sludge disposal was effected in February, 1919, by placing a temporary dam across the creek and flushing the sludge into the stream with the release of the stored water.118 Though the new septic tanks contained thick deposits of scum in the summer of 1919 and were producing a very bad effluent, this was being cared for in a very satisfactory manner by the filter beds. The


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new sludge beds were satisfactory, but all available space in the immediate neighborhood for burying the thick deposits of scumn forming in the tanks practically had been used by this time. There was heavy fly breeding in a large number of piles of sludge in the vicinity of the disposal plant.

Garbage was hauled to a central transfer station where it was delivered to contractors.107 The removal of garbage by contract, however, was not satisfactory even so late as December, 1918.119 Many organizations at that time were still using rock-pile incinerators inefficiently, and some whose garbage was removed reported that it was transferred from their cans to others in a cart in the neighborhood of the kitchens, the washing of the cans being left to the organizations. The contractor hauled the garbage to a hog farm about 1 mile from the camp.106 The fact that the hog farm was only a mile from camp and

was very unsanitary gave the Army authorities considerable concern.120

Manure was at first distributed on neighboring farm land,107 but was soon removed by rail through the efforts of the chamber of commerce in Little Rock.114 Manure from the camp proper was largely burned in windrows, but the heavy rains and mixture with earth prevented the successful use of this method at the remount depot.112  Manure accumulated in the corrals of the auxiliary remount depot in the winter of 1917-18 in such quantities that it was not completely removed throughout the year 1918.110 Although a detail of 200 casual soldiers was used, a shortage of wagons prevented removal as fast as the corrals were cleaned. Some manure was hauled to farms and some was shipped out by rail, but the formation of a compost pile became necessary.112 This method occasioned a severe criticism in the summer of 1919 by a visiting inspector, who found many fly larva in the pile, and stated that the use of a phenol solution as there practiced did not kill the larva. Extended correspondence resulted, the Surgeon General's Office objecting to the use of phenol for such a purpose, and to the method in general. Local authorities contended that the fly breeding occurred in the corrals before the manure was placed on

the compost pile, that the phenol killed larva, that it was surplus stock of a Government manufacturing plant, and that the method was entirely successful and the most practical for local conditions. The method was abandoned, however, in favor of special platforms which allowed burning in windrows in spite of heavy rains.

While typhoid fever was extensively prevalent in the surrounding territory, this region was mainly notorious as a malarial district.108 Active measures toward the suppression of malaria were begun in June, 1917, and included the screening of all barracks at a later date.108 The measures taken were so effective that of the nearly 500 cases of malaria treated during the year 1918, only 1 was contracted locally, and this infection was acquired while the man was outside of the area which was under mosquito control.121

The physical examination of drafted men was conducted in a regimental infirmary and three adjacent smaller buildings by a board of about 21 officers and 34 enlisted men, in June, 1918.122 Thus, about 700 men could be examined daily. However, though the work was well organized, its division among four separate buildings did not promote efficiency in the general management.

Many cases were diagnosed as influenza in the winter of 1917-18 and the following spring, the highest monthly incidence being 487 in January.107 The


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diagnoses of "bronchitis" and "influenza" in the infirmaries began to increase in number about September 1, 1918, but it was not until September 22 that influenza of the epidemic type was reported by the base hospital.123 There was a total of 90 cases on that day which were later recognized as influenza. The spread was rapid from that date until October 2, when there were about 1,300 new cases. The decline was as rapid, reaching less than 100 cases October 12. A total of 10,886 cases was reported for the two months of September and October.107 To care for this large number of sick, an Infantry regiment vacated its 48 barracks in order that they might be used as a hospital annex, thus providing for 1,800 patients with 100 square feet of floor space each.124 There was a rapid decline in the number of admissions during the remainder of the year, but 161 cases were reported in January, 1919,125 and a few in March.126

Pneumonia occurred in alarming numbers from the early days of the camp until well into the spring of 1919.126 It was particularly dreaded when complicating measles, since there was a mortality of more than 50 per cent of these cases prior to September 1, 1918, and the rate for post-measles lobar pneumonia in January, 1918, was 76 per cent. Scarlet fever also furnished a number of cases of pneumonia as a complication, one report stating that there were 313 such cases prior to January 1, 1918,127 but this figure is probably erroneous, as only 384 cases of scarlet fever as a primary disease were officially reported during that period.107 The records show primary pneumonia of the lobar type to have been in the majority throughout the period prior to the year 1919, but some cases were so diagnosed in the winter of 1917-18 which were, in reality, secondary to measles, and the figures given for primary and secondary cases during the influenza epidemic are surprisingly high as regards the proportion

constituted by the former class.107

Measles was present among the National Guard troops before the camp was opened; so men arriving in the first draft increment, in September, 1917, were kept in detention for 10 days and, at the time no outbreak of measles occurred.114  However, when 11,000 men later arrived within 24 hours, the number was too large to permit this detention period with the facilities available; and measles at once became widespread114 and was not brought under control until all nonimmune men had all been infected, about the end of the year 1917.128 Nine hundred and thirty-five cases were reported in October, 1,826 in November, and 1,266 in December.107 This disease was prevalent throughout the year 1918, and reached an incidence of 375 cases in July and 603 in October,107 in spite of the fact that newly arrived troops were quarantined and remained free from measles during that period.129 The favorable influence experienced in the fall of 1918 in treating influenza eases in barracks led to its adoption for measles when the decline of the influenza epidemic permitted.129 Organizations occupying standard barracks each set aside the necessary buildings to provide each of its measles cases with 150 square feet of floor space. Each case was treated as a bed patient; beds were semicubicled; burnable sputum cups were used; all patients and attendants were masked. Thus treating the cases in barracks avoided the restricted floor space, intermingling of disease, etc., which were more or less unavoidable at the base hospital owing to the great number of its patients.


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Mumps cases were present in considerable numbers in September, 1917, but practically absent in November.107 The incidence then rose rapidly to 1,140 cases in January and 1,286 in February, 1918, declined rapidly to about 200 in April, and then slowly rose to 813 in December, 1918. Five hundred and seventeen cases were admitted in January, 1919,125 but there were none on the records by the middle of March.126  As was the case with measles, the use of barracks was necessary in hospitalizing the great numbers of cases occurring in the winter of 1917-18 in order to relieve the pressure on the base hospital.128

Camp Pike also had a comparatively large number of cases of meningitis. There were 32 cases in the fall of 1917 and 63 during the year 1918.107 The laboratory service here was reported as being very ineffective in the detection of carriers. Neither the chief of the service nor his laboratory equipment were adequate for the needs in 1917.119 Only about 30 cultures a day were made at this time, and reliance was placed on smear examinations only.

A foot survey of the entire enlisted personnel early in 1918 revealed that weak-foot was the most common of the more important foot defects, and that flat-foot was the second.130 Improperly fitting shoes were found on over 68 per cent of the men. This was partly due to the method in vogue in assigning shoe sizes, as the enlisted men's statements as to size worn were accepted as correct for civilian life, and a size one or one-and-a-half larger was assigned as proper for the military shoe. The size was estimated from inspection if an enlisted man did not know the size of the shoe he was wearing. These improperly fitted shoes could not be replaced until they were worn out, and local conditions did not permit accurate fitting when the recruits arrived.131 Arrangements were made by May by which shoe fitting became a part of the physical examination of all drafted men received.132 Orthopedic cases in regiments were listed at their infirmaries and formed into classes which received treatment and foot exercises under the supervision of the regimental surgeon.133

Representatives of the United States Public Health Service assumed sanitary control of the extra-cantonment zone in June, 1917.108 Their activities included antimosquito work, the extension of city sewerage and water systems, the installation of sanitary privies, the inspection of dairies, the administration of typhoid vaccine to dairymen and other volunteers, etc. The city of Little Rock appropriated $50,000 for antimosquito work, the American National Red Cross supplied nursing and laboratory assistance, and the United States Department of Agriculture sent a milk inspector. The general sanitary conditions were rated as from "poor to bad," but were gradually improved under the cooperative action of the United States Public Health Service and local health authhorities.114 Reports of communicable diseases were regularly sent to the division surgeon. Food handling places and barber shops were inspected and graded into three classes, and troops were not allowed to patronize those which were not satisfactory.106

The quarantine of arriving troops was attempted by retention in barracks in the depot brigade for two weeks,134 but frequently was inefficient.135 Construction of both quarantine and detention camps was under way in the fall of 1918,136 but because of the armistice, the quarantine camp only was completed.110


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One development battalion had been organized by August, 1918, at which time it contained 250 white and 359 colored soldiers.137 Four medical officers and 12 line officers were on duty with the organization. The strength had increased to 303 white and 360 colored about October 1, not including the training cadre. Since no venereal cases, illiterates, non-English speaking persons, aliens, etc., had been assigned to the battalions, this strength was far below what it would otherwise have been.138 It was estimated that there were about 12,000 men in the camp who should have been assigned to the battalion, including 3,500 venereals then under treatment.138 In November, however, there were 6 battalions, 3 of which were reserved for the 2,706 venereal cases.139 The strength of the battalions now was 4,652, with 44 officers and 102 enlisted men as the cadre. The two battalions remaining by the following spring were demobilized March 1, 1919.112

The first report concerning the convalescent center was dated January 23, 1919, at which time there were 224 men in the center.140 Camp Pike conducted the center as two distinct parts, each rendering separate reports, the center proper and the base hospital section, the men assigned to the former being ready for discharge.141 There were 60 men of this class early in February, with 5 medical officers, 7 line officers, and 24 enlisted men constituting the training cadre. Men in the hospital section were carried as "sick in hospital."142 This system was not in accordance with instructions governing convalescent centers, but the room and facilities were available at the base hospital and the work could be most conveniently conducted there. It was therefore recommended that the center be discontinued as such and the work continued as a part of the function of the base hospital. 143 Approval was given May 1, 1919, and the center was closed about May 24, 1919.144

A dental officer, designated as "in charge of dental services," arrived in Camp Pike September 7, 1917.145 The first of his future subordinates reported the following day, and 24 more had arrived by the 20th of the month. Available time was occupied by instruction until six incomplete field dental outfits were received late in October. These were installed in the base hospital and regimental infirmaries, and officers worked with them in relays in order that all might participate in the work. Sufficient equipment had been received by January 1, 1918, to outfit each of the 34 dental officers then on duty. They were organized into three units early in November, 1917, one for each brigade in the division, but the absence of suitable buildings prevented their employment as such until a dental infirmary was opened May 1, 1918. One unit of 14 officers was assigned to this building. Another building was fitted as a second infirmary in June, 1918, the two accommodating the dental personnel remaining in camp after the departure of the 87th Division. A third infirmary was occupied in October, the dental personnel having been increased in relation to the increased camp population, the second floor of a building being utilized for the purpose. The following dental work was done during the period November, 1917, to February, 1919, inclusive: 35,069 individuals were treated; 16,859 extractions were made; 35,946 permanent and 7,287 temporary fillings were made.


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In connection with the veterinary service of the camp, only Pasteurized milk was allowed on sale in the camp.146 The cows on the many dairy farms from which the supply was obtained were tuberculin tested by officers of the United States Public Health Service. The Army veterinary service supervised the sanitation of these dairies. The corrals of the remount depot were situated in a well-drained area and were inclosed by substantial fencing of 2-inch material.147 The flow of water to the watering troughs was efficiently controlled by a float-feed system. The capacity of each corral was about 200. The four wards of the veterinary hospital consisted of four buildings with a capacity of about 100 each, nearly all stalls being of the box type without windows but with half doors. The buildings were well separated but located in the most inaccessible part of the depot. Glanders was discovered in the depot after the 87th Division had turned in its animals, prior to departure for overseas in June, 1918, and resulted in the destruction of 72 animals. The two most common causes of disability among animals were influenza and wounds. There were 1,081 cases of the former and 1,692 of the latter during the period November 30,

1917, to August 1, 1919. About two-thirds of the latter were due to kicks.

During demobilization, a separate detachment formed from officers and enlisted men of the Medical Department constituted the physical examining board.148 The chief medical examiner was also the commanding officer of the detachment, in which there were 17 officers. The major part of the examination work was done in a regimental infirmary building; the tuberculosis examinations were made in a near-by small building, and a similar one housed the special examiners of the eye, ear, nose, and throat and the board of review. Only men requiring special examinations were referred to the tuberculosis examiners, so this third building was not necessarily involved in the examination of each individual. The daily rate of examination in March, 1919, was about 400. Later the infirmary and the tuberculosis examination buildings were connected by a shed which constituted a waiting and dressing room.126 The examinations were thorough, with one exception.148 The cardiovascular examiners were stationed

at the head of the stairs and depended upon the stair climbing to supply the necessary exercise before examination. This did not work out as expected, for the stream of men dammed back on the stairs and moved slowly, a step at a time. The board was composed of 26 officers in July, divided into three teams, and could examine 1,000 men daily.149 Demobilization as such ceased November 30, 1919,112 after the physical examination of more than 105,400 men, 3,152 of whom had a disability.150

CAMP SHERMAN, OHIO

Camp Sherman was located on the plain of the Scioto River, just outside the city limits of Chillicothe.151 The soil here is sand and gravel overlain with a thin stratum of clay. The drainage of the camp site was toward the river, although in many places the ground was low and required extensive ditching.

The troops were drafted men, the first increments reaching camp early in September, 1917.151 The first troops were front Ohio and western Pennsylvania. Most of them during 1917 were from Ohio. There were 1,105 from Oklahoma. The strength for the month of December, 1917, was approximately


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34,500. The 83d Division was organized here and moved overseas about June, 1918. After this division left, the camp was used as a replacement camp, and was filled with increments of drafted men, the largest percentage of them coming from Ohio, although quite a large number came from Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Indiana, and 1,000 each from West Virginia and Alabama. Considerable increments were also received from other camps. The maximum strength was for the month of July, when there were approximately 36,000 men in camp for the month.

The troops were quartered in frame barracks.151 There were accommodations for 2,664 officers and 39,743 men. During August, 1918, it was necessary to quarter some units in tents, and 3,000 men belonging to the remount depot in stables.

The water supply for the camp was obtained from 6 cased wells, 4 of which were 8 inches and 2 were 24 inches in diameter.151 152 Their depth varied from 75 to 110 feet and they all were within 500 feet of the river. The quality of the water was excellent, as shown by numerous bacteriological examinations at the base hospital laboratory. However, on account of occasional contamination, the entire supply of water for the camp was chlorinated, using 0.28 to 0.30 part of liquid chlorine to each 1,000,000 parts of water. The water was stored in 10 wooden tanks of 550,000 gallons capacity.

The sewerage system consisted of 10 miles of piping, from 8 to 30 inches in diameter.151 On account of the flat surface of the ground there was considerable trouble with the drainage. An inverted syphon in the main sewer also gave trouble. This condition, however, was remedied. The sewage disposal plant, which was located at the south end of the camp, was operated intermittently. It never proved to be entirely satisfactory. An attempt was made to chlorinate the effluent, but since this was ineffective, and particularly since the cities of Chillicothe and Circleville both emptied their raw sewage into the river, chlorination of the effluent as well as the use of the disposal plant were discontinued on October 1, 1918, and raw sewage from the camp thereafter was emptied into the river.

All waste was classified and transported by each organization to the camp garbage transfer station, where it, was disposed of. Edible garbage was removed under contract; unedible garbage and other burnable waste were incinerated.151 Grease from grease traps was removed to the transfer station and disposed of by sale to contractors, to be used in the manufacture of soap. Manure was disposed of under contract by removal from the camp on railroad cars. Manure did not accumulate in the camp and was not a breeding place for flies except at the remount depot, where the lack of adequate drainage

 rendered it impossible to keep the corrals properly cleaned and to destroy the breeding places. An active campaign was carried out against flies and mosquitoes, consisting of thoroughly policing the entire camp area, the use of flytraps, fly swatters, etc.

To prevent the breeding of mosquitoes, drainage ditches and stagnant pools frequently were oiled; barrels and fire pails of water frequently were emptied.

There was an unusually good control of the messes in the camp in 1918 through the school for bakers and cooks, the instructors in the school also


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serving as mess sergeants.153 Special instruction was given these men, the consumption of less meat and canned goods and more fresh fruit and fresh vegetables was urged, and food wastage was decreased to such a point that the garbage contractor complained that the garbage was composed mostly of potato parings. It was difficult to maintain these high standards with the later rapid changes of the demobilization period. The majority of the messes then discarded the "family style" of serving in favor of mess kits and the line system.154

Influenza was present from the early days of the camp, and its incidence steadily rose until 1,132 cases were reported in April, 1918.151 Following this the decline was abrupt and the disease occurred in neglibible numbers after May, except for the epidemic in September and October, 1918. When the fall epidemic started, the camp commander gave the camp surgeon authority to issue any orders which he considered necessary to handle the situation.155 Barracks adjacent to the base hospital were evacuated at once for hospital use. Fifty-two barracks were eventually thus used, avoiding overcrowding

 in the base hospital and allowing 100 square feet of floor space for each patient. This barracks annex was operated by Evacuation Hospital No. 28, under the supervision of the base hospital. One noteworthy feature in the care of cases was forced by circumstances.156 Hand basins were used as receptacles for sputum, owing to a shortage of paper sputum cups. These were set on the

floor beside the beds, with three paper napkins spread in each. They had the advantages of protecting the floor from contamination, they were easily cleaned, and the napkins were easily removed and burned. This epidemic was remarkable for its short duration and its high mortality rate. Beginning September 27, it reached is highest point on October 3 with 1,036 new cases, and was over

by October 13. It produced a total of 7,000 cases, 30 per cent of which were complicated by pneumonia, and 11 per cent died. Seventy per cent of 4,000 influenza cases investigated were in recruits of not more than one month's service. This class of men constituted about 46 per cent of all men in camp.

Pneumonia created a situation which was somewhat alarming from the first month of the camp, but, fortunately, the monthly incidence prior to the fall of 1918 remained comparatively low, 78 being the highest, in January.151 The cases in the main, were of the primary lobar type. Bronchopneumonia was in the majority during September and October, 1918; about two-thirds of all cases of pneumonia were classed as primary bronchopneumonia, although they occurred during the influenza epidemic. The mortality of all pneumonias during these two months was 31 per cent, and that of the cases complicating

influenza was over 45 per cent.151

Six development battalions were organized, and by November, 1918, they contained 6,000 men. Eighteen medical officers were on duty with them in addition to those members of special examining boards whose duties included certain work with men in these battalions.157 The most noteworthy result of professional work in the battalions was the cure and return to duty of 1,800 men with chronic urethritis.

The convalescent center was organized in January, 1919, with about 1,000 convalescents in 2 battalions of 4 companies each.158 There were 8 Medical


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Department officers, 63 line officers, and 512 enlisted men in the training cadre.159 A large proportion of this cadre had served in the development battalions, which greatly facilitated the organization of the convalescent center. As the center was used partly as an out-patient department of the base hospital, there was a tendency to relegate the medical aspect of the work to a position of secondary importance to that of the line work. Since most of the work, except classification and hardening exercises, was done in the base hospital, there was little reason for the existence of the center.160 This center had an unusually large, more or less constant, population, seldom dropping below 500, and running as high as 1,038.161

The first dental officer reported August 13, 1917, and the first division dental surgeon a month later.162 Pending the arrival of dental equipment the time of dental officers was spent in classwork. When the field dental outfits were received they were placed in regimental infirmaries and the base hospital, those at the base hospital being replaced by base outfits by November 1. Twenty-three base outfits were installed in the new dental infirmary about June 1, 1918, and a second building was converted to similar use in November. The oral hygiene exhibit of the Ohio State Dental Society was held in the camp in December, 1918, accompanied by a series of lectures. The camp commander was so impressed with the instructional value of the exhibit that he ordered all officers of the camp to attend. The character of the dental work done in the camp in the spring of 1918 was below the average of other camps, and the registration of the work was universally wrong and incomplete.163 The poor work was due

to a wholly inadequate number of dental surgeons and a lack of transportation.164 These two factors resulted in the division dental surgeon functioning without an assistant and being unable to cover any considerable distance during the very limited time available for inspections. The work performed several months later, however, was reported as excellent.165

The veterinary services in both the camp and the auxiliary remount depot was reported as being inefficient in the winter of 1917-18, particularly as concerned the prevention of disease.166 Administration was poor, sick animals were promiscuously transferred, segregation stables were not available and prophylactic measures were not enforced.

Prior to September, 1918, meat purchased locally by organizations was inspected at a designated point in the camp before delivery.167 As much of the local supply was from animals slaughtered locally and without Government inspection, the dealers were not allowed to sell such meat in the camp. In order to provide a supply of small cuts which would meet the camp requirements, three packing companies were allowed to maintain refrigerator cars in the camp from which these small quantities could be purchased. Local dealers were allowed to deliver meat in the camp, provided that they handled only Government inspected meats.

The remount depot was located along the Scioto River, and trouble was immediately experienced from poor drainage in the corrals.168 The surface soil of loam and clay was impervious to water, and drainage ditches to the river washed so badly at their outlets that this method of drainage had to be abandoned. Sumps extending into the underlying gravel were successful until


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they and the connecting ditches became clogged with mixed mud and manure. Originally there were 10 corrals, but these were later divided so as to form 23, and 2 new ones were added. The original fences were of woven wire, but these proved unstable and the wire was replaced by 2-inch plank. Mud formed in the corrals to excessive depths and manure was not removed until the spring of 1918. The corrals were then thoroughly cleaned and thereafter the manure was removed from them successively. This was an unsatisfactory method, as those first cleaned were filthy before their turn came again. Corrals for

convalescing animals were formed by the division of one large corral into six smaller ones; two isolation corrals were built. The veterinary hospital was separated from the remainder of the depot by a large gravel pit and railroad track.168 It comprised 8 wards and subsidiary smaller buildings, each ward having its own paddock and a capacity of 52 animals. Since buildings were located in a depression, the ground was covered with water to a depth of from a few inches to several feet after rains. Sick animals were indiscriminately mixed in these miserable wards in the winter of 1917-18. At this time, the

hospital was also overcrowded and no provision had been made for using the windows for ventilation. Conditions were corrected by filling the depression with gravel, covered with a top coat of clay, and remodeling the windows. Approximately 3,850 animals arrived at the depot in January and February, 1918, and at least half of them suffered from contagious pneumonia.168The first case of glanders was discovered in May, 1918, and 21 animals were destroyed before the disease was finally eradicated in November, 1918. An accumulation of manure in the corrals, congested corrals, hot weather, and frequent rains were responsible for 352 cases of gangrenous dermatitis in the summer and fall of 1918, and resulted in the death of 7 horses and 86 mules. Removal of the animals in the corrals to stables in the camp and to pastures terminated this outbreak, but a more severe one occurred when the animals were returned in December, 1918. There were 727 cases before this second outbreak was ended

by placing the animals in corrals in the camp where they could be placed in dry stables at night. Clipping the hair locally and a mechanical cleansing, with an unbandaged after treatment, resulted in a much lower mortality (19 cases) and more rapid healing than had been attained formerly when they were treated in hospitals. Nearly all animals were infected with lice in the early spring of 1918, but were cured by two dippings in a cresol solution.

During the early demobilization period the physical examining board consisted of 36 officers and 41 enlisted men.169 The work was done in a small barracks which did not provide sufficient room, and the place was too noisy for accurate work, due to the locating of the dressing room on the second floor. An average of about 1,000 men examined daily was being maintained. Later, a brick, steam-heated farmhouse with two frame additions was obtained for examination purposes.160 Here, as high as 2,000 men were examined in one day, but about 1,500 was the greatest number that could be handled without

sacrificing accuracy. By June there were 19 officers on the board, which was an insufficient number to perform the work properly.170 Tuberculosis experts each could accurately examine only about 150 men per day, but were actually passing on more than 600. The cardiovascular examiners were handling 950


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per day when about 400 should have been their limit. In conducting the examination, no exercise was given before the heart was examined. As a routine the eyelids were not everted, nor were the ear and nose examined with a speculum.171 The demobilization group was discontinued September 4, 1919.172 A total of 173,233 men were examined, 11,561 of whom were found to have a disability.173

CAMP ZACHARY TAYLOR, KY.

Camp Zachary Taylor was situated on the outskirts of the city of Louisville, Ky., in a gently rolling country.174 Two small streams flowed through one end of the camp site, and several stagnant pools and a large swamp existed rather close to the southern boundary. The soil was clay and loam which quickly absorbed the rainfall.

This camp received its first increment of drafted troops in September, 1917, from southern Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky.175 Increments of drafted men were sent from these same States during September and October, and a little over 2,000 from other camps. The mean strength for December, 1917, was approximately 23,000. The 84th Division was organized here and moved overseas about September, 1918. A large number of drafted men was sent to this camp during 1918. These came from Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Wisconsin, Louisiana, Alabama, Tennessee, and North Carolina. A considerable number was received also from other camps. The maximum strength was in September, 1918, when the strength for the month was approximately 57,000. After the 84th Division left, this camp was used as a Field Artillery replacement camp; Camp Knox adjoining was used as a Field Artillery firing center.

The troops were quartered in frame barracks of the southern construction type.175

The water supply for the camp was the same as that for the city of Louisville, and came to the camp from the city through a 12-inch main.175 The source of the water was the Ohio River. For purification, the water was sedimented, coagulated with aluminum sulphate, filtered, and treated with chlorine. The filtering plant had a capacity of 74,000,000 gallons per day. There were five 200,000-gallon storage tanks at the camp, from which water was distributed to all parts of the camp by electrically driven pumps. Repeated examinations showed that the water was of good quality; its quantity was ample.

The sewage was disposed of by a water-carriage sewage system, the main sewer emptying into a 30-inch "county sewer," which was a part of the sewage system of the city of Louisville.175 This emptied the sewage, untreated, into the Ohio River. Thus the camp was relieved from the operation of a sewage disposal plant, which was the cause of so much trouble and concern at most of the other cantonments.

When the camp was started, the problem of garbage disposal was placed in the hands of the camp sanitary inspector by the camp commander.174 Accordingly, in September, 1917, a contract was entered into with a local inhabitant who hauled the garbage away in cans to a pig farm. The garbage transfer station was practically completed by the middle of October, at which time the garbage was removed in tank trucks.176  Organization garbage cans were


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washed with hot water and lye in a very satisfactory manner. The personnel handling the garbage were civilians hired by the sanitary inspector.

At first manure was burned,177 but soon it was disposed of by contract, delivery to the contractor being made in piles on the ground at designated points.176 The contractor sold it to farmers in the neighborhood. Because of the deep snow in the winter of 1917-18, disposal by the contractor could not be made, consequently a large accumulation resulted.178 It was later removed by rail.179 There was a period when removal from the auxiliary remount depot was impossible, and 2,500 loads were placed in a compost pile.180 This was treated with a formaldehyde solution as piled, apparently with very satisfactory results from the fly-breeding standpoint.

The physical examination of drafted men was not well systematized with the first increment of the draft.177 This was largely because headquarters did not send to the examining board a certain duplicate form, as required, but expected to assemble the originals and duplicates of some 40,000 men at a later date and have the medical officers then fill out and sign the duplicates. This system was at once changed when its impracticability was pointed out. Furthermore, the division surgeon failed to send to the examiners the printed instructions defining the requirements of the examinations, with the result that each organization was making the examinations according to its own interpretation and with considerable uncertainty and confusion. In the spring of 1918, when increments of the second draft were received, the examinations

were conducted throughout the 24-hour day, by dividing the examining group into three reliefs.181 There was a further division of the examining group into general and special examining boards. The general boards did not pretend to make a detailed examination of abnormalities found, but referred such cases to the special boards. The general boards worked in the regimental infirmaries, where they examined men at the rate of about 1,000 per day; in addition they examined all men in their organizations twice daily for infectious diseases. Late in May the minimum number of daily examinations was set at 2,000,

as 17,000 men were scheduled to arrive and the division was to change station. Two thousand eight hundred men were examined in one day on one occasion.

Influenza was constantly present in considerable numbers from the early days of the camp, particularly during the winter of 1917-18 and the following spring when the monthly incidence varied from 200 to 600.175 The fall epidemic of 1918 began September 21, with 25 admissions, rapidly increased to a flat peak over the period from October 1 to October 6, then rapidly declined during the next two weeks.182 The final declination of the epidemic was protracted, the daily admissions not falling below 10 until November 18, and not remaining below 10 until after November 26. There were 12,676 cases from September 16 to the end of November. The problem of hospitalization of influenza patients during the fall epidemic was met by placing in tents all other patients of the base hospital whose condition warranted this action, by utilizing porches and the barracks of the personnel, and by utilizing some 40 barracks as an annex.183 Catholic "sisters" from neighboring parochial schools and enlisted men from the line constituted the entire nursing force of this annex, which was administered by the base hospital.


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Admissions for primary lobar pneumonia were relatively high continuously during 1917 and 1918.175 The main points of interest, aside from the effect of the influenza epidemic, were the high mortality from bronchopneumonia following measles, about 35 per cent of cases, and the change of the predominating type from lobar to bronchopneumonia in the fall of 1918.175

In the winter of 1917-18, the hemolytic streptococcus was responsible for an increasing number of both local and general infections to such an extent that these were considered in the same light as the acute infectious diseases.184 The distribution of carriers was general, and involved 83 per cent of one organization. The organism was particularly pernicious when associated with measles, causing a great increase in the percentage of complicating conditions and increasing the severity of the complications, particularly pneumonia. The virulence of the strain of the organism increased as the incidence of measles subsided, and this fact was cited as proof that these infections constituted a separate disease entity.

Measles appeared in October, 1927, and was present throughout the following year in sufficient numbers to cause concern at all times.175 Its highest incidence of primary admissions occurred in December, 1917, with 374 cases, and the second highest incidence occurred in October, 1918, with 434 cases.

Cerebrospinal meningitis was more common here than in the majority of the large camps, 23 cases being reported in 1917 and 48 in 1918.175 Nearly one-half of the cases occurred during the winter of 1917-18, and there was another small outbreak of 12 cases in October, 1918. The mortality was particularly high in the latter period, 58 per cent.

There was no specially constructed quarantine camp at Camp Zachary Taylor; however, a group of barracks was used intermittently as a quarantine camp, when its use was not necessary for the shelter of troops.185

There was one development battalion in August, 1918, with a strength of 2,308.186 Two medical officers were assigned to the battalion, and the specialists of the camp disability board spent the greater part of their time there. Early in October, there were 3 battalions of 4 companies each, with a total of 5,551 men; four companies were reserved for venereal cases.187 There were only two battalions a month later, one being reserved for venereal cases. Both battalions received colored soldiers, but in separate companies. Medical officers were not directly concerned with the physical training. The battalions

were discontinued about the first of the year 1919.188

The convalescent center was organized late in January, 1919, with a total strength of about 1,000, approximately one-half of which consisted of the training cadre.188 All convalescents of the center, including those undergoing treatment in the base hospital, were under the administration of the center. This center handled an unusually large number of convalescents prior to the middle of May, 1,360 being the greatest number reported as present at any one time.189 The center was closed about the last of August, 1919, an unusually late date.

No dental equipment being available during the early days of the camp, dental officers were used as members of physical examining boards and for other duties.190 Equipment was purchased in small quantities, some from


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arriving dental officers; some was received from the medical supply depot. Such acquisitions were put into use as fast as collected, and dentists in Louisville temporarily supplied offices and equipment in the city for eight dental officers. All dental officers were assigned to organizations until base equipments were received in the spring of 1918, when they were divided into three units. The 11 officers of 1 unit, installed in a large room in a regimental infirmary building with 10 base outfits, then constituted a dental infirmary. Another dental infirmary was conducted in the depot brigade area, and the third unit operated the clinic at the base hospital. One dental officer was designated as an assistant to the medical supply officer to supervise the issue of dental supplies. Operative dentistry was made uniform by selecting the better men as instructors. Particular emphasis was placed on the proper performance of amalgam restorations. Dental inspections revealed that about 60 per cent of all men required some form of treatment. Prior to March, 1919, 41,584 individuals were treated, 40,598 permanent fillings, 9,022 temporary fillings and 4,703 root canal fillings were placed and 19,520 teeth extracted.

In connection with the camp veterinary service, there was little supervision of meat purchased locally by organizations until June, 1918, when all but Government inspected meats were barred from the camp.191 In the following August, the inspection of all meat purchased locally was inaugurated.

One half of the area occupied by the remount depot was high and rolling and the other half flat.192 Corrals in the latter area were abandoned on account of the formation of mud during wet weather. The Southern Railroad occupied the dividing line between these two areas. When veterinary officers arrived in September, 1917, there was no remount veterinary detachment. Men were borrowed from the Quartermaster Corps to care for the animals and 75 men from the Sanitary train were later attached for duty. It was not until February, 1918, that the first men were transferred to the veterinary detachment.

Eight buildings, each 30 by 100 feet, served as wards of the remount veterinary hospital.192 Each of these consisted of 8 box stalls and 32 standing stalls, with a driveway the full length of the center of the building. Pneumonia, influenza, and strangles were prevalent during the winter of 1917-18. The first case of glanders was discovered late in May, 1918, and led to the destruction of 9 horses and 1 mule. Another case was detected in the following December.

During the demobilization period 13 officers constituted the physical examining board, and, in addition, 3 contract surgeons were on half-time duty.193 The greatest volume of work occurred in December, 1918, but the board was not often required to handle over 500 men per day although its capacity was 1,000 or more. Measurements were taken for use in the making of clothing patterns in September, 1919, as part of the routine examination.194  The demobilization group was discontinued late in September, 1919, after demobilizing 153,513 men, 17,811 of whom had a disability.195

CAMP TRAVIS, TEX.

Camp Travis was situated on rolling ground adjoining Fort Sam Houston and the city of San Antonio, Tex.196 The soil consisted of loam with an admixture of clay, the so-called "gumbo," and formed a very tenacious mud


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when wet and a light, fine dust when dry. The average annual rainfall was about 27 inches.197 During the cool months, extreme and sudden changes in temperature accompanied the "northers." In the summer, the days were hot, but were followed by nights which were made comfortable by the Gulf breezes. One very tortuous stream flowed along one edge of the camp site. The roads through the surrounding country were of gravel or asphalt.

The cantonment received its first increments of drafted men in September, 1917.198 All of the troops during the year 1917 were from the States of Texas and Oklahoma. The mean strength for December, 1917, was approximately 33,000. The 90th Division was organized here and moved overseas about June, 1918. After this division left, the 18th Division was organized. During the year a large number of drafted men was sent to this camp, by far the greater number being from the State of Texas. There were, however, many from Oklahoma and some from Colorado, Louisiana, Arkansas, and New Mexico.

Several increments also were received from other camps. The maximum strength was in September, when approximately 35,500 men were in camp for the month.

The troops were quartered in frame barracks, of the southern cantonment construction, the ground plan of the camp being in practically straight lines.

The water supply was obtained from the city system of San Antonio, the original source being 15 artesian wells.199 The water was uniformly of excellent quality and not excessively hard. A 5,000,000-gallon reservoir near camp furnished a reserve fire supply which was not used for drinking purposes. The sewerage system for the camp was completed early and connected with the city system, which discharged the untreated sewage into a lake 6 miles distant.200 Small grease traps were installed on each kitchen line.

The garbage disposal system was not satisfactorily conducted until after October, 1917.200 This was because the garbage transfer station had not yet been constructed, consequently a portion of the garbage was hauled to the pig farm in cans in a fairly satisfactory manner. All garbage was collected by the sanitary squads in November and delivered to the contractor at the transfer station.201 This method was changed in 1918 by requiring organizations to haul their own garbage.202 Waste garbage was burned at the dump.203 The garbage transfer station was kept in exceptionally good condition,204 as was

the hog farm.205

At first all manure was burned in a gully near camp with the aid of the inflammable rubbish collected and of crude oil.200 Kerosene later was substituted for the crude oil as being more efficient.205 No market had yet been found for manure in March, 1918, but the aid of the Federal and State agricultural agencies had been enlisted and a very low freight rate had been obtained.205 Only 10 per cent was being shipped for agricultural purposes toward the end of the year. An estimated quantity of 40,000 tons from the auxiliary remount depot was composted by the English packing method during the

summer of 1918.207  A pile 500 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 6 feet deep was so free from fly breeding that horses driven onto the pile were not even restless.


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In the physical examination of drafted men, the system employed prior to the summer of 1918 was somewhat unusual. The general examinations were made at the regimental infirmaries, the boards for the examination of special organs or senses operated at other locations, and all doubtful cases were referred to a special examining board at the base hospital.197 All examining was later completed in three barracks connected by canvas-covered corridors.208 The maximum number examined in one month in 1918 was almost 19,000.202

Both measles and German measles were present in the camp in 1917, but it was considered to be impossible to differentiate them in all cases, owing to the occurrence of atypical rashes.201 An attempt to segregate the two classes in separate wards proved to be impracticable in most instances,198 as only 19 cases of German measles were reported against 3,887 cases of true measles.196 It was necessary to establish a camp under canvas for the great numbers of measles contacts.202 There were comparatively few cases of measles during the year 1918, the highest monthly occurrence of primary cases being 156 in March.198

Epidemic influenza was introduced by men arriving from Camp Taylor, Ky., the first cases reporting sick September 29, 1918.209 The incidence then rose with startling rapidity for several days and reached the high point of 1,006 on October 7.210 The decline was slower and less regular, and the epidemic was not definitely over until well along in November. Fortunately, decisive steps in preparation were taken early. A group of barracks which would permit of expansion was selected on September 30, as a hospital annex and possession taken the next day. Personnel was obtained, some from the base hospital, some from the sanitary train, and the remainder from line troops. Administrative organization was complete and detailed, various groups successively performing the necessary steps in cleaning and equipping the rooms as wards. The annex opened October 2, an excess of personnel being assigned to each ward as it opened until the necessary work had been reduced to the normal amount. During this initial stage, there was one nurse and one medical officer per ward. Later, each ward surgeon had 2 wards to care for and each nurse 2 to 4. The annex was closed November 20, after handling 10,942 influenza

cases in 76 two-story barracks. A secondary rise in December resulted in 948 cases.

Pneumonia truly constituted an epidemic in Camp Travis during the fall of 1917 and the following winter, and was particularly prevalent in January, 1918, when 439 cases occurred.198 A total of 1,837 cases was reported prior to the influenza epidemic in the fall of 1918. During that epidemic, all cases of pneumonia originating in the base hospital annex were transferred to the base hospital as soon as recognized.210 Quinine was used as an adjuvant in the treatment of a series of cases, with very encouraging results. Less than 1.4 per cent of the 367 moderate cases died, and only 25 per cent of the 76 severe cases. The mortality of the entire series was 5.28 per cent.210

Mumps was largely responsible for the high sick rate during 1917 and the following winter.198 There were 1,732 cases before the end of 1917, and 4,717 in the first two months of 1918. The incidence then slowly decreased until September, 1918, when a slow rise was initiated which reached the figure of 390 admissions in December, 1918.


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The vast number of communicable diseases present in the fall of 1917 and the following winter prevented any great activity among the orthopedic surgeons until about February, 1918.211 The division surgeon was actively interested, however, and had obtained the incorporation of three excellent foot exercises in the prescribed setting-up exercises. The three orthopedists were assigned to the work of foot measurement and shoe fitting, in addition to their other duties, without being given any enlisted assistants.212 This resulted in the neglect of their other work, in the unsuccessful attempt to avoid interference with the progress of military training, until the work was reorganized by the division surgeon. Company supply sergeants were required to issue shoes of the sizes called for by actual foot measurements.

Early in November, 1917, supervision of the extra-cantonment zone was assumed by the United States Public Health Service and excellently administered.208 Meanwhile, the city board of health of San Antonio was actively cooperating in a limited field, but such measures as mosquito prevention, sanitation, and the supervision of food stores was not undertaken in a general way outside of the reservation boundaries.200

Mention of a quarantine camp, under canvas, is first found in March, 1918.204 This camp had a capacity of 1,000, white and colored soldiers were segregated,213 and it was maintained until demobilization was nearly complete.214

The development battalion at Camp Travis was largely the outgrowth of an organization started under another name in April, 1918.215 Its total strength was 1,631 by the middle of August, with 4 officers and 9 enlisted men of the Medical Department included in the training cadre.216 Changes were made in the commissioned training personnel at about that time which increased the efficiency of the work.217 There were 4 companies early in September, 1 of which was composed exclusively of 250 men with foot defects. Seventy-five men had been discharged for disability and 378 had been so developed as to be

fit for combat duty. Venereal cases were not assigned to the battalion, but nearly all convalescents from the base hospital and all recruits needing shoe alterations or orthopedic treatment were. There were 2,913 men in 3 battalions by September 20. The white venereal cases composed one battalion, orthopedic cases another, and the third was composed of all other cases. Three battalions of colored venereal cases had not been assigned to the development battalions. Nine officers and 32 enlisted men constituted the Medical Department representation in the training cadre. The number of line personnel

engaged in training is not known, but the venereal battalion alone had 240 enlisted men assigned for this purpose. About 30 per cent of the men in the battalion were examined daily and every man at least every 10 days. In the white venereal battalion, one company was reserved for cases which were apparently cured and were awaiting the expiration of the period of observation. Physical training, classification, and final disposition were entirely in the hands of the medical personnel, line officers being responsible for administration and discipline and assisting in training.218 For physical-training purposes, the men

in each company were divided into four classes, the weakest being placed in the fourth class and given one hour's light work forenoon and afternoon. Special exercises were prescribed for those requiring them. A school was held daily


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for the practical instruction of the noncommissioned officers who assisted in the training. Upon the formation of the convalescent center, the venereal battalion and one colored battalion were continued to care for venereal cases.

Two development battalions and one battalion of the colored development group were transformed into the convalescent center early in 1919.219 The number of convalescents to be assigned to each battalion was limited to 500. The Medical Department cadre consisted of 13 officers and 32 enlisted men to care for 282 convalescents, early in February. The last report available was made April 12, 1918, 1,880 convalescents having been assigned to the center during its operation.220

The 30 dental officers and their assistants assigned to regimental medical infirmaries were transferred to the newly opened dental infirmary in April, 1918.221 All but two of these officers left with the 90th Division and were replaced in July by officers of the Dental Reserve Corps called to active service. Three small dental infirmaries were later established. A building utilized for quarters and mess for all dental officers after August, 1918, contributed considerably to their general satisfaction and was continued until the discharge of a number of officers in the spring of 1919 made the further continuation of a

separate mess impracticable. A survey of 9,995 drafted men, made before the departure of the 90th Division, showed that 44 per cent had teeth in a satisfactory condition, 14 per cent had minor caries, 19 per cent showed peridental infection, and 23 per cent showed evident or suspected focal infection.222 Of the white men examined, 22 per cent showed peridental infection and 10 per cent focal infection. Among the colored men, 15 per cent showed peridental infection and 30 per cent focal infection. The total work done in the main dispensary prior to March, 1919, included 36,761 individuals treated, 31,477 permanent fillings, 2,638 temporary fillings, 2,249 root canal fillings, and 21,026 extractions.

There being no veterinary organization during the early days of the camp, the veterinary officers were attached to the division trains.223 One of the first moves in preparing for the care of the animals of the division was the establishment of a camp veterinary hospital,223 which continued to function until October, 1918.224 Organization of the veterinary work was retarded by a lack of experience in Army administration until a Regular Army veterinary officer arrived in May. 1918.223 There was no Government supervision of animals slaughtered locally in the fall of 1917, and the methods of handling milk in San Antonio were so defective that all these supplies were barred from the camp for a period.200 Investigation of cold-storage plants revealed such unwholesome conditions that two firms were indicted by the Federal grand jury and large quantities of food products were confiscated as unfit for consumption.196 The handling of milk in San Antonio was still unsatisfactory in the spring of 1918, and the United

States Public Health Service was then taking steps to improve it.205 A satisfactory inspection of meats purchased locally was first inaugurated in April, 1918, when they were required to be presented at a designated point for inspection before delivery.225

The site chosen for the remount depot was unfortunate, in that it was located on low ground where mud became very deep after rains.226 The total


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number of corrals was 50, each with wire-mesh fencing. One ward of the veterinary hospital consisted of 42 box stalls, the other 3 of 92 open stalls each.227 Early records of diseases are not available, but 5 cases of glanders are mentioned as occurring in the winter of 1917-18, and 96 animals were later destroyed for the same disease.227

During demobilization the physical examining board functioned in the second story of a barracks and consisted originally of 21 examiners, divided as follows: 7 tuberculosis; 1 cardiovascular; 1 genitourinary; 3 neuropsychiatric; 2 eye; 2 ear, nose, and throat; 2 orthopedic; 2 general surgery; and 1 dental.228 More than 62,500 men were examined before the end of the year 1919.

CAMP UPTON, N. Y.

Camp Upton was situated on Long Island, about 5 miles from the village of Yaphank and about 65 miles from New York City.229 The camp lay midway of the island, from north to south. Here the country is slightly rolling and slightly sandy. A tributary of the Peconic River, which is dry except after a rain, traversed the northern part of the reservation; a larger tributary has its source in the eastern part of the reservation; Carmans River runs in a broad shallow valley along the reservation's western edge. Just to the south of the camp site are extensive salt marshes, which in August, 1917, produced salt-

marsh mosquitoes in such numbers as to discourage the camp laborers and thus delay the opening of the camp. The elevation of the camp site is about 100 feet, with an additional 50 feet at its highest central ridge.

This camp received its first increments of drafted men in 1917, from Greater New York.229 A few additional men were sent from other camps. The average strength for the month of December, 1917, was approximately 30,000. The 77th Division was organized here and moved overseas about April, 1918. After this division left, the camp was used, first, as an embarkation camp, and then as a debarkation camp. Large numbers of men were sent here during 1918, the greatest number being from the State of New York. Also considerable numbers were received from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island,

Virginia, and a few from New Jersey and Delaware. Many came from other camps. The maximum strength was in April, when the mean strength for the month was approximately 43,000.

The troops were quartered in frame barracks of the northern construction type. The general layout of the cantonment was in straight lines.

Water from several driven wells, 4 inches in diameter, was piped through the main portion of the camp as the main temporary supply during the early construction period.230 Several portable hand pumps were also used in 1-inch driven wells for outlying works, but these were difficult to maintain in a sanitary condition. The permanent source of supply for the camp comprised 16 drilled wells, 8 inches in diameter and 60 feet deep, located 2½ miles south of the camp near Carmans River.231  Four tanks furnished a storage capacity of 800,000 gallons.

The sewerage system was completed in October, 1917, the sewage being discharged into an open ditch, where it was rapidly absorbed by the sandy soil, without odor.232 A disposal plant was installed and was used during a


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part of the following winter, but freezing of the sand filtration beds necessitated discharging the untreated sewage into a swamp three-fourths of a mile from camp.233 Since the water from this swamp drained into the Peconic River, which was used not only for ice-cutting purposes but also for flooding cranberry bogs, the matter was of considerable importance. When the disposal plant resumed operation in the spring of 1918, it was found that the septic tanks were acting merely as sedimentation chambers, and that the filter beds were of only about one-half the requisite area; therefore plans for an extensive

addition were drawn, to include additional septic tanks, a sprinkling filter, a humus tank and sludge beds.234 Construction of this extension of the disposal plant was begun in September, 1918.114 To make it effective, it was necessary to replace the small tile grease traps, which had been placed on the kitchen lines, with larger ones, the capacity of the new ones being based on two-thirds gallon per man per day.

A contract for garbage disposal was signed shortly after the camp was started, but a lack of transportation prevented, for a time, delivery to the contractor, and each kitchen disposed of its own garbage in company incinerators.232 These incinerators were improvised, the majority were very crude and ineffective, and fuel and means for its transportation were limited.235 Companies were forced to send men a mile or more to cut wood and bring it to camp, and hand carts were frequently used to secure coal. These conditions still obtained in December, 1917. The garbage transfer station was in use during the early part of 1918, but it burned to the ground in March, and the organizations were forced to resort again to incineration of their garbage.233 A new transfer station was not under construction until rather late in the fall of 1918, but the disposal of garbage by contract had been resumed and was fairly satisfactory in the preceding June.236 The new transfer station was deficient in that a concrete platform and hard-surfaced roads in its immediate vicinity were not provided.237 Organizations having means of transportation delivered their garbage at a loading platform, the Quartermaster Department collecting from the others.238 The contractor shipped the bones, meat, and grease by rail and hauled the remainder to a pig farm 3 miles from camp. The second transfer station was completed in June, 1919.239

Manure was also removed by farmers during the summer of 1917,230 and its later removal by contract was greatly limited by the shortage in transportation.233 Farmers were still removing a certain amount in the spring of 1918, but the formation of two large dumps was necessary and there was a large accumulation in the corrals of the auxiliary remount depot.234 Large quantities were spread in the camp area during the following summer, over the protest of the sanitary inspectors, and resulted in widespread fly breeding. Disposal was by one large compost pile at the end of the year, which was removed by the contractor as cars were available. This method was continued in 1919, and care in maintaining nearly vertical edges of the pile and spraying them with a borax solution prevented fly breeding.239

The physical examinations of drafted men were conducted in barracks in the fall of 1917 by 3 teams of 13 officers each.232 Doubtful cases were referred to specialists. Thus, between 2,000 and 3,000 men could be examined in one day.


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The organization was much the same in the summer of 1918. Each of the 3 teams then consisted of 11 officers and about 40 enlisted men, and each occupied its own one-fourth of the building. The provisional organizations to be examined were held outside, the men being admitted in groups of 10 to 20, an entire group being assigned to an examining team. Clothing was placed on the floor in the center of the room, the examining stations being arranged around its circumference. An unusual feature was a separate slip for each man on which all abnormalities found were entered, the slip being eventually pasted in his service record. Examinations averaged about 1,200 per day in June.

Influenza was prevalent in the early months of 1918, and its characteristics closely resembled those which became evident in the fall epidemic to follow.229 There were over 1,000 cases in March. The fall epidemic began September 13, and was practically over by October 22.240 Over 4,000 cases were reported during these two months, and the establishment of three camp hospitals in barracks was necessary in order to care for them. The efficiency of a rigid quarantine in preventing the spread of influenza was proved in the fall of 1918 by the comparison of results in two organizations, one in which there was practically no quarantine and one in which quarantine measures were enforced to the letter. Influenza very soon was widespread in the first, while the second had not a single case until toward the end of the epidemic. However, the second organization was the auxiliary remount depot, and the possible influence of its relatively isolated location was not considered.240

Pneumonia in 1917 and the early months of 1918, instead of bearing some indefinite relation to measles, as was the case in most of the camps, was associated with influenza,233 although official reports for the period classed the great majority of cases as primary.229 The majority of both influenza and pneumonia cases yielded a streptococcus as the predominating, and apparently causative, organism.233 The incidence of pneumonia paralleled that of influenza and was highest in March, 1918, with 110 cases.209 The empyema complication rate and the mortality rate were high.240

The United States Public Health Service did not assume supervision of the extra-cantonment zone,232 and the local boards of health were slow in getting started, but the State health authorities were maintaining excellent conditions in this zone before the end of the year 1917.235 The military authorities assumed control of the supervision of booths for the sale of foods and drinks toward the

end of 1918.241

There was neither a detention camp nor quarantine camp for Camp Upton proper; however, the base hospital maintained a tent camp for the detention of communicable disease contacts.

Three development battalions had been formed by the middle of August, 1918, with a total strength of 6,333.242 There were 14 medical officers directly on duty with the battalions, and 3 more were assigned to the orthopedic clinic and 9 to the genitourinary clinic. The number of the battalions was increased to five in October. These were divided into 20 companies, with a total strength of 7,773.243 Of these, 2,640 were venereal cases, 1,584 orthopedic, and 431 cardiovascular. One battalion was reserved for white venereal cases, one for colored venereal cases, and one for syphilitics of both races. Companies in battalions


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were reserved for orthopedic, cardiovascular, and convalescent conditions. Six sets of graded exercises were prescribed for cardiovascular cases, varying in duration from 15 to 60 minutes. Three courses in orthopedic training were provided, one comprising about five hours of general drill and training and one-half hour of orthopedic drill per day. The second required about one-half of the above, with fatigue duty in addition. The third was about one-half of the second with more fatigue duty. Venereal cases were divided into four classes. The first, those with open lesions, were confined in barracks or hospital and were given no prescribed exercises. The subacute cases of gonorrhea stood reveille and retreat, and were given not more than one-half hour of drill twice a day. Cases of syphilis, without open lesions, and of chronic gonorrhea had the drills increased to three hours daily, but were not available for any heavy duty or required to remain on their feet for long periods. Those ready for discharge performed full duty.

When the convalescent center was established, in January, 1919, two-story barracks were assigned for the purpose.244 Six medical and 39 line officers were in charge of 550 convalescents assigned to the 5 companies. Three additional medical officers were assigned about February 1. The first commanding officer of the center was well qualified for the position and enthusiastic, but three changes in commanding officers were made in February, and as a consequence discipline became lax and morale low, the mess deteriorated and became in debt.245 The strength of the training cadre was greater than that of the convalescents, and two hours' exercise per day comprised the entire training schedule. No organized effort was being made to provide occupational work or recreation, but the medical work was better organized and was well done. A proposed change in location of the center was also partially responsible for the delay in initiating necessary activities.246 The center was transferred intact to the base hospital prior to June, 1919.239

Dental officers were assigned to duty, in 1917, in offices in the regimental infirmaries and base hospital and as members of the physical examining board.247 A dental infirmary building was completed and occupied June 15, 1918. All dental officers on duty in the camp after the departure of the 77th Division were formerly enlisted dental assistants who had taken the examination for commissions and then served six months as enlisted men.248 The total dental work performed from September 3, 1917, to March 1, 1919, included 30,900 permanent fillings, 23,000 temporary fillings, 5,424 root canal fillings and 26,599 extractions.247 The number of individuals treated during the period was 38,875.

The auxiliary remount depot was situated in a low area with little natural drainage, and the stumps of the trees which were cut before building operations could be undertaken were not removed.249  Construction was begun about September 15, 1917. The heavy rainfall in the spring of 1918 flooded the corrals, and it was necessary to discontinue the use of two. The veterinary hospital consisted of four units, each composed of two stables, an operating room, a forage room, and a convalescent corral 305 by 400 feet in dimensions.249 The feed boxes originally installed in the stables were wooden, but these were later replaced with boxes of galvanized iron. Hay was fed on the floor.


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During the demobilization period one 2-story barracks housed the three examining teams and the board of review.241 The former consisted of 13 officers each and the latter of 6 officers, and their capacity was 1,000 to 1,200 men per day. The men to be examined proceeded to the team to which assigned before removing their clothes, and this caused a congestion in the three available rooms.250 A record was made in May when approximately 13,000 men were examined in 24 hours, without a decrease in efficiency.251 This was accomplished by using medical personnel of the division being demobilized as additions to the examining board. About 150 officers were employed, divided into three shifts, working four hours and off duty eight hours. This feat brought an expression of appreciation from the War Department, but tended to embarrass the Surgeon General's Office as the latter office had just previously recommended that the maximum number of men examined in one day be limited to

about 600.252 The examining board was later reduced to 27 officers, and 2 barracks were then in use.239 The only criticism of the professional work, made by visiting inspectors, was that the neuropsychiatric and orthopedic examinations were not sufficiently complete to detect defects which a man might wish to conceal.239 The camp ceased to operate as a demobilization center September 25, 1919, after 202,329 men had been examined.253

The sanitary process station, better known as the "delousing plant," was a great convenience and aid in the rapid handling of large bodies of men. It consisted of a one-story building, 204 by 38 feet, with a concrete floor, and was divided into the following departments: Undressing room, barber shop, bathroom with 52 shower heads, drying room, and dressing room.239 The drying of the men after the shower was performed by hot air rather than by towels. Its capacity was 260 men per hour.

REFERENCES

(1) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 388-399.
 

(2) Letter from Earle B. Phelps, Professor of Chemistry, Hygienic Laboratory, to the Surgeon General. U. S. Public Health Service, October 15, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Camp Lee) D.

(3) Letter from Capt. E. J. Tucker, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 21, 1917. Subject: Water supply at Petersburg, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Camp Lee) D.

(4) Letter from Capt E. J. Tucker, S. C., to the Surgeon General, December 22, 1917. Subject: Water supply at Petersburg, Va. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Camp Lee) D.

(5) Sanitary report for the month of June, 1918, at Camp Lee, Va., by Lieut. Col. Clarence E. Fronk, M. C., camp surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Lee) D.

(6) Sanitary report for the month of September, 191S, at Camp Lee, Va., by Maj. M. L. Todd, M. C., sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Lee) D.

(7) Annual report of the camp surgeon, Camp Lee, Va., for the year 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(8) Letter from Maj. J. T. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, November 16, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary report of water supply and sewage disposal plants at Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(9) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Lee, Va., by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C., April 9-10, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.


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(10) Sanitary report for the month of May, 1918, at Camp Lee, Va., by Maj. David N. W. Grant, M. C., camp sanitary inspector. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Lee) D.

(11) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Lee, Va., to the Surgeon General of the Army, December 10, 1918. Subject: Monthly report for November, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Lee) D.

(12) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Lee, Va., made by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C., September 27-28, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(13) Special sanitary report, Camp Lee, Va., by Senior Surg. J. H. White, U. S. Public Health Service, June 19-20, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(14) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Lee, Va., made by Col. R. B. Miller, M. C., on June 5-7, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(15) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Lee, Va., to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 4, 1918. Subject: Monthly report, October, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Lee) D.

(16) Memorandum from Maj. Richard Messer, Construction Division, War Department, M. and R. Branch, August 7, 1918. Subject: Camp Lee, the alleged fly nuisance below main sewer. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(17) Report of visit to Camp Lee, by W. Dwight Pierce, July 24, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(18) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Lee, Va., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 13, 1920. Subject: Annual report, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Lee) D.

(19) Letter from Maj. Robert M. Yerkes to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 2, 1917. Subject: Report concerning psychological examining, Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Psychological, Camp Lee) D.

(20) Letter from Col. Henry A. Shaw, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 16, 1917. Subject: Psychological tests, Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Psychological, Camp Lee) D.

(21) Report of neurological and psychological service, Camp Lee, Va.. November and December, 1917, by Maj. James R. Moore, M. R. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-3 (Camp Lee) D.

(22) Memorandum from Capt. J. S. Graves, A. G. D., camp personnel adjutant, Camp Lee, Va., to the commanding general, September 4, 1918. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Psychological, Camp Lee) D.

(23) Report of the special investigation, neurological and mental, at Camp Lee, Va., November and December, 1917, by Capt. J. M. W. Scott, M. R. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-3 (Camp Lee) D.

(24) Letter from Capt. James T. Rugh, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 14, 1917. Subject: Orthopedic work at Camp Lee. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Lee) D.

(25) Letter from Maj. James T. Rugh, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, February 25, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic work at Camp Lee. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Lee) D.

(26) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Lee, Va., August 31, 1917, by Col. Henry A. Shaw, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(27) Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp Lee, Va., made by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., on August 11, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(28) Letter from Lieut. Col. Edgar King, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 12, 1918. Subject: Development battalions, Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Lee) D.

(29) Letter from Capt. Henry P. Mauck, M. C., to the Surgeon General, November 17, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Lee) D.


147

(30) Letter from the demobilization officer, Camnp Lee, Va., to The Adjutant General of the Army, July 19, 1919. Subject: Demobilization of the development company. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Lee) D.

(31) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Lee, Va., January 6-7, 1919, by Lieut. Col. H. B. McIntyre, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(32) Letter from Capt. Win. J. Hammond, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 23, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center, Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(33) Letter from Capt. William J. Hammond, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 15, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center, Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(34) Weekly strength report of convalescent center, Camp Lee, Va., for the week ending February 15, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(35) Letter from Maj. Henry James, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 5, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center at Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(36) Letter from the camp dental surgeon, Camp Lee, Va., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 29, 1919. Subject: History of dental service. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Lee) D.

(37) Letter from Maj. J. P. Harper, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. Subject: Dental inspection at Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental Inspection, Camp Lee) D.

(38) A veterinary history of Camp Lee, Va., by Capt. Morgan B. Lamb, V. C., camp veterinarian. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, Camp Lee) D.

(39) Weekly reports of organization and equipment, enlisted men, V. C., at Veterinary Training School, Camp Lee, Va., period August 3, 1918, to November 16, 1918, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3-32 (Camp Lee) D.

(40) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Lee, Va., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 1, 1919. Subject: Medical history of the war. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(41) Letter from the commandant, Veterinary Training School, Camp Lee, Va., to the director of the Veterinary Corps, Surgeon General's Office, October 28, 1918. Subject: Organization of veterinary hospital units. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3-32 (Camp Lee) D, 1918.

(42) Medical history of Camp Lee, Va., unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O. 

(43) Answers to questionnaire from the Surgeon General, for incorporation in the veterinary medical and surgical history of the war, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 305, Camp Lee, Va., by Capt. J. M. Courtright, V. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 305 ) R.

(44) Letter from Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 26, 1918. Subject: Report on Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lee) D.

(45) Letter from Capt. Peter F. Galloway, V. C., Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 308, Camp Hancock, Ga., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 28, 1919. Subject: Questionnaire for veterinary history of the war for Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 305, Camp Lee, Va. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(46) Tentative Regulations Governing the Operations of the Camp Veterinary Hospital for the Treatment of Animals and the Instruction of Veterinary Units, Veterinary Training School, Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632-1 (Veterinary Hospital, Camp Lee) D, 1918.

(47) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Lee, Va., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 9, 1919. Subject: Physical examination in demobilization camps. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Lee) D.

(48) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Lee, Va. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization Examinations, Camp Lee) D.


148

(49) Letter from Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, April 8, 1918. Subject: Special sanitary inspection, Camp Lewis, Wash., March 30 and 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lewis) D.

(50) Memorandum, preliminary data for medical and surgical history of the war, Camp Lewis, Wash., August 25, 1917, to May 31, 1918, by Lieut. Col. Peter C. Field, M. C., division surgeon. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(51) Report of the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Lewis, Wash., for the month of December, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Lewis) D.

(52) Letter from Lieut. Col. Robert E. Noble, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 27, 1917. Subject: Report on inspection, Camp Lewis, Wash., September 26 and 27, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Lewis) D.

(53) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 400-413.

(54) Letter from the division surgeon, 91st Division, Camp Lewis, Wash., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 6, 1918. Subject: Annual report of the chief surgeon, Camp Lewis (division surgeon, 91st Division), August 24, 1917, to December 31, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Lewis) D.

(55) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Lewis, Wash., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 7, 1918. Subject: Monthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 271 (Camp Lewis) D.

(56) Medical history of Camp Lewis cantonment from June 15 to August 7,1918, inclusive, by Maj. C. M. Walson, M. C., camp surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp Lewis) D.

(57) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Lewis, Wash., made on July 23, 24, and 25, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lewis) D.

(58) Sanitary report for the month of August, 1918, at Camp Lewis, Wash., by Maj. Irvy L. McGlasson, M. C., camp sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Lewis) D.

(59) Sanitary report for tihe month of March, 1919, at Camp Lewis, Wash., from the camp sanitary engineer. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Lewis) D.

(60) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Lewis, Wash., made on July 9-10, 1919, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Lewis) D.

(61) A compiled medical history of the 91st Division, by Lieut. Col. Frank R. Mount, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G.O.

(62) Letter from the division surgeon, Camp Lewis, Wash., to the commanding general, 91st Division, October 20, 1917. Subject: Status, officers and men of Red Cross ambulance companies, 91st Division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.173-2 (Camp Lewis) D.

(63) Medical history of the war, Camp Lewis, American Lake, Wash., July 1 to December 31, 1918, by Maj. H. M. Greene, M. C., camp surgeon. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(64) 2d ind., office of the camp surgeon, Camp Lewis, Wash., April 25, 1919, to the Surgeon General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Pneumonia, Base Hospital, Camp Lewis) D.

(65) Letter from Contract Surg. R. L. Richards, U. S. Army, to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 26, 1917. Subject: Report regarding the neuropsychiatric board at Camp Lewis, Wash. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-3 (Camp Lewis) D.

(66) Letter from the commanding general, 13th Division, Camp Lewis, Wash., to The Adjutant General of the Army, December 3, 1918. Subject: Psychological service. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Psychological Examinations, Camp Lewis) D.

(67) Letter from Maj. Walter A. Jayne, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, November 23, 1917. Subject: Report of the cardiovascular commission. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 334.1-1 (Cardiovascular Examining Board, Camp Lewis) D.


149

(68) Cardiovascular examinations at Camp Lewis mustering office, April 20, 1918, to October 1, 1918, by 1st Lieut. Donald Cass, M. C. On file, Record Room. S. G. O., 702 (Cardiovascular, Camp Lewis) D.

(69) 3d ind., from the surgeon, Infirmary No. 11, 166th Depot Brigade, Camp Lewis, Wash., August 20, 1918, to the camp surgeon.  On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Camp Lewis) D.

(70) Letter from Capt. Edward A. Rich, M. R. C., district supervising surgeon, orthopedic service, to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 2, 1919. Subject: Report of condition of orthopedic service at Camp Lewis at the conclusion of writer's service at that camp. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Lewis) D.

(71) Letter from Maj. Herman M. Adler, M. C., to the Acting Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 30, 1918. Subject: Confidential report of Camp Lewis, Wash., October 4, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702.3 (Camp Lewis) D.

(72) Letter from Capt. Le Roy Crummer, M. C., to the Surgeon General. December 20, 1918. Subject: Report on development battalion, Camp Lewis. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.171-1 (Camp Lewis) D.

(73) Letter from Maj. John R. McDill, M. C., Camp Lewis, Wash., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 24, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Lewis) D.

(74) Weekly strength reports, convalescent center, Camp Lewis, Wash. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Lewis) D.

(75) History of dental service, Camp Lewis, Wash., by Capt. Benjamin F. Pound, D. C., camp dental surgeon. On file, Dental Division, S. G. O.

(76) Report entitled "Questionnaire, Meat and Dairy Inspection," unsigned. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 400.16 (Meat Inspection, Camp Lewis) D.

(77) A veterinary history of Camp Lewis, Wash., by Capt. C. H. Carnahan, V. C., division veterinarian, 13th Division, Camp Lewis, Wash. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary, Camp Lewis) D.

(78) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Lewis, Wash., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 14, 1920. Subject: Annual report for the calendar year 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Lewis) D.

(79) 1st ind., from the office of the camp surgeon, Camp Lewis, Wash., June 11, 1919, to the Surgeon General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Lewis) D.

(80) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Lewis, Wash., months of December, 1918, to October 6, 1919, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-4 (Camp Lewis) D, 370 (Demobilization, Camp Lewis) D, and 370.01-2 (Camp Lewis) D.

(81) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 452-465.

(82) Letter from Maj. James T. B. Bowles to Colonel Reynolds, undated. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Meade. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Meade) D.

(83) History of the Medical Department of the 79th Division, unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O. 

(84) Letter from Lieut. Col. H. C. Pillsbury, M. C., camp surgeon, Camp Meade, Md., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 6, 1919. Subject: Annual report for the calendar year 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Annual Report, 1918, Camp Meade) D.

(85) Sanitary report for the month of September, 1918, at Camp Meade, M\d., by Maj. Oramel H. Stanley, M. C., acting camp surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Meade) D.

(86) Sanitary report for the month of June, 1919, Camp Meade, Md., by Capt. Earle L. Waterman, S. C., camp sanitary engineer. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671.6 (Camp Meade) D.


150

(87) Letter from the division surgeon, 79th Division, Camp Meade, Md., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 23, 1918. Subject: Annual report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Meade) D.

(88) Report of sanitary inspection made at Camp Meade, Md., on January 5, 6, and 7, 1920, by Col. P. C. Hutton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Meade) D.

(89) Medical history, Camp Meade, by Lieut. Col. Philip W. Huntington, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(90) Special sanitary inspection, Camp Meade, Md., May 25, 1918, by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Meade) D.

(91) Report of inspection in relation to the epidemic of influenza and pneumonia at Camp Meade, Md., October 8, 1918, by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Meade) D.

(92) A report on the work of the cardiovascular board at Camp Meade, Md., source unknown. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 327.21-1 (Camp Meade) D.

(93) Letter from Capt. Robert E. Soule, M. R. C., Camp Meade, Md., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 31, 1918. Subject: Monthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Meade) D.

(94) Letter from Lieut. Col. Harry E. Mock, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 28, 1918. Subject: Development battalion at Camp Meade. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalion, Camp Meade) D.

(95) Letter from Maj. B. H. Whitbeck, supervising orthopedic surgeon, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 11, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic service at Camp Meade. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Meade) D.

(96) Report of sanitary inspection of the development battalion, Camp Meade, Admiral, Md., made by Col. Jere B. Clayton, M. C., October 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Meade) D.

(97) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Meade, Md., on February 6, 1919, by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Meade) D.

(98) Letter from Capt. William J. Hammond, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 2, 1919. Subject: Convalescent Center, Camp Meade, Md. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2 (Camp Meade) D.

(99) Letter from Maj. Henry James, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 8, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center at Camp Meade, Md. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2 (Camp Meade) D.

(100) Weekly strength reports of convalescent center, Camp Meade, Md. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Meade) D.

(101) Letter from Capt. Page P. A. Chesser, D. C., Camp Meade, Md., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 22, 1919. Subject: History of dental service. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Meade) D.

(102) Letter from Maj. S. V. Balderston, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 17, 1919. Subject: Report of observation of physical examination at Camp Meade. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-1 (Camp Meade) D.

(103) 1st Ind., from office of the camp surgeon, Camp Meade, Md., June 11, 1919, to the Surgeon General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Meade) D.

(104) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Meade, Md., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 18, 1920. Subject: Annual report for the calendar year 1919, Camp Meade, Md. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(105) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Meade, Md. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, Camp Meade) D and 370.01-2 (Camp Meade) D.

(106) Medical history of Camp Pike to June, 1918, by Lieut. Col. E. F. McCampbell, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Medical History).

(107) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 478-491.


151

(108) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Pike, Ark., September 7, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(109) Letter from Maj. G. R. Bascom, S. C., Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General of the Army, July 3, 1918. Subject: Report for the month of June, activities of the Sanitary Corps. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Pike) D.

(110) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 11, 1919. Subject: A brief medical history of Camp Pike, Ark., July 1, 1918, to December 31, 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(111) Letter from Maj. G. R. Bascom, S. C., Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 3, 1918. Subject: Report for the month of October. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Pike) D.

(112) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 8, 1920. Subject: Annual report for the calendar year 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Pike) D.

(113) Letter from the Acting Surgeon General, Bureau of the Public Health Service, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 14, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.6-1 (Camp Pike) D, Storage, 1917.

(114) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Pike, Ark., October 28, 1917, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(115) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the Director of Purchase and Storage, Munitions Building, August 12, 1919. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Pike. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(116) Letter from Maj. G. R. Bascom, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 7, 1918. Subject: Sewage disposal of Camp Pike. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 672 (Camp Pike) D.

(117) Letter from Maj. G. R. Bascom, camp sanitary engineer, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 2, 1918. Subject: Report for the month of August, Sanitary Corps, Camp Pike, Ark. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Pike) D.

(118) Letter from Maj. G. R. Bascom, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, July 18, 1919. Subject: Sanitary inspection, Camp Pike, Ark. On file, Record Room,  S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(119) Report of special inspection of Camp Pike, Ark., December 8, 9, 10, 1917, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(120) Letter from Maj. G. R. Bascom, camp sanitary engineer, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 29, 1918. Subject: Garbage disposal at Camp Pike. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.7 (Camp Pike) D.

(121) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 13, 1919. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(122) Memorandum for Col. W. P. Chamberlain in answer to questionnaire of May 25, 1918, unsigned. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(123) Letter from the camp epidemiologist, Camp Pike, Ark., to the camp surgeon, Camp Pike, Ark., October 12, 1918. Subject: Number of cases and deaths from influenza and pneumonia to October 12, 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(124) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 12, 1918. Subject: Report on the influenza and pneumonia epidemic. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(125) Letter from the camp sanitary inspector, Camp Pike, Ark., to the commanding general, Camp Pike, Ark., February 5, 1919. Subject: Monthly sanitary report. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Pike) D.

(126) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Pike, April 15, 1919, by Col. William P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(127) Letter from the division surgeon, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 5, 1918. Subject: Annual report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319-1 (Camp Pike) D.


152

(128) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Pike, Ark., January 14-15, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(129) Letter from the camp epidemiologist, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, January 3, 1919. Subject: Special report on measles in Camp Pike during September, October, and November, 1918.

On file, Historical Division, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(130) Letter from Capt. Howard Fletcher, M. R. C., orthopedic surgeon, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General of the Army, April 8, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report, orthopedic conditions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Base Hospital, Camp Pike) D.

(131) Letter from Capt. Howard Fletcher, M. R. C., orthopedic surgeon, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General of the Army, April 17, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report, orthopedic conditions (April 1 to April 15, 1918). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Pike) D.

(132) Letter from Capt. Howard Fletcher, M. R. C., Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 3, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report, orthopedic conditions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Base Hospital, Camp Pike) D.

(133) Letter from Capt. Howard Fletcher, M. R. C., Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 15, 1918. Subject: Semimonthly report, orthopedic conditions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Base Hospital, Camp Pike) D.

(134) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Pike, Ark., March 21-22, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(135) Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp Pike, Ark., by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C., July 16, 1918. On file, Record Room. S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(136) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Pike, Ark., on October 31 and November 1, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(137) 2d Ind., from brigade surgeon's office, 162d Depot Brigade, Camp Pike, Ark., August 17, 1918, to the camp surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalion, Camp Pike) D.

(138) Letter from Capt. Le Roy Crummer, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 25, 1918. Subject: Report on development battalion, Camp Pike, Ark.On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalion, Camp Pike) D.

(139) Report of sanitary inspection of development battalion at Camp Pike, October 31, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(140) Letter from Lieut. Frank N. Potts, M. C., Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 23, 1919. Subject: Convalescent work. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(141) Letter from Maj. A. S. McLean, M. C., and Capt. J. Gurney Taylor, M. C., Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, February 8, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(142) Letter from Capt. Homer M. Austin, M. C., Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 1, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 604.2-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(143) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 20, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(144) Weekly strength report from convalescent center Camp Pike, Ark., for the week ending May 24, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(145) Dental history of Camp Pike, by Col. John H. Hess, D. C., camp dental surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Pike) D.

(146) Veterinary history of Camp Pike, Ark., during the period of June, 1918, to October, 1919, by Capt. William H. Dean, V. C., camp veterinarian. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.


153

(147) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 317, Camp Pike, Ark., to the Surgeon General of tile Army, August 8, 1918. Subject: Veterinary history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., .314.7-2 (Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 317) R.

(148) Report of inspection of work of examination boards, Camp Pike, Ark., March 29, 1919, by Maj. S. V. Balderston, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(149) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Pike, Ark., made on July 29, 1919, by Col. Pau C. Hutton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Pike) D.

(150) Monthly report of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Pike, Ark., for the month ending December 31, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Pike) D.

(151) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 520-543.

(152) Letter from the division surgeon, 83d Division, Camp Sherman, Ohio, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 7, 1918. Subject: Annual report for year ending December 31, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(153) Report on activities as nutrition officer, Camp Sherman, by Capt. Merkel H. Jacobs, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(154) Letter from the nutrition officer, Camp Sherman, Ohio, to the Surgeon General of the Army, December 5, 1918. Subject: Food conditions at Camp Sherman. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 720.1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(155) Report of sanitary inspection with especial reference to the influenza epidemic, at Camp Sherman, made October 8, 1918, by Lieut. Col. Joseph L. Miller. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(156) Letter from Col. Lewis A. Conner, M. C., to the Acting Surgeon General, U. S. Army, undated. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Sherman, made October 15, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(157) Report of sanitary inspection of development battalion at Camp Sherman, Ohio, on November 5, 1918, by Col. Willard F. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(158) Letter from Capt. J. Gurney Taylor, M. C., Camp Sherman, Ohio, to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 23, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(159) Letter from Capt. Turner Z. Cason, M. C., Camp Sherman, Ohio, to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 7, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(160) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Sherman, Ohio, made on April 21 and 22, 1919, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(161) Weekly strength report of convalescent center, Camp Sherman, Ohio. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(162) History of dental department, Camp Sherman, Ohio, by Maj. Harold E. Albaugh, D. C., camp dental surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Sherman) D.

(163) Letter from Maj. L. G. Mitchell, D. R. C., inspector to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. Subject: Dental inspection of Camp Sherman, May 11-12-13-14, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental, Camp Sherman) D.

(164) Letter from Maj. Leonard G. Mitchell, D. R. C., inspector, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 14, 1918. Subject: Dental inspection. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Sherman) D.

(165) Letter from Maj. J. P. Harper, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. Subject: Dental inspection at Camp Sherman, Ohio. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental Inspection, Camp Sherman) D.

(166) A medical history of Camp Sherman, Ohio, unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.


154

(167) An account of meat and dairy inspection at Camp Sherman, Ohio, by Capt. Ralph A. Moye, V. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 400.16 (Meat and Dairy Inspection, Camp Sherman) D.

(168) A veterinary history of the War, Auxiliary Remount Depot, No. 318, Camp Sherman, Ohio, by Capt. F. L. McCollister, V. C. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(169) Report of special investigation of the conduct of the physical examination of troops prior to separation from the Service at Camp Sherman, Ohio, February 26, 1919, by Maj. S. V. Balderston, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Inspection, Camp Sherman) D.

(170) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Sherman, Ohio, by Col. J. B. Clayton, M. C., June 19, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Sherman) D.

(171) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Sherman, Ohio, to the Surgeon General of the Army, June 22, 1919. Subject: Efficiency of physical examinations. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Sherman) D.

(172) Monthly report of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Sherman, Ohio, month ending September 30, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Sherman) D.

(173) Annual Report of the camp surgeon, Camp Sherman, Ohio, for the calendar year 1919. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(174) Report of sanitary inspection at Camp Taylor, Ky., by Col. H. A. Shaw, M. C., September 7, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(175) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 551-563.

(176) Report of special inspection, Camp Taylor, Ky., October 14, 1917, made by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Taylor) D.

(177) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Taylor, Ky., September 7 and 8, 1917, by Col. Henry A. Shaw, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Taylor) D.

(178) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Taylor, Ky., January 16-17, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(179) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., to the Surgeon General of the Army, December 31, 1918. Subject: Annual report 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(180) Letter from Maj. G. R. Bascom, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, July 30, 1919. Subject: Sanitary Inspection, Camp Taylor, Ky. On file, Record Room S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(181) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., May 28, 1918, by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(182) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 2, 1919. Subject: Medical history of the war, July 1 to December 31, 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(183) Letter from Col. Lewis A. Conner, M. C., to the Acting Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 18, 1918. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Taylor, made October 13 and 14, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(184) Report of a survey of the streptococcus epidemic at Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., by Maj. Herbert Fox, M. R. C., and Maj. Walter W. Hamberger, M. R. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710.1 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(185) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., November 10, 1918, by Col. W. F. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(186) 1st ind., office of the camp surgeon, Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., August 14, 1918, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Zachary Taylor) D.


155

(187) Letter from the camp nutrition officer, Camp Taylor, Ky., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 7, 1918. Subject: Development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(188) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Taylor, Ky., January 28, 1919, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(189) Weekly strength reports from convalescent center, Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2 1 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(190) Letter from Maj. William Mann, D. C., camp dental surgeon, Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 20, 1919. Subject: Dental history. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(191) History of meat and dairy inspection at Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(192) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 319, Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., to the Surgeon General, February 2, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 319. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7-2 (Remount Depot, Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(193) Annual report of the camp surgeon, Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, for 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(194) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., made on September 5, 1919, by Col. E. R. Schreiner, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(195) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, Camp Zachary Taylor) D, 370 (Examination, Camp Zachary Taylor) D, and 370.01-2 (Camp Zachary Taylor) D.

(196) Annual report of the (division surgeon for the year ending December 31, 1917, 90th Division, Camp Travis, Tex., by Lieut. Col. P. S. Halloran, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Annual Report, Camp Travis) D.

(197) A medical history of Camp Travis, Tex., by Maj. Eugene Buehler, M. R. C., assistant division surgeon, 90th Division. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(198) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 564-577.

(199) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Travis, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 20, 1918. Subject: Report for November. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Travis) D.

(200) Letter from Col. William F. Lewis, M. C., special sanitary inspector, to the Surgeon General of the Army, October 20, 1917. Subject: Sanitary report for 90th Division, Camp Travis, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Inspection, Camp Travis) D.

(201) Sanitary report for the month of November, 1917, 90th Division, Camp Travis, Tex., by Maj. Joseph M. Heller, M. R. C., sanitary inspector. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(202) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Travis, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army.January 20, 1919. Subject: Annual report for the year 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Travis) D.

(203) Letter from the division sanitary inspector, 18th Division, Camp Travis, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 8, 1919. Subject: Sanitary report for the month of December, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Travis) D.

(204) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Travis, Tex., March 27-28, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Travis) D.

(205) Sanitary report for the month of March, 1918, by 90th Division, Camp Travis. Tex., by Maj. Eugene Buehler, M. R. C., assistant division sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Travis) D.


156

(206) Sanitary report for the month of December, 1917, 90th Division, Camp Travis, Tex., by the sanitary inspector, 90th Division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Travis) D.

(207) Letter from Capt. Charles A. Haskis, S. C., to the Acting Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 23, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection of Camp Travis. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Travis) D.

(208) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 16, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection of Camp Travis, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Travis) D.

(209) Letter from the division sanitary inspector, 15th Division, Camp Travis, Tex., to the division surgeon 18th Division, Camp Travis, Tex., October 1, 1918. Subject: Influenza. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Influenza, Camp Travis) D.

(210) Report on the epidemic of influenza and post-influenzal pneumonia, Camp Travis, Tex., December 9, 1918, prepared under the Direction of the Camp Surgeon, Camp Travis, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (Camp Travis) D, Storage 1918.

(211) Letter from Capt. Edward A. Rich, M. R. C., district inspecting orthopedic surgeon, to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 18, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic conditions at Camp Travis, and base hospital, same place. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Travis) D.

(212) Letter from Capt. Edward A. Rich, M. R. C., district orthopedic surgeon, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 14, 1918. Subject: Report of orthopedic conditions at Camp Travis. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Travis) D.

(213) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, 1,. S. Army, February 1, 1919. Subject: Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Travis, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Travis) D.

(214) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Travis, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 15, 1920. Subject: Annual report. On file Record Room S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Travis) D.

(215) Letter from Capt. William J. Hammond, M. C. to the Surgeon General. November 2, 1918. Subject: Development Battalion, Camp Travis, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Developmtment Battalion, Camp Travis) D.

(216) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Travis, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 18, 1918. Subject: Information concerning development battalion. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalion, Camp Travis) D.

(217) Letter from Maj. Edward A. Rich, M. C., supervising orthopedic surgeon, to the Surgeon General of the Army, September 5, 1918. Subject: Report of orthopedic conditions at Camp Travis, Tex., survey of August 27 to September 5, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Travis) D.

(218) Letter from Col. W. F. Lewis, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 17, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection development battalion, Camp Travis, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Travis) D.

(219) Extract from a report on the development battalions and convalescent center at Camp Travis, Tex., by John R. McDill, consultant. On file, Record Room. S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Travis) D.

(220) Weekly strength reports of convalescent center. Camp Travis, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Travis) D.

(221) History of camp dental infirmary, Camp Travis, Tex., by Col. Alden Carpenter. D. C., camp dental surgeon. On file. Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Dental Infirmary, Camp Travis) D.

(222) Letter from Capt. Robert F. Miller, M. R. C., plastic and oral surgeon. Camp Travis, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 6, 1918. Subject: Report of oral survey. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Oral and Plastic Surgery, Camp Travis) D.

(223) History of the Veterinary Corps. 90th Division, by Capt . John J. Roberts, V. C., acting division veterinarian. (On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.


 157

(224) Letter from the a veterinarian, Camp Travis, Tex., to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. Subject: History of camp veterinary detachment, Camp Travis, Tex. Meat and dairy inspection. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, Camp Travis) D.

(225) Sanitary report for month of April, 1918, 90th Division, Camp Travis, Tex., by the sanitary inspector, 90th Division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Travis) D.

(226) Letter from the veterinarian, remount depot, Camp Travis, Tex., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 8, 1920. Subject: Veterinary history of remount depot, Camp Travis, Tex. (May 19, 1919, to March 31, 1920). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7-2 (Remount Depot, Camp Travis) D.

(227) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot, No. 329, Camp Travis, Tex. to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 16, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 329, Camp Travis, Tex. (September 1, 1918, to May 16, 1919). On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(228) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Travis, Tex. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Examinations, Camp Travis) D and 370.01-2 (Camp Travis) D.

(229) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 578-591.

(230) Letter from the sanitary officer, Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 31, 1917. Subject: Sanitary report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(231) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 26, 1918. Subject: Report on water supply. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.2-1 (Camp Upton) D, Storage 1918.

(232) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Upton, N. Y., October 11-12, 1917, by Col. Henry A. Shaw, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(233) Letter from Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 26, 1918. Subject: Report of inspection at Camp Upton, Long Island. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(234) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 1, 1918. Subject: Report on sewerage and sewage disposal. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.6-1 (Camp Upton) D, Storage 1918.

(235) Report of special sanitary inspection, 77th Division, Camp Upton, N. Y., December 20, 1917, by Col. F. P. Reynolds, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(236) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Upton, N. Y., October 15 and 16, 1918, Col. W. F. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Upton) D. Also, Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Upton, Long Island, June 25, 1918, by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1(Camp Upton) D.


(237) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November, 15, 1918. Subject: Monthly report for October. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Camp Utpton) D.

(238) Report of disposal of garbage and other wastes at Camp Upton, N. Y., for December, 1918, by Capt. Howard F. Bronson, S. C., camp sanitary engineer. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Upton) D.

(239) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Upton, N. Y., on June 5 and 6, 1919, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(240) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General of the Army. January 30, 1919. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Upton) D.

(241) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Upton, Long Island, on January 11, 1919, by Col. W. F. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Upton) D.


158

(242) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 14, 1918. Subject: Information concerning development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.171-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(243) Report of sanitary inspection of development battalion, Camp Upton, October 16, 1918, by Col. W. F. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(244) Letter from Capt. F. W. Hunter, M. C., Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 25, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center, Camp Upton, N. Y. Also, attached letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 3, 1919. Subject: Report on convalescent center by Capt. Hunter. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(245) Letter from Maj. Henry James, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 26, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center at Camp Upton, Long Island. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(246) Letter from Lieut. Col. Harry E. Mock, M. C., Office of the Surgeon General, March 15, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center at Camp Upton. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(247) History of the dental service at Camp Upton, N. Y., prepared under the direction of the camp dental surgeon, Camp Upton, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Upton) D.

(248) Letter from W. H. Richardson, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. Subject: Dental inspection at Camp Upton, Long Island. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental Inspection, Camp Upton) D.

(249) Letter from the veterinarian, Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 21, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 302) D.

(250) Letter from Maj. S. V. Balderston, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 11, 1919. Subject: Report on observation made of the work of physical examination at Camp Upton, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-1 (Camp Upton) D.

(251) Memorandum from Col. D. C. Howard, M. C., Office of the Surgeon General, for the Chief of Staff, June 12, 1919. Also, 2d ind., to above memorandum, from Brig. Gen. W. J. Nicholson, Camp Upton, N. Y., June 24, 1919, to The Adjutant General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, Camp Upton ) D.

(252) Copy of telegram from Kerr, Washington, D. C., to commanding general, Camp Upton, N. Y., and informal indorsement thereon signed "Scott." Also, attached letters from Col. D. C. Howard, to Col. George H. Scott, M. C., Camp Upton, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Upton) D.

(253) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Upton, N. Y. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Examination, Camp Upton) D, and 370.01-2 (Camp Upton) D.

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