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Chapter 31

Books and Documents > Medical Department of the U.S. Army in the World War, Volume III, Finance & Supply

CHAPTER XXXI

SPECIAL SUPPLIES

LABORATORY SUPPLIES

Prior to the World War the Medical Department maintained laboratories at the Army Medical School, Washington, D. C.; Fort Leavenworth, Kans.; Fort Sam Houston, Tex.; Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco, Calif.; Honolulu, Hawaii Territory; and at Manila, P. I.1 Of these, the laboratory at the Army Medical School was the largest and most elaborately equipped. That at Fort Sam Houston was next in importance because of the amount of work done and the number of troops it served.1 The amount of this kind of work done and the number of officers specializing in laboratory procedures had increased from year to year. At the largest military posts, also, laboratory work was done to some extent as the time, abilities, and inclinations of the local medical officers demanded.

To meet the requirements of the laboratory service, a list of laboratory supplies and equipment, with allowances for posts of various sizes, had been added to the standard supply table, 84 items being listed under this head.2 The articles in this list served their purpose very well for the laboratories at the larger military posts, but were supplemented at the department laboratories by more extensive and elaborate equipment obtained on special requisition.

A consideration of the number of troops assigned to the various training camps at the beginning of the World War indicated that the amount of bacteriological and serological work to be done at each such camp would be equal to that performed at the larger department laboratories. It was evident that the list of articles in the standard supply table needed revision, augmentation, and standardization. This revision was completed in the early part of June, 19l7.3 Instructions were given the officer in charge, medical supply depot, New York, during the same month to purchase and issue to each of the 32 division training camps a complete set of equipment in accordance with that list.3

The revised list not proving entirely adequate, a number of other items were added and instructions were given, September 22, 1917, for their issue to all camps.4 As the requirements of the laboratory service grew, even this equipment proved insufficient, and additional equipment was authorized.

The initial laboratory equipment and its additions were supplied to all camps without requisition. Replenishment and new articles were obtained thereafter on requisition. Delays in the delivery of this equipment were numerous. Issues were made as fast as the supplies could be had from the manufacturers.


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BIOLOGICALS

The initial equipment of medical supplies for National Army and National Guard camps made no provision for smallpox vaccine and other biologicals, or for typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine. It was intended originally to have the distribution of smallpox vaccine made from the distributing medical supply depots upon instructions issued by department surgeons. General Orders, No. 96, War Department, July 20, 1917, however, divested department surgeons as well as other chiefs of services at department headquarters of all authority over the supply of the camps, and made necessary a change in the policy.

SMALLPOX VACCINE

The plan adopted in the Surgeon General’s Office for providing the initial supply of vaccines at. the National Army camps differed in some respects from that employed at National Guard camps. Because of the probability that none of the men directed to report at the National Army camps for induction into the military service had previously been immunized against the typhoid group of diseases, and that very few of them had been vaccinated against smallpox within recent years, all would require immunization against both groups. The number of men to be assembled at each National Army camp had been determined by the War Department and the strength of the different camps furnished the several supply bureaus. From these numbers the quantities of vaccine required at each camp readily were determined.

Because of the vast quantity of smallpox vaccine required to protect the number of men being called to the colors, it became advisable to allot to each of the several biological manufacturers producing smallpox vaccine quantities commensurate with their abilities to produce. The United States was districted and a certain number of camps, posts, and stations were assigned to each producer to supply. Instructions were issued by the Surgeon General on August 19, 1917, in the following form, to the different producers of smallpox vaccine.5

The following National Army camps have been allotted to your firm for the purpose of furnishing smallpox vaccine, as listed below:

Chart

The vaccine should be fresh; should be furnished in capillary tubes and shipped iii ice. It should be plainly labeled “Smallpox vaccine--keep in cold storage.”

The shipments should be plainly addressed to the “Medical Supply Officer, United States Army, National Army Camp,” giving address as indicated above. Promptly inform the medical supply officer at the camp the date and method of shipment in order that he may be on the lookout for it. A carbon copy of your letter should also be furnished to this office for its information.

This office should be promptly informed whether you are in a position to furnish smallpox vaccine in the quantities indicated on the dates mentioned. It is imperative that


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the vaccine shall be on hand at the camps, in good condition, on these dates, and in case no reply is received from you within a reasonable time, the allotments above referred to will be made to some other firm.

The stipulation in these instructions that the vaccine be shipped in ice was inserted because of the essentially perishable nature of the product. Exposure to room temperature for even a few days during August would be sufficient to render the product inert. It was necessary, too, that it be kept in cold storage while in the camp pending its use. In order that suitable facilities might be available at the camp upon the arrival of the vaccine and that it would be properly preserved, instructions were issued, August 20, to all camps. The following instructions to the medical supply officer, Camp Lewis, Wash., with suitable changes in name of firm, quantity of vaccine, and name of consignee, are identical with those sent to all National Army camps.6

1. The Cutter Laboratories have been instructed to send you by express, packed in ice, 46,800 capillary tubes of smallpox vaccine. One-half of this quantity will be sent in time to reach you September 1 and the balance September 15. The packages will be marked “ Medical Supply Officer, United States National Army, Camp Lewis, American Lake, Wash.” The firm has been instructed to write you on tile day the shipment is made, in order that you may be on the lookout for it.

2. It is imperative that this vaccine should be kept in cold storage until used, and in case the facilities are not already on hand you are authorized to purchase the necessary ice box and ice. It is presumed, however, that arrangements call be made to keep this vaccine in a quartermaster ice box.

A large percentage of the National Guard troops had been in the Federal service during the previous year and already had been vaccinated. It could not, for this reason, be determined in the Surgeon General’s Office just how much smallpox vaccine would be required at the National Guard camps. A different procedure became necessary for those camps. Each individual camp was allotted to a definite manufacturer, who was to supply it with vaccine upon receipt of telegraphic imformation from the camp medical supply officer, of the quantity and date required. Instructions covering the ordering of smallpox vaccine with the name of the producer designated to supply it were issued to the medical supply officers at all National Guard camps by the Surgeon General August 20. The following instructions to the medical supply officer, Camp McClellan, Anniston, Ala., with suitable change in the name of the firm designated to supply the camp, are typical of those sent to all National Guard camps.7

1. The Lederle Laboratories, 170 Williams Street, New York City, have been designated to furnish you with the quantity of smallpox vaccine necessary to vaccinate the unprotected troops in your camp.

2. You should telegraph to the above-mentioned company at the earliest possible moment the total number of capillary tubes of smallpox vaccine which will be required for this purpose, in order that the biological firm may make appropriate arrangements to ship the vaccine in ample time to reach your camp when needed. In case you desire to have the vaccine shipped in two lots you should so inform the company, stating the dates upon which it should arrive at the camp. The company has been instructed to ship the vaccine packed in ice, and to have it plainly labeled “Smallpox vaccine--keep in cold storage.’ It will be addressed to the “medical supply officer” at the camp, and the Lederle Laboratories have been instructed to write you on the date of shipment, in order that you may be on the lookout for it.


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3.  It is imperative that this vaccine should be kept in cold storage until used, and in case the facilities are not already on hand, you are authorized to purchase the necessary ice box and ice. It is presumed, however, that arrangements can be made to keep this vaccine in a quartermaster ice box.

4.  The biological firm has been instructed to render bills to your office, and you should forward vouchers to this office in the usual manner.

Reports received from the various medical supply officers during September and October, 1917, at all National Army and National Guard camps indicated that satisfactory vaccine had been received in good condition. Shipments were made in ice in accordance with instructions and arrived at camp within 24 hours of the date specified in the instructions.8

TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINE

All the typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine issued to the Army during the World War was prepared and placed in ampoules in the laboratory of the Army Medical School, Washington, D. C. In July, 1917, instructions for the distribution of this vaccine were issued, after decision had been reached by the War Department concerning the locations of the various camps and the number of men to be assigned to each.9 It was assumed that none of the men to be sent to the National Army camps had previously been immunized against either typhoid or paratyphoid fever. Accordingly, the combined typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine was sent to these camps. This vaccine was commonly known as triple typhoid because it contained three types of bacilli of the typhoid group, typhoid, paratyphoid A, and paratyphoid B. The instructions covering the issue of this vaccine contemplated that a sufficient quantity of triple typhoid would be sent to each National Army camp to immunize the number of men to be inducted at the particular camp. This vaccine was expected to arrive at the camp before September 1, 1917. At the same time, instructions were issued by the Surgeon General to place a stock of this vaccine in certain medical supply depots, 30 liters at Philadelphia and 50 liters at Atlanta.

In keeping with this policy of having smallpox and typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine on hand at these camps in usable condition upon the arrival of the troops, instructions were sent by the Surgeon General to the several supply depots on August 2, 1917, to issue a large standard refrigerator to each camp.10 Shipment was to be made in sufficient time for the refrigerators to arrive at the camps not later than August 25. On the same date the surgeon at the camp was informed of the contemplated shipment of vaccines and refrigerator and was authorized to purchase the necessary ice for the preservation of vaccines and sera.11

It was known that many of the men assigned to the National Guard camps had received preventive inoculation against typhoid fever while in camp during the mobilization on the Mexican border the previous year. Some of them, too, had received paratyphoid immunization during that period. It could not be determined, therefore, how many men to be sent to any National Guard camp had been immunized against one or both diseases. Consequently the commandant, Army Medical School, was instructed, July 30, to issue to the medical supply officer at all National Guard camps, 10 liters of paratyphoid vaccine and 10 liters of the combined typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine.12 The


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same provision for the preservation of these vaccines and sera was made at the National Guard camps as at the National Army cantonments. It was contemplated that vouchers for the ice procured for the preservation of biologicals would be prepared by the camp medical supply officer and forwarded to the Surgeon General’s Office for payment.13

Replacements of the typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine were to be obtained upon requisitions sent to the department surgeons, who were to instruct the medical personnel under their respective jurisdictions accordingly. Department surgeons could depute authority, if they chose, to the division surgeons at the camps to call directly upon the distributing depot designated to supply their respective camps.14

OTHER BIOLOGICALS

It early became evident that biological products other than smallpox vaccine and typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine would be required at the camps. Measures were undertaken early in September to arrange for the supply of diphtheria antitoxin, tetanus antitoxin, antimeningitis serum, antipneumococcus serum and antistreptococcus serum, all for human use.15 Provision was made also for tetanus antitoxin and antistreptococcus serum for veterinary use.

The country was districted and the various camps distributed among the biological producers to supply in accordance with the products prepared by them.15 Some producers could supply only smallpox vaccine, diphtheria antitoxin, and tetanus antitoxin. Other producers could furnish other products also. One or two producers could supply the entire list. Arrangements were made during September, 1917, with the producers to establish a depot or deposit of the products assigned them near the camps which they had been selected to supply. A minimum stock for each article to be kept in these local depots was prescribed. The camp medical supply officers were notified of the arrangement and instructed to call upon the designated producers from time to time for such biological products as were needed at the camp. The producers were required to have properly preserved the biological products at these subdepots and to keep the respective medical supply officers informed of their location. It was further required that bills for supplies furnished should be rendered monthly to the camp supply officer.

The various camp medical supply officers were instructed, October 5, 1917, to maintain in their respective depots a small stock of the biological products mentioned above for emergency use.16 This was done in order that a small quantity might be available for immediate use while awaiting the arrival of supplies ordered as the emergencies arose. Twenty vials of antimeningitis serum were ordered to each camp for emergency use. Medical supply officers at the camps were instructed not to let this quantity fall below five vials and to forward to the Surgeon General’s Office a telegraphic request for an additional supply immediately upon the appearance of meningitis in the camp, stating the probable number of suspects.

SPECTACLES

Of the various procedures adopted by surgeons and specialists to remedy physical defects traceable to the ocular apparatus, this volume is concerned in those only which required the purchase of special equipment or supplies for


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their correction. Defective vision was the mnost important of these from a supply standpoint. The War Department directed the Medical Department, April 15, 1918, to furnish spectacles without charge to enlisted men who required them.17 Arrangements were made with various optical supply houses to furnish spectacles upon proper orders or requests from the medical supply officers. The country was districted and certain areas, with all the troops therein, were assigned to particular optical companies for supply. These companies had all agreed to furnish spectacles, frames, and cases at a definite fixed price according to the lenses required. The manner in which the enlisted man would obtain his spectacles was published to all concerned in the following letter:

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL,
Washington, July 11, 1918.

From: The Surgeon General.
Subject: Spectacles.

1. Paragraph VII, G. O. 35, W. D., C. S., provides as follows:

"During the present emergency lenses for the correction of visual defects, and suitable frames therefor, will, when prescribed by medical officers (or by civilian physicians employed under proper authority), be issued without charge by the Medical Department to all enlisted men who have been definitely accepted for the military service. They will imot be issued to recruits who for any reason are about to be discharged from the service.”
"The soldier's receipt for the lenses and frames will be taken by the issuing officer in each instance, and will be the medical officer's voucher for dropping them from his return of medical property."
"Should the lenses or frames be subsequently damaged, lost, or destroyed, while in, the soldier's possession and without fault on his part, they will be repaired or replaced without charge by the Medical Department. Should they be damaged, lost, or destroyed through fault on the part of the soldier, they will be repaired or replaced by the Medical Department. and the cost, repair, or replacement will be collected by stoppage against the soldier's pay."

2. Spectacles conforming to the following specifications will be Purchased thereunder and issued to enlisted men at public expense:
(a) Lenses: Flat, white, round, 40 mm. in diameter.
(b) Frames: White metal, best stiff construction, 40 m.m . round eye, special 0.055 inch full length, cable temple 6 ½ inch, split joint end piece 0.072 inch eye wire, known to the trade as No. 5468, American, Optical Co.
(c) Case: All metal, unlined, Japanned, of suitable size to hold spectacle frames with 40 mm. round eye.
Prescriptions will not call for fractions smaller than one-fourth diopter.

3. While no other type of spectacles is authorized for issue at public expense, the soldier may if he prefers, be permitted to purchase at his own expense such other type of frame as he may desire. They may be purchased through, the post exchange at cost plus 10 per cent. The requirement as to size of eye must be observed, because this is the only size lens being supplied overseas.

4. Prescriptions will be forwarded by the medical supply officer of the camp where their is such an officer, or by the commanding officer of the hospital, or surgeon of the post, camp, or station where the soldiers are being treated, to the optical company designated for its territory, daily or at such regular periods as may be to best interest to the service. Vouchers for spectacles furnished should be prepared monthly on War Department Form 330 or 330-a and sent through proper channels for payment. If itemized bills be rendered by the vendors on their own billheads, certified “correct and just, payment not received,” and signed by Proper representatives of the vendors, the same may be attached to the official vouchers. In which event the vendor’s certificate on the voucher need not be signed. The purchasing officers should certify in general terms on the vouchers for the lump sums of the hills


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attached thereto. Otherwise the bills must he itemized on the official forms and be certified thereon by both the vendors and the purchasing officers. The vouchers should be accompanied in each case by one copy of purchase invoice, Form 12.

5. A list of prices to be paid for the spectacles will be published by this office from time to time. The prices are gross, subject to discount of 6 per cent for payment within the month following the rendition of bill for spectacles furnished.
The vouchers should be certified at the list prices, summing up the total thereat, and deducting from such total the 6 per cent discount, thus producing the net total due; and to justify taking the discount must be forwarded within three days after the end of the month in which the spectacles were received.

6. The optical company designated to supply the spectacles will forward them by mail. Immediately upon their arrival in each case they should be examined to determine whether the prescription has been correctly filled; and if found correct, delivered to the soldier for whom they were prescribed, taking his formal receipt for the same, which will be filed with the issuing officer’s property papers. The issues will be dropped monthly on an expenditure voucher, per forum attached, to be supplied as form 18-a as soon as practicable, one copy of which will be forwarded with purchase vouchers to the Surgeon General, a duplicate being retained by the accountable officer. The receipts taken from the soldiers will be attached to the retained copy of form 18-a so that they may be checked by the inspectors from time to time.

7. Officers, nurses, and civilian employees are not furnished with spectacles at public expense, but may purchase them through the post exchange.

Price lists were furnished all camps and stations. These prices changed from time to time and new price lists were furnished for those which they superseded.18 The particular optical company was furnished a list of the camps and stations from which it might expect orders for spectacles.19 The several optical companies were informed of the type of spectacles to be furnished and the manner in which they would he ordered and paid for, as follows:

Your company has been selected to supply spectacles to all troops and military stations in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and the western half of Montana.

The spectacles to be supplied must be in accordance with the following specifications:
(a) Lenses: Flat, white, round, 40 mm. in diameter.
(b) Frames: White metal, best stiff construction, 40 mm. round eye, special 0.055 inch full length, cable temple 6½ inches, split joint end piece 0.072 inch eye wire, known to the trade as No. 5468 American Optical Co.
(c) Case: All metal, unlined, japanned, of suitable size to hold spectacle frames with 40 mm. round eye.
 
Prescriptions will not call for fractions smaller than one-fourth diopter.

The prices to be paid on single frames for prescription, 40 cents each; lenses and cases at regular wholesale rates, not to exceed those quoted on pages 46 and 47 of F. A. Hardy & Co. 1917 catalogue, copy herewith. These prices to he subject to 6 per cent discount if paid during the month following purchase. Any changes in regular wholesale price should be promptly communicated to this office for publication to the military service.

The prescriptions will he forwarded to you by the supply officer at the various camps and cantonments and by the surgeon at posts and other stations within the district to be supplied by you. The finished spectacles in cases, accompanied by individual invoices, are to he forwarded direct to the officer sending in the prescription. An itemized statement for all supplies furnished during the month must he forwarded on the last day thereof to each officer ordering them. In order to insure prompt payment, these itemized statements must bear the certificate Correct and just, payment not received,’’ over the signature of an officer of your company authorized to accomplish such instruments. Payment will be made from this office.

In order to insure that the lenses would remain in correct position, or if they became turned in the frame they could be correctly replaced by the


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person making repairs or by the wearer himself, the optical company supplying the largest number of spectacles sent out to all medical supply officers the following form letter and caution notice: 20

In accordance with instructions received from the office of the Surgeon General in Washmiumgton, D. C., all cylindrical and sphero-cylindrical lenses as supplied in “Issue frame No. 5468,” or in any frame in which round lenses are used, will in the future be marked with a small diamond scratch on the inside or side next the eye when glasses are being worn, at outer edge at temple joint, as shown in drawing printed on the back of this sheet, so as to indicate the proper position for lenses in frame on a straight line through lenses horizontally.

All lenses fitted in frames when received from us should be so exactly fitted as to preclude the possibility of the lens turning in the frame unless the screw holding the eye wire and temple is loosened or removed, and it is requested that any spectacles in which the lenses are not so snugly fitted be returned to us with complaint for our inspection and correction.

The object of marking lenses as shown and above noted is so that if in any way the lenses become turned in the frame, either through accident or because of necessity of loosening screws for repair purposes, they may be correctly replaced either by the person making repairs or the wearer himself.

In further compliance with, instructions from the Office of the Surgeon General, we are sending to you in padded form slips as per the inclosed “Caution notice,” one of which it is requested be handed to each wearer of “issue” glasses No. 5468 or any round-frame glasses containing cylindrical or sphero-cylindrical lenses marked as shown and above described, with, explanation as to the necessity for the lenses being in the proper position so as to properly correct the vision.

Additional pads will be sent to you upon request, or we will honor your requisition for any number that you desire to have on hand to answer your individual requirements.
 
The wording and form of this communication and “Caution notice” has been approved by the Office of the Surgeon General and both are sent to you by instructions received therefrom.

CAUTION NOTICE

To properly correct your vision, lenses containing cylinders for the correction of astigmatism must be held in exact position in frame.
 
Lenses should be so snugly fitted that they can not turn in frame unless screw holding eye wire is loosened, and it should not be loosened except for necessary repair purposes.

So that lenses may be properly replaced, if either by accident or for repair purposes they may be turned or removed, each lens containing cylinder is scratched on the inside or side next the eye when glasses are being worn, as shown in drawing on reverse side hereon, and must be replaced so that the scratch is in identically the positions as there shown, on a straight line through the center of lenses horizontally.

Department surgeons of all departments in the United States were furnished copies of letters of instruction on the subject July 13, 1918, for distribution by them to all stations in their respective departments.21 They were instructed to notify the various stations within their departments of the optical houses to which they should send their orders for spectacles.

REFERENCES

(1) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1916, 181-193.
(2) Manual for the Medical Department, U. S. Army, 1916, par. 846.
(3) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the officer in charge, Medical Supply Depot, New York, N. Y., June 30, 1917. Subject: Laboratory supplies, and its inclosure. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  531-Misc./36.


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(4) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the officer in charge, Medical Supply Depot, New York, N. Y., September 22, 1917. Subject:  Laboratory supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-Misc./36.
(5) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to Parke, Davis & Co., Baltimore, Md., August 19, 1917. Subject: Smallpox vaccine to camps.  On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531/8.
(6) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the medical supply officer, Camp Lewis, American Lake, Wash., August 20, 1917. Subject:  Smallpox vaccine. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-Misc./4.
(7) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the medical supply officer, National Guard Mobilization Camp, Camp McClellan, Anniston,  Ala., August 20, 1917.  Subject: Smallpox vaccine. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 534-Misc./3.
(8) Letters from medical supply officers, National Army camps and National Guard camps, to the Surgeon General, during September and October, 1917. Subject: Smallpox vaccine. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 534/4 and 534/3.
(9) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Army Medical School, July 30, 1917. Subject: Typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine for National Army cantonments. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 15,572-5.
(10) Letters from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to medical supply officers, New York, N.Y.; St. Louis, Mo.; Chicago, Ill.; San Francisco, Calif.; Atlanta,  Ga.; and San Antonio, Tex., August 2, 1917. Subject: Refrigerators. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 15,572-14.
(11) Letters from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to camp surgeons, all National Army camps, August 2, 1917. Subject: Refrigerators. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 15,572-14.
(12) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Army Medical School, Washington, D. C., July 30, 1917. Subject: Paratyphoid vaccine and combined typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 15,572-21.
(13) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to medical supply officers, all National Army camps, August 6, 1917. Subject: Purchase of ice. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 15,572-25.
(14) Letters from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to all department surgeons in the United States, July 30, 1917. Subject: Smallpox, typhoid, and paratyphoid vaccine. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 15,572-5.
(15) Letters from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the various biological manufacturers, September 21, 1917. Subject: Biological products. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-Misc./34.
(16) Letters from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to medical supply officers, all camps, November 2, 1917. Subject: Biological products. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  531-Misc./34.
(17) G. O. No. 35, W. D., April 15, 1918.
(18) Circular letter, Surgeon General’s Office, September 9, 1918. Subject: Revised price list of spectacles. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  531-Misc./122.


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(19) Letter from the Surgeon General to Southwestern Optical Co. El Paso, Tex., June 25, 1918. Subject: Spectacles. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G.O., 531-Misc./122.
(20) Letter from F. A. Hardy & Co., Chicago, Ill., to supply officer, Surgeon General’s Office, October 24, 1918. Subject: Making of cylindrical lenses in spectacles. On  file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-Misc./122.
(21) Letters from the Surgeon General, to all department surgeons, July 13, 1917. Subject:  Spectacles. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-Misc./122.