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Contents

Books and Documents

The

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT

OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY

IN THE WORLD WAR





VOLUME VIII

FIELD OPERATIONS




PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF

MAJ. GEN. M. W. IRELAND

The Surgeon General

By

COL. CHARLES LYNCH, M. C.
COL. JOSEPH H. FORD, M. C.
LIEUT. COL. FRANK W. WEED, M. C.



WASHINGTON :: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE :: 1925


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LETTER OF TRANSMISSION


I have the honor to submit herewith a portion of the history of the MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE WORLD WAR. The portion submitted is Volume VIII, and is entitled "FIELDOPERATIONS."

M. W. IRELAND
Major General, The Surgeon General

The SECRETARY OF WAR.


Lieut. Col. FRANK W. WEED, M. C., Editor in Chief
LOY M CAFEE, A. M., M. D., Assistant Editor in Chief

EDITORIAL BOARDa

Col. BAILEY K. ASHFORD, M. C.
Col. FRANK BILLINGS, M. C.
Col. THOMAS R. BOGGS, M. C.
Col. GEORGE E. BREWER, M. C.
Col. W. P. CHAMBERLAIN, M. C.
Col. C. F. CRAIG, M. C.
Col. HAVEN EMERSON, M. C.
Brig. Gen. JOHN M. T. FINNEY, M. D.
Col. JOSEPH H. FORD, M. C.
Lieut. Col. FIELDING H. GARRISON, M. C.
Col. H. L. GILCHRIST, M. C.
Brig. Gen. JEFFERSON R. KEAN, M. D.
Lieut. Col. A. G. LOVE, M. C.
Col. CHARLES LYNCH, M. C.
Col. JAMES F. McKERNON, M. C.
Col. R. T. OLIVER, M. C.
Col. CHARLES R. REYNOLDS, M. C.
Col. THOMAS W. SALMON, M. C.
Lieut. Col. G. E. DE SCHWEINITZ, M. C.
Col. J. F. SILER, M. C.
Brig. Gen. W. S. THAYER, M. D.
Col. A. D. TUTTLE, M. C.
Col. WILLIAM H. WELCH, M. C.
Col. E. P. WOLFE, M. C.
Lieut. Col. CASEY A. WOOD, M. C.
Col. HANS ZINSSER, M. C.

aThe highest rank held during the World War has been used in the case of each officer.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Preface

SECTION I.-GENERAL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER

I. Personnel, materiel, organization
II. General direction of the medical services, theater of operations
III. Combat divisions in training and rest areas, and on the march
IV. Medical service of the division in combat
V. Evacuation hospitals, mobile hospitals, mobile surgical units, mobile operating units, professional teams, convalescent depots, evacuation ambulance companies, mobile laboratories
VI. The United States Army Ambulance Service
VII. Primary evacuations from the zone of the armies
VIII. The veterinary service

SECTION II.-AMERICAN DIVISIONS WITHFRENCH ARMIES

IX. The 1st Division in the Sommerville, Ansauville, and Cantigny sectors and in the Montdidier-Noyon operation
X. Aisne operation, May 27 to June 5, including Vaux and Belleau Wood, June 6 to July 15, 1918. The 2d and 3d Divisions
XI. The Champagne-Marne operation, July 15-17, 1918. The First Corps (American 26th and French 167th Divisions); the American 3d, 28th, and 42d Divisions
XII. The Aisne-Marne operation, July 18 to August 6, 1918
XIII. The Oise-Aisne operation, August 18 to September 17, 1918

SECTION III.-THE ST. MIHIEL OPERATION

XIV. The First Army
XV. The First Corps (82d, 90th, 5th, 2d, and 78th Divisions)
XVI. The Fourth Corps (89th, 42d, 1st, and 3d Divisions)
XVII. The Fifth Corps (26th Division, French 15th Colonial Division, and 4th Division)
XVIII. Army hospitals
XIX. Evacuation from the zone of the army

SECTION IV.-MEUSE-ARGONNE OPERATION

XX. First phase-army operations
XXI. First phase continued-the First Corps (77th, 28th, and 35th Divisions in line; 1st and 92d Divisions in reserve)
XXII. First phase continued-the Fifth Corps (91st, 37th, 79th, 3d Divisions, with the 32d Division in reserve)
XXIII. First phase continued-the Third Corps (4th, 80th, and 33d Divisions)
XXIV. Second phase-army operations
XXV. Second phase continued-First Corps
XXVI. Second phase continued-Fifth Corps
XXVII. Second phase continued-Third Corps
XXVIII. Second phase continued-Operations east of the Meuse
XXVIII. Second phase continued-Operations east of the Meuse
XXX. Third phase continued-First Corps
XXXI. Third phase continued-Fifth Corps
XXXII. Third phase continued-Third Corps
XXXIII. Third phase continued-activities of the American divisions attached to the French corps east of the Meuse
XXXIV. General considerations, Medical Department activities

SECTION V.-OPERATIONS CONTEMPORANEOUS WITH THEMEUSE-ARGONNEOPERATION

XXXV. The Second Army
XXXVI. Meuse-Argonne (Champagne) operation (2d and 36th Divisions); Ypres-Lys (Flanders) operation (37th and 91st Divisions)

SECTION VI.-AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARYFORCES WITH THE BRITISH

XXXVII. Second Corps

SECTION VII.-AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARYACTIVITIES IN GERMANY, ITALY, NORTH RUSSIA, ANDSIBERIA

XXXVIII. The advance into Germany
XXXIX. American operations in Italy
XL. American Expeditionary Forces in North Russia
XLI. American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia

Appendix:

Abbreviations

Brief histories of combat divisions

Field Service Regulations, United States Army. Part I, Organization, Article I.-Land forces of the United States. Part III, Administration, Article IV.-The zone of the advance

Manual for the Medical Department, 1916. Article XII.-The theater of operations, general. Article XIII.-The zone of the advance. Article XIV.-The line of communications. Article XV.-Administration of the sanitary service of the theater of operations. Article XVI.-Résumé of the operations of the sanitary service in war

Tables of organization, United States Army

LIST OF TABLES

Table

1. Estimate of sanitary personnel
2. Program for the Medical Department, A. E. F. (General Organization Project)
3. Organization of Medical Department provided by Manual for Medical Department, 1916
4. Final organization, Medical Department, American Expeditionary Forces
5. Number of hours required for trains to make runs from evacuation points to hospitalization points, Meuse-Argonne operation
6. Evacuations by hospital trains, regulating station, Creil, Oise, February 17 to July 18, 1918, 26th and 1st Divisions
7. Evacuations by hospital trains, regulating station, Connantre, Marne, October 4 to November 5, 1918, 2d and 36th Divisions
8. Evacuations by hospital trains, regulating station, Dunkerque, Nord, October 29 to December 25, 1918, 91st and 37th Divisions
9. Evacuations by hospital trains, regulating station, Le Bouget, Seine, June 4 to October 25, 1918, Paris group army
10. Separate operations in the Chateau-Thierry operation
11. Evacuation by hospital trains, regulating station, St. Dizier, Haute Marne, September 5 to December 1, 1918, First Army
12. Operation in the St. Dizier regulating station
13. Record of evacuations made by trains regulated at St. Dizier
14. Daily record of trains sent from each evacuation center, served by St. Dizier regulating station, St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne operations
15. Number of trips made by hospital trains in the performance of evacuation
16. Summary, classified by officers, enlisted men, and types of patients evacuated
17. Hospital trains employed

18. Evacuations by trains from First Army, September 5 to December 1 (including both St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne operations)
19. Summary of evacuations from the front by hospital trains
20. Hospital train garages
21. Evacuations from base hospitals in advance section, American Expeditionary Forces
22. Evacuations effected by regulating station at Is-sur-Tille
23. Assignment of hospital trains to regulating stations, September 26 to November 11, 1918

LIST OF CHARTS

Chart

I. Organization of Medical Department, American Expeditionary Forces
II. Schematic Diagram of Hospitalization and Evacuation System, A. E. F.
III. Organization of American Regulating Station "A," Is-sur-Tille
IV. Supply-control installation of French Army in the winter of 1917-18

LIST OF PLATES

Plate

I. Railway evacuation routes, American Expeditionary Forces, France
II. 1st Division, Ansauville sector, January 15 to April 3, 1918
III. 1st Division, Cantigny sector and Montdidier-Noyon operation, April 25 to July 7, 1918
IV. Chateau-Thierry sector, 2d Division, May 31 to July 9, 1918. 3d Division, June 1 to July 14, 1918
V. Marne salient. General map
VI. Aisne-Marne operation (Soissons), 1st Division, July 17-23, 1918
VII. Aisne-Marne operation (Soissons), 2d Division, July 17-20, 1918
VIII. Aisne-Marne operation, First Corps, 4th, 26th, and 42d Divisions and 56th Infantry Brigade of the 28th Division, July 18 to August 12, 1918
IX. Aisne-Marne operation, 26th Division, July 17-24, 1918
X. Aisne-Marne operation, 42d Division, July 25 to August 3, 1918
XI. Aisne-Marne operation, 4th Division, August 2-12, 1918
XII. Aisne-Marne operation, 3d Division
XIII. Aisne-Marne operation, 32d Division, July 30 to August 6, 1918
XIV. Oise-Aisne operation, Third Corps, 28th and 77th Divisions, August 18 to September 6, 1918
XV. St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16, 1918
XVI. St Mihiel operation, 82d Division
XVII. St. Mihiel operation, 90th Division
XVIII. St. Mihiel operation, 5th Division
XIX. St. Mihiel operation, 2d Division
XX. St. Mihiel operation, 89th Division
XXI. St. Mihiel operation, 42d Division
XXII. St. Mihiel operation, lst Division
XXIII. St. Mihiel operation, 26th Division
XXIV. St. Mihiel operation, 4th Division, September 14, 1918
XXV. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, First Army, First, Third, and Fifth Corps, September 26 to October 3, 1918
XXVI. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, 77th Division
XXVII. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, 28th Division
XXVIII. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, 35th Division
XXIX. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, 91st Division
XXX. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, 37th Division
XXXI. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, 79th Division
XXXII. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, 4th Division, September 26 to Octoher 3, 1918
XXXIII. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, 80th Division, September 26-28, 1918
XXXIV. Meuse-Argonne operation, first phase, 33d Division, September 26 to October 3, 1918
XXXV. Meuse-Argonne operation, First Army, second phase
XXXVI. Meuse-Argonne operation, second phase, 77th Division
XXXVII. Meuse-Argonne operation, 1st, 91st (181st Brigade), and 42d Divisions, second phase
XXXVIII. Meuse-Argonne operation, second phase, 82d Division
XXXIX. Meuse-Argonne operation, second phase, 78th Division
XL. Meuse-Argonne operation, second phase, 3d, 5th, 32d, and 89th Divisions
XLI. Meuse-Argonne operation, second phase, 4th and 80th Divisions
XLII. Meuse-Argonne operation, second phase, 90th Division, showing aid stations, October 21-31, 1918
XLIII. Meuse-Argonne operation, second phase, 26th, 29th, 33d, and 79th Divisions
XLIV. Meuse-Argonne operation, third phase, First Army
XLV. Meuse-Argonne operation, third phase, 1st, 42d, 77th, 78th, and 80th Divisions, November 1-11, 1918
XLVI. Meuse-Argonne operation, third phase, 2d and 98th Divisions, November 1-11, 1918
XLVII. Meuse-Argonne operation, third phase, 90th Division, November 1-11, 1918
XLVIII. Meuse-Argonne operation, third phase, 5th and 32d Divisions
XLIX. Meuse-Argonne operation, third phase, 26th, 79th, and 81st Divisions.
L. Second Army, October 12 to November 11, 1918
LI. Meuse-Argonne operation (Champagne) 2d and 36th Divisions
LII. Ypres-Lys operation (Flanders), 37th and 91st Divisions; 37th Division, October 30 to November 5 and November 9-11; 91st Division, October 30 to November 10-11
LIII. Ypres-Lys operation, 27th Division
LIV. Somme offensive, 27th and 30th Divisions
LV. March of the Third Army

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

1. Plan of the different cars comprising the hospital train, of British construction, used by the American Expeditionary Forces
2. Exterior view of Hospital Train No. 56, American Expeditionary Forces
3. Interior of ward car, beds not made up
4. Interior of ward car, showing attendant’s compartment
5. Interior of ward car, beds raised
6. Hospital train operating room
7. Hospital train kitchen
8. Hospital train personnel car
9. Hospital train; method of loading
10. French converted hospital train, being unloaded at Hospital Center, Allerey, American Expeditionary Forces
11. Light railway train; fitted for carrying wounded
12. Hospital barge
13. Battalion aid station, 101st Infantry, 26th Division, Bois de la Voisogne, France, May 31, 1918
14. Adjusting improved splint on a litter patient; Broussey, France, April 20, 1918
15. Dressing station operated by Ambulance Company No. 137, Ampherbach, Alsace, August 31, 1918
16. Dressing station at Betricamp, France, April 26, 1918
17. Gas-proof shelters for dressing stations, 42d Division, near Bodonville, Baccarat Sector, April 29, 1918
18. Field Hospital No. 112, 28th Division, Cohan, France, August 12, 1918
19. Field Hospital No. 125, near Jaulgonne, France, July 29, 1918
20. Shell hole where first-aid was administered, 7th Artillery Regiment, 1st Division, Serevillers, France, July 5, 1918
21. First-aid station, 4th Division, Septsarges, France, September 27, 1918
22. First-aid station, 325th Infantry, near Fleville, Ardennes, France, October 12, 1918
23. Evacuation Hospital No. 2, Baccarat, France, June 28, 1918
24. Operating room, Evacuation Hospital No. 2, Baccarat
25. Sterilizing plant and tentage, Evacuation Hospital No. 2, Baccarat
26. Evacuation Hospital No. 1, Sebastopol, Toul
27. Tentage used by Evacuation Hospital No. 1
28. Conventional ground plan of an evacuation hospital
29. Ground plan, Evacuation Hospital No. 1, Toul
30. Ground plan of Evacuation Hospitals Nos. 6 and 7, Souilly
31. Ground plan of Evacuation Hospital No. 8, Petit Maujouy, Meuse, France
32. Mobile Hospital No. 2, loaded on trucks and prepared for change of location
33. Mobile Hospital No. 39, when at Chaillons, France
34. Plan of operating group, Mobile Hospital No. 39
35. Reception ward, Mobile Hospital No. 39
36. Operating room, Mobile Hospital No. 39
37. X-ray truck, Mobile Hospital No. 39
38. Sterilizing truck, Mobile Hospital No. 39
39. Evacuation office, Mobile Hospital No. 39
40. Perspective of Mobile Operating Unit No. 1
41. Boiler car, sterilizing unit, Mobile Operating Unit No. 1
42. Sterilizing truck, Mobile Operating Unit No. 1
43. An ambulance of the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Unit
44. Type of ambulance used by the United States Army Ambulance Service
45. Interior view of ambulance, United States Army Ambulance Service
46. Section No. 646, United States Army Ambulance Service
47. Regimental aid station, 28th Infantry, 1st Division, near Cantigny, May 28, 1918
48. Evacuation of wounded from regimental aid station, 28th Infantry, near Cantigny, May 28, 1918
49. Field Hospital No. 13, near Vendeuil-Caply, July 2, 1918
50. Church at Bezu-Le-Guery, France, used as a ward for wounded by Field Hospital No. 1, 2d Division, June 16, 1918
51. Evacuating wounded by truck from Field Hospital No. 15, near Montreuil, France, June 7, 1918
52. American Red Cross Military Hospital No. 1, Paris
53. American Red Cross Military Hospital No. 5, Auteuil, Paris, July, 1918
54. Dressing station operated by Ambulance Company No. 5, at Courboin
55. Aid station, 167th Infantry, 42d Division, Souain, France, July 17, 1918
56. Triage, 42d Division, near Suippes, France, July 17, 1918
57. French and American wounded being received at the dressing station at Epieds, operated by 117th Sanitary Train, 42d Division, July 27, 1918
58. Advance post and aid station, 1st Division, Missy-aux-Bois, France, July 20, 1918
59. First-aid station, 1st Division, immediately back of the front-line trenches, Missy-aux-Bois, July 17, 1918
60. Field hospitals of the 4th Division at Chateau de la Foret, August 10, 1918
61. Entrance to dressing station operated by Ambulance Company No. 111, 28th Division, near St. Gilles, France, August 15, 1918
62. Field Hospital No. 353, 89th Division, at Bernecourt, France, during the St. Mihiel operation
63. Dressing station operated by Ambulance Company No. 167, 42d Division, at Essey, France
64. La Chalade, Ardennes, France, where a triage was established by Field Hospital No. 308, 77th Division, September 28, 1918
65. Triage operated by the 77th Division, La Chalade, September 28, 1918
66. Dressing station operated at Cheppy, France, September 29, 1918
67. Ambulance Company No. 13 and Field Hospital No. 3, 1st Division, on the road at Very, Meuse, France, October 3, 1918
68. Town of Very, used as a dressing station by 91st Division
69. Wounded walking to dressing stations, Argonne Forest, because roads were impassable to ambulances
70. Advanced dressing station near Avocourt, September 26, 1918
71. Entrance to dressing station operated by Ambulance Company No. 148, 37th Division, near Cierges, September 26, 1918
72. Field Hospitals No. 314 and No. 315, 79th Division, at Les Clairs Chenes
73. View from Cuisy across the valley toward Septsarges, showing Field Hospitals No. 19 and No. 21
74. Field Hospital No. 319, 80th Division, at Bethincourt, Meuse, September 27, 1918
75. Location of Field Hospital No. 111, at Les Islettes, October 5, 1918
76. Dressing station operated by Ambulance Company No. 311, 78th Division, at Marcq, Ardennes, October 17, 1918
77. First-aid station, 312th Infantry, Grandpre, Ardennes, October 18, 1918
78. Collecting point for wounded, 3d Division, near Nantillois, Meuse, October 12, 1918
79. Field Hospital No. 7, 3d Division, at Bethincourt, October 22, 1918
80. Medical supply depot, 32d Division, near Montfaucon, October 22, 1918. Field Hospital No. 126 in background
81. Field Hospitals No. 25 and No. 29, 5th Division, consolidated at Bethincourt, October 22, 1918
82. Aid station, 358th Infantry, at Cunel, Meuse, October 27, 1918
83. Dressing station operated by Ambulance Company No. 102, 26th Division, near Samogneux, Meuse, October 23, 1918
84. Ambulance Companies No. 317 and No. 318, 80th Division, at Vaux, Ardennes, November 6, 1918
85. Field Hospital No. 13, 1st Division, at Vaux, Ardennes, November 6, 1918
86. Field Hospitals No. 314 and No. 315, 79th Division, at Ferme Notre Dame de Palameix, Meuse
87. Dressing station operated by Ambulance Company No. 316, 79th Division, Les Eparges, Meuse
88. Aid station, 315th Infantry, 79th Division, Bois de Consenvoye, France, November 8, 1918
89. Wounded from the 27th Division being carried to the rear, Busigny, Nord, October 17, 1918
90. American hospital and infirmary, Neuenahr, Germany, December 29, 1918
91. Surgical and medical wards of the American hospital group, Coblenz, Germany
92. Typical Russian barracks
93. Interior of Russian barracks subsequent to renovation by American troops
94. Medical ward, Evacuation Hospital No. 17
95. Interior of surgical ward, Evacuation Hospital No. 17
96. Improvised hospital car, American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia
97. Interior of car shown in Figure 96
98. Converted hospital car, American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia
99. Russian barracks in Habarovsk, used as an isolation hospital by the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia