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Chapter XXX

Books and Documents > Medical Department of the U.S. Army in the World War, Volume III, Finance & Supply

CHAPTER XXX

SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT

INITIAL ALLOWANCE

The decision of the War Department to divide the United States into 16 training areas, with a divisional concentration camp in each for the men to be drafted in the given area,1 gave rise to new problems in furnishing medical supplies. Nor were these problems lessened by the further decision to establish 16 divisional training camps for the National Guard.1 Since the personnel to be assigned to the concentration, or National Army, camps were without military training, they were to remain in those camps until sufficiently trained for duty overseas, and temporary buildings were provided in which to house them; hence these places, although they bore the appellation Camp Sherman, etc., were, in the beginning, generally referred to as cantonments. The National Guard personnel, on the other hand, were supposed to have had some military training. Many of them had seen service on the Mexican border the year before, and it was thought that they could be prepared for the field by a comparatively short period of intensive training.1 In view of the shortness of the period during which these troops were to remain in camp and the expense and difficulties incident to the construction of the necessary temporary buildings, it was decided to house them under canvas; buildings were provided for camp headquarters, hospitals, kitchens and messes, warehouses, and such utilities as required them.2 Later, infirmary or dispensary buildings were provided for the medical activities of regiments and other large organizations or equivalent groups. Thus, while there were to be two distinct types of camp--concentration and mobilization--because the concentration camps were to be used also for training purposes, the designation “training camp” came early to be applied to them as well as to the camps of the National Guard.

The Manual for the Medical Department prescribed that the equipment for a camp hospital at mobilization camps would be supplied without requisition;3 that all individuals and organizations would be equipped at those camps with such articles of medical property as were required by existing orders; 4 that all individuals and organizations pertaining to the Medical Department would be completely equipped there; that unit medical equipment and supplies in the hands of organizations temporarily at mobilization camps would be kept intact and used only for instruction purposes; and that all necessary supplies for the treatment of the sick would be furnished from the camp medical supplies in addition to the unit equipment.5

It was early decided by the Surgeon General to apply these general principles to the training camps. Initial equipment for the number of Medical


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Department units to be organized at each of the several camps, and a sufficient quantity of medicines, surgical dressings, etc., to last three months were to be sent to the camps without requisitions. Unit equipment was to be used for training purposes; replenishments were to be obtained on requisition by the camp medical supply officer. These principles will be taken up in detail subsequently.

Because of the apprehension that unforeseen delays might prevent the arrival of the initial allowance of supplies, as well as the base hospital equipment, in time to be available on the arrival of the troops, and to insure each camp having some supplies, the officers in charge of the respective distributing medical supply depots were instructed August 7, 1917, to issue a field hospital equipment complete, less tentage, to each of the National Army camps in their districts.6 They were instructed to notify the medical supply officer to whom the equipment was sent to turn it over, when no longer needed for camp use, to one of the field hospital companies to be organized at that camp.6 A different policy was followed in supplying the National Guard camps. It was assumed, from the information furnished by the Chief of the Militia Bureau, that there would be at least one organized hospital company with equipment among the troops assigned to each such camp. This equipment could be used for the temporary care of the sick in camp until such time as the other equipmnent arrived. Instructions were issued accordingly.7

UNIT

As stated above, the original plan of distribution contemplated that every National Army camp would receive all its initial medical equipment without requisition. This included the combat or organization unit medical equipment as listed in the Manual for the Medical Department. The instructions to the distributing depots included in the list of articles to be sent to each camp as initial equipment a sufficient number of combat equipments to provide one for every organization entitled thereto.8

It will be observed from the list of contents of the combat equipmenta that certain articles contained therein were furnished by the Quartermaster Corps. In time of peace these quartermaster articles were habitually secured by the medical supply depot assembling the equipment and added to it before its issue to the using organization. The equipment as issued, then, was complete. Since the plan of the War Department 9 contemplated that each supply bureau would provide at the camp all articles furnished by it for the troops being assembled there, the combat equipment as issued contained only the articles furnished by the Medical Department.

A similar condition obtained in regard to the equipment for camp infirmaries, ambulance companies, and field hospitals, paragraphs 869-871, 874, and 879, respectively, Manual for the Medical Department, 1916. It became necessary, then, to procure at the camp the articles in these various equipments which ordinarily were issued by other supply bureaus.

To obviate the failure of any Medical Department organization, through lack of information, to secure all the component articles of equipment to which
_____________________________________________________
a See Chap. IV.


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it was entitled, the following letter was sent to the division surgeons of all National Army camps except Camps Merritt and Johnston, and to all National Guard camps:10

1. Table of allowances of field equipment for a division provides 25 combat equipments and 8 camp infirmary equipments.

2. The medical supply officer at your camp should make requisitions on the camp quartermaster and the camp ordnance officer, respectively, for the supplies listed in paragraphs 866 and 869, as supplied by those departments, which are necessary to complete this number of equipments.

3. At the same time requisition should be made for the necessary quartermaster and ordnance supplies pertaining to ambulance companies and field hospitals to complete the equipment of three motorized and one animal-drawn organization in each section, less any supplies which may have been received with the Medical Department equipment, paragraphs 874 and 879. A copy of the list of articles to be omitted from the standard supply table to adapt them to motorized organizations is inclosed.  
1. Requisitions for field hospital equipment should specify whether organization, is motorized or animal drawn.
2. The following supplies listed under field hospital (par. 879, M. M. D., 1916) needed for animal-drawn field hospital will he omitted from the equipment of a motor field hospital:

Brooms, stable    Marking outfit, for leather, model 1910.
Brush, marking.   Medicines and dressings, veterinary.
Buckets, galvanized-iron, No. 4   Nails, horseshoe
Case, pocket, farrier's   Needles, harness, assorted.
Forks, stable.   Rivets and burrs, copper, assorted.
Head nets, mosquito.   Rope, picket line, ¾-inch
Iron, bar, assorted.  Shoes, horse and mule, extra.
Jack, wagon. Thread, saddler's assorted.
Lampblack.   Wax, saddler's.
Leather, harness, black.

3. The following articles in paragraph 880, Manual for the Medical Department, 1916, will not be requisitioned for a motor field hospital:

Calks, toe, horseshoe   Mules:
Coal, smithing. Draft.
Cover, mule, blanket lined.  Riding.
Equipments: Oil, neat's foot.
Horse, (par. 943)  Salt, rock.
Horse, Quartermaster.    Shoes, horse and mule, fitted horses (riding), mules, (draft).
Individual Quartermaster Corps.    Wagons, escort, with harness, complete.
Forage.
Horses, riding:
For enlisted men.
For officers.

 4. Requisitions for quartermaster supplies listed in paragraph 880, Manual for the Medical Department, must be made on blank forms of the Quartermaster Department and forwarded through the proper channels.
1. Requisitions for ambulance company equipment should specify whether organization is motorized or animal drawn.


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2. The following supplies listed under ambulance company (par. 874, M. M. D., 1916) needed for animal-drawn ambulance company will be omitted from the equipment of a motor ambulance company:

Bags,  nose.   Leather, harness, black.
Bags, water, pack mule.   Marking outfit, for leather, model 1910.
Boxes, pack mule empty, Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, , 7, 8 (par. 909) Medicines and dressings, veterinary.
Brooms, stable.     Nails, horseshoe.
Brush, horse. Needles, harness, assorted.
Buckets, galvanized-iron, No. 4   Oil, sperm.
Case, pocket, farrier's. Pannier, veterinary
Comb, curry.   Rivets and burns, copper, assorted.
Forge, portable. Rope, picket-line, ¾-inch
Forks, stable.   Saddles, pack (par.953).
Head nets, mosquito.   Shoes, horse and mule, extra. .
Horseshoer's emergency equipment.   Thread, saddler's, assorted
Iron, bar, assorted. Tools: 
Irons, branding, hoof, set.    Farrier's and blacksmith's, kit, and set.
Jack, wagon. Saddler's.
Wax, saddler's.

3. The following articles in paragraph 875, Manual for the Medical Department, 1916, will not be requisitioned for a motor ambulance company:

Ambulances, with harness, complete. Mules:
Calks, toe, horseshoe.   Draft.
Coal, smithing. Pack.
Covers, mule, blanket-lined.  Oil, neat's foot.
Equipment:   Salt, rock.
   Horse (par. 943).   Shoes, horse and mule, fitted horses, mules (draft and pack).
   Individual, Quartermaster Corps. Wagon, escort, with harness, complete.
Forage.
Halters and straps.
Horses riding:
   For enlisted men.
   For officers.

4. Requisitions for quartermaster supplies listed in paragraph 875, Manual for the Medical Department, must be made on blank forms of the Quartermaster Department and forwarded through the proper channels.

The authorized unit equipments were issued to the organizations entitled thereto at as early dates as they could be assembled in order that each organization might become familiar with the equipment upon which it must depend in the combat zone. It was not contemplated that any of the expendable articles in these equipments would be used while at training camps. It was intended that every Medical Department organization, when it entrained at its camp for overseas duty, would have its unit equipment complete and intact. Repeated instructions were given to this end and that the organizations be kept supplied from the camp medical supply depot with such quantities of medicines, surgical dressings and other articles as it actually needed.11 These instructions were given that there might be no excuse for having an outfit depleted in any respect when the order came for the organization to embark.

Such was the time required to secure from the several manufacturers the various articles included in the unit medical equipment that several months


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elapsed before all the organizations in the original call for troops could be supplied. The quantites due organizations were issued on both a priority and a pro rata basis. The continuing effort first was to equip completely those divisions and smaller organizations under orders to embark in the order of their priority for overseas duty. Whatever was available after they were supplied was distributed pro rata to the remaining organizations. It was not until well along in 1918 that sufficient articles were available to complete the equipment of all the organizations included in the original call for a million men. New groups were being called and new organizations were being formed at frequent intervals and some difficulty continued to be experienced in securing equipment in sufficient quantities to meet the ever-increasing demand.

Reports on the state of equipment of Medical Department units were called for so that current information might be available in the Surgeon General’s Office. Equipment was distributed in conformity with these reports.12

The issue of the individual web belts was made from the field medical supply depot, Washington, D. C., where the belts and contents were purchased and the equipment assembled. To insure the issue of these belts to organizations in their proper sequence, the following instructions were issued: 13

1. The following list shows priority for shipment of web belts for officers and enlisted men, to be supplied by you as the belts become available. Requisitions that you now have on file for this equipment for these organizations may he cancelled.
2. 100 officer’s belts and 1,304 enlisted men’s belts are the authorized allowance for a division. There should be a reserve stock of 150 officer’s belts and 2,000 enlisted men’s belts kept at your depot for emergency issue.
  3. Should future requisitions for belts be received for any of the organizations listed below, they should be filled in the order shown unless instructions are given to expedite shipment, when such requisition will be given priority over other shipments.
  4. Future requisitions marked “Expedite” should be given priority.

Regular Army:   National Army - Continued
7th Division.    79th Division.
8th Division.    81st Division.
15th Division.    84th Division.
 National Guard: 85th Division.
36th Division.   86th Division.
37th Division.   87th Division.
38th Division.   88th Division.
39th Division.   89th Division.
40th Division.   90th Division.
National Army: 91st Division.
76th Division. 92d Division.

CAMP INFIRMARY

As stated above, the plans for the camps and cantonments contemplated the provision of a small infirmary for each regiment or equivalent group of smaller organizations. In general it was intended that these regimental infirmaries would house the medical detachment with the regiment, provide an office for the regimental surgeon and for his commissioned assistants a place in which to hold sick call, a dispensary, a room in which to treat the trivial surgical cases, and a small ward of 6 to 10 beds in which minor cases of illness could be treated,


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or serious cases cared for until transferred to the camp base hospital. Folding metal cots with cotton mattress pads and cotton pillows were provided these infirmaries instead of the standard hospital bed, mattress, and pillow. The object in view was to keep the requirements of the infirmary as near those of actual field conditions as possible.

Many of the National Guard regiments which saw service on the Mexican border bad been provided with a regimental hospital equipment, and it was concluded that such equipment could be utilized in the regimental infirmaries while in concentration camps, hence a smaller quantity of equipment was included in the allowance for National Guard camps than in that for the National Army camps. It was known that the organizations in the latter camps would be wholly without equipment when mustered into the service.

A variation was made in the hospital arrangements at Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Miss. The size of the infirmaries was increased and the base hospital fixed at 500 beds. The regimental infirmaries were of sufficient size to provide for 20 patients in an emergency.14 They were utilized to supplement the base hospital and to relieve the latter of the care of the milder cases. They were provided with suitable ward and mess equipment for that number.

The purpose in issuing equipment and supplies to these infirmaries in addition to the unit equipment issued to the regiment was to make provision for the adequate treatment of the regimental sick and yet avoid using up the supplies in the unit equipment. It was intended that the unit equipment be kept intact and used only for drill and demonstration purposes. Also that when a new organization came to use the infirmary the equipment would be available.

BASE HOSPITAL

At the time of the entry of the United States into the World War the Medical Department had regulations for the establishment and operation of general hospitals and a standard list of equipment for mobile base hospitals of 500 beds. The regulations for the general hospital in so far as practicable applied equally to base hospitals. There was no list of equipment for temporary or semipermanent hospitals at training camps, or for temporary general hospitals in the home territory. The base hospital equipment of the standard supply table was meager and built up of various cases, chests, and other types of field unit containers. Past experience had shown that equipment of that type was notoriously difficult to procure and could be had only after prolonged delays. In making plans to equip the large hospitals at the training camps, this type of equipment was excluded as being neither satisfactory nor available for the purpose. The Surgeon General felt that such hospitals, although temporary, would be general hospitals for all practical purposes, and should be provided with the same type of equipment. Since articles of standard hospital equipment could be provided much more promptly and at less expense than the field type and were more satisfactory and comfortable, it was decided to provide them with standard hospital equipment in such variety and quantity as might become necessary. A list of equipment, thought to be suitable for a hospital of 500 beds, was compiled as the initial equipment to be issued to the hospitals at all the large training camps. The quantities of individual articles were based on


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actual peace-time experience of general hospitals and of other large hospitals established on the Mexican border. The quantities were thought to be sufficient for three months, or until additional supplies could be obtained on requisition. The equipment provided for these hospitals included practically all the articles in the standard supply table listed under the heading “Post supply table.” The primary list was supplemented from time to time by lists of equipment required for the special services, such as the ophthalmological, otolaryngological, orthopedic, X-ray, and laboratory. Except for the eye service, which always was very modest in its demand for equipment, the articles required by the special services were quite elaborate.

When it was learned that the hospitals to be established at the several camps were all to have a Capacity of from 800 to 1,000 beds, the equipment was augmented accordingly. Medicines, mess equipment, and ward equipment were doubled. The other classes of articles were increased as needed but to a lesser extent than those just mentioned. By the end of 1917 the equipment for these institutions had become quite extensive and elaborate. The articles supplied them, however, were standardized and uniform. The surgical equipment was limited to articles included in the list of “Staple medical and surgical supplies,” Part I, Surgical Instruments. The X-ray outfits and supplies likewise were standardized, as were the laboratory and dental equipments.

Studies on this hospital unit equipment were completed in May, 1917, and copies furnished the New York medical supply depot and the several department surgeons.15 The nonexpendable supplies included in it were calculated on the actual bed capacity of the unit. The nonexpendable supplies, medicines, dressings, etc., were estimated on the basis of a three months’ consumption period. The object of this original study was not so much to provide an ideal unit as to provide a working equipment. Dependence could be placed upon experience to demonstrate the changes and additions necessary to complete it. Due account had to be taken of the probable quantity of supplies which would he available at the time distribution would be made. For camps requiring a 1,000-bed hospital it was contemplated that the 500-bed unit would be used as the basis, that 50 ward units would be added, and that the medicines, stationery, mess equipment, and surgical supplies would be doubled. 16

In the original plan for issuing base hospital equipment it was contemplated that the bulky articles--bedsteads, mattresses, pillows, chairs, refrigerators, sterilizing outfits, X-ray apparatus--would be issued to these base hospitals from the New York medical supply depot or shipped direct from the contractors. The remaining articles would be issued by the distributing depot to which the camp had been assigned for supply.17 In view of the quantities of supplies at the St. Louis depot, the entire initial base hospital equipment, excepting sterilizing outfits and X-ray apparatus was issued therefrom to the camps assigned to that depot for supply.17 Issues were to be made by the distributing depots upon receipt of information from the department surgeons of the date when the hospitals at the respective camps would be ready to receive their equipment.18 The distributing depot, at the same time, was to notify the officer in charge of the New York depot of the place and name of the officer designated to receive the supplies.


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The original plan, however, had to be modified. Supplies were slow in becoming available in sufficient quantities to equip all the camps. It was foreseen by the end of July that the initial equipment could not reach the camps before the arrival of the troops if any part of the equipment or supplies were sent to the distributing depots for issue. It was decided, therefore, to issue the entire equipment from the New York depot 19 to all camps, except those for which equipment could be provided from stock at the depots at St. Louis, San Antonio, and San Francisco. The St. Louis depot was able to supply its five camps and San Antonio and San Francisco were able to each supply one or two of those assigned to them for supply.20 All sterilizing and X-ray outfits were to be distributed from the New York depot. The officer in charge of the New York depot was instructed early in August to issue the initial base hospital equipment to all camps not supplied by other depots. A list of the camps to be supplied from that depot was furnished him at the same time. This officer reported on August 7 that a large force was then engaged in packing the medicines and other articles which needed to be packed, that shipments of the other articles were to be made from stock or direct from the factories, and that it was expected to have the equipment in the camps by September 1.21

Such was the delay in the construction of the hospitals at the several cantonments that it was feared for a time that they would not be ready for either equipment or patients when the camps were occupied. Nevertheless, equipment and supplies were placed in transit as rapidly as they became available. In many instances the base hospital equipment in whole or in part arrived at the camps before storage space was available for it. The various articles so arriving were stored wherever space could be secured in existing buildings, or in the open under canvas.22 Reports received from the various camps between September 1 and 10 indicated a shortage of many articles of equipment.23 In the majority of cases these shortages were relieved before the need of the particular article became acute.

In order that there might be no unnecessary delay in getting the equipment in place, the surgeons at all National Guard camps except Deming, N. Mex., and Fort Sill, Okla., and all the National Army cantonments, except Camp Funston and Camp Travis, were authorized to purchase the materials and employ time labor necessary to install the sterilizers and other apparatus requiring it which were issued the hospital. Vouchers were to be rendered the Surgeon General in the usual manner.24

MOTOR AMBULANCES

DISTRIBUTION

Tables of Organization issued by the War Department in May, 1917, provided for two motorized ambulance companies and field hospitals in the sanitary train of an infantry division.25 New Tables of Organization, published in the following April, provided for three motorized ambulance companies and field hospital companies.26

Tables of Organization in force, then, at the time of assembling the troops in time divisional camps called for two motorized ambulance companies. To equip these two companies in all the camps and to provide ambulance service


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for the base hospitals thereat required approximately 900 ambulances. That number of machines could not be produced during the short interval between the time when funds became available for the placing of the contract and the date fixed for the camps to be occupied. Ambulance service would be required as soon as the camps were occupied for the transportation of the sick of the organizations to the base hospital. The size and arrangements of the camps were such that many organizations were more than a mile distant from the hospital. The Surgeon General decided to place the base hospitals at the head of the list to be supplied with ambulances. Accordingly, instructions were issued to the motor ambulance supply depot, Louisville, August 16, for the distribution of two motor ambulances to the base hospital at each camp and to expedite the shipment.27 The shipments began August 28 and were completed September 7.28

A number of ambulance companies had been organized under the auspices of the American Red Cross.29 Several of them had provided themselves with motor ambulances of various types. When these companies were mustered into the military service of the United States, as units,30 considerable difficulty was experienced in the Surgeon General’s Office in the effort to determine just how many of these organizations had motor equipment and to what camps they had been sent. Pending the receipt of this information, instructions were issued by the Surgeon General, September 14, to the motor ambulance supply depot, to issue the required number of ambulances, including spare parts car for one company, to each National Army and National Guard camp.31 Shipments under these instructions began September 10 and were completed, except for a few spare parts cars, October 25.32 The delay in issuing spare parts cars was due to the slowness in receiving a sufficient number of spare parts bodies at the ambulance depot.33

The number of ambulance companies providing their own equipment having been determined, instructions were given November 11, to issue the authorized ambulance equipment for the second company at the remaining National Army camps.34 Practically all the National Guard camps in the meantime had received their ambulance equipment. Arrangements for supplying National Guard organizations with motor ambulances through the Medical Department previously had been made by the chief of the Militia Bureau.

MOTOR EQUIPMENT OF AN AMBULANCE COMPANY

It is appropriate to state here that the motor equipment of a motorized ambulance company consisted of 12 standard General Motors Co. ambulances;b 1 spare parts car or trailer; 3 motor trucks, 1½-ton capacity; 3 motor cycles with side cars; 1 rolling kitchen (trailer); 1 motor car, 5-passenger; and 1 water cart. Of this equipment the ambulances, spare parts car or trailer, and the motor cycles with side cars were furnished by the Medical Department and the remainder by the Quartermaster Corps.35

The following pamphlet was distributed in December, 1917, to all organizations to which the standard General Motors Company ambulance had been issued :36
______________________________________________________________________________
b For details concerning the motor equipment supplied by the Medical Department, consult Sec. IV.


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1. General. - Extended consideration has been given by the Office of the Surgeon General to the matter of proper equipment and spare parts for motor ambulance service in the United States and overseas.
Lists, as follow, have been prepared, and methods of procedure outlined, based upon extended experience in the automobile industry, on the United States border, and in the service of the allies:
United States standard motor ambulance: This list includes standard chassis parts, standard body parts, and spare parts A, which, together, make up the United States standard motor ambulance, complete.
Ambulance spare parts A: Includes spare parts and equipment which are to be furnished to and carried by each ambulance and spare parts car in the company.
  Ambulance spare parts B: Includes spare parts and equipment which are to be furnished to and carried by each spare parts car.
Ambulance spare parts C: Includes spare parts and equipment which are to be purchased and maintained by the motor ambulance supply depot, United States Army, Louisville, Ky., for service supply of ambulance companies in the United States.
  Ambulance spare parts D: Includes spare parts and equipment which are to be purchased and maintained by the Quartermaster Corps for service supply of ambulance companies over seas.

2. United States standard motor ambulance. - This list, which includes standard chassis parts, standard body parts, and spare parts A, which together make up the United States standard motor ambulance, complete, is furnished for the information of each commanding officer. Standard ambulances should be checked over against this list and shortages reported to:
(a) In United States: Motor ambulance supply depot, United States Army, Louisville, Ky.
(b) Overseas: Motor ambulance assembling depot, American Expeditionary Forces, France.

3. Road and service repairs (class B), spare parts cars - Ambulance spare parts B: In each standard ambulance company of 13, one car is designated as a spare parts car, and will carry the equipment known as spare parts B. This spare parts B is designed to cover roadside and service repairs and upkeep (class B) over a minimum of six months. This equipment is to be in charge of, and proper condition of company cars maintained by the mechanics assigned to the spare parts car, with assistance of operators of the individual ambulances concerned.
Spare parts B equipment, together with the individual ambulance equipment, should be adequate for all normal service of the ambulance company, and should further provide against any except major accidents or overhaul.

4. Ambulance company independent. - With its complete equipment, each ambulance company should be self-sustaining and independent of garage or base service station or their tools or equipment. It is of greatest importance that this be clearly understood by commanding officers, and that ambulance companies be trained as self-sustaining units, with only their own mechanics and their standard spare parts A and spare parts B equipment available for operation and maintenance.
Much is to be gained in placing ambulance companies at once upon field service basis, in the matter of personnel, spare parts, equipment, repairs, and in establishing, from the beginning, procedure which is absolutely independent of that elaborate and unnecessary equipment found in many service and repair stations. Ability and resourcefulness in mechanics are far more effective than intricate and special machinery.

  5. Mechanics for spare parts car - The choice of mechanics to man the spare parts car and handle repair work is of vital importance.  Conservative, older men of experience should be chosen for this work, which is critical to satisfactory service of the company. Three mechanics should be assigned to each spare parts car.
 
6. Maintenance of spare parts B. - The stock in spare parts B is to be maintained in the spare parts car:


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  (a) In United States: By special requisition on Form 35, through the Office of the Surgeon General, Washington, D. C., accompanied by detailed report, explaining the need for parts or equipment requisitioned.
(b) Overseas: By requisition upon the motor transport supply depot, maintained by the Quartermaster Corps.
  
7. Major repairs (class C, class D). - Ambulance spare parts C, ambulance spare parts D: Parts for major repairs of United States standard ambulances, and for overhauling, will be stocked:
    (a) In United States (spare parts C), at motor ambulance supply depot, Louisville, Ky.
(b) Overseas (spare parts D), at the motor transport supply depot maintained by the Quartermaster Corps.

8. Major repairs or overhauling in the United States will be done:
(a) By the mechanics of ambulance company, if competent.
(b) By the Quartermaster Corps repair shops.
(c) By a local garage, under supervision, if competent.
(d) By the motor ambulance supply depot, United States Army, Louisville, Ky., when the repairs or overhaul necessary are such as to warrant approval by the Surgeon General’s Office, for the shipment to the Louisville depot, of the unit or ambulance in question, for repair or replacement.
Spare parts, or equipment, for major repairs or overhauling in the United States will be requisitioned upon Form 35, through the Office of the Surgeon General, Washington, D. C., accompanied by detailed report explaining the need for parts or equipment requisitioned.

9. Major repairs or overhauling overseas will be done:
(a) By the mechanics of ambulance company, if competent.
(b) By the Quartermaster Corps base repair shops, upon requisition by the commanding officer.

10. Detailed reports, explaining the need for parts or equipment, are to be made with special care, as these reports will be givers weight as indicating the success of spare parts A and spare parts B, as well as the competence of the mechanics in charge.
   Suggestions looking toward improvement of ambulance equipment, addressed to the Office of the Surgeon General, will receive consideration.

11. Inspection of motor ambulance equipment and procedure will be made from time to time, and report returned to the Office of the Surgeon General.

SPARE PARTS

The instructions covering the issue by the motor ambulance supply depot of ambulances to ambulance companies also directed that the full set of spare parts equipment be issued. Owing to the delay in receiving the factory parts, many requisitions could not be filled. Authorities were granted for the local purchase, if obtainable, of factory parts when they could not be furnished by the motor ambulance supply depot.

The list of ambulance spare parts B equipment was revised in the spring of 1918. A spare parts trailer in which to carry them was developed to take the place of the spare parts car originally contemplated. One of these trailers was to be furnished each motorized ambulance company. Distribution was made in May and June, 1918.37 In order that the full complement of spare parts in accordance with the revised list 38 might he on hand, the following instructions were issued July 18, 1918, to the medical supply officers at all camps and cantonments: 39

1. Information is forwarded that, through the motor ambulance supply depot, Louisville, Ky., spare parts trailers, complete with spare parts B, have been shipped to all camps and cantonments, one for each ambulance company of 12 ambulances. Information is


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further forwarded that shipment has been completed of one complete spare parts A equipment for each ambulance and motor cycle at the various camps, base hospitals, etc.

2. Spare parts B equipment is designed to cover roadside and service repairs and upkeep over a minimum of six months. This equipment is to be in charge of and the proper condition of the motor vehicles maintained by the mechanics assigned to the spare parts car, with the assistance of the operators of the individual vehicles concerned.

3. It is directed that once a month an inventory be taken of spare parts B stock, and regular requisition for complete replacement of same be executed in the regular way on Form 35.

4. For general operation and procedure, reference is made to “Information and instructions,” pages 1 to 5.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

As reports came in from the camps concerning defects discovered in this equipment and difficulties encountered in its operation or maintenance, they were carefully studied and efforts made to correct them. The solutions of these problems were mimeographed at the motor ambulance supply depot and distributed in the form of maintenance letters40 to all stations to which ambulances had been sent. Much of the information in these maintenance letters was crystallized and, with other important instructions, printed in a pamphlet and distributed to the service in May, 19l8.38 This pamphlet contained complete instructions for the operation, inspection, and repairs of these motor vehicles.

The following instructions were provided for each organization furnished Medical Department transportation to be conspicuously displayed: 41

MOTOR AMBULANCE OPERATION, MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

I. Motor ambulances are to be used for the transportation of the sick or wounded, and necessary attendants only, except under special authority, as provided in Army Regulations.
II. The governor on motor ambulances should allow a maximum speed of 20 miles per hour. Only under the most favorable conditions should a speed of over 15 miles per hour be allowed. Speed, except under the most favorable conditions, marks the inexperienced and inexpert automobile driver.
III. Noise of any kind calls for immediate investigation and cure. Knocking of engine, rattles, squeaks, grinding of gears, loose parts, are bad for the reputation of driver and mechanic and ambulance. “A stitch in time saves nine.”
IV. The engine must not be left running while ambulance is stopped.
V. Drivers and mechanics will be held strictly responsible for “driver’s daily inspection” and “mechanic’s inspection” prescribed in Information and Instructions, covering motor ambulances and motor cycles, published by the Surgeon General.
   VI. If inspection shows carelessness, recklessness, or violation of orders, the responsible officer will take necessary steps to have the cost of repairs charged against the driver or mechanic, and order proper disciplinary measures.
VII. Daily motor ambulance record will be kept up and flied by each ambulance driver as directed.
VIII. In no service are proper equipment and expert drivers and mechanics more critically important to success. The success of the ambulance service of the United States Army depends upon the teamwork and success of each sanitary train and ambulance company. The success of each sanitary train and ambulance company depends upon time individual drivers and mechanics. The individual driver and mechanic means YOU.


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GASOLINE, OILS, AND GREASES

The congressional appropriations for the Medical and Hospital Department provided funds for the purchase of motor ambulances and, by analogy, motor cycles used by the Medical Department of the Army in the performance of its mission. Since this appropriation was chargeable with the cost of the vehicles, it was held chargeable with the cost of their maintenance and repair. It was, by the same reasoning, held to be chargeable with the cost of the gasoline, lubricating oils, and greases required in the operation of such vehicles. The gasoline, lubricating oils, and greases could be obtained locally by the officer responsible for motor ambulances and motor cycles by purchase from any reliable dealer.

The distance of the training camps from cities where gasoline and lubricating oils could be obtained made their local purchase inconvenient and required some kind of storage at the camp. To relieve this situation, authority was obtained from the Quartermaster General in September, 1917, for Medical Department organizations to obtain these supplies from the camp quartermaster in such amounts and at such times as required.42 It was then estimated that the quantities required per month for the Medical Department vehicles at each camp would approximate 3,000 gallons of gasoline and 120 gallons of lubricating oil. The Quartermaster Corps appropriations were to be reimbursed by transfer of funds from the Medical and Hospital Department appropriation. This information was published to all Medical Department organizations September 30.42

This procedure was modified in February, 1918, by orders from the War Department, by the following change in paragraph 134 ½, 1916 Supplement to the Compilation of Orders, 1881-19l5: 43 134 ½. Motor vehicles, searchlights, and other power equipment (p. 46, 1916 Supp. C. of O.; changed by C. C. of O. Nos. 5 and 6, W. D., 1917). - 1. The Ordnance Department will procure all caterpillar tractors, four-wheel drive trucks, tanks, and other authorized types of special vehicles normally furnished by that department, and will provide for the repair and maintenance thereof. Reimbursement will be made by transfer of funds for equipment or spare parts furnished and repairs done by the Ordnance Department for any other bureau.

2. The Quartermaster Corps will procure, repair, and maintain motor equipment of the authorized quartermaster standard types and, except as indicated in the preceding paragraph, will provide for the repair and general upkeep of all other motor vehicles pertaining to the Army, but any bureau ordering nonstandard equipment will be required to supply the spare parts necessary for the accomplishment of repair work.

   3. The gasoline and lubricants for motor vehicles and other power equipment, including airplanes, pertaining to all bureaus will be furnished by the Quartermaster Corps.

4. In order that suitable gasoline and lubricants may he furnished for the various types of power equipment supplied by the different bureaus, the chief of each bureau concerned will keep the Quartermaster General informed of the quality of gasoline and of the different kinds of lubricants required for the different types of engines, furnishing specifications if necessary, and the Quartermaster General will take the necessary steps to conform therewith.

MOTOR CYCLES

Tables of Organization, War Department, 1917, authorized three motor cycles with side cars for a motorized ambulance company and two motor cycles with side cars for a motorized field hospital.25 Motor cycles for such organizations were provided by the Medical Department, as well as motor ambulances.


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The problems of maintenance, repair, and spare parts were entirely analogous for both. For the sake of economy and simplicity of supply it was early decided to adopt some one of the standard makes of motor cycles as standard for the Medical Department. In carrying out this policy the Indian motor cycle with side car, military model (N. E.), was selected. A set of equipment for use with each machine was provided. This set was known at first as rider’s spare parts and later as motor cycle spare parts A as distinguished from the more extensive set provided each ambulance company.38 It was contemplated that the mechanics of the ambulance company would take care, also, of the motor cycles assigned to the field hospital company of the same number. It was also contemplated that all repairs, except those requiring shopwork, would be done by those mechanics with the equipment furnished in motor cycle spare parts B. A complete set of motor cycle spare parts A was included in the original crate with every Medical Department motor cycle issued.

The plan of distribution of motor cycles differed somewhat from that of ambulances. Ambulance chassis were manufactured at one place and the bodies at another, which required a third place for their assembly. Motor cycles were complete with side car and spare parts when they left the factory, and required no assembly before issue. Accordingly, 25 motor cycles were sent to each of the medical supply depots at Philadelphia and San Francisco, 30 to Atlanta, 50 to San Antonio, and 220 to Louisville for distribution.44 Philadelphia distributed its quota to Camp Lee, Petersburg, Va., and Camp Meade, Admiral, Md., and to Ambulance Company No. 29 and Field Hospital Company No. 29, at Gettysburg, Pa.45 Issues to Camps Devens, Dix, and Upton were made direct from the factory at Springfield, Mass. Atlanta distributed its quota to Camp Greenleaf, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga.; Camp Gordon, Atlanta, Ga.; and Camp Jackson, Columbia, S. C. San Antonio made its initial distribution to the ambulance companies and field hospitals of the Regular Army then stationed in the Southern Department. San Francisco distributed to the ambulance companies and field hospitals in Honolulu, Hawaii Territory, and in the Western Department, and to Camp Lewis, American Lake, Wash. Louisville distributed to the remaining ambulance companies and field hospitals of the Regular Army and to the remaining National Army camps. Shipments from the several depots to camps and separate organizations went forward about the middle of September.46 Louisville also supplied the various National Guard camps.47

Because of continued reports of shortage of transportation from base hospitals and division surgeons at the Various training camps, instructions were sent October 19, 1917, to the motor ambulance supply depot to issue two additional motor cycles with side cars to the medical supply officers of all National Army and National Guard camps.48 These motor cycles were intended primarily for the use of base hospitals, but their use for such purposes in connection with Medical Department administration as deemed most expedient by the division surgeon, was authorized.49

Spare parts for these machines were issued from the motor ambulance supply depot upon requisitions forwarded through prescribed channels. In some instances the local purchase of parts was authorized. Gasoline, lubricating


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oils, and greases were obtained for motor cycles in the same manner as like articles for motor ambulances. The component articles in the spare parts list underwent revision in 1918; as did also the spare parts B equipment.38

FIELD INSPECTIONS

When the Medical Department undertook to provide its units with motor ambulances and motor cycles it was aware, in a measure, of the problems which would confront it, problems of supply of spare parts, and of maintenance and repair, as well as those of personnel. From the manner of assignment of personnel to organizations at the establishment of the training camps in the latter part of 1917, it was inevitable that a large part of those assigned to operate motor vehicles would be unskilled therein. This could have but one result--hard usage and lack of intelligent care of the machines. There was a lack of trained chauffeurs and of skilled mechanics.

When the ambulance companies of the earlier divisions left for overseas service they were replaced by companies organized for camp service.50 The personnel of these companies were selected with greater care than had those of the earlier divisions. A much larger proportion of trained chauffeurs and mechanics were found among them, and it was possible to overhaul the machines as required and to keep them in condition. By this time, too, sets of standard spare parts equipment A and B had been furnished and were available with which to make the repairs.

One of the objects sought by the Surgeon General was a force of traveling inspectors who would visit the several camps at stated intervals, investigate the condition of the motor vehicles supplied by the Medical Department, correct defects, and advise with and instruct the personnel operating such vehicles. This object was not attained until the summer of 1918. Competent personnel had to be found and trained for the work. But the development of inspection organizations at the plants manufacturing ambulance chassis and bodies necessarily had the precedence. Improvements in design and construction demanded attention. Schools for the training of chauffeurs and mechanics had to be organized. This all required especially selected and trained personnel.

By July, 1918, it was possible to detail selected officers of the Sanitary Corps to visit the camps and inspect the ambulances and motor cycles of the Medical Department there in use. During these inspections a careful record was made of every ambulance, motor cycle, spare parts car, and spare parts trailer, showing its condition and the repairs and adjustments required. At the completion of the inspection a report was sent to the Surgeon General for the information and action of the motor ambulance section of the finance and supply division. Not only was report made of the individual vehicle on the prescribed form, but an additional report on the general conditions of equipment and personnel was also required. The scope of these inspections and reports is evident from the following report of an inspection of Camp Jackson, S. C., ending August 3, 1918. This report has been selected as typical of those made during the period July to September, inclusive, 1918.


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COMPLETE MOTOR VEHICLE EQUIPMENT MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY


MOTOR AMBULANCES

There were 14 G. M. C. model 16 and 1 Garford closed ambulances at Camp Jackson at the time of arrival of the inspector; 9 of these were in operation by the base hospital, for the regular camp ambulance service. The remainder were parked in an open field with the curtains down and the wheels jacked up and covered with tar paper. The 377th Ambulance Company, which had been formed for a very few days, had no motor equipment. The inspector obtained the 6 cars in the field, a trailer, and complete spare parts A for the company. These 6 ambulances and 6 in use by the base hospital had been sent to Camp Jackson from Camp Hancock. The 6 in the field had not been operated since their arrival. No trouble was experienced in starting them.

All the ambulances were in running condition. Those at the base hospital showed hard service, with little attention. This is especially true of the two original cars assigned to the hospital. One of these two machines had not had an overhauling since it came and was in very poor condition. Three cars had loose bearings, one very serious. Nearly all had head lamp reflectors broken and the driver’s cushions were badly damaged, though still serviceable. The bodies had loose fittings all over. The doors, horns, hinges, and nuts were loose and tail gate irons were bent. The steps had been broken, but repaired. The pyralin in the driver’s curtains on every car in camp was broken out and on several cars the curtains had been removed. Governors had been removed from the engines because, according to mechanics, they had given trouble. Two had been sent to Louisville for repair several weeks ago and had not been returned, but no attempt had been made to repair the remaining ones. Two governors had been lost. No tools of any kind were carried in the cars, but six were equipped with spare tires. The tire irons had been broken away from the bodies on the other two. The pump gland nuts leaked on all cars.

Of the six cars taken from the field by the ambulance company, three had loose bearings, two had external brakes which needed relining, and all were dirty. Reflectors and head lamp front glasses were broken. The driver’s seat cushions were in fair condition, as these machines were all equipped with angle-iron seat supports. One radiator outlet elbow was found cracked. These cars were repaired under the direction of the inspector and are now


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in first-class running condition. On all cars in camp, fan belts were either loose or had been replaced by rope belts. It was necessary to requisition five belts to replace those unserviceable and two other new ones had been purchased in the open market.

According to the mechanic at the base hospital, the men were given very little time to do the proper work on the machines and, from what the inspector observed, this was quite true. The cars were going all day long and had to be held out of service to give the inspector time to do his work on them. For some time the two original ambulances at the base hospital were all there were in camp, and during this time they were kept running day and night. It may be said that the cars had been given the proper amount of oiling and greasing, but very little more had been done. The base hospital adjutant claims that they have not sufficient transportation and that this is the cause of the severe use of the cars. This phase will be discussed later.

The base hospital also has one spare parts car and one Garford closed ambulance. Authority has been received for the shipment of spare parts car to Louisville, and this will be done in the near future. The Garford was a gift to the hospital and is a closed city-type ambulance, time same as the one at Camp Lee. Both were in fair condition.

No ambulances were equipped. The tools had been removed from those in the field out of service and most of the tools had been lost from those in service. The supply officer had 12 sets of spare parts A on hand, but these had not been issued even to the cars in use. When the ambulance company took over there six cars, the inspector had them equipped immediately with spare parts A, one spare tire, and as near a complete set of tools as could be obtained from the tools on hand. The remaining six sets of A equipment will be placed in the ambulances at the base hospital as soon as they are taken over by the ambulance company. That will leave two cars without the spare parts A, and these will be requisitioned for. The new type tire iron and pintle hook and reinforcements had not arrived at the time the inspector left, but instructions as to the installation and use of these parts were given. Two cars at the ambulance company -were equipped with power tire pumps. The two original cars at the base hospital were not equipped with snubber straps, front bumper, or starting crank boot. All machines except the original two at the base hospital were equipped with new “motor ambulance operation” sheets. Sheets for these two cars were supplied by the inspector.

Recommendation is made that repairs be made in accordance with instructions left and that time be given the chief mechanic by the commanding officers to do the necessary repair work. This includes not only that repair work necessary to be done at present, but that which will be necessary in the future. If a machine is in such condition that it should not make a run, the commanding officers should see that the car is held out of service while the repairs are being made. A great amount of trouble comes from the fact that the cars are held in service as long as they will run instead of putting them in the garage for repair.

MOTOR CYCLES

Two Indian motor cycles with side cars are held by the Medical Department. Both are out of commission. One had been robbed of parts by the division when they left. This machine had been taken down for repairs and had been rebuilt as far as possible. All worn and unserviceable parts have been removed and must be replaced by new parts requisitioned for. The other motor cycle was found by the inspector between two of the hospital wards, in the open, with no shelter. According to reports it had been there for two weeks. This machine was held on memorandum receipt by the camp surgeon’s office. It apparently was in good condition except for the battery. This was dead. Slight adjustments on the clutch linkage were necessary to allow changing of gears. This machine was starting to rust just because no care or attention was given to it and because it had been allowed to remain out in the weather with no shelter.

Parts are being requisitioned for the replacement of those taken from one machine, and it is recommended that the second motor cycle be given to the ambulance company mechanics for necessary repairs. This machine by all means should be put under shelter and oiled immediately to prevent further rusting and abuse. It is necessary to send one magneto-generator into the factory for repair. Outside of the fact that it had been left out in the open, the machine had been well kept up.


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SPARE PARTS B AND TRAILER
Spare parts B and trailer were both held by the supply officer when the inspector arrived. The parts had not been opened except to check them. The first thing done was to take over this equipment and load the trailer under the direction of the inspector. It is kept at present behind the company quarters, and keys are held by the chief mechanic and company supply officer. Parts are issued by the chief mechanic only. When they are given out, the factory number and name of the part is recorded and the old part taken in exchange. In this way a complete record is had at all times of the parts issued, and requisition can be made to complete the equipment at any time without taking inventory. The equipment was complete when taken from the supply officer and signed for.

    Care should be taken to record all parts taken out exactly as they are listed in the parts catalogue, and requisition should be made once a month to replace equipment in accordance with instructions given by the Surgeon General's Office.

PERSONNEL
The camp surgeon, Lieut. Col. ______ ______,has placed Capt.______ _______ M. R. C. in command of the 377th Ambulance Company with First Lieut.______ _______, M. R. C., as assistant. Lieutenant______ ______acts as supply and transportation officer. Neither of the officers in the company are acquainted with mechanical construction of automobiles, and this part of the organization will have to he handled entirely by Sergt.______ ______,chief mechanic. Captain ______ has driven his own car some, but has done no work on it. Lieutenant _______has done no automobile work whatever. Sergt. _____ essentially a. motor-cycle man, having handled their repair in his own shop for several years. His automobile experience is limited to work done on cars he had driven and on cars which were owned by men bringing motor cycles to his shop for repair. However, he has a good knowledge of automobile construction and is bright and intelligent. Besides Sergeant_________, there are at present five other men who have had some experience in garage work, and all of them are graduates of the Government automobile schools. These schools were especially for the training of truck mechanics and drivers and were for two months’ duration. The training consisted of lectures, driving, overhauling, and repairing. There are at present only 28 men in the company with the intentions of raising this number to 122 enlisted personnel. The mechanics available now, together with those whom it is reasonable to expect will come with the additional 90 men, make the future of the company look very favorable as far as the mechanical work is concerned. The 6 men whom the inspector has classed as mechanics are all good drivers. Besides these, there are at least 6 men in the organization at present who can be classed as good drivers. These men are also capable of doing all minor repair work on machines. Nearly all of the men have done some driving, but can not be called good drivers.

    At the base hospital the chief mechanic is a sergeant, first class. He is essentially a motor cycle repair man, but has had some automobile work. Together with two other good automobile mechanics, they can handle the work if given time. The difficulty is that the cars are running all day long, and no chance is given time men to keep the machines in proper condition. There is a fairly complete set of tools at tile garage supplied by the hospital, and it will probably not be necessary to turn the cars in to the ambulance company for repair work.

When the inspector arrived, the 377th Ambulance Company had just been organized, with a complement of 2 officers and 28 enlisted men. There were no cars and no mechanics or drivers had been chosen except Sergeant __________, who had been on duty at the camp surgeon’s office as a driver. No system had been devised for running the ambulance service. During the stay of the inspector, the commanding officer put aside all of his plans and allowed the inspector to have full charge of his men with the view of getting some of the major repair work accomplished, the personnel chosen, and of giving some instruction as to the repair of the cars and the procedure of handling the work and equipment. This the inspector did. As has been stated, six cars, trailer, and spare parts A and B were obtained immediately. The trailer was loaded and full instructions as to its use were given. All the


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men who claimed to be mechanics were given a chance to work on repairs. Their work was carefully observed, instructions and advise were given, and in this way a line on the ability of the men was obtained. Drivers were watched and, together with the chief mechanic, assistant mechanics, and temporary drivers were selected.
A system for operation of the ambulance service, which will be taken over as soon as more men are secured, was suggested and explained in detail to the commanding officer. This system will undoubtedly be adopted. The forms for reports will be used only until such time as the regulation form arrives from the Surgeon General’s Office. The system suggested is nearly identical with that in operation at Camp Lee. It is as follows: To use a board showing the location of cars at all times. This will show cars that are out of service for any reason, cars that are waiting call, and cars that are out on special duty. This applies to motor cycles as well as ambulances. Space is reserved on the board for special orders. Holes are drilled in the board under the headings listed above and numbered pegs corresponding to the car numbers are placed in the proper hole showing where the car is located. The driver is to receive a written order from the dispatcher, giving the car number, the time of receiving the call and of sending the car, the destination, and nature of the case. Upon the return of the driver he will turn in his order with the time of return, number of patients and passengers carried, and mileage recorded on it. All the data recorded on the order will be recorded in an office record, and from this record a monthly report is made. This monthly report contains a sheet for each car and the data are entered on it daily. The data shown should include number of patients, number of passengers other than patients, number of trips, total mileage, total gasoline and oil consumption for each day. Totals for the month should he entered, and from these miles per gallon of oil and gasoline should be shown. As has been said, the paper work in connection with this system should be used only until such time as the regulation daily car report forms come from the Surgeon General’s Office.

    No inspection is held at the base hospital garage, nevertheless the cars are kept very clean and orderly. No mechanical inspection is held. It is doubtful if a mechanical inspection would be of much use under present circumstances, because as it is the mechanic knows that there is lots of work to be done, but no time is given him to do it.

After talking with Captain it is thought best to hold inspection of the ambulance comilpany cars in the following manner: The driver and his orderly will make the daily inspection in accordance with notes in “Instructions and information.” The commanding officer will make weekly inspection relative to the cleanliness of the car and the mechanical parts he is capable of handling. The chief mechanic and his assistants will make weekly inspection to check up the driver and his orderly.
If anything is found out of order by the driver or his orderly, it is to be reported immediately in writing to the chief mechanic, whose duty it shall be to determine as closely as possible the extent of the repair work necessary. If the driver and orderly are capable of making tile repair themselves, they should be allowed to work on the machine in connection with the mechanics. The driver and orderly should by all means be held responsible for keeping the car well oiled, greased, and tightened. In order to minimize the loss of tools, the drivers are required to sign memorandum receipts for the tool and spare parts A equipment. In this way the driver will he more careful of his equipment, and the entire equipment will be checked once a week by the commanding officer during his regular time for inspection.HOUSING
At present the ambulance company is housed in temporary quarters and keeping its ears in the open. No buildings are available, however, for the housing of the ambulances or for a garage. The camp surgeon has put in a request to the constructing quartermaster, however, for a building, sufficiently large to accommodate all the motor equipment of the company and also to provide additional space for a garage. This building should be heated in winter, and the garage should he equipped with a concrete floor and work bench. The garage should he large enough to hold at least two cars, one spare parts trailer, and a good-sized work bench. This building is recommended by the inspector.


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The base hospital at present has a heated garage containing a concrete floor and bench and sufficiently large to hold 4 cars. An additional building has already been approved which will be used for car storage. This will be heated and contain 10 cars and will readily supply their needs.
MOTOR TRANSPORTATION
The base hospital is equipped with the following transportation secured from the sources noted:        Ford 1-ton trucks (gifts).........................................................  2
   Ford., touring car (gifts).........................................................  1  
  Dodge light truck (canteen fund)..........................................  1
  Chevrolet touring car (canteen fund).................................... 1
  Chevrolet touring car (base hospital fund)..........................  2
  Packard, 2-25 7- passenger car )base hospital fund)..........  1

The two Ford trucks are in very bad shape. They are in service from early morning to late at night, and no time is given for repair. Parts are bought for them from local dealers as they are needed, and the sole idea seems to be to keep them running regardless of the condition they are in. The remaining cars are in fair condition.
Gasoline, oil, and spare parts for the trucks are purchased with the money from the hospital and canteen funds, according to instructions given by Colonel

The Packard is used exclusively by the nurses for their own personal affairs. The Ford is used for messenger service in the camp because of an order which states that communications between headquarters will be delivered by messenger and not by mail. The remaining touring cars are used for transporting officers around the camp in their regular line of duty. The inspector had a conversation with the adjutant and the commanding officer at the base hospital in regard to the transportation, and they desired three motor cycles in addition to the transportation they now have. As it is at present they have one 7-passenger car which is not used in the regular line of duty. These cars were bought out of their own funds because it was necessary to have transportation in addition to that which the Medical Department gives them; the Quartermaster’s Department will not give them anything. Two additional 1-ton trucks have been ordered, but have not arrived. The trucks are used for hauling supplies for the canteen, for the mess, and for hauling medical supplies from the supply depot to the hospital.
The medical supply officer has no transportation at present. His motor cycle is waiting for parts which, according to him, were requisitioned for last March. Some of the parts came, but others he ordered were left out and the machine could not be put together. The Quartermaster Corps does haul his supplies, but they are delayed and sometimes he has great difficulty in getting them at all. This problem sometimes arises when the situation is acute. There is no transportation available for the commanding officer of the ambulance company other than ambulances, and there is no doubt but what ambulances will be used for carrying on the company administration if motor cycles are not provided.

At the Camp Surgeon’s office there is one Dodge touring car for the use of the entire office. This Dodge is held on memorandum receipt from the quartermaster. It is by no means adequate for their needs, and the inspector is informed that if more transportation is not secured it will be necessary to obtain more medical officers to do the required amount of work for this camp.
The matter of additional transportation was talked over with the camp surgeon, base hospital adjutant, medical supply officer, and the ambulance company commander. The following additional transportation is necessary to carry out the required work in satisfactory manner:

The detachment Sanitary Corps at present has no transportation and is in need of two 1½ ton trucks for the transportation of labor and material and one motor cycle with side car.

The camp surgeon’s office requires in addition to one touring car, 3 motor cycles with side cars and 1 other touring car.
The base hospital requires 3 motor cycles with side cars, the medical supply depot is in need of one 1-ton truck for hauling supplies from freight cars to the warehouses, and the


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ambulance company is in need of 2 motor cycles with side cars. After consultation with the medical officers concerned, it is the inspector’s opinion that the above additional transportation noted does not appear to be in excess of their respective needs.

DENTAL
The earlier conception of the need for dental treatment required in the training camps contemplated only emergency work. This conception probably evolved from the manner in which, for many years, dental treatment had been administered in the Army. The extent to which restoration procedures were later carried at the various camps was not and, in the absence of a knowledge of the conditions which would arise, could not have been visualized at that time. The original orders placed for dental equipment were for portable outfits for camp organizations and a base dental outfit for the base hospital. Having in mind the difficulties and delays encountered during the preceding year in the purchase of these outfits, slow delivery was expected. In the original distribution an effort was made to have it as equitable as possible. Department surgeons were informed that two outfits would be sent to each camp and the number increased in accordance with actual deliveries.51 Officers in charge of the distributing depots were instructed September 18, 1917, to distribute pro rata among the camps supplied by them the portable outfits ordered to them from the New York medical supply depot.52  The demand for these outfits becoming insistent, authority was given for the local purchase of such supplies authorized on the standard supply table as were obtainable.53 It became necessary on account of the shortage of dental supplies to forward all dental requisitions to the New York depot for issue.54

    The principal difficulty in providing dental equipment continued to be in 1917, as in 1916, the dental engines and the chests in which to pack the equipment. It became apparent in November, 1917, that if the dental surgeons going overseas were to be provided with portable dental outfits some different equipment must be furnished for camp use. Less difficulty was experienced in procuring heavy standard base dental chair and electric dental engines. Since there were approximately 30 dental surgeons with mobile organizations at the camps, two dental infirmaries were established at each camp.55 These dental infirmaries were designed to provide space for the dental surgeons. The equipment for a unit of nine operating dental surgeons and one exodontist was developed, and three such units ordered to each National Army camp early in November, 1917.56 Division surgeons were instructed to place these unit equipments in use immediately upon receipt in any suitable space available pending the construction of dental infirmaries. As soon as these dental units had been placed in use, the portable dental outfits were to be turned into the camp medical supply officer, who was directed to replenish and complete them, and hold them for issue upon instructions from the Surgeon General. 57
Although dental unit equipments were authorized for all camps in November, 1917, reports from the Various camps indicate that it was not until May and June of the following year that dental infirmary buildings were sufficiently complete to receive the equipment.58 In most of the camps, both National


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Army and National Guard, some organizations were housed at a considerable distance from the dental infirmaries. It was inconvenient and often impracticable for these organizations to receive treatment at the dental infirmaries. There were, too, as a rule, more dental surgeons in the camp than there were chairs in the dental infirmaries and base hospitals; to provide these extra dental surgeons with equipment and to bring the treatment within easy reach of the distant organizations, portable dental outfits in sufficient number were issued for their use. These portable outfits were left at the camp when the division left for duty overseas. By the end of May, 1918, practically every division had been provided with 30 portable outfits.59 Tables of organization were amended in March, 1918, to provide for the attachment of 31 dental surgeons, of whom one was an acting division dental surgeon, and 32 enlisted assistants to each division ordered overseas.60 This made necessary the 30 outfits furnished.
It having been reported by the inspectors of medical property at camps that excessive quantities of certain dental supplies were on hand at some of the camps, a report of the quantities on hand and monthly expenditures of dental cements, cotton rolls, and dental napkins was called for July 23, 1918. Time reports received in response to this call indicated a total monthly expenditure of these article, at 23 camps reporting, to be cement, 2,067 boxes; cotton rolls, 640 boxes; dental napkins, 333 boxes. The averages for the camps reporting were cement, 89.87 boxes; cotton rolls, 27.82 boxes; dental napkins, 14.47 boxes. The maximum quantities expended at any one camp were, cement, 500 boxes; cotton roils, 100 boxes; dental napkins, 40 boxes; and the minimum, cement, 6 boxes; cotton rolls, 5 boxes; dental napkins, 3 boxes.61

VETERINARY

In planning the initial distribution of supplies and equipment to both the National Army and the National Guard camps, veterinary equipment and supplies received full consideration. The great difficulty in planning for this distribution, until the revision of Tables of Organization in August, 1917, had been furnished the supply bureaus, was the uncertainty in the number and distribution of public animals, the number and location of remount depots, and the relation of the auxiliary remount depots to the camps, whether an activity of the camp or an independent unit. While the actual number of animals for which provision had to be made differed at the various camps, it was assumed to be about 10,000 animals, including those at the auxiliary remount depot adjacent to the camp.

Using 10,000 animals as a basis, a list of the initial equipment and stock of supplies was compiled in August, 1917. Copies of these lists were furnished the medical supply officers at all distributing and camp depots August 17, 1917. The officer in charge of the medical supply depot at St. Louis, Mo., was instructed on that date to issue quantities of the various articles on that list, less stationary, to the medical supply officer at the 14 National Army and 9 National Guard camps lying to the eastward of the western boundaries of the States, Minnesota to Louisiana, inclusive, and including Camp Funston, Fort Riley, Kans.62 The officer in charge of the San Antonio depot was expected to supply the camps in the Southern Department63 from the stock turned over to


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him by the local depot quartermaster. The San Francisco medical supply depot was expected to supply the camp on t.he Pacific coast either from supplies received from the depot quartermaster in that city or from those to be transferred to him from St. Louis.64 The instructions of August 17 directed that shipments be expected so as to reach the several camps before September 1, if that were possible. If the entire quantities on the list were not available, shipment was to be made of such articles and quantities as were available.

A further study was made of the quantities to be issued as the initial supply contemplated to he sufficient for a division for three months. A revised list was furnished the St. Louis Depot on September 17, with instructions to substitute it for the one previously sent.65 Instructions were issued the same date for the shipment to the San Francisco medical supply depot of three times the quantities on the revised list.66

A complete veterinary supply table was published September 29, 1917, in tentative form pending its formal publication, and widely distributed for the guidance of veterinary and other officers of the Medical Department. It becanne official in Changes No.4, Manual for the Medical Department, published November 19, 1917. This list was furnished all division surgeons, all department surgeons in the United States, and the officers in charge of distributing depots, December 20, 1917. Articles in excess of the allowance were to be issued only upon conclusive evidence that the authorized quantities were inadequate. The same instructions directed that all requisitions for veterinary supplies be sent to the Surgeon General for approval.67

It became evident early that, to comply with interstate commerce regulations governing the shipment of horses, large quantities of mallein would be required. Those regulations required that horses be shown to be free from glanders before they were placed on cars for interstate shipment. To make these tests, it was essential that comparatively fresh mallein be used. The Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, used large quantities of this substance in its routine work and readily agreed to supply the Army with the quantities it needed. Accordingly arrangements were made with that bureau in September, 1917, to furnish each auxiliary remount depot 2,000 doses of mallein per week for five weeks.68 Most of our Cavalry organizations were in the Southern Department at this time. Changes of station of these organizations were frequent and often unexpected. Glanders was more prevalent in that department than elsewhere. The delay incident to forwarding to the Surgeon General telegraphic requests for mallein often proved inconvenient and caused some confusion. To overcome this difficulty the Surgeon General made arrangements with the Bureau of Animal Industry to forward, during October, 1917, to the medical supply depot, San Antonio, Tex., 50,000 doses of mallein. Of this quantity, 25,000 doses were placed at the disposal of the department surgeon for issue to organizations under the control of the department commander. The remaining 25,000 doses were held for issue, subject to telegraphic instructions from the Surgeon General to the various training camps in that department, directly under the War Department.69 Mallein was furnished thereafter to all organizations requiring it upon telegraphic request to the Surgeon General. Upon receipt of these requests, they were transmitted to


452

the Bureau of Animal Industry by telephone amid confirmed in writing. Shipments then were made by that bureau direct to the using organization.


The quantity of mallein furnished the Army by the Bureau of Animal Industry reached huge proportions. During the month of August, 1918, more than 350,000 doses were furnished. During the preceding five months the quantity had averaged 273,000 doses per month.70

Other biologicals for veterinary use were procured from the same sources and in the same manner as those for human use. The veterinarian who required them, if at or in proximity to a training camp, made request upon the local medical supply officer, who purchased from the designated biological manufacturer. Requests from veterinarians at stations under the control of a department commander were sent to the department surgeon of that department. Those from other exempted places were sent to the Surgeon General. Issues were made promptly in all cases. The biological products authorized for veterinary use were very few, principally mallein and tetanus antitoxin.

The allowance of veterinary officers was fixed in October, 1917, at the ratio of 1 to 400 animals. On that basis the number of veterinary officers allowed at that time was approximately 800. The individual equipment ordered for such officers was considerably in excess of that number.71 The number was increased later.

Veterinary surgical instruments proved to be difficult to obtain and did not become available for distribution until the early part of 1918. They were supplied, as they became available, by the depot at St. Louis, Mo., in accordance with original instructions.72

REQUISITIONS

Requisitions for medical property originating within the training camps may be grouped definitely into two classes: Those requiring the shipment of supplies to the camp medical supply depot (depot requisitions); those contemplating distribution within the camp of supplies from that depot (unit requisitions).

DEPOT REQUISITIONS

The Manual for the Medical Department provided for two general classes of depot requisitions, annual and special, for use in time of peace and within the home territory in time of war. Annual requisitions usually were prepared on a printed form known as Form 33. This form contained the names, arranged in proper sequence, of every article for which a fixed annual allowance was prescribed on the standard supply table. In preparing this requisition, there were entered opposite each item the quantities “on hand” and the quantities “wanted” represented the difference between the quantities “on hand” and the quantities allowed in the standard supply table for the authorized strength of a garrison of the size stated at the top of the requisition to be that of the garrison whence it was forwarded. This requisition was required to be forwarded to the department surgeon of the territorial department wherein it originated, not less than 20 days before the beginning of the year commencing January 1, unless otherwise designated by the Surgeon General. After examination, modification, if need be, and approval by the


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department surgeon, a copy, with his action indorsed thereon, was forwarded to the depot designated to make the issue. Another copy was forwarded to the Surgeon General. The third copy was retained in his files, and the fourth copy was returned to the officer forwarding the requisition. The medical supply depot receiving the requisition shipped the supplies in due course and invoiced them to the surgeon of the station whence the requisition came.73

Special requisitions were requests for supplies in excess of the quantities allowed on the standard supply table, for articles on that table but for which no annual allowances were prescribed, and those for articles which did not appear on the standard supply table. These requisitions were prepared on Form 35, typewritten, and the articles were entered in accordance with the general arrangement of the supply table. The reasons for the items and quantities entered on this form of requisition were required to be entered in the column of remarks. Special requisitions, as well as annual, were forwarded to the department surgeon unless they originated with an independent unit. In the latter case they were sent direct to the Surgeon General. The department surgeon, after taking such action as in his judgment was appropriate, indorsed his action on all four copies of the requisition, retained one copy for his office file and forwarded the three remaining copies to the Surgeon General. The latter approved or altered the requisition as seemed appropriate, retained one copy for file, forwarded one copy to the designated medical supply depot for issue, and returned the third copy to the surgeon, through the department surgeon, with the modifications, if any, noted thereon. Issue and invoice was made by the depot in the same manner as with the annual requisition. Special requisitions were forwarded annually, quarterly, or in an emergency. All copies of the requisition were signed by the surgeon of the post where they originated.74

This regulation, requiring the action of the Surgeon General’s Office on all special requisitions, was found to be impracticable during the mobilization of 1916 on the Mexican border, and authority to act on all requisitions within the Southern Department was delegated to the department surgeon of that department. Requisitions for supplies for the medical supply depots in that department, with few exceptions, were forwarded to the Surgeon General. With the impending entry of the United States into the World War, this authority was extended to the department surgeons of the other territorial departments within the United States, but requests for articles not on the supply tables, or in excess of the quantities allowed by the tables, still required the action of the Surgeon General.75

The department surgeons were informed, May 25, 1917, that at each cantonment the divisional hospital was expected to issue to the regimental infirmaries such articles, dressings, and medicines as they might need for routine use.76

While it was contemplated that the camp medical supply officer would be the one officer at the camp to forward requisitions for medical supplies for the given camp, many requisitions from individual units in the camps found their way to the distributing depots, probably because the camp depot did not have the articles in stock. This materially increased the work of the distributing depots and added to the confusion and congestion of supplies in the camps. The demands for supplies in the quantities approved threatened to exhaust


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the stock of supplies at an early date. It was apparent that some way must be found whereby the quantities issued could be controlled to such an extent and the available supply so distributed that all camps might have an equitable share. It appeared necessary, to accomplish this end, that all requisitions, except those of the utmost emergency, be reviewed in the Surgeon General’s Office. To effect this change the following instructions were issued to all camps.77

1. All requisitions for supplies from divisional training camps will be prepared by the camp medical supply officers and forwarded through their respective division surgeons to this office for action. These requisitions should be prepared separately for post, field, dental, X-ray, laboratory, veterinary, and automobile supplies. Three copies are required. Division surgeons are directed to scrutinize all requisitions very carefully, with a view to eliminating all unnecessary supplies.

2. Medical supply officers at camps are authorized to make local purchases of articles on the supply tables (excepting portable dental outfits or other expensive equipment) which are not in stock and for which urgent need exists, in such quantities as will last until supplies can be had on requisition.

3. The purchase of articles not on the supply table not to exceed $100 per quarter may be made without reference to this office, but in every such instance the purchase must be covered by a certificate from the officer directing the purchase, showing the necessity therefor and stating why the articles on the supply table could not have been used for the purpose. Printing and rubber stamps are included in this allotment (Everson & Reed, New York, furnish satisfactory stamps). Purchases should be vouchered monthly in conformity with Army Regulations and the instructions on Form, 330, public service voucher.

The various instructions covering the preparation and forwarding of requisitions were revised and published December 5, 1917, as paragraph 25, Supply Letters Nos. 1-23, inclusive.C Sufficient copies of this compilation were sent to every camp to provide one for every officer of the Medical Department on duty there with a personal copy.

The date on which the monthly requisition was to be forwarded differed at different camps. The total number of camps, hospitals, etc., from which requisitions were received was 75. This number was divided into three groups, and a different date assigned to each group, so that the receipt of the requisitions in the Surgeon General’s Office would be fairly evenly distributed throughout the month. The 1st, 10th, and 20th were the days designated for forwarding the requisitions. Each camp was notified on which of these three days its requisition would be forwarded.

 

Although efforts were made constantly to prevent waste and to insure economy in the use of supplies, it was never the purpose of the Surgeon General to impose hardships upon the hospitals in the care of the sick. It was realized that the majority of the professional personnel on duty at these hospitals were unfamiliar with Army methods and Army supplies, that many emergencies would arise where new and different remedies or apparatus would be required, and that many demands would be made which could not be met from stock and where material inconvenience would result from the delay in securing the needed articles by requisition even if submitted by telegraph. To provide for such conditions and to obviate delays in receipt of supplies and the resultant complaints, commanding officers of the hospitals at the various camps

_______________

c See appendix, p. 864.


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were authorized to make local purchases. The extent of the authority, its limitations, and requirements are given in the following letter:

FEBRUARY 26, 1918.

From:  The Surgeon General, United States Army.

To: The commanding officer, base hospitals.

Subject: Authority to purchase medical supplies.

1. Referring to paragraph 25a of “Supply Letters 1 to 25, inclusive,” your attention is invited to the provision therein made for purchasing locally such articles as may be needed to save life or prevent suffering.

This provision should be given a liberal interpretation, especially as regards medicines, dressings, instruments, and appliances urgently needed to care properly for the sick or injured.

Purchases made under these circumstances need not necessarily be limited to articles listed on the supply table if other articles of a similar character are considered better or if they are more readily procurable. If articles not enumerated in the supply table are needed for the proper operation of your hospital and such articles can not be procured promptly in the local market, requisition should be made for same by telegraph if the need is urgent.

2. All allotment of $100 per month has been made to your hospital, to be used as you may consider necessary for making purchases properly chargeable to the appropriation “Medical and hospital supplies.” Great care should be taken that no purchases be made that call not be paid for from that fund. Should such illegal purchases be made, the expenditure will be disallowed by the Treasury Department.

3. For emergency purchases involving expenditures in excess of your allotment you should, unless the need for immediate action is urgent, telegraph the Surgeon General for authority to make the purchase.

 

  4. The purchases should, when practicable, be made by the camp supply officer. Properly executed vouchers for purchases made under this authority should be rendered promptly at the end of each month.

5. The authority for emergency purchases herein given is not to be construed as in any way relieving you from the responsibility of making timely requisition for supplies necessary in the proper administration of your hospital. In this connection you should bear in mind present transportation difficulties and make liberal allowance for delays in the delivery of supplies.

6. It is requested that the receipt of this letter be acknowledged.

By order of the Surgeon General:

C. R. DARNALL,

Colonel, Medical Corps.

To provide a definite basis upon which to determine the quantities to be entered upon the monthly requisitions, the following plan was adopted and issued to the medical supply officers at all National Army a.nd National Guard camps and ports of embarkation, and to all numbered general hospitals and other large hospitals:

JUNE 3, 1918.

From: The Surgeon General.

To: Medical supply officers.

Subject: Requisitions.

1. Beginning with the next requisition forwarded by you after receipt of this letter, the following instructions will be observed:

(a) Change the heading of column 1 to read “Issued during previous month.” Enter in this column all articles actually issued by you whether on memorandum receipt or other manner of transfer.

(b) In the second column, “Amount on hand,” enter in the case of expendable articles the quantities actually in the storeroom on that date. In the case of nonexpendable articles, the quantities in the storeroom and on memorandum receipt.

(c) In the column “Wanted” enter, for expendable articles, three times the quantity in the first column less the quantity in the second column. In the case of nonexpendable


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articles, enter the probable requirements, and in the column of “Remarks” opposite each item a statement showing the necessity for the increased issue.

2. This will serve to provide you with two months’ stock in the depot and one month’s supply in transit.

3. Every article of your stock should be carefully checked once per month. If the quantity of any article on hand does not equal a three months’ supply as determined by multiplying the last preceding month’s issue by 3, you should request a quantity sufficient to cover the deficiency.

By order of the Surgeon General:

EDWIN P. WOLFE,

Colonel, Medical Corps.

This method continued in force until the supply activities of the Medical Department were absorbed by the purchase, storage, and traffic division of the General Staff, November 24, 1918. Reports from the camp depots during the closing months of the war indicated that the supplies on hand were ample except for a few minor items of dental supplies. Organizations were receiving their unit equipment promptly. Those arriving at the embarkation camps with shortages in unit equipment had their equipment promptly completed.78 Existing orders required that troops embarking for overseas duty take with them as baggage their medical combat equipment less litters and a camp infirmary reserve (par. 871, Manual for the Medical Department, 1916).79

UNIT REQUISITIONS

The organizations whose requests for medical supplies are classed under this heading were the detachments of Medical Department personnel attached to regiments, detached battalions, companies, divisional trains, and other like organizations of the line of the Army, and the component elements of the sanitary train, ambulance companies, and field hospital companies. The equipment provided in the Manual for the Medical Department for these medical detachments when the organizations to which they were attached operated as part of an assembled division consisted of the individual equipment of the Medical Department enlisted men and a combat equipment. Additional surgical dressings and a few litters were carried on the ammunition wagons.

The combat equipment was devised to meet the requirements of regiments of strength from 1,000 to 1,200 men. When the regiments were so increased in size during the fall of 1917 that a single battalion numbered 1,000 men, the number of combat equipments allowed a regiment was increased from 1 to 3. This provided one for each battalion.80

In addition to the combat equipments, there was allowed a camp infirmary equipment for each regiment. Eight such infirmary equipments were allowed an Infantry division. 81

   

It was contemplated that the surgeons of regiments, separate battalions, trains, and other organizations would keep their supplies and equipment replenished by timely requisitions.82 It had been contemplated that a certain number of the camp infirmary equipments issued to a division would be held in reserve by the officer in charge of medical supplies and placed under the immediate charge of the director of ambulance companies.83 It was also contemplated that, in time of combat, the expenditure of dressings, etc., from the equipment of regimental organizations would be replenished from the reserve supplies of the nearest ambulance company.84


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The complete medical unit equipment of an Infantry division at war strength in 1918 consisted of the following:

Chart

This equipment was distributed in the division as follows: 1 camp infirmary and camp infirmary reserve to the headquarters of each regiment; 1 combat equipment, less litters, and ambulance boxes of surgical dressings to each battalion of the regiment and to each separate organization except the sanitary train and trench mortar battery; 1 venereal prophylaxis unit to each organization; 1 ambulance company equipment to each ambulance company; 1 field hospital equipment to each field hospital company.

Litters and ambulance boxes of surgical dressings were distributed as follows:

Chart


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In addition to the above, there was provided by the Medical Department for each motorized ambulance company 12 motor ambulances, 1 spare-parts trailer, and 2 motor cycles with side cars, and for each motorized field hospital company, 3 motor cycles with side cars. The remainder of the transportation and equipment was obtained from the Quartermaster Corps.


Every organization of a division leaving the training camp for duty overseas was expected to have with it as personal baggage its complete combat equipment for use on the voyage. The camp infirmaries, camp infirmary reserves, and the equipment of ambulance companies and field hospitals were expected to be loaded with other organizational property.85 All medical units with the division thereafter looked to the medical supply officer of the division for the replenishment of their supplies and equipment. That officer secured his supplies as previously described.

It was contemplated in regulations and such instructions as were issued from the Surgeon General’s Office from time to time, that the requests of surgeons of divisional units for supplies would be scrutinized by the division or camp surgeon before the issue by the divisional or camp medical supply officer of the articles and quantities contained in such requests. No specific directions so to do were issued to division or camp surgeons. The method of issuing and conserving supplies was left to the judgment of the division surgeon, acting in conformity with the general principles enunciated in the Manual for the Medical Department. The practice in this matter was not altogether uniform in the different camps. As the duties of the division surgeon multiplied, matters pertaining to requisitions and the issue of supplies within the division came more and more to be delegated to the divisional medical supply officer. The chief object was the prompt and effectual supply of the units with a sufficient quantity of all articles authorized for issue to them.

REFERENCES

(1) Memorandum from Chief of War College Division, General Staff, to Chief of Staff, May 4, 1917. Subject: Designation of camp sites for training new troops. On file, Record Room, A. G. O., Correspondence Files 2,593,945 (Old Files).

(2) Annual Report of the Chief of the Reconstruction Division, W. D., 1918.

(3) Manual for the Medical Department, U. S. Army, 1916, par. 596.

(4) Ibid., par. 594.

(5) Ibid., par. 597.

(6) Letter from the Surgeon General to the medical supply officer, Philadelphia. Pa., Chicago, Ill., Atlanta, Ga., and St. Louis, Mo., August 7,  1917. Subject: Issue of  field hospitals. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531/17.

(7) Telegram from the Surgeon General to the Division Surgeon, Camp Logan, Tex., August 28, 1917. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G.O.,  531-Misc./2.

(8) Letters from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to officer in charge, Medical Supply Depot, Atlanta, Ga., Chicago, Ill., Philadelphia, Pa., St. Louis, Mo., San Antonio, Tex, and San Francisco, Calif., August 13, 1917. Subject: Initial equipments to National Army camps. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-Misc./1.

(9) G. O. No. 137, W. D., October 30, 1917.


459 (10) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army (with two inclosures dated December 14, 1917), to the division surgeon, all camps, December  20, 1917. Subject: Equipment. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  531-Misc./78.

(11) First indorsement from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the division surgeon, 35th Division, Camp Doniphan, Fort Sill, Okla., October 9, 1917. Subject: Supplies.  On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 534-123/25. 

(12) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to division surgeons, November 13, 1917. Subject: Equipment required by sanitary personnel. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 534/30.

(13) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the officer in charge, Field Medical Supply Depot, Washington, D. C., March 21, 1918. Subject: Priority for  shipment of web belts. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 713-750 W./212.

(14) Letter from the camp surgeon, Camp Shelby, Miss., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 5, 1917. Subject: Supplies for regimental infirmaries, and various indorsements thereon. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  534-128/18.

(15) Letter from Maj. Edwin P. Wolfe, M. C., to Lieut. Col. Henry D. Snyder, M. C., New York Medical Supply Depot, May 17, 1917. Subject: Mess tables for base hospitals. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 14,039-54.

(16) Letter from the Surgeon General to the medical supply officer, New York, N. Y., July 3, 1917. Subject: Beds. 0n file, Finance and Supply   Division S.G.O. 14,039-200.

(17) Letter from the Surgeon General to the medical supply officer, Chicago, Ill., May 29, 1917. Suhject: Medical Supply Depot, Chicago Ill. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 14,823-A.

(18) Letter from the Surgeon General to the department surgeon, Central Department, Chicago, Ill., ,June 8, 1917. Subject: Medical supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 13,937-0.

(19) Letter from Lieut. Col. E. P. Wolfe, M. C., to Maj. M. A. Reasormer, M. C., Chicago, Ill., August 11, 1917. Subject: Issue of initial equipment to camps. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 713-130/4.

(20) Memorandum from chief clerk, Medical Supply Depot, St. Louis, Mo., to chief clerk, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., August 15, 1917. Subject.: Field Units on hand. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  713-707/29.

(21)  Letter from the medical supply officer, New York, to the Surgeon General, August 7, 1917. Subject: Camps to be supplied with Wolfe base hospital units. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 713-539/52.

(22) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1918, 320.

(23) Telegrams from camp medical supply officers, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 5, 6, 7, 1917, reporting degree of  completeness of equipment. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., under respective camp file numbers, for example, Camp Dix,  531-123/6;  Camp Meade,  531-127/12.

(24) Letter from the Surgeon General to the surgeon, base hospital, all National Army cantonments, August 10, 1917. Subject: Authorization of  labor. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531/1.

(25) Tables of Organization, United States Army, May 3, 1917, Table 36, Trains--Infantry Division--Sanitary.


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(26) Tables of Organization. United States Army, Series A, April 17, 1918, Table 28, Sanitary Trains.

(27) Telegram from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the officer in charge, Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, Ky., August 16, 1917. Subject: Motor ambulances and spare parts. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  713-446/6.

(28) Report of G. M. C. ambulances shipped from Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, Ky., from August 24, 1917, to October 6, 1917.On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 713-440/398.

(29) Letter from the Director, Bureau of Medical Service, American Red Cross, Washington, D. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 26, 1917. Subject:  Red Cross ambulance companies. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 171,059.

(30) Telegram from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commanding officers of various Red Cross ambulance companies. Subject: Enlistment Red Cross ambulance companies, July 31, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 171,059-D.

(31) Letter from Col. Edwin P. Wolfe, M. C., S. G. O., to Maj. John P. Fletcher, M. C., Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, Ky., September 14, 1917. Subject: Motor ambulances and motor ambulance depot. On file, Finance and SupplyDivision, S. G. O., 713-440/130.

(32) Compilation of shipments of motor ambulances from Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, Ky., August 28, 1917, to December 31, 1917. On file,Finance and SupplyDivision, S. G. O.,  713-440/99.

(33) Letter from Maj. John P. Fletcher, M. C., Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, Ky., to Col. Edwin P. Wolfe, M. C., S. G. O., October 9, 1917. Subject: Spare parts equipment. On file, Finance and Supply Division, 713-440/99.

(34) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the officer in charge, Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, Ky., November 11, 1917. Subject:  Motor ambulances. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  713-440/123.

(35) First indorsement from the Surgeon General, to the commanding officer, Ambulance Company No. 33, U. S. Army Mobilization Camp, Syracuse, N. Y., October 18, 1917. Subject: Ambulance equipment. On file, Finance and Supply Division S. G. O., 22-33/3.

(36) Pamphlet, Surgeon General’s Office, issued December 1, 1917. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 713-440/104.

(37) Letters from Maj. John P. Fletcher, M. C. Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, Ky., to Col. Edwin P. Wolfe, M. C., S. G. O., May 27, 30, 1918. Subject: Spare parts trailers. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 713-440/340.

(38) Information and Instruction Covering Equipment, Spare Parts, Repairs, and Maintenance for U. S. Standard Motor Ambulances and U. S. Standard Motor Cycles in theService of the Medical Department, U. S. Army, Office of the Surgeon General, Washington, D. C.,   May 1, 1918. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  713-440/400.

(39) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the medical supply officer (all camps and cantonments), July 18, 1918. Subject: Monthly requisition for completing spare parts B equipments in ambulance spare parts trailers. On file, Finance and SupplyDivision, S.G.O., 713-440/4.


461

(40) Maintenance Letters, Nos. 1 to 19, inclusive, Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, Ky. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., Louisville maintenance letters file, unnumbered.

(41) Instructions, “Motor Ambulance Operation, Medical Department, U. S. Army.” On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 713-440/400.

(42) Supply letter No. 22, S. G. O., September 30, 1917. Subject: Motor vehicles-Gasoline lubricants, etc. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-Misc./39.

(43) Changes No. 7, 1916 Supplement to the Compilation of Orders, 1881-1915, Washington, March 14, 1918.

(44) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the officer in charge, Field Medical Supply Depot, Washington, D. C., July 31, 1917. Subject: Motor cycles. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 14, 101-105.

(45) Letters from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the officers in charge, Medical Supply Depots, Atlanta, Ga., Philadelphia, Pa., Louisville, Ky., San Antonio, Tex., and San Francisco, Calif., July 31, 1917. Subject: Motor cycles. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 15, 101-105.

(46) Letters from officers in charge, Medical Supply Depots, Atlanta, Ga., Philadelphia, Pa., San Antonio, Tex., and San Francisco, Calif., to the Surgeon General,  U. S. Army, during September, 1917. Subject: Motor cycles. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. 0., 14,101-105.

(47) Weekly reports, Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, beginning August, 1917. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 713-440/398.

(48) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the officer in charge, Motor Ambulance Supply Depot, Louisville, Ky., October 18, 1917. Subject: Issue of motor cycles. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-Misc./58.

(49) Letters from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the division surgeon, all camps, October 18, 1917. Subject: Motor cycles. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S.G.O., 531-Misc./58.

(50) Based on reports from camp surgeons. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(51) Letters from the Surgeon General to department surgeons in the United States, June 8, to August 5, 1917. Subject: Distribution of medical supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 13, 937-0.

(52) Letter from the Surgeon General to medical supply officer, Philadelphia, Pa., September 18, 1917. Subject: Portable dental outfits. On file,Finance and Supply Division, S.G.O.,  531-123 Devens/17.

(53) Telegram from the Surgeon General to division surgeon, Camp Dodge, Iowa, September 15, 1917, authorizing the purchase of five sets of supplies for portable dental outfits, less chairs. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  531-123/22.

(54) Second indorsement from the Surgeon General to the surgeon, Southern Department, September 27, 1917, relative to dental supplies for that department. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O. ,  713-641/28.

(55) First indorsement from hospital division, S. G. O., to finance and supply division, S. G. O. Subject: Dental infirmaries. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (Dental Infirmaries).

(56) Seventh indorsement from the Surgeon General to the division surgeon, Camp Taylor, Ky., October 30, 1917. Subject: Dental supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division. S. G. O.,  531-129 Taylor/19.


462

(57) Letter from the Surgeon General to the division surgeon, all National Army camps, December 12, 1917. Subject: Dental outfits. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S.G.O.,  531-Misc./119.

(58) Telegrams from camp surgeons to the Surgeon General, June 12, 1918, to July 24, 1918, relative to installing dental equipment. On file,  Finance and Supply Division, S.G. O., 531-Misc./119.

(59) Correspondence between the Surgeon General and the various division surgeons during May, 1918. Subject: Dental equipment. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S.G.O., 531-Misc./114.

(60) Letter from The Adjutant General to the Surgeons General, March 26, 1918. Subject: Dental personnel attached to division. On file, Finance and Supply Division,  S. G. O. , 531-Misc./108.

(61) Correspondence between the Surgeon General and camp surgeons during July to September 1918. inclusive. Subject: Dental supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  531-Misc./130.

(62) Letter from the Surgeon General to the officer in charge, medical supply depot, St. Louis, Mo., August 17, 1917. Subject: Issue of veterinary supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  713-707/26.

(63) Letter from the Surgeon General to the medical supply officer, San Antonio, Tex., August 17, 1917~ Subject: Issue of veterinary supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  713-641/6.

(64) Letter from the Surgeon General to the medical supply officer, San Francisco, Calif., August 17, 1917. Subject: Issue of veterinary supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  534/10.

(65) Letter from the Surgeon General to the medical supply officer, St. Louis, Mo., September 17, 1917. Subject: Veterinary supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G.O.,  713-707/94.

(66) Letter from the Surgeon General to time medical supply officer, St. Louis, Mo., September 17, 1917. Subject: Issue of veterinary supplies to San  Francisco. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 713-707/94.

(67) Letter from the Surgeon General to all division surgeons, medical supply officers, San Francisco, Calif., San Antonio, Tex., St. Louis Mo., Philadelphia, Pa., and Atlanta, Ga., December 20, 1917. Subject: Paragraph 968, Manual for the Medical Department, 1916. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  531-Misc. /79.

(68) Fourth indorsement of the Surgeon General to the Quartermaster General, September 27, 1917. Subject: Mallein. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G.  O.,  531-Misc./14.

(69) Correspondence between the Surgeon General and the department surgeons, Southern Department, September and October, 1917. Subject: Mallein. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 188-641 S. A./321.

(70) Letter from the Chief, Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, to Col. C. F. Morse, M. C., Director of Veterinary Service, Office of the Surgeon General, September 21, 1918. Subject: Personnel for the production of mallein. On file Record Room, S. G. O., 220.3 (Assign Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D.C.) F.


463

(71) Third indorsement of the Surgeon General to the medical supply officer, St. Louis, Mo., October 31, 1917, relative to veterinary saddlebags. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S.G. O.,  713-707/75.

(72) Third indorsement of the Surgeon General to the Division Surgeon, Camp Lee, Va., January 25, 1918, relative to shortage of equipment at the auxiliary remount depot at that camp. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O.,  531-127-Lee/148.

(73) Paragraph 477-481, Manual for the Medical Department, 1916.

(74) Paragraph 482-488, Manual for the Medical Department, 1916.

(75) Letters from the Surgeon General to department surgeons, Eastern Department, Central Department, Northeastern Department, Southeastern Department, and Western Department, April 3, 1917. Subject: Requisitions. On file, Finance and supply Division, S. G. O., 13,969-S.

(76) Letter from the Surgeon General to all department surgeons in the United States, May 25, 1917. Subject: Divisional hospital and dental supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 13,969-Z.

(77) Letter from the Surgeon General to all division surgeons, November 16, 1917. Subject: Requisitions and purchases of supplies. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(78) Report from medical supply officer, Camp Upton, N. Y., to the Surgeon General, August 3, 1918. Subject: Monthly report of working of medical supply depot. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-129 Upton/120.

(79) Letter from The Adjutant General to all department and camp commanders, ports of embarkation, bureau chiefs, and excepted places, September 27, 1918. Subject: Medical supplies as baggage with troops embarking for service overseas. On file,  Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-Misc./100.

(80) Memorandum from Colonel Wolfe to personnel division, Surgeons General’s Office, December 19, 1917. Subject: Organization equipment. On file, Finance and Supply Division S. G. O., 534-127 Logan/39.

(81) Personal letter from Col. Edwin P. Wolfe, M. C., to Col. Levy M. Hathaway, M.C., Camp Logan, Tex., November 16, 1917. Subject: Camp infirmaries. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 534-127 Logan/39.

(82) Manual for the Medical Department, U. S. Army, 1916, paragraph 634 (g).

(83) Ibid., paragraphs 658-659.

(84) Ibid., paragraph 633 (f).

(85) First indorsement from the Surgeon General to the division Surgeons, Camp Devens, Mass., June 8, 1918. Subject: Medical supplies. On file, Finance and Supply Division, S. G. O., 531-123 Devens/221.