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CHAPTER II

Contents

CHAPTER II

NATIONAL ARMY CANTONMENTS

CAMP CUSTER, MICH.a

Camp Custer was located about 5 miles south of Battle Creek, Mich., which, at the time we entered the World War, was a manufacturing city of nearly 30,000 inhabitants. The northern edge of the cantonment, upon which most of the barrack buildings were constructed, lay on a bluff overlooking the Kalamazoo River bottom. To the southward the area was rolling; there were numerous patches of hard woods and many small lakes and marshes. Being located on the medial moraine of glacial drift, the character of the soil varied in different parts of the camp. At the western end, the surface of the ground

was covered with a mixture of loam, with a small amount of clay, which mixture in rainy weather became a sticky mud. At about the center of the camp, near the location of division headquarters, there was an outcropping of sand, and though this facilitated the absorption of rains, during dry weather and when the winds were high it gave rise to much dust. At the eastern end of the camp, dust clouds often rose as high as 100 feet in the air. Because of the fact that all roads in camp, excepting the main concrete road, were not hard surfaced, the movement of troops along them raised much dust, necessitating treating

the surface of these earth roads with a binder. The main highway between Battle Creek and Kalamazoo passed through the heart of the camp. This road was concrete. To the north of the reservation the Kalamazoo River flowed westerly. It was bridged to the site of the river pumping station of the camp water system. Helmer Creek, originating in Hart Lake, flowed through the eastern portion of the reservation. It was crossed by several foot and highway bridges. Various other small creeks were scattered throughout the reservation, thus amply providing for storm water drainage. The climate

in this section of the country is severely cold in the winter, with the temperature as low, at times, as 20° F. below zero. The prevailing winds are westerly. The summers are moderately hot and dry.

On August 25, 1917, the commanding general, 85th Division, and his staff, together with the commanding officers of organizations, reported at Battle Creek, Mich. The organization of the camp was begun on the following day. The first increments of troops were received between September 1 and 15, 1917. Others were received from time to time. The strength during December, 1917, was approximately 24,000. The men sent to this camp were drafted men from the States of Minnesota and Wisconsin (eastern part, including Milwaukee). The 85th Division was organized here. This division moved overseas about August, 1918, subsequent to which time the 14th Division was organized. During 1918, beginning with April, increments of drafted men were sent to

* Except as otherwise indicated, the statements of fact appearing herein are based on "Medical History of Camp Custer, August 25, 1917, to May 15, 1918," by Lieut. Col. C. J. Bartlett, M. C., division surgeon, 85th Division. The history is on file in the in the Historical Division, S. G. O.


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this camp from time to time, by far the largest percentage coming from the State of Michigan. Additional drafted men were sent from Wisconsin, a considerable number from Indiana, Illinois, Pennsylvania, a few from Ohio, over 4,000 from West Virginia, 3,000 from North Dakota, and 2,000 from Alabama. A little less than 7,000 were received from other camps. The maximum strength of the camp, which was a little over 39,000, was reached in October, 1918.

The buildings of the cantonment were arranged in an L shape, the entrance to the camp practically bisecting the two limbs of the L. The barracks were located south of the main concrete road, which traversed the camp, and the stable section, quartermaster warehouses, and remount depot were situated to the north of the road. All barracks were of the "northern construction" type. Ventilators, located in monitors, extended the entire length of the buildings, providing ventilation direct to the second-floor squad room and through tubes to the first-floor squad rooms. Louvres, 6 by 18 inches and spaced at

10-foot intervals, were located in the ventilation monitors. In addition to this means of ventilation, in order to provide for further circulation of air, all windows were constructed so as to give full-size window openings and all casings were made one-quarter of an inch wider than the sash. All windows and doors of mess halls and kitchens were fly-screened.

The water supply for Camp Custer consisted of eight wells driven through glacial drift into the Marshall sandstone. These wells were located about 1,500 feet north of the Kalamazoo River in the southwestern part of Level Park. Ten-inch steel well casings were driven through the glacial drift and from 8 to 10 feet into the sandstone, thus sealing the sandstone from the overlying material. Ten-inch holes were then bored through the full depth of the sandstone to a blue clay substratum. The wells were about 200 feet apart, forming a line 1,400 feet long. The water level in the wells stood normally at an elevation of 798; the ground elevation of the site of the wells ranged from 812 to 818. The quality of the water was typical of the well water from the Marshall sandstone through this part of Michigan; that is, it was moderately hard and contained approximately 300 parts per million of total solids; bacteriologically, it was a thoroughly safe water. At the river pumping station, the lines from the eight wells were connected to the pumps through cast-iron suction pumps. The pumping equipment comprised three motor-driven centrifugal pumps, each having a rated capacity under a 200-foot total head, of 1,000,000 gallons per 24 hours. The level of the water in the storage tanks provided a static head of about 100 feet over the major portion of the cantonment. In order to increase this pressure, not only for normal consumption but also for fire protection, a booster pumping station was operated just below the tanks. This station comprised seven motor-driven centrifugal pumps designed to increase the water

pressure at the station by 100 feet. The main supply to the camp from the hill pumping station was through two 12-inch lines of wood-stave pipe. These lines connected with the main distribution system and branch lines.

Two sewer districts were provided, both with outlets leading into the Kalamazoo River. The east outfall sewer was the largest and provided service to all areas of the cantonment except the Artillery and base hospital areas. The estimated population to be taken care of by the larger sewer was 29,000, and


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the different portions of the sewer system ranged from 6 to 36 inches in diameter. As mentioned above, service for the Artillery and base hospital areas had an estimated tributary population of 6,000 and the size of the pipe ranged from 6 to 15 inches in diameter. Owing to the difficult and irregular terrain in the extreme eastern part of the cantonment, it was necessary to drain the sewage from the buildings of several of the regiments there, and then pump it into the east outfall. Normally one motor-driven centrifugal pump was sufficient to handle the sewage. The station operated practically automatically, and experience proved that one man was sufficient to care for it. Automatic electric circuit breakers, working by means of floats on the surface of the sewage, started and stopped the motor-driven pumps. On each of the two main outfall sewers, there were duplicate settling tanks with grit chambers. The purpose of these tanks was to remove the suspended matter from the sewage and thus relieve the load of organic matter on the Kalamazoo River and prevent the formation of offensive sludge banks thereon. Each plant provided a total displacement in the settling compartment above the hoppers of approximately five hours, based on a sewage flow of 55 gallons per capita. Sludge pipes were provided in each hopper for the removal of the sludge to the sludge-drying beds. At several points throughout the cantonment, it was not feasible at first to connect the buildings with the main sewer, so individual sewage disposal by means of cesspools was provided. These places included the truck company, incinerator, hill pumping station, and a group of buildings comprising the telephone exchange, Young Men's Christian Association auditorium, and several others. Plans were made in the spring of 1918 to eliminate the incinerator cesspool, and for caring for the above mentioned group of buildings by means of a sewage pumping station.

Garbage, after being separated at the kitchens, was hauled daily by the individual units to the garbage transfer station and there delivered to the contractor. The contractor removed all garbage and various other camp wastes daily. Garbage was collected in about 1,200 galvanized-iron cans. These were washed each day in hot water, by civilian labor, before being returned to the units. Carcasses of dead animals also were removed daily by the disposal company. Manure was in part sold by the reclamation department of the camp quartermaster's office, and shipped out of camp, at the rate of 10 cars a day,

 to a central receiving point, whence it was distributed by the State agricultural association. Part of the manure was disposed of by removal and covering with earth. At only one period during 1918 (in the latter part of the summer) did fly breeding occur in the manure dump.1 This was a very warm spell in the latter part of August following a wet period. At that time flies began to breed in the manure before it could be covered. This was remedied largely by burning the discarded straw from the bedsacks of the men over the top of the manure. Combustible, nonreclaimable rubbish, ashes, etc., were carted to two dumps, one situated at each end of the camp.

Adjacent to each barrack building was located a standard latrine containing toilets, urinals, washing troughs, and shower baths with hot-water plants. All fixtures were connected with the main sewer by means of modern sanitary plumbing fixtures. Sanitary drinking fountains were installed in each toilet building by the camp quartermaster. In the outside areas, not adjacent to


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the main sewer system, such as drill areas, pit latrines were constructed. Urinal soakage pits also were installed in various such areas for the convenience of the troops.

All buildings occupied by troops, with few exceptions, were heated by steam,  furnished by 12 large and several small central heating plants scattered throughout the cantonment. Automatic control valves were installed in all steam-heated buildings to obtain a uniform temperature. The buildings not heated by steam had large heaters in each room.

Kitchens and mess halls were integral parts of barrack buildings, and, with the exception of having small sinks, drain boards, and pantries, were well arranged. Two companies of cooks and bakers received instructions in their work under expert supervision, and as the men qualified they were placed in the units. A central bakery was provided where all bread used in the camp was made. Milk was supplied to the entire camp by a large dairy company of Battle Creek.

Meat was supplied to the camp on monthly contract with the packing companies. These companies shipped the dressed meat in quarters in iced cars to the distributing plant, where it was inspected, weighed out, and issued to the units. Artificial ice, manufactured locally by the camp quartermaster, was issued with the meat. The ice plant had a capacity of 20 tons a day.

A central laundry was operated by the camp quartermaster for the convenience of the camp personnel. All labor in the laundry was done by civilians.

The stables throughout the cantonment were of cantonment type, having earth floors, swinging windows, and ventilators in a roof monitor. In most cases the stalls were elevated above the center aisle by means of cribbing, thus providing drainage and facilitating policing. The remount depot was located on a slightly elevated area north of the central portion of the cantonment. The stables there were open on three sides; the corrals had long feeding and drinking troughs.

The Medical Department personnel of the 85th Division comprised 299 officers and 2,055 men. In general the personnel was efficient. The original assignment of personnel to organizations was by locality; that is, men from a definite locality were assigned to a definite unit. This practice worked a hardship on certain of the Medical Department detachments that were unfortunate enough to draw foreign-born men of a low degree of intelligence. Many of these men subsequently were transferred to other organizations, and this system of assignment was discontinued, in so far as the Medical Department was concerned. Instruction of the Medical Department personnel was carried on under the supervision of the camp Medical Department training officer. Field exercises were given to the sanitary train, and included work by both day and night. A field problem was given each week in which one or more of the regimental medical detachments participated in conjunction with the sanitary train.

The medical supply depot was located in buildings which were a part of the base hospital. This was reported by the camp surgeon to be an unsatisfactory arrangement which interfered with efficient management.


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The depot brigade consisted of headquarters and the cadres of a number of battalions. All men of the incoming draft were assigned to the depot brigade. Since there were no barrack accommodations in the depot brigade for incoming draft men, this was a "paper" assignment only, and the men were distributed for rations, quarters, and instructions among the various organizations of the division. When these organizations were below 50 per cent strength, the incoming draft men could be segregated; otherwise, segregation was practically impossible.

There were the following specialist boards and services: Orthopedic; neuropsychiatric; tuberculosis; psychological; cardiovascular; examining units for incoming drafts; special examiners. The orthopedic examiners inspected all newly arrived men before their acceptance. Examinations to determine whether or not shoes had been fitted properly were continuously made. The neuropsychiatric examiners were assigned to the examining units to inspect each man before acceptance. In addition they examined all men who were to be tried by a general court-martial, to determine the mental responsibility of the men. All cases of doubtful mentality among officers and enlisted men were referred to a neuropsychiatrist for study and an expression of opinion. The tuberculosis examiners surveyed the personnel of the camp in January, 1918; subsequently, they were attached to the examining units to examine all men of the incoming drafts. There was one cardiovascular examiner, who had one or more assistants detailed when incoming drafted men were to be examined. The work done was thorough and satisfactory. Two psychologists also examined the personnel of the camp. Especial attention was paid by them to the attendants at the officers' training camp. The drafted men of the first increment were assigned directly to organizations and then examined by the respective organizational medical personnel. All cases for rejection

were referred to a board of special examiners, which was centrally located. This procedure was abandoned when the system of assigning all men to the depot brigade was inaugurated. Subsequently, the examination of men of the incoming drafts was conducted by units of medical officers, consisting of one officer in charge and five assistants. The number of such units depended entirely upon the space available in which such examinations could be made. Inasmuch as no building definitely was assigned in the plan of the cantonment, for these examinations, at the time draft increments were received some building or buildings had to be vacated for this work. Under such conditions, the work of physically examining the men could not be done as expeditiously, nor could the men examined be safeguarded as well as the circumstances required.

The prevalence of measles did not constitute a serious condition at any time in Camp Custer.1 German measles was present in considerable numbers during the first 10 months of the camp, and the true measles incidence reached 176 cases in December, 1917. Both types were practically absent after July, 1918, and only 19 deaths were recorded as due to measles and its complications prior to the year 1919.

While influenza was prevalent prior to the epidemic in the fall of 1918, the maximum occurrence of 371 cases in April, 1918, was not alarming.1 The fall epidemic began September 23, reached its height on October 2, with 980


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admissions, and was definitely over before the end of October, with an occurrence of about 7,650 cases. There were 427 deaths.1

The majority of the cases of pneumonia occurring prior to March, 1918, were of the lobar type.1 The proportions of the two types were reversed after this period, the total numbers of the two for the period prior to September 1, 1918, being about equal. After September 1, the cases were nearly all of the bronchopneumonic type.1 The large number reported as primary bronchopneumonias during the fall of 1918 were undoubtedly related to influenza.

"Other respiratory diseases" constituted a large part of the total admissions for disease in 1918, and the 1,074 cases in September possibly included many cases of influenza.1 There was a total of 5,672 cases reported for the year.

Mumps was endemic throughout the camp period prior to the year 1919.1 The greatest occurrence was in February, 1918, 414 cases, with a total of 1,723 cases for the period.

Three development battalions were organized in the summer of 1918,  and by August contained 3,886 men, 1 battalion consisting exclusively of colored men.2 There were about 2,300 men remaining in November after the transfer elsewhere of 4,000.3 Meanwhile, the battalion that had formerly been reserved for colored men had been changed to a venereal battalion, and at the time in question contained about 1,200, both white and colored.3 This battalion was housed in tents, while the other battalions were in barracks more or less scattered and intermixed with barracks occupied by divisional

organizations.4 Each battalion had its own receiving office, and the assignment of men to companies was not determined by their disability. The battalions had been reduced to two companies by February 1, 1919, consisting of 26 venereal cases and the training cadres.5

The work of the convalescent center, while amounting only to a hardening process preparatory to discharge, was unusually well organized.6 All convalescents received from other stations were admitted to the base hospital and examined and assigned by a board of medical officers within 24 hours of arrival. Those assigned to the convalescent center were reported as ready for discharge when no further improvement in their condition could be expected, and were then presented to a board of review. The necessary medical histories were prepared when the men arrived at the hospital, and résumés of these accompanied them when they were discharged to the convalescent center.

There were 530 men in the center January 29, 1919.5 The number present then varied to a maximum of 263 until the center was closed March 22, 1919.7

Demobilization began about the middle of November, 1918, in the development battalion, followed by discharges from the depot brigade and of casual troops sent from other stations. About 10,000 officers and men were discharged before the end of the year, 1918.8 Demobilization was active until about July 1, 1919, prior to which time some 92,000 officers and men were examined and discharged, mainly from the 14th, 32d, and 85th Divisions.9 10 During the height of the work, the examining board consisted of 35 officers, whose record of men examined in one day was 2,250.9 The board was later


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reduced to 11 officers. The orders in force for this reduced board required the examination of 400 men per day, but 1,161 were passed upon on one occasion. Camp Custer was maintained as an Army post throughout the year 1919.10

CAMP DEVENS, MASS.

Camp Devens was located on an irregular plateau, about 300 feet above sea level, just outside of the city of Ayer, and approximately 30 miles from Boston.11 The terrain is rolling, and at the time of the construction of the cantonment the location was wooded with a second growth, mostly hardwood, of small size. The soil for the most part is gravelly but shows the variety common to glacial drift; consequently the cantonment was relatively free from high-flying dust in dry weather and sticky mud after rains.12 The climate is characteristic of New England; that is, it is moderately cold in winter and

not excessively hot in summer. Just to the north of the cantonment the Nashua River passed. This was of interest chiefly by reason of the fact that the towns above the cantonment discharged their sewage into it.13 To the south as well as to the east, and near by, were several ponds of varying size, which drained by means of small streams into the Nashua River. One of these, draining Robbins and Tufts Ponds, flowed through the cantonment. The main roads of the surrounding country were hard surfaced (bitulithic); collateral roads were made of gravel and oiled and rolled.

Since this was a National Army cantonment, the enlisted men were almost entirely drafted men. The first increments of troops were received during the month of September, 1917, and came from the New England States and part of New York.11 The strength gradually increased during 1917 until it reached a monthly average of 28,000 in December. During 1918 large numbers of men were sent to this camp, most of them coming from the New England States and New York; however, during the month of August 7,570 were sent from the State of Florida; also, 16,596 men were sent there from other camps during the year. The first division to be organized at Camp Devens was the 76th, which in the summer of 1918 moved overseas. After this time the 12th Division was organized and the camp again was filled with drafted men.

The division was housed in frame buildings. These, the camp surgeon reported, were practically always overcrowded, though at certain periods this was more pronounced than at others.14 Accommodations were provided for only 36,000 men, but this figure often was exceeded, more especially in August and September of 1918, when the strength was approximately 45,000 and 48,000, respectively.14

One dug well, 50 feet in diameter and 28 feet deep, furnished the bulk of the water supply, and was the only source of supply at first.15 Since the quantity soon proved insufficient, during the winter of 1917-18 the purchase of water from the city of Ayer was necessary. The well was situated near one of the ponds referred to above, and an effort was made to increase the flow of the well by pumping water from the pond to an improvised filter bed near by and on a  higher level, but the flow in the well was not perceptibly increased.15 Then, 40 wells were driven to a depth of 40 feet in the summer of 1918, and their supply siphoned into the large well.15 Although this water was potable, the presence


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of the adjacent pond made chlorination advisable. This was first accomplished by dosing the large well with a solution of chloride of lime, but later a liquid-chlorine machine was installed.

A contract was in force early in October, 1917, which called for the delivery of garbage by the quartermaster to a central point.16 Removal by the original contractor was not satisfactory, but improved after he sublet the contract in the spring of 1918.17 As regards sanitation at the transfer station, considerable early difficulty was experienced, because the construction of the garbage-transfer station was faulty, in that the supporting timbers of the unloading platform were above the concrete floor, the platform itself was of an openwork type, and adequate provision for the disposition of waste water had not been made.18 19 These faults eventually were corrected.

About 50 pit latrines and two incinerator latrines were necessary in certain parts of the camp, none of the pit type being allowed on the watershed of the well supplying the cantonment.18 An unusual feature of these pit latrines so late as the summer of 1918 was the use of urinal cans rather than troughs. The latrines were treated efficiently with coal oil and lampblack, so that at no time were they breeding places for flies or a menace to health.14 At the main well and at the grenade field on the watershed incinerator latrines were used. These proved entirely satisfactory.14

The same individual who contracted for the removal of the garbage also contracted to remove the manure, by railroad.17 During the winter of 1917-18 some difficulty was experienced, for cars and labor were scarce, and 35 carloads were on the ground early in the spring of 1918 awaiting shipment.17 On the whole, however, the manure was satisfactorily removed, and the fly problem in the camp was a very minor one.14

The collecting portion of a sewerage system for the cantonment was completed by the end of the year 1917, and the disposal plants soon after.14 Sewage meanwhile was discharged into the Nashua River without treatment. The main disposal plant consisted of sand beds located on a knoll of sand and gravel;20 no underdrains were provided, the effluent sinking into the soil. Each mess in the cantonment was provided with a grease trap, and these were apparently satisfactory for months.14 In the summer of 1918, however, it was observed that the high grease content of the sewage was gradually interfering with the operation of the disposal filter beds. The grease traps were small and mostly of the single-compartment type. These were replaced by larger types with a baffle, thereby furnishing an opportunity for the grease to separate from the liquid.21 22 A capacity of at least 1 gallon per capita served by the mess was considered necessary.

Only 12 regimental infirmary buildings were constructed originally, with a bed capacity of 10 each.23 The number of infirmaries was later increased to18,12 but some of these were evidently housed in buildings not of the infirmary type, for four had no bed capacity. None of them routinely accommodated bed patients.

Medical training during the first two months of the 76th Division period was confined mainly to the physical examination of draft troops and training in the duties required in the internal administration of the organizations.24 The extremely cold weather and the entire lack of personal equipment for officers


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and enlisted men until May, 1918, handicapped the outdoor training.25 12 A weekly meeting was held at which the division surgeon, all organization surgeons, the directors of ambulance and field hospital companies, and the commanding officer, adjutant, and chiefs of services of the base hospital discussed any controversies arising which concerned the care of the sick.25 Prior to the departure of the 76th Division, copies of all orders, instructions, etc., concerning the camp surgeon's office were prepared for the future use of that office.25 The entire Medical Department personnel of the 12th Division was trained at this camp from August 1 to December 30, 1918.14 The division was under orders to be ready to sail for France at the time the armistice was signed. At this time the Medical Department personnel was completely organized and equipped. Discipline was reported to be excellent and training preliminary to field service was excellent. The period for field training was interrupted by orders to sail, so this

training was not completed.14    

Measles was present in considerable numbers each month after October, 1917, the highest incidence being 183 cases in January, 1918.26 Measles cases were removed from their organizations and sent to the base hospital where they were cared for in measles wards. The whole of an organization involved was sometimes placed in quarantine for 15 days, during which period of time physical inspections were made at frequent intervals to detect new cases as soon as possible.14 Sometimes only the members of an involved squad were quarantined, and sometimes a whole squad room was quarantined. The latter method was used to the exclusion of others during the winter, though the isolation of squads proved to be just as satisfactory a method.14 Transfers from one organization to another were permitted, provided the transfers included infected units. 

Pneumonia played a very large part in the morbidity and mortality rates of the camp.14 At the base hospital, it was estimated that pneumonia could be held accountable for 45 per cent of days lost from sickness. The disease attacked both officers and enlisted men, but was approximately four times more frequent among enlisted men than among officers; furthermore, there were no complicating cases of empyema among the officers. Medical officers suffered to a greater extent than officers of other branches of the service. This was not because of contact in the care of cases of pneumonia; on the contrary, no medical officer, so far as it could be determined, contracted pneumonia while attending a case of this disease. The same statement is true of nurses and enlisted ward attendants. Lobar pneumonia occurred more frequently among the colored troops; bronchopneumonia, among the white troops. The cases of empyema complicating pneumonia were predominantly pneumococcic, but the mortality was highest among cases in which the streptococcus was present.14

Influenza in epidemic form was by far the most serious of the epidemics of the camp.14 It invaded the camp at a period (September, 1918) when the overcrowding of the barracks was most marked and came completely unheralded. The result was that in the course of a week or 10 days not only was the base hospital overwhelmed with patients but the regimental infirmaries as well. Medical Department personnel was entirely too inadequate to meet the occasion and it was only after considerable delay that the personnel deficiency was overcome. By the time the disease had exhausted itself more than 14,000 cases had


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occurred; there were 2,796 instances of complicating pneumonia, and 757 deaths. The case mortality was approximately 28 per cent.14

The occurrence of mumps was greatest during the period April to June, inclusive, 1918, and the last three months of the year.26 The 537 cases in the first-named period and the 326 in the second were sufficiently numerous to cause some uneasiness, because of the noneffectiveness produced.26

Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis was relatively uncommon, as compared  with the experiences of some of the other camps.14 The only time when it seemed to be assuming epidemic character was immediately after the influenza epidemic of September-October, 1918. This disease appeared first in September, 1917, and new cases arose each month throughout the year 1918.26 There were

9 deaths in the 35 cases occurring in 1918.27

The cardiovascular examinations of drafted men in the fall of 1917 were conducted by two specialists employed as contract surgeons.28 Approximately 2 per cent of all men examined were referred to this board, amounting to 646 men. Of these, 384, approximately 60 per cent of referred cases and over 1 per cent of all drafted men, were rejected.28 By the summer of 1918, this work was performed by a board of six medical officers which examined all recruits, rather than referred cases only.29 The entire enlisted personnel of the development battalion and such men as were referred by regimental surgeons were  also examined. The board was increased to 8 members, which examined 14,914 men in a period of about 10 days late in July.30 A large room was shared with the tuberculosis board for this work, the cardiovascular examination being made first in order to eliminate at once the question of tachycardia arising from nervousness or from previous exercise. The percentage of the total draft rejected, 2.64, was about twice as high as in 1917. The causes of rejections fell largely under the general heading "functional cardiovascular disease or myocardial insufficiency," determined by failure of the pulse rate to fall below

100 after several minutes of recumbent rest following exercise.30

A foot survey of all men in the camp was conducted in the spring of 1918.31 The men stood on the mess tables for observations as to shoe fitting, then removed shoes and socks for the foot examination. Two thousand could be examined in one day if there was no delay in their presentation. About 18 per cent of the men examined were found to have actual foot trouble or potentially weak feet,31 and 80 per cent were wearing shoes which were too short.32 This examination was conducted by the orthopedic surgeons stationed with the various brigades, by forming an examining team of four for each brigade as the brigades were successively examined. That military life had improved the foot conditions of 800 candidates for the officers' training camp was demonstrated by the development of the structures of their feet, their freedom from corns and callosities, and evidence of marked improvement in foot conditions which had existed when they entered the service.33 Only four candidates were rejected. The draft increments received after the spring of 1918 were given the orthopedic examination as a part of the general examination, including an assignment of shoe size.34 The system employed soon became systematized and was very flexible. The requisite number of examining units was used, each unit consisting of one orthopedist and six clerks. Each unit could examine


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from 40 to 60 men per hour. A special blank form was used, to accomplish the entry of the proper shoe size in the service record, the issue of the proper size, and any alterations that were indicated. This blank was made in the form of instructions from the commanding general of the camp, as previous forms without such instructions had been more or less ignored.34 The shoes issued were inspected at a later date. In this connection, many of the reclaimed shoes that were issued to the troops were found to be unfit for use, owing to the poor condition of the inner portion of the sole; some had been resoled when a hole existed entirely through the sole.35 The quartermaster's stock supply of shoes eventually became so complete as to permit giving all men their proper size. It was found that the greatest numbers were required in sizes 8½, 9 and 9½, E.35 A central orthopedic dispensary was established, and a report of conditions found in men examined as well as the treatment recommended was sent to the organization surgeon who had referred the man to the dispensary.35

The depot brigade received all incoming men and segregated them for two weeks.12 During this period of time they were examined and inoculated, and all records completed.12 The depot brigade also received men fit for domestic service only, when their organizations went overseas.12 The depot brigade was discontinued and transformed into a "demobilization group" on May 24, 1919.36

There were about 650 men in the development battalion by the middle of July, 1918.29 A month later, there were 3,050 men in three battalions, and the organization functioned as a part of the depot brigade.37 By the middle of October there were 4,152 men in four battalions.38 Of these men, about 134 were venereal cases, 151 neuropsychiatric, 368 cardiovascular, 800 non-English speaking, and 1,271 orthopedic.38 The venereal cases were segregated in one company, but the orthopedic cases were scattered through many companies.34 The development battalions ceased to exist about January 1, 1919.39

An "overseas convalescent detachment" was organized early in December, 1918, as part of the depot brigade, and received some 400 men during the succeeding month.39  Though the conversion of this detachment into a convalescent center was late in the making, the medical officers assigned were inexperienced in that class of work, and definite schedules for the work required were not so planned as to avoid conflicts.40 The medical work of the center was, on the whole, efficient. Of the several thousand men discharged, very few were held by the board of review for further treatment.40 The largest number

 of men in the center at one time was about 840, and there were 117 remaining early in July, 1919.41

The dental service was well organized and efficient, although the volume of work turned out was relatively small.42 Discipline was excellent, and the majority of the dental assistants were graduates in dentistry.42

Veterinary conditions in the camp, even as late as when the 12th Division was formed in the summer of 1918, were not good-stable floors were in very bad condition, there were many tree stubs and stumps in the corrals and the fences were poor, and protruding nails were to be found in stables and corrals.43 A central examining station for the inspection of locally purchased meats was established, but dairies supplying milk to the camp could seldom be inspected as


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no transportation was available.44 The location of the remount depot on wooded and rolling terrain gave excellent natural drainage and some shelter, but this advantage was offset by projecting roots in corrals.45 Being a northern camp, the corral sheds were inclosed on three sides.45 This auxiliary remount depot was still in operation at the end of the year 1919, although no officer of the Veterinary Corps was then on duty there.46 The veterinary hospital was desirably situated, in that it was conveniently accessible from all parts of the auxiliary remount depot.45 It was composed of 4 wards, each consisting of 2 small buildings and 2 barns. One barn in the hospital group was divided into box stalls, the others each had 4 box stalls and 22 double tie stalls. One ward was designated as a receiving ward. The four most prevalent diseases in the order of their numerical importance were thrush, dermatitis, colic, and lymphangitis. Glanders was first discovered in January, 1918, and 67 animals were destroyed during the succeeding three months.45  One other case was discovered in October, 1918.47

Camp Devens was maintained as a demobilization center throughout the year 1919, but the great bulk of the work was completed during the first nine months of the year, when 115,000 of the 194,000 men passing through the camp were demobilized there.36 This immense volume of work necessitated an examining team of 18 to 23 members, a maximum of approximately 4,500 men being examined in one day.48 Examination and discharge were accomplished so rapidly that troops remained in the camp for a comparatively few hours, and a proper state of police of the grounds was thereby made very difficult to maintain.36 The "sanitary process plant" (delousing) was working 24 hours a day and could handle nearly 200 men and their clothing every hour.36 Approximately 19,000 men were found to have a disability, and less than half of these claimed a disability before examination.36 This difference was partly due to a deliberate denial of knowledge of an existing disability in an effort to expedite discharge. On the other hand, one-third of the claims of disability were not substantiated. Many of these attributed existing acute conditions which were not permanent disabilities to previous gassing.36 The disability group was

 discontinued September 30, 1919.36

CAMP DIX, N. J.

Camp Dix was located near Wrightstown, N. J., about 20 miles southeast of Trenton. The site is a sandy plateau about 25 feet above sea level, and was well drained. There were, however, several large cranberry swamps to the south and east.49

The first increments of drafted men were from the States of New Jersey, Delaware, and the western and southern counties of New York State.1 The first men arrived between September 1 and 15, 1917. The strength gradually increased, giving a mean monthly strength of a little over 22,000 men for the month of December. During 1918, large numbers of men were sent to this camp from New Jersey and New York, and a considerable number from Pennsylvania, Delaware, Illinois, Massachusetts, Maryland, and North Carolina. Some scattered troops came from Rhode Island, New Hampshire, West Virginia, and other States. In addition to these men, who were mobilized for the


53

78th Division, a large number of troops passed through Camp Dix, after the departure of the 78th Division for overseas, about May, 1918, when this was used as an embarkation camp. In 1919, it became a debarkation camp. The maximum strength of the camp was for August, 1918, when the mean monthly strength was approximately 54,500.49

The men were housed in barracks, the capacity of which was about 38,000 men.1 The camp surgeon reported that at various times, and especially while divisions were in the camp, the population was increased greatly beyond the housing facilities and that as a result it was necessary to use many tents; furthermore, even with this expedient, there was overcrowding to an alarming degree.49

Existing surface wells furnished the only source of water during the first month of the construction work.50 This supply was inadequate, and the wells, which had shown no colon bacillus contamination at first, invariably did so after being pumped dry, apparently being contaminated by drainage from near-by barns and privies. Three shallow artesian wells were drilled in July and August, 1917, which barely sufficed to supply all personnel. The third of these promptly filled with sand and was wasted effort and expense. The water was distributed in truck loads of milk cans to elevated barrels, with faucets, placed throughout the camp. The permanent supply of the camp was obtained from a stream which drained an area of pine barrens, cedar swamps, and cranberry bogs.51 During the fall cranberry-picking season this area was contaminated by the Italian pickers.52 The large vegetable content and low alkalinity imparted a brownish color to the cold water and a reddish tinge to hot water, and required an unusually high degree of chlorination during the summer.51 At times it was acid in reaction, and then was destructive to boilers, etc.52 The ice made from this water was unattractive in appearance.53 One well was drilled early in 1918 to dilute the main supply and thus raise the alkalinity, thereby reducing the organic acids held in solution and, at the same time, the corrosive action.52 The main volume of water from this well was

ultimately used to feed the boilers at the pumping station, the excess being added to the camp supply.54 Wells were sunk at the refrigerating plant and at the power plant of the base hospital in order to furnish these two institutions with a more suitable supply.54 The pump in the well at the refrigerating plant went out of commission in September, 1919, a month after installation, and was not then repaired, as the water would be clear until spring.55 The main pumping plant was constructed in a pit 10 to 12 feet below the ground level and at about the same level as the water in the adjacent stream.56 It was

protected by an earthen embankment which threatened to give way during a high-water stage in 1919.56

Before the arrival of the troops, incinerators of the " Koerper " type disposed of all kitchen waste.50 One incinerator 8 by 4 by 4 feet disposed of all garbage from a cafeteria feeding 1,400 men. Relaying of the brick was required only once in 10 days, owing to the sandy nature of the soil.50 The above-mentioned incinerators disposed of all garbage during the summer of 1917, except coffee grounds.50 It was found the garbage would not burn if it contained these, but as they would not attract flies, they were put into open pits which were filled


54

to within 1 foot of the top and then covered with earth.50 Small sheds were built near the incinerators to house the men permanently detailed from the cafeteria employees to manage them.50 The disposal of garbage by contract began in November, 1917, and, as was true of many other camps, there was difficulty in obtaining a proper cleaning of the cans and in the prevention of soil pollution at the transfer station.57 58 59  Great difficulty was experienced also in preventing the exposure of garbage in the cans, as the retention of lids to fit the cans of the different sizes in use was almost impossible. However, the

system was working exceptionally well in the spring of 1918.5 A concrete loading platform was constructed in the summer of 1918 to facilitate garbage removal by train.60 The drainage from this platform was led into cesspools. The occasional difficulty encountered in placing and removing freight cars was eliminated later in the year when the contractors established a pig farm and removed the garbage by trucks.61 The cesspools at the transfer station failed at about this time and the drainage was discharged into a small stream. As this caused a decided nuisance, the cesspools were rebuilt and additional ones  constructed.61 A modern can-washing department and a Nye odorless incinerator were later added to the equipment of the transfer station, but this latter was so inefficient that it was little used.56

For the use of the laborers engaged in constructing the cantonment, pit latrines were provided during the summer of 1917, with urinal cans instead of troughs.50 The pits were covered with the double row, 8-hole type of seat, and their use by contractors' employees was continued into the summer of 1918.62

The disposition of manure by contract was inaugurated early, a farmer removing it three times a week during the summer of 1917.50 Another contract on a more extensive basis was entered into in the fall, under which the manure was removed in railroad cars.58 At this time the ground in the vicinity of the manure transfer station was burned over each evening with straw and oil.60 Separate loading platforms were ultimately constructed for the camp and the auxiliary remount depot, and aprons installed to catch the manure that fell between the platform and the cars.51 The camp commander authorized the

formation of a compost pile for the auxiliary remount depot in June, 1919, to which was partially credited the prevalence of flies in the camp during that summer, although the camp surgeon reported that fly breeding was satisfactorily controlled by daily spraying of the pile with a larvacide.54 55

The camp sewerage system was completed in the fall of 1917.57 The disposal plant consisted of the usual cantonment type of modified Imhoff tank, the untreated effluent being discharged into a small stream.57 The capacity of the disposal plant proved to be totally inadequate, and during the following summer sewage contamination of the stream was evident to ocular and olfactory senses for 9 miles below, and complaints from individuals and communities were continuously coming in.63 It was necessary periodically to empty the over-worked septic tanks into near-by shallow excavations, until a fly-breeding area of 1,000 square yards was created.64 Large increases made in the settling tank capacity, trickling filter areas, etc., did not entirely relieve the situation, and the chlorination of the effluent from the filters was adopted.63 The last of the new disposal units was completed in March, 1919, subsequent to which time the


55

effluent was satisfactory.55 The installation of new grease traps on all kitchen lines in November, 1918, caused a decided improvement in sewage disposal.63 Each trap was provided with a lock, only the inspector and the detail cleaning the traps having keys.65 The grease trap contents were removed in iron dump carts to the garbage transfer station, where it was allowed to stand until the grease arose to the surface, where it was skimmed and sold to the contractor.56  The residue, containing too much grease to allow of its disposition on the sludge beds, was emptied into large pits located near the stream which received the effluent from the sewage disposal plant.56 During the period of unsatisfactory operation of the disposal plant, the New Jersey State Board of Health prohibited the watering of cattle in the stream receiving its effluent.55

Large numbers of barracks and officers' quarters were found to be infested with bedbugs during the year 1919.55 The most successful treatment of these buildings consisted in the use of a portable steam sterilizer and spraying apparatus, operated by a special detail of 1 officer and 20 men.55 All bedding was sterilized, and all cracks and corners of the buildings were sprayed with a solution of crude oil on three successive occasions at intervals of 10 days.

The fluctuating strength of the camp in 1919 was largely responsible for very poor company messes.66 Difficulty was experienced by mess officers in estimating the supplies that would be needed, and the capacities of the kitchens were often taxed to the utmost, a kitchen planned to feed 250 men sometimes actually feeding 500 to 600.66 The abolition of the rations savings system and the forced purchase through the quartermaster were also potent factors. If a mess sergeant made a savings during the month, it reverted to the Government; if he spent more than the allowance, the difference was paid from the company fund, providing there was one, otherwise the company commander paid it; consequently, each mess sergeant spent a little less than his allowance each month and the camp as a whole showed quite a large ration savings.66 This made it appear that the ration allowance was more than sufficient, while in reality it was insufficient. Furthermore, although the camp was surrounded by truck farms, it was necessary to purchase this produce, in the quantities demanded by the quartermaster, in Philadelphia, with consequent delay in delivery, uncertainty of procurement, and damage to certain varieties during transporation.66 

German measles was present throughout the greater part of the year 1918, occurring most frequently in January, with 149 cases.49 The incidence of true measles was remarkably low, being only 45 for the month of May, its highest point. Camp Dix suffered somewhat from the spring epidemic of influenza in 1918, having 1,191 cases in March.49 The fall epidemic began September 10 and

ended October 13, with 5,367 cases admitted to the base hospital.63 Overcrowding in the base hospital was avoided by using 18 barracks as a "hospital annex," by using other barracks as a field hospital, and by retaining many minor cases in quarters.67 The "annex" was administered by the base hospital, the other group of barracks by the field hospital section of the 34th Division sanitary train.

The depot brigade provided 36 tents for use for "quarters" cases, and a room in each barracks throughout the camp was set aside for similar use. Additional medical officers were ordered to the camp, civilian nurses were obtained, and the services of men from line organizations who had had nursing experience were

 

56

utilized. Many "quarters" cases were not reported,67 but 6,033 cases of influenza are on record for the two months.49

The cardiovascular board was not primarily concerned in the examination of recruits until the spring of 1918.68 The regimental surgeons made the physical examinations and referred cardiovascular cases to a "reexamining board" at the base hospital. A "disposition board" in the depot brigade assigned cardiovascular cases to limited duty or to the base hospital for treatment. Authority to discharge any case already mustered into the service rested with the disability board, comprising members of the base hospital staff.69 An attempt to retrain a group of functional cardiovascular cases in the winter of 1917-18 was disappointing in results.69

The camp was divided into five zones during its occupancy by the 78th Division, each under the supervision of an orthopedic surgeon who visited each infirmary in his zone at a stated hour.70 The work in the quartermaster's shoe repair shop was also supervised by an orthopedic surgeon, not only as to alterations for orthopedic conditions, but also as to the selection of used shoes which were suitable for general repair and the quality of the repair work done. Any general follow-up system of the drafted men who required shoe alterations, etc., was impracticable after the change in the examination system of draft increments was made in the spring of 1918.70 The Form 1010 used in the examinations made no provision for entries concerning shoe sizes or foot conditions, and men accepted were assigned to the depot brigade for distribution to organizations. The only way to locate a man once accepted for service was through the camp personnel office, and the only way to regain contact with those requiring

shoe alterations was to wait for them to report at an infirmary for treatment, as no record of a recommended treatment was made at the time of examination.

The United Public Health Service did not assume supervision of the extra-cantonment zone, but the New Jersey State Department of Health established a branch office in Wrightstown and acted in the same capacity.58 The local health authorities were so indifferent to conditions concerning the welfare of the soldiers that Wrightstown was closed to soldiers for a month in the spring of 1918.64 The camp sanitary inspector supervised shops and booths dealing in foods and drinks.51

The precursor of the development battalion was a "physical reconstruction battalion," organized in the early spring of 1918, at the instigation of the orthopedic service.71 Its purpose was to care for men who required supervision while participating in limited physical exercise, such as foot and cardiovascular cases and convalescents from the hospital. While there were 800 foot cases in the camp in June who should properly have been placed in the development battalion,64 only about 300 of these were actually enrolled on July 20.72 There were 4,756 men in the battalions in October, 2,409 of whom were venereal, 294

orthopedic, and 22 cardiovascular cases.73 The venereal cases were segregated in separate companies. Cardiovascular cases were divided into three classes for training, as follows: Those given light calisthenic exercises; those given light calisthenics and two hours drill daily; those given ordinary physical exercises and the drills of a training company. Foot cases were likewise divided into three classes: Those given foot exercises on boards and light police duty; those given


57

foot exercises, light police duty, and two hours' drill per day; those given foot exercises and most of the ordinary training work. The battalions functioned as a part of the depot brigade.

The convalescent center was established about the first of the year 1919, and was housed in two-story barracks.74 The men were not grouped according to the disease but according to the degree of physical condition, as this method tended to remove the psychological influence of association with similar cases. The knowledge that men were ready for discharge from the service when they reached "class 1" was an incentive which  tended to counteract the lowered morale due to their long periods in hospital, uncertainty as to disposition, desire to go home, compensation questions, etc. The center was organized as an independent unit of five companies, and the strength was not allowed to exceed 1,200, including the permanent cadre.75 This limit was set in order to insure the prompt discharge of men who had reached a suitable physical condition; and on one occasion when it was exceeded, all officers of the organization were confined to the area until the necessary reduction occurred. The administration was so efficiently organized that any man could be readily found at any hour of the day for exercise or treatment. The permanent training cadre was large in proportion to the number of convalescents-344 to 424 in April, 1919, of which 40 were of the Medical Department.51 The number of convalescents steadily diminished from about 700 in January until 100 were remaining when then center was closed on May 31, 1919.76

Four dental officers arrived early in September, 1917, and 25 more arrived during the month.77 At this time there were eight portable dental equipments on hand and additional instruments and equipment were purchased from the arriving officers sufficient to assemble nine emergency outfits. To offset this deficiency in equipment the officers improvised operating chairs from scrap lumber and opened offices in such available places as would place dental service easily available to all organizations. Twenty-two portable and three base outfits were received later in the fall, and 16 additional dental officers arrived.

The base outfits were installed in the base hospital and the portable outfits in the regimental infirmaries. As the number of officers exceeded the number of portable outfits available, officers alternated in working at the chair. The first dental infirmary was completed at an unusually early date, April 26, 1918, and was supplied with 21 complete base outfits with laboratory equipment and with 22 dental officers.77 The volume of work demanded additional facilities, and a second dental infirmary was opened in September, 1918, with 10 officers, 9 portable outfits, and 1 base outfit, and a third infirmary was established in October, with 21 officers and 20 portable outfits.77 Neither of these two dental infirmary buildings was specially constructed for that use. During demobilization, effort was made to put the mouths of the men to be discharged in the best possible condition before their return to civil life.78 The work done in the camp from October 1, 1917, to April 30, 1919, amounted to 41,132 patients treated,

19,040 teeth extracted 79,923 permanent fillings, 7,423 temporary fillings and 4,622 root canals filled.77


58

Records of veterinary activity prior to June 1, 1918, are not discoverable; however, though at that time the newly assigned camp veterinarian had no assistants, he soon secured two officers and six enlisted men. A centrally located building was secured to serve as a dispensary. The animal ambulance service was conducted by the auxiliary remount depot, and was always far from prompt, delays in removing animals being as great as three days.79 Daily visits were made to all stables, at which time the stable sergeants presented their daily reports of animals and harness; animals, picket lines, etc., were inspected.

 Locally purchased meats were presented at the refrigerating plants for inspection before delivery. Dairy inspections were somewhat limited, owing to lack of transportation and the large number of dairies concerned. The State Health Department of New Jersey tested all dairy herds for tuberculosis every six months, so this item was removed from the necessary activities of the Army officials.79 The dairies were not up to standard in 1919, and interviews with some of the largest producers, in an effort to have them improve conditions and bid on the milk contract for the camp, were discouraging.80 The military

regulations were considered by the producers to have been so strict that they preferred to sell to the large dealers, who had few regulations.80 During the demobilization period, all veterinary officers arriving in the camp reported to the camp veterinarian for disposition.81 Each officer was offered 15 days' leave and the option, if his services were desirable, of being discharged from the service, of remaining in the service temporarily, or of accepting temporary service which would probably lead to a commission in the Regular Army. Various provisions were connected with the 15 days' leave at its termination,

 reporting to the nearest demobilization camp at its termination. The ruling finally adopted was to grant leave at once and allow the officer, at its termination, to report for discharge to the nearest demobilization camp.

At the remount depot, four large buildings of 23 box stalls each, arranged in a row end-to-end, each comprised a veterinary hospital.82 Until April, 1918, the veterinary officers served on the roster for veterinary officer of the day. Then this roster was discontinued and thereafter both veterinary and quartermaster officers were placed on one roster for general service as officer of the day. Veterinary officers and enlisted men were instructed in drill for one hour each day during the summer of 1918. Infantry drill was used at first, then Cavalry dismounted drill, and finally a provisional troop was formed and drilled in mounted formations. Early records are incomplete, but the most prevalent diseases among the animals were pneumonia, influenza, intestinal disturbances, and periodic ophthalmia.82 There were 503 cases of pneumonia, mostly in the winter of 1917-18, with 150 deaths, and 1,150 cases of influenza, with 61 deaths. Two cases of glanders were discovered in the fall of 1918, the only ones of record.

A very ingenious cipher was devised in one hospital for the identification of animals.82 The symbols were composed of combinations of straight lines by which any number could be represented, and the proper symbols were clipped in the hair with curved scissors. They were then plainly visible for about three weeks.83

For demobilization purposes, the physical examining team was composed of 55 officers and 60 clerks in January, 1919.84 On January 8, 34,655 men had


59

already been examined.84 The total number of demobilization examinations made at Camp Dix prior to 1920 was 316,494, disabilities being found in 23,454.85 The greatest number of men examined in one day was about 5,300.86 Advantage was taken of the opportunity given by the demobilization examinations in 1919 to obtain comparative measurements of the physical development of a large number of men.64 Two civilians from the Surgeon General's Office, directing the activities of 66 enlisted assistants from the line, took and recorded the measurements of about 1,000 men per day over a considerable period of time.64 An anonymous writer criticized the demobilization examinations to the Secretary of War, stating that they were perfunctory, that all men who were supposed to have been presented to the board of review were not seen by that board, that the main effort of the examiners was to protect the rights of the Government rather than the individual, that the recorded results of examinations were frequently in error, that accurate information was not obtained from many soldiers of foreign extraction owing to language difficulties, that the disabled soldier was not generally aware of his rights before discharge, and that the board of review had no satisfactory basis upon which the percentage of disability was based.87 The camp surgeon refuted all of these criticisms except two-he was not satisfied that the throat examinations had always been complete, and there was a possibility that men intended for the board of review had failed to follow the directions given them. He believed, however, that a man

who avoided this board could not have his papers completed without discovery of the omissions, and all chance of such an evasion of the board was removed by changing the station of the directing orderly.

Camp Dix was the center for the reception of nearly all casual officers arriving from overseas.88 Each officer of the Medical Department was interviewed in order to ascertain which ones were willing to remain in the service temporarily. Those who desired discharge usually received it the same day, even when the interview took place as late as 1 p. m. A delousing and sterilizing plant was put in operation about February 1, 1919, but the boilers were inadequate and became disabled after being in operation two days. A locomotive was then placed on an adjacent siding to furnish steam pending the installation

of new and larger boilers. Uniforms were put into the sterilizers in bundles during the earlier period and came out so badly wrinkled that it was necessary to establish a pressing department with 40 large pressers. With 4 portable sterilizers for the men's personal clothes, 160 men were passed through every 50 minutes. Blankets were replaced from stock. As the routine was eventually developed, the men were marched to the entrance of the plant with their surplus clothing in barrack bags. These bags were placed in the sterilizers. The men then entered the building and disrobed, their clothing being hung on coat hangers in sterilizers. The men then passed before a medical officer who examined them for vermin, skin diseases, etc., and on into the bathroom where the soap used had an admixture of kerosene. Any man found infested with vermin had all the hair on his body clipped before bathing. After the shower bath the men received clean underwear and socks and their own uniforms, taking the latter to the pressing room. After dressing, they proceeded to the sterilizers where their surplus clothing was returned to them. Shoes were sterilized by spraying with gasoline. The capacity of the plant was 2,500 men per day.


60

CAMP DODGE, IOWA

Camp Dodge was located 10 miles north of Des Moines, Iowa, on the westerly slope of a ridge which formed the eastern bank of the preglacial Des Moines River Valley, but now lies to the west of this river.89 90 Through this ancient valley now runs a small stream, Beaver Creek.90 The gentle slope of the camp site provided excellent drainage,91 but a terminal moraine across the Beaver Creek Valley created a swampy area of considerable extent a mile northwest of the camp.90 The soil of the camp site was a pervious sandy loam91 while that of the valley was an alluvial deposit many feet in depth which became very muddy after rains.92 Records from 1915 to 1919, inclusive, show a maximum range of temperature from 18° below zero to 110° F. above, an annual rainfall from 28 to 42 inches, and an annual snowfall from 25 to 40 inches.92

The divisional staff of the 88th Division arrived August 25, 1917, and formally opened the camp, and about 2,000 officers, noncommissioned officers, and detachments of enlisted men, training cadres for the division to be formed, arrived within a few days.93 A sufficient number of buildings were completed by September 1 to allow a small increment from the draft to be brought in, some 3,000 arriving September 5.93 The strength of the 88th Division had been reduced to less than 9,000 men by May, 1918, and a large proportion of the 7,000 men in the depot brigade were colored men.94 The division moved to a port of embarkation in August, 1918, and the 19th Division was organized the same month, the last of the Regular Army units reporting in October.95 96 The 19th Division was demobilized in Camp Dodge in January, 1919, and the 4th Division, Regular Army, arrived in the camp from overseas in August, 1919.97   The maximum population of the camp, about 46,000 was reported in July, 1918.98

The first source of water developed consisted of driven wells, connected with a dug well 50 feet in diameter as a pumping reservoir.91 These wells were all about 40 feet deep and located in the Des Moines River Valley. An additional supply from the river was passed through sand filter beds in the fall of 1917 and used without being treated, thus contaminating the whole distributing system.99 This second source was used only until two additional wells were driven, when this entire plant was removed. The number of driven wells was eventually increased to 22.99 The water from the wells was chlorinated. 

The sewerage system of Camp Dodge was completed in the fall of 1917.99 The effluent from the septic tanks was discharged into a near-by stream without treatment, the dilution having been sufficient to prevent the formation of any nuisance. The only fault that developed in the system was temporary blocking from deposition of sewage at several points where there was an insufficient velocity of the sewage flow. The auxiliary remount depot had a separate sewerage system of the same type.100 Waste water from the bathhouses and kitchens of the main camp was drained into the sewers.99 In the portion of

the depot brigade which was later established under canvas, water from the bathhouses was carried away in surface ditches, and the liquid kitchen waste was at first run into seepage pits. The use of these soon was discontinued, and the liquids then were carried to a sewer line and poured into a manhole. The use of pit latrines was necessary in some sections not covered by the sewerage


61

system.101 As the water supply came from wells on the rifle range, a Conley incinerator was installed there instead.

The disposal of garbage by contract was begun about November 1, 1917, the contractor paying at a rate of 5 cents per person for an unstated time.99 Garbage unsuitable for hog feed was destroyed in an incinerator located a half mile from camp. The camp transfer station was of unusual excellence, consisting of a platform in a building, steam jets and hot water in the can-washing section, a sedimentation tank in the wash-water disposal system, concrete roads on both sides, and a railway siding on one side.91 The only criticism was that the garbage was removed in barrels in freight cars and that both were very

foul.102 All garbage was hauled to the transfer station by the Quartermaster Department, where it was sorted by the contractor, but the kitchens made the primary separation into the specified classes.101 Their failure to do this properly interfered with the satisfactory working of the contract.103 A campaign against wastage of food early in 1918 was so successful that the contractor had to buy corn to feed his hogs and to reduce their number.103 Although his barrels and cars were still filthy in the late spring, little could be done about it until another contractor could be found, as the one then present was desirous of voiding his contract.94 Conditions at the transfer station became increasingly worse.95 Liquids leaked through the floors of the cars until there was an accumulation of organic filth, in August, 1918, 6 inches deep which was almost a solid mass of fly larvæ, and everything in sight was covered by a black mass of myriad flies. This condition was due to the local attempt to hold the contractor responsible

for the sanitation of the transfer station without active interference from Army authorities. Just when this condition was corrected is not stated, but the transfer station was in excellent condition and the contract was working in a satisfactory manner in February, 1919.104

Prior to February, 1918, the manure was removed by contractors to a point some distance from the camp.99 Another firm then took the contract, the Army delivering the manure at a point on the reservation where it was burned.103 The Government received nothing for the manure, and the contractor made his profit from the potash recovered. This method of disposal was discontinued about the end of the year, 1918, the quartermaster thereafter attempting to burn it in piles, but so unsuccessfully that there were 20 acres covered with windrows of unburned manure in June, 1919.105

Red Cross Ambulance Company No. 30, organized in Denver, Colo., and Red Cross Ambulance Company No. 21, organized in Flint, Mich., formed the nucleus of the sanitary train of the 88th Division, the remainder being formed from draft troops.102

Fifteen infirmary buildings were constructed, only 12 of which were used for the purpose intended, in 1917, owing to the inconvenient location of 3.106 One of these latter was occupied by the tuberculosis board. The capacity for bed patients was 10 for each infirmary. One area a mile long had no infirmary building and no suitable space in existing buildings for use as such. Some infirmaries cared for mild cases of illness in the spring of 1918 and some sent all to the base hospital.94 All 15 were operating in the early summer of 1918, but only a few had established a mess.101


62

The large volume of cool air present under the barracks was used to lower the temperature of the mess storerooms during the summer.107 The storeroom windows were kept open and protected by awnings, the door into the kitchen was kept closed, and protected holes were cut in the storeroom floor. This method was so effective in the care of perishable food supplies that it was quite generally adopted throughout the camp.

The question of food conservation was studied early in Camp Dodge, with the result that the garbage from the 16,000 men in camp in December, 1917, amounted to 5 tons daily, which was below the average for the mobilization camps.108 This was accomplished by detailing one officer in each regiment and separate organization to make a written report on food wastage, by general care, and by requiring that each man who left unconsumed food on his plate would have this remaining portion served to him at the next meal. The field bakery was a model in the sanitary handling and in the quantity of its products.108 It was well screened, scrupulously clean in facilities and personnel, and bread was issued through a screened and double-trapped chute directly into the boxes belonging to the individual companies. All entrances were vestibuled, with two screen doors, all window screening was covered with cheesecloth to keep out dust, and a man was continually on duty in the vestibules to kill flies.91

The physical examination of drafted men was made on the second day after their arrival.109 Two teams, of 38 officers and 88 enlisted men each, made the physical examinations of draft troops in 1918.110 Each team had two team captains in addition, one of whom passed on the results of the completed examinations and the other supervised the work. Another officer acted as manager of the entire program, and was responsible for the building, the care of records, police, schedule, etc. One team worked in the forenoon and one in the afternoon, in one barrack set aside for their use. One thousand men could

be examined per day, and 89,994 men were examined during the year.

There was little relationship between measles and climatic conditions at Camp Dodge, such as existed in the majority of camps, the high waves of incidence being associated rather with the arrival of new troops.107 The first crest occurred in January, with 250 cases for the month, March showed the highest of all, with 356, and July followed, with 261.98 The rise to 112 cases in November was probably due to cross infections in the base hospital, measles cases being mistaken for influenza.107

Influenza was prevalent in Camp Dodge almost from the first, with a high incidence, during the earlier period, of 955 cases for March, 1918.98 Very few cases were reported in August, 1918. The first case of the epidemic in the fall of 1918 was admitted to the base hospital on September 18.111 The exact source of the epidemic was doubtful, but it was evident that the disease followed the lines of travel. The influence of acquired immunity to this disease was proved by the difference in its incidence in two regiments of Infantry. One had recently come from Alaska and a post in Washington, and had not been

exposed to influenza. The other had been exposed in the Hawaiian Islands and had had 300 cases. Forty-eight and one-half per cent of the former were affected and only 6.5 per cent of the latter. The epidemic covered the period


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from September 20 to October 20.107 The number of cases which occurred during this epidemic is variously stated.107 A report originating in headquarters, Camp Dodge, Iowa, states that there were 10,008 cases among the 33,070 men in the camp. This is a considerably higher figure than the number of cases reported to the Surgeon General, but probably includes many minor cases which did not get on the official reports and is therefore more nearly accurate. The disease occurred in smaller numbers through the remainder of the year 1918 and the following winter, with only 189 cases in 1919.100

The occurrence of pneumonia shows a decided peculiarity, in that there were three separate waves, each wave having a distinct etiologic factor.112 There were some 276 cases prior to March 20, 1918, comparatively mild in character and mainly of the lobar type. The second wave, from March 20 to May 10, produced nearly 400 cases of clinically lobar pneumonia, of a severer type and due to the hemolytic streptococcus. From May 10 to September 20 there were 125 cases of the lobar type in which the hemolytic streptococcus was not greatly in evidence. The third wave was due to the fall epidemic of influenza, this disease being very largely responsible for the 2,400 cases and almost 700 deaths.98 The frequency of empyema as a complication during the first wave steadily increased to its maximum of about 28 per cent of cases in January.112 Empyema in the second wave occurred in about 35 per cent of all cases. The communicable nature of the pneumonia of the second wave was shown by the fact that the major portion of the cases occurred among the colored troops, where it originated, and the white troops in their vicinity.102 There were 110 cases of pneumonia in 1919, usually secondary to some acute condition.100

Meningitis was no more than potentially alarming except in the winter of 1917-18 when 20 cases occurred during December and January, although 1 or more cases were reported nearly every month.98 Only 3 cases arose in 1919.100

In the extra-cantonment zone, the local board of health was active in the fall of 1917, and the United States Public Health Service was actively cooperating with the board.91 All houses within a radius of 10 miles were provided with sanitary privies, the owner furnishing the material and the county the labor. All booths for the sale of food and drinks were kept in a satisfactory condition, and the board of health furnished the division surgeon with daily reports of contagious diseases. The following summer, the efficiency of the United States Public Health Service representative was excellent, the State board of health

was active, but the city board of Des Moines was inactive.95 The United States Public Health Service had discontinued its activities by September, 1919, but the boards of health were both active in the supervision of places where food and drinks were sold and of fly and mosquito breeding.113

A detention camp in Artillery stables which were not in use was planned early in 1918, to have a capacity of 2,000,103 but the camp was eventually established in tentage with a capacity of 10,000.114 Meanwhile the construction of buildings to provide a detention camp for 4,000 men and a quarantine camp for 1,000 was begun about July 1, 1918, and largely completed when construction was stopped at the end of the year.115


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There were two development battalions in existence by the middle of August, 1918, with a total strength of approximately 4,300 men.116 One battalion was for white troops and the other for colored troops; there were about 500 venereal cases among the whites and 1,500 among the colored men. Two medical officers were assigned to each battalion for duty. Early in November, there were 6 medical officers on duty with the 2 battalions, and 1 sergeant and 10 privates of the Medical Department with each battalion.117 There were 2,177 men in the battalion, of which 465 were venereal cases, 262 orthopedic,

182 cardiovascular, and 605 neuropsychopathic. The development battalion was absorbed by the convalescent center in January, 1919.118

Soon after the convalescent center was organized, there were 5 medical officers, 24 line officers, 15 enlisted men of the Medical Department, and 170 enlisted men from the line on duty with the convalescent center.119 The men in the center were divided into two main groups, casuals and convalescents, the casual group containing all those who were ready for discharge. Assignment of convalescents to the five platoons of the convalescent group depended on the character of the disability and the length of time required to fit them for discharge. Some of the 523 convalescents were retained in the base hospital.

There were 1,572 men in the center, at the end of January, 1919,120 in April, 1919, there were 8 medical officers, 37 line officers, 18 enlisted men of the Medical Department and 246 enlisted men of the line on duty with the center.121 About 6,800 men passed through the convalescent center before it was closed on May 31, 1919. The number of men in the center at the end of January was never exceeded.120

The dental officer who was to have charge of the dental service for the 88th Division arrived at Camp Dodge September 4, 1917.102 The first steps in the organization of the work were the securing of 25 dental chairs from the University of Iowa and the purchase of 5 outfits of supplies and instruments in the open market in Des Moines. Thirty-two dental officers arrived a week later. The supplies purchased and those brought to the camp by the individual officers were distributed and work was started about October 1. Each officer made a dental survey of the men in the organization to which he was assigned, the men reporting at the dental office for examination. As the presence of foci of infection was considered to be the most serious dental condition in soldiers, those needing extraction were called in first, then treatment and filling work were begun. All broken appointments were investigated, and disciplinary action initiated when repeated. When it was later found that some men were willfully neglecting the care of their teeth, dental surgeons were required to accompany the medical officers on the regular semimonthly physical inspections and to examine the men as to oral cleanliness. Provision was made for military

 instruction of dental officers and the instruction of enlisted assistants. A weekly meeting of all dental officers was held, at which the division dental surgeon issued his general instructions. The Camp Dodge  Dental Society was formed and held weekly meetings, at which the programs covered the special fields concerning Army dentistry. Courses of instruction in the various techniques were carried on during the same period. A dental infirmary was opened late in June, 1918, but the available equipment was at first sufficient to keep


 

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officers employed only on alternate days.122 A second infirmary was opened opened in October, again with insufficient equipment. This latter infirmary was closed about February 1, 1919. Dental work with recruits was not well organized until August, 1918, when the plan was adopted of confining this work mainly to that of oral hygienic nature, including the extraction of teeth which it was not practicable to treat.122 This work, like that of the remainder of the camp, was interrupted by the influenza epidemic, when the dental officers were used as assistants to ward surgeons in any and every position in which

their services could be used.

Available records of the veterinary activities date from August, 1918.123 Animals were quartered in the closed type of stables.124 No epidemics of disease occurred in the camp, and to prevent their introduction from outside sources all animals privately owned, or strayed and caught, were inspected and mallein tested before being allowed to come into contact with Government animals.124 The rarity of colic was notable. All meats and meat products locally purchased were presented at the refrigerating plant for inspection before delivery.123 Any dealer who failed to comply with this requirement was barred

from the camp for 15 days for the first offense by a camp order.125 There was no instance of a second offense being committed. About 15 farms in the adjacent country which furnished raw milk for sale in the camps were inspected every two weeks or oftener, any animal found dead on these farms from an unknown cause was reported to the division veterinarian, and all cattle were tuberculin tested and reactors slaughtered.123

At the remount depot manure was allowed to accumulate in the corrals from the time first occupied until May, 1918, when they were thoroughly cleaned and the manure removed weekly thereafter.126   The water troughs in the corrals were originally constructed of wood and their capacity was inadequate. These were replaced by concrete troughs of larger size in September, 1918. Boxes were built about the water pipes and filled with manure as a protection against freezing. The south sides of the sheds in the corrals were open and two windstorms in the spring of 1918 destroyed over half of them. A

large corral was divided into three sections in September, 1918, and used as a quarantine corral. The hospital consisted of 8 corrals, 8 ward buildings, 4 operating-room buildings, and 4 forage-room buildings. The wards contained a total of 80 box stalls and 112 open stalls. Deaths during the winter of 1917-18 were due principally to influenza and pneumonia-125 of the former and 68

of the latter. The first case of glanders was detected in August, 1918, and three others reacted positively to the mallein test prior to March, 1919.127

Demobilization began November 22, 1918, and was conducted by a special force organized for the purpose and known as the demobilization group.128 The force conducting the physical examinations, during the period of most active work, consisted of 16 officers and 35 enlisted men, working in one shift from 7.30 a. m. to 5 p. m.105 129 This force was augmented by three or four medical officers during periods of special stress, usually about five days in each month.129 One medical officer and one enlisted man were detailed to examine officers. The men to be demobilized were grouped for examinations, when practicable, such as in the execution of exercises before the orthopedist.


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The only important change made in the technique of the examinations was the introduction of a routine inspection of the ear drums in June, 1919.128  The  maximum number of men examined in one day was 2,971.130 Demobilization was officially discontinued November 25, 1919, the force having examined 208,827 men.128 Disabilities were found in 14,782 men.130 Only 2,228 were retained for further treatment, 88 of these on account of active tuberculosis and 173 for venereal disease.128 The explanation of these small numbers was that the bulk of men with disabilities had been eliminated by previous inspections held between the point of debarkation and a camp so far inland as Camp Dodge. Venereal disease was more common among the men who had served only in the United States than among the men who had served only in France. The difference in the venereal incidence found in the demobilization and mobilization examinations was striking and is an argument in favor of repeated inspections. Camp Dodge was still functioning as an Army post at the close of the year 1919.

CAMP FUNSTON, KANS.

An area in the eastern part of the Fort Riley, Kans., military reservation, lying in the alluvial plain of the Kansas River, was selected as the site of Camp Funston.131 High bluffs bordered this plain on the north, and it was traversed by a sluggish, tortuous creek. The city of Manhattan lay 14 miles to the east, Junction City 8 miles to the west, and the post of Fort Riley 4 miles to the west. The summers were very hot and the winters cold. The country was subject to severe windstorms; and as the main rainfall occurred in late spring and early summer, severe dust storms were common during the fall and winter. The mud was thick and adhesive and appeared to be almost bottomless during the rains. The roads in the surrounding country were unimproved.    

Drafted men were sent to Camp Funston from several Western States.132 The first troops arrived between September 1 and 15, 1917, and the strength was gradually increased. The maximum monthly strength in 1917 was approximately 27,000 in December. During the year 1917, troops came from Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, South Dakota, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska. A few were received from other States and approximately 500 from other camps. The 89th Division was organized here and moved overseas about June, 1918. A part of the 92d Division also was organized here and moved overseas at about the same time as did the 89th. After these divisions left, the 10th Division was organized. During 1918, drafted men were received from the same Western States named above, also from Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Alabama. A considerable number of men were received also from other camps. The maximum strength was for September, when there were approximately 50,000

 men in camp.

The troops were quartered in barracks, the layout of which was in straight lines running east and west. Several faults in the early construction of the camp which were of interest to the Medical Department were noted. The steam-heating system of the barracks was of the low-pressure type which had no provision for a return flow; the waste steam discharging under the buildings condensed in sufficient quantities, in some instances, to flow out and form large muddy areas.132 As first constructed, only about one-third of the kitchens


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were screened.133 Dining room and kitchen table tops were constructed from matched lumber, and it was necessary for the organizations to reconstruct them with removable boards to insure thorough cleaning. There were two ranges in the kitchens, but only one was connected with the hot-water tank, as it was feared that two connections would produce a greater pressure than the soldered-joint tanks would withstand. As it was soon proved that the demand for hot water was so great that there never was any, both ranges were connected.133

Five bored wells near the camp area, about 40 feet deep, furnished the water supply in the fall of 1917.134 Since the water was not potable untreated, it was chlorinated. A temporary reservoir was located on the hill overlooking the camp, but certain areas which were at an elevation above the main camp were without water at times.131 133 The number of wells was later increased to nine, the new ones extending to a maximum depth of 70 feet.135 The water having a high iron content and being very hard, a softening and iron-removal plant was constructed in the fall of 1918. Two water lines were connected with

the Fort Riley system as an auxiliary supply, but this was not used to any great extent.136 Only three wells were maintaining a good flow by the end of the year 1919, with a capacity estimated to be sufficient for 30,000 troops, allowing 50 gallons per man per day.137

The strained garbage was destroyed in four cone-pit incinerators prior to the time of its disposal by contract early in October, 1917.134 These incinerators effectually disposed of about 325 cans of garbage daily. Though the garbage transfer station was not completed until after November 15, 1917, it was in use at that time.133 It was poorly located, one side being inaccessible to trucks. The can-washing system included hot-water coils in an incinerator, but the garbage was so well separated at the kitchens that there was very little refuse to burn, necessitating an excessive use of coal.138 Also, since one of the washing

tanks served as a reservoir for hot water, fragments of garbage would block the coils.137 A medical officer was on duty at the transfer station to insure its proper operation as well as to check on food waste.131 The quartermaster transported the garbage to the transfer station in cans which were emptied into the tank trucks owned by the contractor.136 Later, when the detention camps were

established, the tank trucks there collected directly from the kitchens, and a steam boiler, mounted in a wagon, followed to sterilize the cans with live steam. The detail in charge of this did not wash the cans, however.

As no one could be found who would remove the manure from the camp without expense to the Government, it was burned in windrows.133 Difficulty in removal of manure during the winter of 1917-18 and attempts to burn it in two large piles resulted in an accumulation, but burning in smaller windrows proved efficient in the spring of 1918, and the winter's accumulation was destroyed.139 The ashes from the burned manure were used at the refuse dump to cover burned refuse and garbage which could be disposed of in no other way. About 300 tons of manure were produced daily in the early fall of 1918, a small part of which was pressed with coal slack into briquettes and used as fuel under boilers. This experiment was highly successful and warranted extension.136

The camp sewerage system was in use before the middle of November, 1917.138 As there were no towns below the camp for some distance, the sewage


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was discharged into the river without treatment. The system discharged by gravity when the river was low, but required the use of automatic pumps when the river was high.136 The construction of the outfall was faulty, in that the sewage was discharged onto the bank of the stream rather than directly into the water.136 The auxiliary remount depot and one of the detention camps were connected with the main camp system.136

Because of the dust nuisance in camp, and particularly because it was believed that so much dust in the air in the fall of 1917 caused a mechanical irritation of the air passages, thus predisposing to respiratory diseases, all camp roads and a goodly part of the exposed ground were oiled.136 This attempt to prevent flying dust proved unsuccessful: it did not penetrate sufficiently to bind the earth well, consequently the inhabitants of the camp were annoyed with a heavy, oily dust instead of the impalpable, dry dust. Watering roads and grounds, and the planting of grass proved much more effective in laying dust than did oiling.

The ambulance service of the camp, until the departure of the 89th Division for overseas, was furnished by the motorized ambulance companies of the sanitary train of that division.140 Much difficulty was experienced during the winter of 1917-18 because of the freezing of the water in the radiators of the ambulances. To overcome this, efforts were made to have the ambulance sheds inclosed and heated, but a recommendation to this effect was disapproved by War Department.140 Because several ambulance radiators froze up while the ambulances were operating between the camp and the hospital, 3 miles to the

west of the camp, the expedient of replacing the water of the radiator with petroleum was resorted to, with very satisfactory results. After the departure of the 89th Division, a camp ambulance service of 34 men and 12 ambulances was organized, with personnel from the depot brigade.141 This service was improved later when assumed by a camp ambulance company of 122 men, 18 motor-drawn and 12 animal-drawn ambulances.142

A quarantine camp under canvas was established during December, 1917, with 2,500 beds and a field hospital on duty to furnish medical attendance.143  A detention camp of similar size was established in February, 1918, also with a field hospital on duty.143 Both of these camps were officially designated as detention camps, the former as detention camp No. 1, or Camp Pawnee, and the second as detention camp No. 2, or Camp Republican. There were 1,209 men in detention camp No. 1 at the end of January, 1918; 600 were meningitis carriers, 550 were mumps contacts, 50 were measles contacts, and 9 were diphtheria contacts.144 To administer the camp required 30 line officers, 15 medical officers, 190 enlisted men from the line, and 50 enlisted men from a field hospital. Medical officers from the Medical Officers' Training Camp at Fort Riley held sick call twice a day, and a medical officer inspected the camp every two hours during the night to insure that proper ventilation of the tents was maintained

and to care for any sick. A guard was stationed in each street at night, and a part of his duty was to notify his superior of any emergency sickness and to act as a guide to the medical officer who responded to the call. To prevent sickness from exposure and from contact infection while men were waiting in line for treatment, culturing, etc., each man wore an overcoat, during the winter,


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and the waiting line was marched in circles with not less than one pace distance. The actual waiting line at the entrance to the treatment room was kept short, five men at a time being dropped from the marching column as necessary. These measures reduced the sick rate to a point well below that of Camp Funston. Detention camp No. 1 was entirely occupied by the development battalion in November, 1918, and over half of this command were occupying one-story barracks.145

A "remedial battalion," established as a part of the depot brigade, was a predecessor of the development battalion.141 It was considered by a general sanitary inspector as "an unnecessary evil," since 70 per cent of its 900 strength in June, 1918, were unable to do much of anything, and the efforts to improve this inefficient, crippled lot of men had made them worse. Three development battalions, efficiently organized, were operating in August, 1918, with a strength of 6,410 men.146 One battalion was reserved for white venereal cases and one for all colored men. Each battalion was divided into four companies. Company A consisted of men fit for combat duty. Company B was divided into two sections, one composed of men who were then fit for domestic service only but who would eventually probably be fit for combat duty, and the other composed of men who would never be fit for anything but special service. Company C comprised men who would ultimately graduate into Company B and possibly into Company A. Company D included all who were to be discharged for disability. A reorganization of the battalions into two regiments of three battalions each was later made, one regiment composed of white men and the other of colored.145 There were 4,375 men in the 2 regiments in November, of which 1,742 were venereal cases, 357 orthopedic, 346 neuropsychopathic, and 195 cardiovascular.

The convalescent center was organized in January, 1919, with about 250 convalescents.147 Scarlet fever and measles contacts were placed under its control,147 the other work of the center consisting exclusively of demobilization activities, owing to an absence of instructions as to its real purpose.148 By April, the center was composed of two sections, a general section in Camp Funston and a separate section at the base hospital in Fort Riley.149 All men requiring vocational courses or occupational therapy were sent to the latter place, but practically all administrative work was centered in Camp Funston.

The permanent cadre of enlisted men numbered 88. The greatest number of convalescents in the center was about 400, in April; the final report of the convalescent center was rendered May 10, 1919.150

An excellent system of physical examination was organized early in 1918, use being made of two barracks with an inclosed passageway to an intervening latrine and bath.141 Recruits were met at the railroad station and taken directly to the first barracks, where their civilian clothes were packed in suitcases for shipment back to their homes. The men then proceeded to the bathhouse and took hot baths, the quartermaster furnishing soap and towels. All examinations were made on one floor of the second barracks. If a man was accepted, he was furnished with a complete equipment by the quartermaster;

if rejected, his civilian clothes were returned to him. The board also reexamined men who had been accepted with supposedly remediable defects.


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German measles was quite prevalent in September, 1917, during which month there were 349 cases, then was rare until January, 1918, when 290 cases were reported, and rare again after May, 1918.132 True measles was seldom reported until November, 1917, when there were 148 cases. There was a second wave rising to 110 cases for the month of April, 1918, and a third extending over the fall of 1918, with a crest of 272 cases in November.

Influenza was epidemic in Camp Funston almost from the beginning, 922 cases being reported in November, 1917, and 2,480 in March, 1918.132 The fall epidemic of 1918 produced 3,534 cases in September and 11,290 in October. The base hospital was soon filled, so several buildings, erected by welfare organizations, and a number of barracks were converted into temporary hospitals.151 Field hospitals of the divisional sanitary train manned these emergency hospitals, with the assistance of commissioned personnel from the base hospital, depot brigade, and specialists' boards, and of nurses from the base hospital.152 Enlisted men from the line were hastily trained to take temperatures and care for patients. All cases even suspected of having pneumonia were sent to the base hospital.151

Lobar pneumonia was the predominant type prior to the influenza epidemic in the fall of 1918, chiefly primary. The same type was in the majority during the influenza epidemic132 undoubtedly due to the inclusion of influenzal pneumonias with the primary cases. Even in the cases which followed influenza, there were 50 per cent more lobar pneumonias than bronchopneumonias, but this is accounted for by the deliberate classification as lobar pneumonia of cases which showed a large area of consolidation which was still less than one lobe.151 There were 4,678 cases of pneumonia in 1917 and 1918, with

1,226 deaths.132 The entire command was inoculated with pneumococcus lipovaccine, with an encouraging decrease in the incidence of pneumonia at the end of the year.153 Primary pneumonia was practically eliminated.

Mumps was of importance in Camp Funston on account of the large numbers of men involved and its continual presence.132 There was a small epidemic of 226 cases in September, 1917, but the disease had almost disappeared in December. There was an explosive increase in January, 1918, to 1,402 cases, and 1,992 cases occurred in February. Convalescent cases were cared for in barracks designated for that purpose.143 Covered passages were built connecting these barracks with the lavatory and toilet sheds. The incidence steadily decreased thereafter until a gradual increase began in October which reached

463 cases in December.132

Meningitis was continually present from September, 1917, to the close of the year 1918, with a total of 148 cases.132 This was not surprising, as the surrounding States had constituted an endemic center of the disease for many years, and the bulk of the troops were drawn from these States.133 The identification and care of carriers was an immense undertaking, 1,200 being in the quarantine camp at one time in February, 1918.143 The entire command was cultured, the proportion of carriers in organizations usually varying from 5 to 8 per cent, but being as high as 12 per cent.154 The immunization of the entire command against cerebrospinal meningitis was initiated in January, 1918, but available records do not show its completion.155


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A complete disruption of the dental service of the camp occurred when the two divisions departed in May and June, 1918.156 Every dental officer left with the divisions, and new and inexperienced officers were sent as replacements. A visiting dental inspector assisted in the reorganization of the service by installing certain dental officers in the dental infirmary building which had formerly been in use, by arranging for the final steps necessary in the completion of a new dispensary building, and by the collection and distribution of equipment, etc. The dental work performed from October 1, 1917, to April 30, 1919, included the following: 17,167 extractions, 57,453 permanent fillings, 4,911 temporary fillings and 4,952 root canal fillings.157

The first enlisted men of the Veterinary Corps, 89th Division, were obtained December 15, 1917, by transfers from various medical detachments.158 The balance of the enlisted men for the veterinary service of the division were obtained in February, 1918. The commanding officer of each unit followed a prepared schedule in instructing the men in his unit, and lectures were delivered to officers and enlisted men of the line on the proper fitting of harness, etc. The stables were inclosed structures, most of them with 32 double stalls each. The windows were open constantly, being so constructed that the entering current

 of air was directed upward. Animals were stabled at night, groomed on the picket line, and turned into the corral for the remainder of the day when not in use.

All fresh milk received in camp prior to the summer of 1918 was furnished by firms in Kansas City which were bonded to supply only Pasteurized milk from tuberculin-tested cows.159 A new contract was let to a firm in Junction City in August, 1918, with the same conditions, after an initial inspection had been made of the dairy herds which were to furnish the milk.

The remount depot was poorly located, the area being too flat to afford efficient drainage.160 Fortunately, the soil was sandy and mud did not last long after a rain. The corral sheds were inclosed on three sides. There were two fenced pastures of 800 acres each, and when the grass was short the animals were herded outside.161 Extensive ditching and filling was performed by 100 civilian workman in the spring of 1919.162 The maintenance cost of the depot was so excessive that plans were approved for its removal to a more suitable site, but there is no record that the move was made. Eight ward buildings, eight stables, and eight other buildings, with corrals, constituted the veterinary hospital.160 The leading causes of animal disability prior to February, 1919, were as follows: Influenza, 1,165 cases; wounds, including picked-up nails, 652; pneumonia, 590; strangles, 343; thrush, 153. Four cases of glanders occurred in April, 1918.

The physical examinations in connection with demobilization were begun in November, 1918, with 10 examining teams of 6 medical officers each.163 At this time, however, only four teams were operating, the other teams being in training. All medical officers of the 10th Division were given instruction in this work, one officer from each organization being assigned to a team for a period sufficient to allow him to become competent. Two boards were conducting the examinations in January, 1919-a division examining board and a camp examining board-one functioning in the convalescent center.147


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In April, 1919, one board was located at the convalescent center at the base hospital, and was conducting about all the activities of the convalescent center.164 This board was attempting to make the demobilization examinations of all men having a disability, leaving only strictly sound men for the regular camp board. It was duplicating the work of the camp board in many respects. There was a board of review connected with this board which had no relation to the board of review connected with the camp examining board. Little coordination obtained between the camp board and the demobilization unit. The board did not know at what times or in what numbers men would appear for examination, and no appointments could be made beforehand. The system in use in the demobilization unit was based on making the pay rolls for groups of 20 men, priority of names on the rolls depending on the availability of correct statements for entry in the "remarks" column of the pay rolls. It was necessary to maintain these groups as originally constituted, through the entire process of demobilization until discharged, in order to avoid error. Forms for use by the examining board were forwarded to the board in advance, so that the necessary data could be transcribed on local record forms before the men were presented for examination. The board of review connected with the camp examining board also examined all officers to be demobilized. Only one disability board was in existence, as required by Army Regulations, but it functioned in two sections, one for medical cases and one for surgical cases. Formal demobilization was

discontinued July 15, 1919, the small numbers presenting after that date being examined by a board at the base hospital.165 In all, 77,862 officers and men were examined, and 2,790 were found with some form of disability.

CAMP GORDON, GA.

Camp Gordon was situated 12 miles from Atlanta, Ga., in a country of rolling hills which had originally been densely forested.166 In addition to the many small streams tributary to the Chattahoochee River,166 there were numerous springs and marshy places in the camp area.167 The soil was a mixture of sand, clay, and loam, which was easily converted into dust or mud as weather conditions varied. Although the temperature seldom reached 100°, the long summers were marked by periods when the heat was oppressive. Excessive rain or wind storms did not occur. Improved roads in the surrounding country

were not the rule.168

During 1917, the first drafted men were received from Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee.169 The first troops arrived between the 1st and 15th of September. Something over 22,000 men were received from the other camps. In 1918, the largest number of drafted men came from the State of Georgia, some from Alabama, a considerable number from Tennessee, as well as from New York, Illinois, Ohio, and Iowa; also a considerable number from other camps. The maximum strength was in August, 1918, when there were approximately 47,500 men in camp. The 87th Division was organized here and moved

overseas about May, 1918. After this division left, the camp was used as a replacement camp and was again filled with drafted men.169

When construction was begun, the camp site was dotted by numerous farm houses and barns, all in a most insanitary condition.167 Each farm had


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a "dug" well, usually contaminated, as were all springs and streams. As a preliminary to construction work, all buildings were razed and the sites policed, burned over, and finally, plowed. Wells and springs were closed and sealed, and wells located on neighboring farms were placarded to the effect that their use was prohibited by all persons except the occupants of the houses.187 The camp area was divided into districts for construction purposes, and the burlap bag system was adopted to care for the policing.167 Bags were placed at convenient places for the disposition of refuse, the water boy collected all waste from the laborers' central lunching points, and all bags were emptied into other bags at a central point in each district. The use of temporary latrines was necessary pending the completion of the sewerage system.170 Pit latrines were used for soldiers and for the civilian employees in general, and straddle trenches for the sewer, grading, and moving gangs.170 As many of the civilians engaged in the

construction work boarded at local farmhouses, frequent surveys of the adjacent territory were made. Several cases of typhoid fever were found and the necessary steps were taken to prevent its introduction among the camp employees.

The city of Atlanta furnished water for Camp Gordon, the source being the Chattahoochee River.167 While the major portion of the watershed was sparsely inhabited there was an area in its lower reaches which contained numerous houses and one village, the sanitation of which was far from satisfactory.167 Since the water usually was turbid, it was sedimented, treated by coagulation, and was then filtered. Though this method was satisfactory, and no colon bacilli were found in the filtered water ordinarily, the water was chlorinated by the city.171 At the camp, five 200,000-gallon storage tanks were

constructed.172 These proved inadequate, for in the spring of 1918, when 3,000,000 gallons of water were being used daily, there was insufficient water in the tanks at times for fire protection.173 In consequence, 4 additional storage tanks of 200,000 gallons capacity each were constructed in September, 1918.174 During the summer of 1918, a few colon bacilli appeared in the water,175 and because the city chlorinating apparatus was not to be relied upon, the Quartermaster Department, in July, 1918, installed a liquid chlorine apparatus at the camp.176

The camp sewerage system, although incomplete, was of necessity put into use on September 20, 1917, the effluent from the septic tank being discharged into a small creek, without treatment.177 One-half of a sprinkling filter was put in operation December 5, 1917, receiving half of the effluent from the septic tank.177 This disposal plant was unsatisfactory from the beginning.174 There was poor distribution of the sludge in the septic tank, no digestion, and offensive odors were produced. It was necessary to remove the sludge by hand labor in February, 1918, and bury it.174 Later, however, it was discharged into the creek on several occasions during periods of high water. Stone of improper quality and sizes and mixed with dirt had been used in the construction of the sprinkling filter, with a resultant pooling of the sewage.174 The discharge of the faulty effluent from this portion of the filter bed and of raw sewage direct from the septic tank resulted in numerous complaints from


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property owners along the stream below.178 Ultimately the whole mass of stone was removed from the filter bed and the bed reconstructed properly.178  In addition, a grease trap on the main sewer line, screen and grit chambers, and sludge beds were added. These improved the effluent of the septic tank but made little change in the digestion of solids.178 The grease collecting in the trap was mixed with so much fecal matter that it was of no value and had to be buried, and the grit chambers held a deposit of sludge rather than grit.179  A 24-inch grease trap was then constructed in each kitchen drain, but these

were too small and much grease was carried through into the main sewers and interfered with the digestive process in the septic tank as before.171 It was necessary to use crude oil on the scum in the septic tanks to prevent fly breeding.180 A suction pump was installed in the winter of 1918-19 to remove the sludge from the septic tank, but it failed to work.181 The completion of an additional septic tank in March, 1919, and the coincident reduction in the  population served by the sewerage system, at last resulted in a tank effluent which was clear and free from all odor.182

Waste water from the bathhouses and kitchens was discharged into the sewerage system.166 Before the completion of this system, liquid waste from the kitchens was passed through improvised grease traps into soakage pits.167

At first, farmers were allowed to remove the garbage in the cans, the only requirement being that they clean the cans before returning them.167 Soon after mobilization was begun, however, a contract was let for garbage and wastes disposal. The firm which had contracted for the disposal of all varities of waste unfortunately fired the incinerator, for the disposal of the garbage not suitable for hog food, too soon after its construction.183 and as a result the incinerator had to be temporarily discontinued for repairing, thus necessitating burning the garbage either in deep trenches or at the dump.184 The various

organizations were responsible for the delivery of the sorted garbage at the transfer station.166 The contracting firm accepted all varieties of garbage except coffee grounds and the rinds of citrus fruits, and was willing to remove the same directly from the kitchens but was not permitted to do so.185 The garbage was removed from the transfer station in iron tank wagons, but a can-washing system was not installed at the station until the spring of 1918.173 The incinerator again became out of order in the winter of 1919, and the unusable garbage was burned, as well as possible, at the dump.182

Manure was hauled away by farmers until January, 1918,166 when a contract was let for its disposal.185 The contractor was to build a loading platform, and the Army was to put in the concrete floor and keep the latter policed.185 Inability to obtain cars caused the suspension of the contract a month later, and the disposal of the manure to farmers was resumed, with fairly satisfactory results.186 It was again being removed in freight cars before May, 1918,173 but the major portion was later used as fertilizer on the farms which were operated by the Quartermaster Department.180 Removal by rail had been discontinued by the summer of 1919; the contractor now hauled manure from the camp proper to a near-by farm, and formed a compost pile with manure from the auxiliary remount depot.187 The pile was trimmed, oiled, and the edges of it were burned in an effort to stop its fly breeding.187 This method of storage, being unsatisfactory, was discontinued in August.188


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With the exception of the division surgeon and the division sanitary inspector, who were assigned to the division by War Department orders, a nucleus of Medical Department personnel, consisting of both officers and enlisted men, was assigned to the 82d Division from the Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga.189 The Medical Department organizations were then completed by assigning to them the requisite number of selective service men. In this connection it is appropriate to state here that early training in some of the divisional Medical Department organizations, particularly the sanitary train, was seriously handicapped because the division headquarters transferred away from them many especially qualified enlisted men to other branches of the service within the camp, and without regard to the value of the men to the organizations from which they were transferred, and replaced them with men of inferior intelligence and ability or with physical defects.177 The regimental medical detachments were particularly unfortunate in this respect, for not only was advancement in training difficult but they were confronted with the fact that many of the men were physically unfit, by reason of minor disabilities, for overseas service, thus necessitating a further replacement.175 After the 82d Division left the camp for the American Expeditionary Forces, there remained in the camp 241 officers and 1,079 enlisted men of the Medical Department,166 of whom 8 officers and 8 enlisted men were on duty in the camp surgeon's office.190

A squad of 15 men, working under the supervision of the camp sanitary engineer, formed the nucleus of the first sanitary squad of the 82d Division, in January, 1918.185 The personnel finally selected for the two squads which were to accompany the division overseas consisted of men with excellent qualifications.173 A camp sanitary squad of 26 men was used for drainage work after the departure of the division.173 The strength was soon increased to 50, a labor battalion furnishing the labor required for camp sanitation.175 In September, 1918, 31 men were in the squad, with an addition of from 50 to 100 men detailed from the depot brigade. This number was reduced to 21 during the winter of 1918-19,191 but was again increased in the following spring, 2 sergeants first class, 4 sergeants, 2 corporals, and 18 privates being detailed for the work.192 In May, the enlisted personnel of the squad was replaced by civilian laborers under competent foremen.193

A two-story barrack building was used for the physical examination of drafted men, but as no changes were allowed to be made in its internal structure it was not particularly adapted to the purpose.174 The only passageway between floors was an outside stairway, and several stages of the process were necessarily simultaneously conducted in each room.

The examining board consisted of 14 medical officers and 32 enlisted men.166 Drafted men upon arrival were inspected for contagious and infectious conditions, and then sent to the casual detachment.166 Inside of 48 hours, as a rule, they were ordered for physical examination, a group of 60 reporting every 45 minutes under a commissioned officer.166 Three blank forms were used. One of these was in duplicate, so that original entries of the results of the physical examination could be made on the one to be retained, later to be transcribed to the others as required.166 An abbreviated note was made in the corner of a man's examination form if a defect was found, for the purpose of quickly bring-


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ing the defect to the attention of the special examiner. Enlisted men made the routine tests of sight and hearing.

Measles seldom was reported until November, 1917.169 The number increased to 495 cases for December, almost disappeared in February, 1918, then gradually increased to 190 cases in August.169

Influenza was prevalent in Camp Gordon from the first, and reached a crest of 723 admissions in December, 1917.194 The crest of the second wave came in April, 1918, with 856 cases, and the third wave began in August, with 238 cases.194 For September and October, 1918, the bulk of the cases of influenza were reported locally as "nasopharyngitis," at the request of the camp surgeon,194 since inflammation of the conjunctivæ and nasopharynx was a common symptom.169 The fall epidemic began in troops on the rifle range, early in September, and there were about 5,000 cases by October 12.169 The epidemic

reached its maximum on September 25, but the incidence of the disease remained high until October 9. Official reports for September and October showed only 896 cases, but about 4,400 of the cases reported as "other respiratory diseases" should undoubtedly have been included in the influenza total.169 A final report from the camp surgeon placed the total number for the two months at 6,011.176 Two features of the efforts made to control the influenza epidemic in the fall of 1918 are credited with being mainly responsible for the unusual results obtained.176 The incidence of influenza reached its highest point about two days after the introduction of the use of chlorinated water as a twice-daily gargle and nose douche by the entire command.176 Every person in the camp was also required to wear a gauze mask continuously. The measures for handling the epidemic were so arranged that the intensive training of recruits was not interrupted, and the October shipment of trained men was delayed only nine days.176 Masks were worn and the chlorinated-water treatment was continued on troop trains en route to ports of debarkation, with the result that no cases of influenza or pneumonia were reported to have developed en route.176

The incidence curve for pneumonia followed rather closely that for influenza, with high points in January, April, and August, 1918.169 The only surprising difference is that the high point for pneumonia in the summer occurred in August, when the influenza curve was on the rise, rather than later and closely following the high point for influenza.169 The low incidence of pneumonia as an influenza complication in the fall of 1918 was undoubtedly due to error in diagnosing such cases as primary pneumonias.169 Even so, the death rate for influenza pneumonias was unusually low.

Mumps occurred in two long waves, the first beginning in September, 1917, and more or less steadily rising to the crest of 789 cases in May, 1918.169 The second wave began in July and reached the crest of 318 cases in November, 1918.169 There was a total of 4,838 cases prior to January 1, 1919.

A section of the depot brigade, with a maximum housing capacity of 2,000 men, was used for detention purposes in connection with the arrival of men newly assigned to the camp.173 This section was used also for quarantine purposes, there being no special quarantine camp.173 The method of detention and quarantine was as follows:173 As soon as the men reported at the camp they


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were inspected, by designated medical officers, for contagious and infectious diseases, including venereal or acute or chronic skin infections. Such men who were found to be suffering from any of the above conditions immediately were taken care of either by admitting them directly to the local base hospital, in the event they were suffering from contagious disease, or giving them necessary and appropriate treatment, if such treatment was all that was necessary. Men not admitted to hospital were placed in quarantine in the respective barracks to which assigned. Here a careful check was made while this quarantine was in force, and if any of the contagious or infectious diseases occurred among them, the case involved was immediately removed to hospital, and his bedding and personal clothing were sent to hospital for disinfection. If the case removed was one of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis or diphtheria, throat cultures of all contacts immediately were made by an officer from the hospital laboratory

to determine the presence of carriers. If such were present they, too, were removed to hospital for appropriate treatment. The quarantine extended over a period of 14 days.

A development battalion was organized the middle of July, 1918,175 and two battalions were operating a month later, with a combined strength of 2,621,195 over one-third of whom were venereal cases, quarantined in a special camp.174 As at first organized, the battalions were not accomplishing their purpose; that is, men with irremediable defects were not being sufficiently rapidly discharged from the service, and men with remediable defects were not being returned to a full duty status as soon as they might have been. So, in September, 1918, a reorganization was effected. Men now were separated into

sections representative of the different classes of cases.174

The convalescent center was organized in January, 1919,191 the first report rendered showing a convalescent strength of 405.196 This was increased to 482 one week later, then gradually fell to from 40 to 60 during June and July.197   The center was divided into four companies in April, under the command of a line officer, and with six medical officers attached.192 The center was closed about August 1, 1919.197

The remount depot was located on very rolling terrain, traversed by several small streams.198 The local physical characteristics were apparently not considered when the depot was laid out, resulting in the location of some shelters and feeding racks on low ground and the unnecessary inclusion of low, wet areas within the corrals.198 Furthermore, the depot was close to the confines of the camp proper, and on account of its nearness to troop quarters, as well as the general unsuitable terrain, local protests were made against the proposed plans before construction was started.198 The objections were overruled by War Department on the ground that the disadvantages were not of such prime importance as to warrant the delay incident to a change in plans at that time.199 A two months' period of cold weather in the winter of 1917-18, followed by warm weather, caused an accumulation of mud and manure that was knee deep in places.198 The report of this condition by a visiting inspector initiated marked

activity in efforts to put the place in a presentable condition.200 Drainage was improved, low-lying areas were fenced, and rotary sweepers, scrapers, etc., provided to insure the daily removal of manure.177 All of the winter's accumu-


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lation of manure, except about 100 carloads, had been removed by May, and the general condition of the depot was excellent.177 Conditions suffered a relapse later, for there were 6 to 18 inches of manure in nearly every corral in June, 1919, and an enormous number of flies were breeding there.201

Twenty-nine medical officers constituted two teams to make the physical examinations in December, 1918.202 This arrangement was changed to 1 team of 20 in January, 1919. Examinations were made on four days a week, and the daily capacity was something over 400. The system was much improved later by using three teams in eight-hour shifts, taking a man's complete medical history and making a thorough physical examination.203  One thousand five hundred men per day could then be examined over an indefinite period, and 48 hours was the maximum time allowance for accomplishing discharge, except for cases which were retained for treatment.203

Camp Gordon ceased functioning as a demobilization center on November 5, 1919. Meanwhile 116,228 men were examined, among whom only 969 were determined to have disabilities.202

CAMP GRANT, ILL.

Camp Grant was located in the north central part of Illinois, on the Rock River, 1 mile from the city limits of Rockford.204 The camp area was fairly flat, sloping gently toward the river,205 with a precipitous descent to the bottom lands.204 The river banks were wooded. The soil was loam overlying gravel and sand,204 and did not absorb water readily; large areas retained the surface water for 24 hours or more after heavy rains.205 There were two concrete roads to Rockford,204 but the majority of the roads in the vicinity were unimproved.205

The first increments were drafted men.206 The first of these arrived between the 1st and 15th of September, 1917. During 1917, practically all the drafted men sent here were from the States of Illinois and Wisconsin; those from Illinois came from Chicago and surrounding countries, including some of the large cities. The maximum monthly mean strength during the year 1917 was approximately 28,000 in October. It declined then and the mean strength in December was approximately 22,000. The 86th Division was organized here and moved overseas about August, 1918. Following this, the camp was used as a replacement camp, and was again filled with drafted men. It reached its maximum strength in October, when 56,000 men were in camp for the month. During 1918 large numbers of men were received from Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin, a considerable number from Indiana, Mississippi, North Dakota, Idaho, North Carolina, Louisiana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Also, a large number was received from other camps.206

A company of Engineers and another of Infantry from the Illinois National Guard arrived at the site selected for Camp Grant in the latter part of June, 1917, the former for construction duty and the latter for guard duty.207 Reserve officers of the Quartermaster Corps, United States Army, arrived at about the same time, and an officer of the Medical Corps, United States Army, reported July 10 to act as sanitary inspector.207 There were 1,500 civilians at work when the sanitary inspector arrived, and the number was rapidly increased to 8,000.


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One temporary well furnished an inadequate supply of water, the additional supply being hauled from near-by farmhouses in tank wagons. The latrine pits, which were being constructed when the sanitary inspector arrived, were lined with concrete. This was at once discontinued, and the contractor furnished a detail of 100 men, with 3 wagons, to construct pits as required and to care for those already in use. The pits were placed as a rule, in the areas which would later be the company streets. These pits were treated with chloride of lime, only those in outlying areas being burned out, owing to the fire risk from the great quantities of shavings, scrap lumber, etc., lying about. Seepage pits were constructed at the kitchens, kitchens and messes screened, stables regulated, and arrangements made with a local reduction plant to remove the garbage. Flytraps were constructed, a group of boys hired to bait the traps and to kill flies, and fly poison and fly paper used. An incinerator of sufficient size to burn all wastes, including the manure, was constructed. Persons living in the buildings or on the grounds without authority were removed. Analysis of the sources of water supply of adjacent dwellings was obtained through the State University of Illinois. An educative campaign was inaugurated before the civilian workers were urged to accept vaccination for typhoid fever, with excellent results. The contractors completed a regimental infirmary building at an early date and used this as a dispensary for emergency and minor treatments of their employees.207

The first temporary well provided for the construction crew was supplemented, in July, by two additional temporary wells.207 The presence of gas-forming bacilli necessitated chlorination of the water from all three. In August, 1917, eight wells were driven near the Rock River to a depth of from 120 to 180 feet, and a 300,000-gallon reservoir was constructed.208 The water was at first chlorinated, due to the presence of colon bacilli,208 but the contamination had disappeared by November.209

As stated above, garbage was removed from the contractor's messes by a firm conducting a reducing plant.207 A contract for the disposal of the camp garbage was let early in September, 1917.208 The organizations were to transport the garbage to the transfer station and the contractor was to remove it in the cans for hog feed.205 The condition of the garbage transfer station was reported

as being extremely unsatisfactory in October.205 A wide area about the station was littered with rubbish; a large pile of half-burned organic rubbish was near the station; the ground where the carts backed to the platform was soft, rutted, and mixed with trash and garbage; and the cans were very inefficiently cleaned. These conditions were not corrected for some time, being worse, if anything, six weeks later,210

but the station was in excellent condition a year later.211

In the absence of a contract for removal of the manure after the arrival of troops, it was hauled to a dump 2 miles distant.208  A contract was let later, and it was being removed by rail late in October, 1917, but numerous piles were still found about the camp.205 In the summer of 1918, the contractor was hauling the manure away and burning it for the potash recovered from the ashes.212 A year later, the comparatively small amount then being produced was hauled to neighboring farms.213


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The camp sewerage system was completed early in September, 1917,208 and, unlike most of the cantonments, included provisions for carrying off the storm water.204 The untreated sewage was discharged into the Rock River.208

A camp nutrition officer was first appointed in October, 1918.214 A camp mess supply had been established prior to that time to provide a means of centralization of outside purchases with the resulting benefits of quantity purchase, central inspection, etc.214 This institution, supplementing the commissary, provided the messes at all times with an available variety of food substances for the formation of satisfactory menus. The nutrition officer made careful inspections of the messes, sometimes in conjunction with the inspectors from the school of bakers and cooks, who regularly visited those messes where student cooks were detailed. As the messes in operation were too numerous to permit the nutrition officer personally to supervise them at all times, a form for weekly reporting by the organization sanitary inspector was devised. This report gave information on sanitary conditions and showed the frequency with which various articles of food appeared on the menus.

The physical examination of drafted men was not well organized for the first increment.208 The men were assigned to organizations and uniformed, then waited a week before being examined, owing to the nonarrival of the duplicates of a certain form. After the first of the year 1918, the examinations were made at the depot brigade, use being made of a building of a welfare organization.215 One end was divided into three dressing compartments with a capacity of 75 men each. From these the men passed a table where they received the blank forms to be used, then they went to the general examining units, and

finally they passed through an aisle, at the end of which there was a neuropsychiatrist. If accepted, they were vaccinated, their identification records made, and they passed before a representative of the camp surgeon for final review. Men rejected by the general examining units were reviewed by special examiners and by a representative of the camp surgeon, and, if finally rejected, by the latter examiners, they were conducted to the dressing room and then to a large tent where the personnel officer and the quartermaster made out their final papers and discharged them. The average number examined per day

was 1,880. The time required for the examination of a man varied from 13 to 24½ minutes, dependent upon the type of the individual. The average for the different sections was as follows: General examination, 4½ minutes; waiting in line, 2 minutes; inoculation, ½ minute; identification record, 6 minutes; and final inspection, 3 minutes.

Influenza was not as prevalent in Camp Grant in 1917 and the first half of 1918 as it was in many other camps, attaining a maximum monthly incidence of about 300 cases in April and May, 1918.206 The fall epidemic began September 21 with extreme suddenness, and nearly every organization in the camp was involved within 48 hours.216 Of the approximately 40,000 men in the camp, 10,736 were attacked during the period September 21 to October 31, inclusive,217 and 8,000 of these were attacked during the first 10 days. Many of these cases were mild and were not officially reported as influenza.216

Pneumonia, the lobar type especially, was quite prevalent from the first, with three minor waves occurring in January, April, and July, 1918.206 The


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great increase in the fall began in September and reached its crest in October, with 2,544 cases for the two months.206 The majority of cases prior to the year 1919, both primary and secondary, were reported as being of the lobar type. Laboratory examinations indicated that the infection was due to a virulent strain of the pneumococcus, and that the hemolytic streptococcus and the influenza bacillus appeared infrequently.218 The mortality rate was relatively low prior to the influenza epidemic of the fall of 1918, but it then suddenly increased to approximately 45 per cent.206

The United States Public Health Service did not participate in the supervision of the extra cantonment zone at Camp Grant, control being invested in the Illinois State Board of Health, with local authorities actively participating.219

Neither a quarantine nor detention camp was maintained, infected companies being isolated in their barracks and while at drill.212 In the depot brigade, separate detention barracks were designated in each unit. The construction of quarantine and detention camps was begun in November, 1918,211 but was suspended before the end of the year.220

The first development battalion was organized July 1, 1918, with 459 men, in three companies.221 The strength increased rapidly and on August 14 there were 4,071 men, in four companies. The second battalion was organized on August 14 by the transfer to it of 1,934 colored men from the 1st Battalion. Eight medical officers were on duty with the battalions at that time, not including six who conducted the camp venereal clinic. Men were transferred to the battalions in such large numbers that they were at first distributed to companies indiscriminately, the segregation of venereal cases in separate companies being the only attempt at classification.222 The men were physically examined and classified as soon as rosters of the companies could be prepared, but little could be done in the way of physical training because of the inadequacy of officers, both medical and line. There were six battalions early in November, with approximately 4,000 men. Five battalions consisted of colored men, about 98 per cent of whom were venereal cases. Venereal cases in all battalions were segregated by companies, and they were restricted to their company areas by guards. At this time, there were 21 officers and 48 enlisted men of the Medical Department on duty with the battalions and 13 officers and 27 men with the camp venereal infirmary.222

The convalescent center was organized in January, 1918, the center personnel consisting of 5 officers and 14 enlisted men of the medical department  and 29 officers and 67 enlisted men of the line, with a convalescent strength  of 646.223 The number of men examined during February was 1,319.224 In March, the center personnel comprised 9 officers and 27 enlisted men of the Medical Department and 31 officers and 33 enlisted men of the line.224 The convalescents were classified upon arrival as (1) fit for discharge, (2) soon fit for discharge, (3) requiring longer stay in the center, and (4) requiring hospital treatment.225 The second and third classes were placed in one company and were, for all practical purposes, under the control of the medical officers, thus enabling the center to carry out its original purpose, although the major function of the center, owing to the large proportion of class A men, was the discharge of recovered convalescents. The convalescent center was discontinued


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as a separate organization May 15, 1919, becoming thereafter a department of the base hospital.226 Necessary personnel of both the medical department and the line were transferred to the hospital for temporary duty until such time as the hospital personnel were capable of continuing the special training.

A dental officer of the Regular Army arrived September 9, 1917, to take charge of dental officers and dental supplies and 30 officers of the Dental Reserve Corps arrived within the next two weeks.227 There was no dental equipment in the camp except such personal articles as the dental officers had brought, and these were used to give emergency treatments. A course of military drill and instructions was at once started for the new officers and a number assisted as mess officers, giving inoculations, etc. Fourteen portable dental outfits, all incomplete, were received by October 1. Three dental officers were assigned to each Infantry regiment, two to each Artillery regiment, and the surplus to the depot brigade, after the receipt of the second draft increment.227 The first dental infirmary building was completed in May, 1918, but was not occupied at once, as there were no near-by quarters available and the dental officers were then quartered with organizations, some as distant as three miles.228 It proved to be so inconveniently located that it was abandoned, and a barracks in a more suitable location was remodeled for the purpose.227 This was occupied in December, 1918. A dental detachment was organized after the departure

of the 86th Division.227 It consisted of all dental officers and enlisted men in the camp except those at the base hospital, and functioned as a separate organization. Because such a number of portable dental outfits had been taken for use at colleges with the Students' Army Training Corps, a plan to divide the day from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m. so that the equipment could be used by two shifts daily, was tried. This plan proved impracticable, however, appointments made for the earlier and later hours conflicted with meal hours, retreat, etc., and it was given up.

The remount depot was opened about September 15, 1917, the enlisted veterinary personnel being obtained entirely by details from the Quartermaster Corps until November, when 20 men were transferred from that corps to the Veterinary Corps.229 Men rejected, for overseas service only, in the spring of 1918 were transferred to the remount detachment until its quota of 75 men was filled. Because the corrals were incomplete in the winter of 1917-18, the sheds being entirely open and no hay racks constructed, and because of deep snowfall in the winter and much mud in the spring, coupled with an inability to obtain medical supplies in any but insignificant quantities, the result was many weakened animals and deaths from pneumonia. The veterinary hospital was well situated, being separated from the remainder of the remount depot by a railroad spur, loading corral, and a warehouse.230 Sixteen buildings constituted the 4 wards, each ward having 4 box stalls and 98 standing stalls. The floor of one ward building was of pine construction, the remainder of clay. The first case of glanders was discovered March 25, 1918. Positive reactors to the mallein test were reported each month from camp sources, to include August, 1918, and each month, with one exception, from various sources, to include February, 1919. An additional reactor was found in June, 1919. Seventy-one animals were destroyed.


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During the period of demobilization, the physical examining board comprised 2 examining teams of 16 medical officers each, and a board of review.231 The chief medical examiner, the board of review, and one team occupied the lower floor of one barracks and the other team occupied another barracks four blocks distant. The work in the first building was all conducted in the two large rooms, and in one large room in the second building. This arrangement led to crowding and confusion, and required that all cases for the board of review from the second team dress and walk to the first building for final

examination. At first the board maintained an average of about 7,000 examinations per week. As many as 2,000 men in one day were examined, and it was believed that the board as then constituted could have handled a maximum of over 4,000 daily, with some decrease, however, in the thoroughness of the examinations. Demobilization was discontinued about September, 1919, after the examination of 211,272 men, 6,328 of whom were found to have a disability.232 The greatest number examined in one calendar month was 40,187, in June, 1919, and the greatest number examined in one day was 3,765.232

CAMP JACKSON, S. C.

Camp Jackson was situated about 5 miles from Columbia, S. C., on a rolling, sandy ridge which ranged from southeast to northwest.233 A large swamp adjoined the western boundary of the camp and contained about 300 acres, through which Gill Creek ran. There was also another swamp extending through the camp site, in which was located the headwaters of Wild Cat Creek. The channel of Gill Creek through the larger swamp was dredged and straightened practically the entire distance to the Congaree River, 8.2 miles. The swamp to the east of the camp was cleared of all but a few outstanding

timbers and was drained; ditches and latrines were dug, and laterals run. The area was practically drained, leaving it in such condition that mosquitoes would not breed.234

The first drafted men arrived between September 1 and 15, 1917.233 During 1917 the men came from Florida, North Carolina, and South Carolina. About 3,144 came from other camps. The mean strength for the month of December, 1917, was approximately 19,000. During 1918, a large number of drafted men was sent to this camp. A large number came from South Carolina and North Carolina, a considerable number from Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and 1,600 from Maryland, 5,900 from New York, 7,200 from Ohio, and 8,500 from Illinois. Also a considerable number was received from other camps. The maximum strength was in July, 1918, when there were approximately 44,000 men in camp.233

The staff officers of the 81st Division assembled in Camp Jackson August 25, 1917. Headquarters and the Infantry brigades of the 81st Division moved to Camp Sevier before June 1, 1918,235 and the Artillery brigade left for the port of embarkation about July 27.236 The camp functioned as an Artillery replacement center after the departure of the Infantry.236 The Artillery brigade of the 31st Division arrived about August 15 and departed for overseas service October 31.236  The depot brigade was transferred to Camp Sevier early in September,236 but was returned to Camp Jackson about the end of the year.237


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Plans were formulated in the summer of 1918 for increasing the capacity of the camp to 100,000238 and additional housing facilities for 38,000 men were constructed 2 miles north of the main camp, but never occupied.236

The city of Columbia derived its water supply from the Congaree River just below its formation by the confluence of the Broad and Saluda Rivers.239 The watershed was not thickly populated, and there were no large settlements for 75 miles above Columbia. The city supplied Camp Jackson through one 16-inch main having a maximum capacity of 3,000,000 gallons daily, the water being treated by sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, and chlorination. Sedimentation was very incomplete, for channels had formed in the earthen basin which carried the water to the outlet almost immediately after entrance. The

city did not consider it necessary to chlorinate the water at all times, but this measure was demanded by the Army as a routine, partly because the filters were running at their maximum capacity to supply the needs of both the camp and city.240 The quantity available was so insufficient in the summer of 1918 that sections of the camp were without water during certain periods of the day.241

The collection lines of the sewerage system and a septic tank were completed early in October, 1917.240 The septic tank was a temporary expedient for disposal pending the completion of the modified Imhoff tanks and chlorination works of the permanent disposal plant. The effluent from the permanent septic tanks was chlorinated and discharged into a small creek which flowed through inhabited territory for 5 miles before joining the Congaree River.242 Sedimentation and digestion were incomplete, however, owing to the too small capacity of the septic tank,239 and resulted in the pollution of the creek bed and

banks and complaints from inhabitants along its course.241

Standard pit latrines, sprayed daily with lampblack and oil, were used for contractor's employees, and for all troops prior to the completion of the sewerage system.243 They were also used for troops that were under canvas, during the entire camp period.244

The bulk of the garbage was removed by farmers during the early days of the camp, but a portion was spread on the ground near the rubbish dump to dry, so that afterwards it could be burned.243 Since the material was not completely consumed by this method of incineration, it was necessary to substitute the use of a rock-pit crematory.243 An incinerator was soon constructed of sufficient size to consume the garbage of all the troops then in the camp,240 and this was in use until a contract was let in November, 1917, for its removal.245 Garbage was removed under this contract before the garbage transfer station

 was completed, and the organizations were therefore responsible for the cleaning of the cans. The contractor used tank carts for removal, and as no can-washing facilities were provided, the cans were burned out.246 In June, 1918, two can-washing tanks were installed in which the washing was done by hand, and the output of the three men employed was six cans per minute.247 The incinerator was used to destroy the class of garbage not taken by the contractor, its operation for about five hours per week being required, using waste wood for fuel.

Manure was at first removed by organizations to neighboring farms,243 but the removal was soon performed by contract.239 Delivery was made to the


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contractor at the loading platform by organization wagons, and the contractor disposed of it to farmers, shipping by rail such quantities as the available cars would permit, and hauling the remainder to neighboring farms where it was to be spread and plowed under on the same day. The removal was unsatisfactory in the fall of 1917, as the contractor used only 14 wagons when more than twice

that number were required.244 The roads were impassable and freight cars scarce in the following winter, and manure accumulated in the auxiliary remount depot in great quantities.248 The depot had been cleared of the accumulation by May, 1918, however, and the contractor was then keeping the depot in a very good condition, cleaning the corrals himself and shipping all manure in box cars.246 The formation of a compost pile outside of the camp limits was permitted late in 1918 to care for surplus manure which could not be shipped.239 This method proved to be unsatisfactory, because of improper care of the pile.239

The prevention of malaria was the greatest administrative problem confronting the camp authorities from the time that the site for Camp Jackson was selected.243 While the barracks were situated on high ground, they were unscreened, and, as mentioned above, there were swamps on two sides of the site. Extensive drainage operations were undertaken, for not only would malaria carriers be introduced by incoming troops, but the disease was prevalent in the neighborhood.243

Three examining boards were operating in regimental infirmaries in the spring of 1918.246 Each board could examine 500 men per eight-hour day. In July, the boards were consolidated into two.238 Arriving increments were met at the station by medical and other officers. They were examined for contagious diseases, the headings of all forms were filled in, and a tag was placed on each man which he carried on his person during the period of his stay in the depot brigade. The results of the physical examinations were later entered on these tags for transmittal to the personnel officer. The examining boards were furnished with lists of the men which indicated the companies to which they were assigned, and the boards notified the company commanders as to when and where the men would be examined. Each of these boards could examine 1,000 men daily.

German measles was reported from the first, in small numbers until November, 1917, when there were 364 cases.233 The incidence then dropped nearly as abruptly as it had risen. As regards measles, there had been only 13 cases reported prior to October 19, 1917. At this time, troops from Camp Gordon and Camp Pike arrived.245 Since no information had been received at Camp Jackson that the troops arriving from the camps referred to were measles contacts the men were sent directly to various regiments.234 The 93 cases arising among these men during the 12 days following the arrival of the first contingent thus created numerous centers from which the disease rapidly spread throughout the command.234 There were about 1,900 cases by the end of the year, probably including many cases of German measles, as routine differentiation was not made.249 Two succeeding waves occurred, 253 cases in June and 114 in November, 1918.233


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The highest incidence of influenza prior to the fall of 1918 was 362 cases in April.233 The fall epidemic began about the 18th of September and had expended its force one month later.250 The cases officially reported numbered 5,279 in September and 3,263 in October.233

The pneumonias occurring in 1917 were difficult to differentiate as to type, but the majority of cases were consecutive to measles and of the bronchopneumonic type.240 The mortality was about 40 per cent. The greater portion of the increase in the fall of 1918 was due to influenza, but nearly as many cases were reported to have been primary.233 The bronchopneumonic type was in the majority in both classes. The mortality rate prior to September 1, 1918, was about 19 per cent, not so much less than the rate after that date, which was about 24 per cent.233 All of the 332 pneumonia cases occurring in the

year 1919 were a part of the aftermath of the epidemic in the preceding fall and occurred during the first six months of the year.251

Mumps was so prevalent throughout the camp during 1917 and 1918 as to be classed as epidemic at all times.233 With two exceptions, there was no calendar month in which less than 100 cases occurred. The high point occurred in January and February, 1918, with 1,326 and 1,173 cases respectively. There were 5,112 cases prior to 1919.

The first case of meningitis occurred in a man who had been transferred from Camp Gordon.234 Later two fully developed cases were taken from a troop train arriving from Camp Pike. Meningitis, although occurring with much less frequency than some other diseases, was the most alarming of all,249 and some inadequate measures for control were in vogue at times.245 Men from a wagon train in which a case had arisen were held under a modified quarantine which permitted them to attend to their duties about the camp. They were released from these incomplete restrictions after 12 days without being cultured

for contacts, under the impression that the laboratory could not do that work. Cases had arisen in the measles ward of the base hospital, and some of the patients in this ward were returned to duty, under the same mistaken impression, by direction of the division surgeon. A visiting inspector ordered both of these two classes to be retained in quarantine until cultures were made and reported upon. At least 24 of the early cases were stated to have contracted their infection in the measles ward.234 The culture work was not successfully carried out until about December 20, 1917.252 As some fulminating cases had died

before evidence of meningitis developed, all admissions to the base hospital were cultured.249 The severity of the disease began to decrease at about this time, and the incidence decreased from 106 in December to 51 in January.233 Conditions had so improved by December 30 that the close quarantine of the camp was raised.253 The disease appeared in eight different localities in South Carolina during the following week, and some of these cases were clearly traceable to contact with Camp Jackson. The Public Health Service then requested that the quarantine be resumed and offered all its assistance available.253 While only 11 cases occurred in February, a visiting board of civilian physicians discovered that the carrier detection work at Camp Jackson had been very faulty.254 The detection of the meningococcus by the methods used had been neither precise nor uniform. Although 30,000 cultures had been


87

made, only about 40 carriers were then being detained, and not one of them was a chronic carrier. The board examined 25 men who had been returned to their organizations from the carrier camp and found 9 to be still harboring meningococci in the nasopharynx. The board also found 9 carriers in a group of 96 men examined from 1 organization, while the base hospital laboratory found only 3. These 3 were found negative by the board on both the original and a second examination. Furthermore, cases of meningitis had occurred in organizations after repeated culturing, as many as 10 occurring in 1 organization

of about 100 men. Many cases occurred in Columbia,246 and cases arose in the camp each month of the year 1918, with one exception.233 One hundred and twenty-six cases were officially reported in 1917 and 152 in 1918. Other reports from the camp give 117 as occurring in 1917234 and 196 in 1918, with no month of 1918 free.244 Twelve cases occurred in 1919, all prior to July 1.251 The mortality was about 40 per cent for 1917 and about 20 per cent for 1918.233

Malaria was prevalent in the territory surrounding Camp Jackson, and 50 per cent of the men in the camp from Arkansas, Louisiana, and Florida had enlarged spleens and were judged to have been gamete carriers.248 Therefore, the possibility of the occurrence of many cases of malaria in Camp Jackson was a constant stimulus to an effort to control the disease. Though 469 cases of malaria were reported from the camp from its inception to December 31, 1919, very few of these were contracted at the camp.255

A detention camp, consisting of a training battalion of the depot brigade, was established in the fall of 1917.245 By the summer of 1918, however, the whole depot brigade was being conducted on detention camp principles; no visitors were allowed within it except on business, and buildings in which cases of communicable diseases arose were quarantined under guard.241 Meanwhile, a quarantine camp for contacts had been established, under tentage, with a capacity of about 500.238 By the end of the year 1918, the casual detachment was conducting a quarantine camp for use only by organizations being

demobilized.

The development battalion was organized in July, 1918, and comprised 1,700 men, with 5 medical officers on duty.241 Four battalions had been formed by the middle of August, with a total strength of 3,171.256 Three of these battalions comprised venereal cases only. Nine medical officers were now on duty with these four battalions, with the part-time assistance of three others. The battalions were administered by the depot brigade, while this brigade remained in the camp, in such a way as practically to exclude participation by the Medical Department.257 When the depot brigade was transferred to

Camp Sevier, S. C., in September, 1918, 3,400 of the men in the development battalions were transferred with it. Many men remained, however, and by the middle of October the strength of the battalions was 4,720. There were 1,100 men, in 3 battalions, in January, 1919, and these were being rapidly demobilized.237

The convalescent center was established January 18, 1919, with 8 medical officers, 21 line officers, and 29 enlisted men on duty as a permanent cadre and with 63 convalescents.258 The center was composed of 2 companies, 1 for colored men and 1 for white men. The center was later reorganized, with 4


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platoons, assignment to platoons being based on physical condition.259 The largest number of convalescents reported in the center at one time was 434, on April 14, 1919.260

When the camp was organized, the 21 dental officers in camp, having as yet no equipment, were utilized in giving instructions on the care of the teeth and on physical examining boards, until five portable dental outfits were received late in September, 1917.261 By dividing the articles in these outfits, using the personal instruments of dental officers, and constructing chairs from rough lumber, a working outfit was provided for each dental officer. Thirty base dental outfits and three laboratory equipments were received late in December. The second floors of two regimental infirmaries were secured as dental

infirmaries, and 14 base outfits and 1 laboratory equipment installed in each. These dental infirmaries were in operation early in January, 1918. Two standard dental infirmary buildings were completed in May, 1918, and the two dental units were removed from the regimental infirmaries to the new buildings, with an additional base outfit for each.

A dental survey of the command was begun about October 1, 1917, and emergency work and the removal of conditions which promised to cause future trouble were given priority in all dental operating.261 The removal of foci of infection by extractions, etc., was done as soon as practicable after the individual had been examined. The early concentration of the work in the two infirmaries was of decided assistance to the camp dental surgeon in bringing the dental service to a high point of efficiency in the summer of 1918. The officers had good quarters, comparatively few extractions were being done in an effort to conserve teeth, records were well kept, and discipline was excellent.262 All dental officers in the camp except five left with the 81st Division.261 Replacements for them were received until there were 65 dental officers in the camp by August 1, 1918. About 20 portable dental outfits were received, and these were installed in the two dental infirmaries, in addition to the base outfits already there.

The enlisted strength of the veterinary detachment was 3 privates in June, 1918, which was increased to a maximum of 36 of all grades in September.263 These men were selected from the draft, primarily because they were unfit for overseas duty, but an endeavor was also made to obtain men who had had previous experience with animals. No provision was made for the inspection of locally purchased meats, such purchase being negligible. Dairies supplying milk to the camp were inspected and graded monthly.

The remount depot was located partly on low, swampy ground and partly on rolling terrain, but the sandy nature of the soil prevented the formation of much mud.264 The location of the veterinary hospital was faulty, in that the direction of both the drainage and the prevailing wind was from the hospital toward the enlisted men's barracks.265 The construction of a new hospital in another location was approved before the armistice was signed, but was not undertaken.266

The group for the physical examination of demobilizing troops at first consisted of 57 medical officers divided into 4 teams.267 The examining force was later much reduced, only 14 officers being engaged in June, 1919.268 Prac-


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tically the entire 30th and 81st Divisions, as well as other organizations, were given a very complete examination before the work was discontinued about July 15, 1919.251 Incomplete reports show that more than 70,000 men were examined, and that more than 2,000 of these had disabilities.269

REFERENCES

(1) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 170-183.

(2) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Custer, August 15, 1918, by Col. Albert E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Custer) D.

(3) Letter from Maj. J. R. McDill, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 10, 1918. Subject: Instruction of medical personnel in examining and classifying men in development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.171-1 (Camp Custer) D, 1918.

(4) Report of sanitary inspection of development battalion at Camp Custer, Mich., on November 15, 1918, by Col. W. F. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Custer) D.

(5) Letter from Capt. Turner Z. Cason, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 29, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Custer) D.

(6) Letter from Capt. J. Gurney Taylor, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 20, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Custer) D.

(7) Weekly strength reports, convalescent center, Camp Custer, Mich. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Custer) D.

(8) Brief medical history of Camp Custer, Mich., July 1 to December 31, 1918, unsigned, prepared for the Surgeon General. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(9) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Custer, Mich., made on July 22, 1919, by Col. Paul C. Hutton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Custer) D.

(10) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Custer, Mich., to the Surgeon General, January 31, 1920. Subject: Annual report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Custer) D.

(11) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 184.

(12) Medical history of Camp Devens, Mass., undated, by Lieut. Col. Wm. A. Powell, M. C., division surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Med. History, Camp Devens) D.

(13) History, base hospital, Camp Devens, Mass., by Maj. W. B. Lancaster, M. C., undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(14) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Devens, Mass., to the Surgeon General, March 9, 1919. Subject: Medical history, Camp Devens. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp Devens) D.

(15) Letter from Capt. Charles A. Haskins, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 31, 1918. Subject: Water supply for Camp Devens. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.2-1 (Camp Devens) D, 1918 Storage.

(16) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Devens, Mass., October 6-8, 1917, by Col. Henry A. Shaw, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1(Camp Devens) D.

(17) Letter from Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 14, 1918. Subject: Inspection of medical and sanitary matters at Camp Devens, Mass. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Devens) D.

(18) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Devens, Mass., to the Surgeon General of the Army, September 1, 1918. Subject: Sanitary report for August, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Devens) D.


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(19) Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp Devens, Mass., on October 12-13, 1918, by Col. Willard F. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Devens) D.

(20) Letter from Capt. Charles A. Haskins, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 6, 1918. Subject: Sewage disposal at Camp Devens, Mass. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 672 (Camp Devens) D.

(21) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Devens, Mass., to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 1, 1918. Subject: Sanitary report for October, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Devens) D.

(22) Report of camp sanitary engineer, Camp Devens, Mass., for April, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Devens) D.

(23) Letter from the division surgeon, 76th Division, Camp Devens, Mass., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 30, 1917. Subject: Infirmaries. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632-6 (Camp Devens) D.

(24) Letter from the division surgeon, 76th Division, Camp Devens, Mass., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 25, 1918. Subject: Report required by par. 370, M. M. D. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Report Camp Devens) D.

(25) Letter from Col. D. C. Howard, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 29, 1918. Subject: Special inspection, Camp Devens, Mass. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Devens) D.

(26) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 190.
 

(27) Ibid., 194.

(28) Letter from Henry Jackson and Donald Macomber, Contract Surgeons, U. S. Army, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 20, 1917. Subject: Final report on cardiovascular examinations at Camp Devens. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-2 (Camp Devens) D.

(29) Letter from Capt. Marcus A. Rothschild, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 18, 1918. Subject: Cardiovascular duties at Camp Devens. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-2 (Camp Devens) D.

(30) Letter from Capt. Horace K. Boutwell, Camp Devens, Mass., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 5, 1918. Subject: Cardiovascular report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-2 (Camp Devens) D.

(31) Letter from Capt. B. H. Whitbeck, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 30, 1918. Subject: Inspection of orthopedic service at Camp Devens. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Devens) D.

(32) Letter from Capt. Harry L. Frost, M. R. C., Camp Devens, Mass., to the Surgeon General, March 15, 1918. Subject: Report of orthopedic work in the 76th Division, March 6-15, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Devens) D.

(33) Letter from Maj. B. H. Whitbeck, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, May 20, 1918. Subject: Inspection of orthopedic service at Camp Devens. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Devens) D.

(34) Letter from Maj. Howard Fletcher, M. C., orthopedic surgeon, Camp Devens, Mass., to the Surgeon General of the Army, October 31, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic conditions, semi-monthly report of. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Camp Devens) D.

(35) Letter from Maj. B. H. Whitbeck, M. C., to the Surgeon General, August 22, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic service at Camp Devens. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Devens) D.

(36) Annual Report of Camp Devens for the year 1919, from Col. G. M. Ekwurzel, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Devens) D.

(37) 2d ind., from the camp surgeon, Camp Devens, Mass., August 13, 1918, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Devens) D.

(38) Report of sanitary inspection of development battalion at Camp Devens, Mass., October 14, 1918, by Col. W. F. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Devens) D.


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(39) Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp Devens, Mass., on January 7, 1919, by Col. W. F. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Devens) D.

(40) Letter from Maj. Henry James, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 1, 1919. Subject: The convalescent center at Camp Devens, Mass. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Devens) D.

(41) Weekly strength reports from the convalescent center, Camp Devens, Mass. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Devens) D.

(42) Letter from Maj. W. H. Richardson, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. Subject: Dental inspection at Camp Devens, Mass. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental, Camp Devens) D.

(43) History of the Veterinary Corps, 12th Division, Camp Devens, Mass., by Capt. Paul O. Cooper, V. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, 12th Division), G.

(44) A history of meat and dairy inspection at Camp Devens, Mass., by Capt. Elmo P. Coburn, V. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 400.16 (Camp Devens) D.

(45) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 301, Camp Devens, Mass., to the director, Veterinary Corps, Office of the Surgeon General, January 1, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 301) R.

(46) Report of veterinary sanitary inspection of Camp Devens, Mass., made on January 6, 1920, by Maj. A. L. Mason, U. S. Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 484.3-4 (Camp Devens) D.

(47) Report of a veterinary sanitary inspection of Camp Devens, Mass., made March 2, 1919, by Maj. John P. Turner, U. S. Army, general veterinary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 383.3-4 (Camp Devens) D.

(48) Monthly reports of physical examinations made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Devens, Mass. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, Camp Devens) D.

(49) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 198-204.

(50) Letter from Maj. W. Cole Davis, M. C., to Col. Henry M. Shaw, M. C., Washington, D. C., September 8, 1917. Subject: Sanitary work at Camp Dix, N. J., from July 1 until the arrival of the troops September 1. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720 (Sanitation, Camp Dix) D.

(51) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Dix, N. J., on April 3, 1919, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Dix) D.

(52) Letter from Lieut. Col. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 11, 1918. Subject: Inspection of water supply and sewage disposal at Camp Dix, March 5, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(53) Letter from Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., to the Surgeon General, March 15, 1918. Subject: Inspection of Medical Department affairs at Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(54) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Dix, N. J., made on August 23, 1918, by Col. E. R. Schreiner, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(55) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Dix, N. J., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 2, 1920. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Dix) D.

(56) Letter from Maj. G. R. Bascom, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, December 11, 1919. Subject: Sanitary inspection, Camp Dix, N. J., November 14-15, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(57) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, November 16, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary report of water supply and sewage disposal at Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record Room. S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(58) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Dix, N. J., December 21-22, 1917, Col. F. P. Reynolds, M. D. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Dix) D.


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(59) Letter from the camp sanitary inspector, Camp Dix, N. J., to the commanding general, Camp Dix, N. J., August 1, 1918. Subject: Sanitary report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Dix) D.

(60) Letter from Capt. E. J. Tucker, S. C., to the Surgeon General, July 1, 1918. Subject: Special inspection, Camp Dix. On file, Record Room, S. G. O.,721-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(61) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Dix, N. J., to the Surgeon General of the Army, November 5, 1918. Subject: Report of the camp sanitary engineer for October, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Dix) D.

(62) Letter from the division sanitary inspector, 87th Division, Camp Dix, N. J., to the commanding general, 87th Division, July 4, 1918. Subject: Sanitary report for the month of June, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Dix) D.

(63) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Dix, N. J., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 12, 1919. Subject: Medical history of the war. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(64) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Dix, N. J., on June 21-22-23, 1918, by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(65) Letter from Capt. Christian L. Siebert, S. C., camp sanitary engineer, Camp Dix,  N. J., to Maj. Charles G. Hyde, Office of the Surgeon General, May 19, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(66) Memorandum from Col. E. E. Persons, A. A. S., to Col. D. C. Howard, Surgeon General's Office, August 22, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.1-1 (Ration system, Camp Dix) D.

(67) Report of inspection in relation to epidemic of influenza and pneumonia at Camp  Dix, N. J., made September 28, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Dix) D.

(68) Memorandum on cardiovascular work at Camp Dix, N. J., April, 1918, unsigned. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-2 (Camp Dix) D.

(69) Letter from Capt. Thayer A. Smith, M. R. C., base hospital, Camp Dix, N. J., to Dr. Conner, June 21, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-2 (Camp Dix) D.

(70) Letter from Maj. B. H. Whitbeck, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 29, 1918. Subject: Inspection of orthopedic service at Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Dix) D.

(71) Letter from Capt. B. H. Whitbeck, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 18, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic service at Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Dix) D.

(72) Letter from Maj. B. H. Whitbeck, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 20, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic service at Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedic, Camp Dix) D.

(73) Report on development battalions by Maj. William G. Saunders, M. C., assistant to the camp surgeon, Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.171-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(74) Letter from Capt. Floyd W. Hunter, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 23, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center, Camp Dix. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(75) Letter from Maj. Henry James, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 14, 1919. Subject: Physical reconstruction at Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record  Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(76) Weekly strength reports of the convalescent center, Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(77) Letter from the camp dental surgeon, Camp Dix, N. J., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 8, 1919. Subject: History of dental service. On file, Dental Division, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(78) Letter from the commanding officer, camp dental detachment, Camp Dix, N. J., to the camp dental surgeon, Camp Dix, N. J., May 5, 1919. Subject: History of dental infirmary. On file, Dental Division, S. G. O., unnumbered.


93

(79) Report on meat and dairy inspection, by Capt. L. A. Mosher, V. C., Camp veterinarian, Camp Dix, N. J., to the director of the Veterinary Corps, January 22, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 400.16 (Camp Dix) D.

(80) Veterinary history of Camp Dix, N. J., from September 29 1919, to March 31, 1920, by first Lieut. J. R. Shand, V. C., camp veterinarian. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7-2 (Camp Dix) D.

(81) Camp veterinary history, Camp Dix, N. J., by Maj. W. George Turner, V. C. On file, veterinary division, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(82) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 303, Camp Dix, N. J., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 7, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 303) R.

(83) Report of Surgical Hospital Unit No. 1, Remount No. 303, Camp Dix, N. J., by 2d Lieut. Horst Schreck, V. C. On file, veterinary division, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(84) Letter from Maj. S. V. Balderston, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 13, 1919. Subject: Report of observations of physical examinations at Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702-1 (Camp Dix) D, storage.

(85) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Dix, N. J. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization Examination, Camp Dix) D.

(86) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Dix, N. J., by Col. J. B. Clayton, M. C., June 23, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dix) D.

(87) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Dix, N. J., to the Surgeon General of the Army, June 24, 1919. Subject: Physical examinations at demobilization camps. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Dix) D.

(88) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Dix, N. J., to the Surgeon General of the Army, June 3, 1919. Subject: Medical Department status at Camp Dix. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 320.2 (Camp Dix) D.

(89) Report of water supply at Camp Dodge, Iowa, for November, 1918, by Capt. H. G. McGee, S. C., camp sanitary engineer. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Camp Dodge) D.

(90) Report of the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Dodge, Iowa, for the month of February, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Camp Dodge) D.

(91) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Dodge, Iowa, November 19, 1917, by Col. Weston P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(92) Memorandum from Col. Henry Beeuwkes, M. C., for the Chief of Staff, January 7, 1920. Subject: Camp Dodge, report of medical officer covering inspection of January 7, 1920. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(93) Letter from the division surgeon, 88th Division, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 12, 1918. Subject: Annual report of the division surgeon, 88th Division, Camp Dodge, Iowa. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(94) Letter from Col. P. M. Ashburn M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 1, 1918. Subject: Special inspection of Camp Dodge, Iowa. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(95) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Dodge, Iowa, August 12, 1918, by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(96) Letter from the division surgeon, 19th Division, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 24, 1919. Subject: Medical history. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(97) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General U . S. Army, January 23, 1920. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Dodge) D.

(98) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 212-220.


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(99) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, November 14, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Dodge, Iowa. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(100) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 6, 1920. Subject: Annual report for the calendar year 1919. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(101) A medical history of Camp Dodge, Iowa, by Lieut. Col. J. R. Shook, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(102) Medical History of the 88th Division, unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(103) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Dodge, Iowa, February 8-9, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(104) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Dodge, Iowa, February 5, 1919, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(105) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Dodge, Iowa, made on June 14, 1919, by Col. E. R. Schreiner M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(106) Letter from the division surgeon, 88th Division, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 24, 1917. Subject: Infirmaries. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632-6 (Infirmaries, Camp Dodge) D.

(107) Report on sanitation, Camp Dodge, Iowa, undated and unsigned. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(108) Report of preliminary nutritional survey at Camp Dodge, Iowa, December 21, 1917, by Capt. Frank C. Gephart, S. C. On file, Record, Room, S. G. O., 720.1-3 (Nutritional Survey, Camp Dodge) D.

(109) 3d ind., from the chief psychological examiner, Camp Dodge, Iowa, October 16, 1918, to the camp surgeon, Camp Dodge, Iowa. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Psychological Examinations, Camp Dodge) D.

(110) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Dodge, Iowa, June 9, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(111) A report on influenza at Camp Dodge, Iowa, undated and unsigned. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (Camp Dodge) D, Storage (undated).

(112) Report on influenza and pneumonia at Camp Dodge, Iowa, by Lieut. Col. Joseph L. Miller, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(113) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Dodge, Iowa, made on September 24, 1919, by Col. J. B. Clayton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O.,721-1 (Camp Dodge) D. D.

(114) Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp Dodge, Iowa, made on November 6, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(115) Medical history of Camp Dodge, Iowa, July 1, 1918-December 31, 1918, by Capt. H. G. McGee, S. C., sanitary engineer. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(116) Letter from the surgeon, 163d Depot Brigade, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 16, 1918. Subject: Information concerning development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Camp Dodge) D.

(117) Report of sanitary inspection of development battalions at Camp Dodge, Iowa, on November 6, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(118) Letter from Capt. Homer M. Austin, M. C., Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General, January 30, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(119) Letter from Capt. J. Gurney Taylor, M. C., Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 30, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(120) Weekly strength reports from the convalescent center, Camp Dodge, Iowa. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Dodge) D.


95

 

(121) Letter from Capt. Homer M. Austin, M. C., Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 12, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Dodge) D.

(122) Letter from First Lieut. William S. Louisson, D. C., Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 25, 1919. Subject: History of dental service. On file, Dental Division, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(123) Report of meat and dairy inspection activities (Camp Dodge, Iowa), by Capt. Elmo P. Coburn, V. C. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(124) Veterinary history of the war (Camp Dodge, Iowa), by Capt. Elmo P. Coburn, V. C. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(125) History of veterinary activities, Camp Dodge, Iowa, from August 29, 1919, to December 20, 1919, by Maj. George H. Coon, V. C., camp veterinarian, Camp Dodge, Iowa. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(126) Letter from Capt. Edward J. O'Hara, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the director of the Veterinary Corps, undated. Subject: Questionnaire. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 322) R.

(127) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 322, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 22, 1919. Subject: Supplemental questionnaire of a veterinary history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary History, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 322) R. 

(128) Letter from the chief examining officer, demobilization group, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the camp surgeon, January 17, 1920. Subject: Report of the activities of the Medical Department, demobilization group, ending November 25, 1919. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(129) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Dodge, Iowa, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 9, 1919. Subject: Physical examination for discharge. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Examinations, Camp Dodge) D.

(130) Monthly reports of physical examination made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Dodge, Iowa. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Dodge) D.

(131) A medical history of Camp Funston, Kans., undated and unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(132) Annual Report of the Surgeon General U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 264-274.

(133) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Funston and base hospital at Fort Riley, Kans., November 14-17, 1917, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 Camp Funston) D.

(134) Sanitary report for the month of September, 1917, at Camp Funston, Kans., from the sanitary inspector, 89th Division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5-1 (Camp Funston) P-D.

(135) Sanitary report of Camp Funston, Kans., for October, 1918, by Capt. Chester M. Everett, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Funston) D.

(136) Sanitary report for the month of August, 1918, Camp Funston, Kans., by Second Lieut. George B. Zimmele, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Funston) D.

(137) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Funston, Kans., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 30, 1920. Subject: Annual report for calendar year 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Funston ) D.

(138) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, November 15, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Funston, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(139) Sanitary report for the month of February, 1918, Camp Funston, Kans., by Capt. Frank L. Morse, M. R. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Funston) P-D.

(140) Letter from the Surgeon General to the Chief of Staff, December 8, 1917. Subject: Sanitary report Camp Funston. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston) D.


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(141) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Funston, Kans., made on June 7 and 8, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(142) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Funston, Kans., November 3, 4, 5, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(143) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Funston, Kans., February 3, 4, 5, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(144) Report on Detention Camp No. 1, Pawnee Flats, Fort Riley Reservation, February 8, 1918, by Lieut. Col. M. L. Crimmins, Inf., commanding. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333.1-1 (Camp Funston) D. Storage, 1918.

(145) Report of special sanitary inspection of development battalions at Camp Funston, Kans., on November 2, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(146) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Funston, Kans., to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 15, 1918. Subject: Development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Funston) D.

(147) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Funston, Kans., on January 22, 1919, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(148) Letter from Capt. J. Gurney Taylor, M. C., and Capt. Homer M. Austin, M. C., to the Surgeon General, February 3, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(149) Letter from Capt. Homer M. Austin, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 7, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(150) Weekly strength reports of convalescent center, Camp Funston, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(151) Letter from special board, Camp Funston, Kans., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 31, 1918. Subject: History of recent epidemic of influenza. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(152) Letter from Col. L. A. Conner, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 11, 1918. Subject: Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp Funston, made October 8 and 9, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(153) Annual report on sanitation for the calendar year 1918, Camp Funston, Kans., by Lieut. Col. Glenn I. Jones, M. C., division surgeon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Annual Report, 10th Division) G.

(154) Sanitary report for the month of December, 1917, Camp Funston, Kans., by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Funston) D.

(155) Letter from First Lieut. Frederick L. Gates, M. R. C., Base Hospital Fort Riley, Kans., to Lieut. Col. J. L. Shepard, January 9, 1918. Subject: Vaccination for meningitis, weekly report No. 2. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.3 (Camp Funston) D.

(156) Letter from J. P. Harper, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, undated. Subject: Dental inspection at Camp Funston. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental Inspection, Camp Funston) D.

(157) Letter from the camp dental surgeon, Camp Funston, Kans., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 19, 1919. Subject: History of dental service at Camp Funston, Kans., for period of war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Funston) D.

(158) History of the Veterinary Corps, 89th Division, by Capt. C. W. Likely, commanding officer, 314th Mobile Veterinary Section. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(159) Letter from the camp veterinarian, Camp Funston, Kans., to the director of the Veterinary Corps, Office of the Surgeon General, September 4, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7-2 (Camp Funston) D.


97

(160) Letter from the acting veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 323, Camp Funston, Kans., to the director of the Veterinary Corps, S. G. O., February 1, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary Auxiliary Remount Depot, No. 323) R.

(161) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 323, Camp Funston, Kans., to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 16, 1919. Subject: Continuation of veterinary history of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7-2 (Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 323) R.

(162) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Funston, Kans., April 17-18, 1919, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston) D.

(163) Monthly report of physical examinations made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Funston, Kans., month ending November 30, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Funston) D, 1918.

(164) Letter from Maj. S. V. Balderston, M. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, April 11, 1919. Subject: Submittal of Camp Funston, Kans., report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Camp Funston) D.

(165) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Funston, Kans., made on July 27, 1919, by Col. Paul C. Hutton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Funston), D.

(166) Data for medical and surgical history of the war (Camp Gordon, Ga.), undated, by Maj. Edward A Southall, M. R. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Medical History, Camp Gordon) D.

(167) Sanitary report for the month of August, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Ga., by Capt. William T. Cade, Jr., M. C., sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5-1 (82d Division, Camp Gordon) D.

(168) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Gordon, Ga., October 9, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(169) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I. 278-290.

(170) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Gordon, Ga., August 28, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(171) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, undated. Subject: Sanitary engineer's report for month of November, 1918, Camp Gordon, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(172) Letter from Maj. James T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, February 7, 1918. Subject: Special inspection of water supply and sewage disposal at Camp Gordon, Ga., by Capt. E. J. Tucker, S. C., January 25, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(173) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Gordon, Ga., by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C., May 7-8, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(174) Report of special sanitary inspector, of Camp Gordon, Ga., September 13, 1918, made by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(175) Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp Gordon made on July 17, 1918. by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(176) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 20, 1919. Subject: The annual report of the camp surgeon for the calendar year 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Gordon) D.

(177) Letter from the division surgeon 82d Division, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 7, 1918. Subject: Annual report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(178) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 7, 1918. Subject: Report of water, sewage, garbage, and drainage for Camp Gordon, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(179) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 8, 1918. Subject: Report of water, sewage, garbage, and drainage, for Camp Gordon. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Gordon) D.


98

(180) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, undated. Subject: Sanitary engineer's report for month of December, 1918, for Camp Gordon, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(181) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, undated. Subject: Sanitary engineer's report for the month of January, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(182) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 7, 1919. Subject: Report for the month of March, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 671 (Camp Gordon) D.

(183) Sanitary report for the month of October, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Ga., by Maj. William T. Cade, jr., M. C., Sanitary Inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (Camp Gordon).

(184) Sanitary report for the month of November, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Ga., by Maj. William T. Cade, jr., M. C., Sanitary Inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.5 (82d Division, Camp Gordon).

(185) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Gordon, Ga., January 7-8, 1918, by Lieut. Col. C. F. Morse, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(186) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Gordon, Ga., February 18, 1918, by Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(187) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, undated. Subject: Sanitary engineer's report for the month of June, 1919, for Camp Gordon, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(188) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, September 9, 1919. Subject: Sanitary engineer's report for the month of August, 1919, for Camp Gordon, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(189) Medical history of the 82d Division, unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(190) Report of special inspection of Camp Gordon, Ga., made by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C., on May 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(191) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Gordon, Ga., January 13-14, 1919, by Lieut. Col. H. B. McIntyre, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(192) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Gordon, Ga., on April 17, 1919, by Col. Jere B. Clayton, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(193) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 9, 1919. Subject: Report for the month of May, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Gordon) D.

(194) Report of sanitary inspection, with special reference to the influenza epidemic at Camp Gordon, Ga., made October 12, 1918, by Lieut. Col. Joseph L. Miller, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(195) Memorandum from Maj. Frederick E. Jenkins, M. R. C., Camp Gordon, Ga., to the camp surgeon, August 13, 1918. Information concerning development battalions. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Gordon) D.

(196) Letter from the convalescent center, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 28, 1919. Subject: Weekly report December 11, 1918, to January 25, 1919. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(197) Correspondence from the convalescent center, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army. Subject: Weekly reports. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(198) 1st Ind., Hq. 82d Division, Camp Gordon, Ga., February 1, 1918, to the Surgeon General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Gordon) D.

(199) Copy of telegram from Col. I. W. Littell, Cantonment Division, Washington, D. C., to Constructing Quartermaster, Camp Gordon, Ga., August 30, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Gordon) D.


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(200) 7th Ind., from the division surgeon, 82d Division, Camp Gordon, Ga., April 3, 1918, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Gordon) D.

(201) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Gordon, Ga., by Col. J. B. Clayton, M. C., June 12-13, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Gordon) D.

(202) Monthly report of physical examinations made prior to separation from the Military Service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Gordon, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370.01-2 (Camp Gordon) D.

(203) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Gordon, Ga., to the Surgeon General. U. S. Army, January 28, 1920. Subject: Annual report for the year 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Gordon) D.

(204) Preliminary data for the medical history of Camp Grant, Ill., by Maj. Henry H. Thompson, M. R. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(205) Report of special inspection, Camp Grant, Ill., October 25 and 26, 1917, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(206) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 292-305.

(207) History, U. S. Army Base Hospital, Camp Grant, Ill., by Lieut. Col. Henry C. Michie, M. C., commanding. On file, Historical Division. S. G. O.

(208) Report of special inspection, Camp Grant, Ill., September 10, 1917, by Col. Henry A. Shaw, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(209) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, November 14, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Grant, Ill., October 30, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(210) Report of special inspection of Camp Grant, Ill., December 12-13, 1917, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(211) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Grant, Ill., on November 7-8, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(212) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Grant, Ill., by Col. A. E. Truby, M. C., August 19, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(213) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Grant, Ill., by Col. J. B. Clayton, M. C., September 22-23, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(214) Condensed report of activities of the camp nutrition officer, Camp Grant, Ill., by First Lieut. John H. Murphy, M. C., camp nutrition officer, January 16, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.1 (Camp Grant) D.

(215) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Grant, Ill., made June 10, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(216) Report on influenza epidemic at Camp Grant, Ill., September 21, 1918, to November 5, 1918, unsigned. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(217) Report of special inspection relating to the epedemic of influenza and pneumonia at Camp Grant, made October 7, 1918, by Col. L. A. Conner, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(218) A report on the influenza epidemic at Camp Grant, Ill., undated and unsigned. On  file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710-1 (Camp Grant) D, Storage (undated).

(219) Based on reports of sanitary inspections of Camp Grant, Ill. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(220) Annual report for 1918 to the Surgeon General by Lieut. Col. Geo. B. Lake, M. C., camp surgeon, Camp Grant, Ill. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Annual Report, Camp Grant) D.

(221) Memorandum from Maj. Wm. W. Arscott, M. R. C., brigade surgeon, 161st Depot Brigade, Camp Grant, Ill., to the camp surgeon, Camp Grant, Ill., August 16, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Grant) D.

(222) Report of sanitary inspection of development battalion, Camp Grant, Ill., made on November 6, 1918, by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Grant) D.


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(223) Letter from Capt. J. Gurney Taylor, M. C., Camp Grant, Ill., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 27, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(224) Letter from Capt. Homer M. Austin, M. C., Camp Grant, Ill., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 6, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(225) Letter from Capt. Turner Z. Cason, M. C., Camp Grant, Ill., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 10, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(226) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Grant, Ill., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 15, 1919. Subject: Convalescent center. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Grant) D.

(227) History of dental service at Camp Grant, Ill., by Lieut. Col. H. O. Scott, D. C., March 29, 1919. On file, Dental Division, S. G. O.

(228) Letter from Maj. Clement V. Vignes, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 4, 1918. Subject: Dental inspection at Camp Grant, Ill., made on May 4, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental Inspection, Camp Grant) D.

(229) Letter from the camp veterinarian, Camp Grant, Ill., to the director of the Veterinary Corps, Office of the Surgeon General, February 26, 1919. Subject: Report on  veterinary histories of the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Veterinary, Camp Grant) D.

(230) Letter from the veterinarian, Auxiliary Remount Depot No. 321, Camp Grant, Ill., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, undated. Subject: Veterinary history. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O., unnumbered.

(231) Report of special investigation of the conduct of the physical examination of troops prior to separation from the service, at Camp Grant, Ill., February 24, 1919, by Maj. S. V. Balderston, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Inspection, Camp Grant) D.

(232) Monthly reports of physical examinations made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Grant, Ill. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702 (Examinations, Camp Grant) D, 370 (Demobilization physical examinations, Camp Grant) D, and 370.01-2 (Camp Grant) D.

(233) Annual report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1919, Vol. I, 350-363.

(234) Letter from the division surgeon, 81st Division, Camp Jackson, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, March 12, 1918. Subject: Annual report, Camp Jackson, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(235) Medical history of Camp Jackson, S. C., unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(236) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Jackson, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 13, 1919. Subject: A brief history of Camp Jackson, S. C., from July 31 to December 31, 1918. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(237) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Jackson, S. C., on January 9-10, 1919, by Lieut. Col. H. B. McIntyre, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(238) Report of special sanitary inspection of Camp Jackson, S. C., made July 20, 1918, by Lieut. Col. F. W. Weed, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(239) A sanitary survey of Camp Jackson, S. C., by Maj. Edward J. Scannell, M. C., camp surgeon's office. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(240) Letter from Maj. J. T. B. Bowles, S. C., to the Surgeon General, October 12, 1917. Subject: Special sanitary inspection of Camp Jackson, S. C., September 28, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(241) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Jackson, S. C., to the general sanitary inspector, July 15, 1918. Subject: Sanitary report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Sanitary report, Camp Jackson) D.


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(242) Letter from the division sanitary inspector, 81st Division, Camp Jackson, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 16, 1917. Subject: Sewage disposal. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 672-2 (Camp Jackson) D, storage, 1917.

(243) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Jackson, S. C., August 24, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(244) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Jackson, S. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 21, 1919. Subject: Annual report, Camp Jackson, S. C., for the year ending December 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Annual, Camp Jackson) D.

(245) Report of special sanitary inspection, Camp Jackson, S. C., November 30, 1917, by Col. H. C. Fisher, M. C., special sanitary inspector. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(246) Report of sanitary inspection, Camp Jackson, S. C., by Col. W. P. Chamberlain, M. C., May 14-15, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(247) Letter from the camp sanitary engineer, Camp Jackson, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, August 31, 1918. Subject: Garbage and waste disposal. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.7 (Camp Jackson) D.

(248) Letter from senior surgeon J. H. White, U. S. Public Health Service, and Maj. Wm. D. Wrightson, S. C., to the Surgeon General, February 8, 1918. Subject: Sanitary inspection, Camp Jackson, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721 (Camp Jackson) D.

(249) Letter from a board of medical officers, Washington, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 11, 1918. Subject: Epidemic diseases at Camp Jackson, S. C., January 9, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(250) A memorandum from the office of the camp surgeon, Camp Jackson, S. C., entitled  "Admissions," unsigned. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(251) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Jackson, S. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, January 13, 1920. Subject: Annual report, Camp Jackson, S. C., for the year ending December 31, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1-2 (Camp Jackson) D.

(252) Letter from the commanding general, Camp Jackson, S. C., to The Adjutant General of the Army, December 24, 1917. Subject: Cerebrospinal meningitis. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Meningitis, Camp Jackson) D.

(253) Letter from Rupert Blue, Bureau of Public Health Service, to Surgeon General W. C. Gorgas, U. S. Army, January 7, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721.9 (Camp Jackson) D.

(254) Letter from Edwin O. Jordan, the University of Chicago, Department of Hygiene and Bacteriology, to Col. F. F. Russell, Surgeon General's Office, U. S. Army, February 20, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 710 (Meningitis, Camp Jackson) D.

(255) History of malaria control, Camp Jackson, S. C., by Maj. G. B. Bascom, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 725.11-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(256) 1st ind., office of camp surgeon, Camp Jackson, S. C., August 17, 1918, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Jackson) D.

(257) Letter from Maj. John R. McDill, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 14, 1918. Subject: Development battalions. On file. Record Room, S. G. O., 322.052 (Development Battalions, Camp Jackson) D.

(258) Letter from Capt. George H. Steele, M. C., Camp Jackson, S. C., to the Surgeon General, January 29, 1919. Subject: Care of convalescents at Camp Jackson. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(259) Report of work done at convalescent center, Camp Jackson, S. C., by Maj. W. J. Kesterson, M. C., surgeon, March 30, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Jackson) D.


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(260) Weekly strength reports from convalescent center, Camp Jackson, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 704.2-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(261) History of the dental service at Camp Jackson, S. C., unsigned, prepared for the records of the Surgeon General's Office. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 703 (Camp Jackson) D.

(262) Letter from Maj. Clement V. Vignes, D. R. C., to the Surgeon General, undated. Subject: Dental inspection at Camp Jackson, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Dental, Camp Jackson) D.

(263) History of the camp veterinary detachment, Camp Jackson, Columbia, S. C., June 1, 1918, to August 31, 1919, by Capt. Earl Kropf, V. C., camp veterinarian. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7-2 (Camp Jackson) D.

(264) Letter from the veterinarian, Camp Jackson, S. C., to the Surgeon General, August 18, 1919. Subject: Veterinary history of the war. On file, Veterinary Division, S. G. O.

(265) Memorandum from the Inspector General, to the Surgeon General and the Chief of the Construction Division, February 3, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Veterinary Hospital, Camp Jackson) D.

(266) 5th ind., from the Quartermaster General, October 14, 1918, to The Adjutant General of the Army. Also, letter from the Director, Purchase and Storage, Remounts Division, to The Adjutant General of the Army, February 8, 1919. Subject: Veterinary hospital, Auxiliary remount depot, Camp Jackson, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Veterinary Hospital, Camp Jackson) D.

(267) Unnumbered indorsement from the camp surgeon, Camp Jackson, S. C., December 6, 1918, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 327.21-1 (Camp Jackson) D, Storage, 1918.

(268) Report of sanitary inspection of Camp Jackson, S. C., by Col. Jere B. Clayton, M. C., on June 11, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 721-1 (Camp Jackson) D.

(269) Monthly reports of physical examinations made prior to separation from the military service other than by certificate of discharge for disability at Camp Jackson, S. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 Demobilization, Physical Examinations, (Camp Jackson) D, and 370.01-2 (Camp Jackson) D.

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