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Chapter XXXVIII

Field Operations, Table of Contents

SECTION VII

AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY ACTIVITIES IN GERMANY, ITALY, NORTH RUSSIA, AND SIBERIA


CHAPTER XXXVIII

THE ADVANCE INTO GERMANY

THE THIRD ARMY

The following is quoted from the Final Report of Gen. John J. Pershing:1

In accordance with the terms of the armistice, the Allies were to occupy all German territory west of the Rhine, with bridgeheads of 30 km. radius at Cologne, Coblenz, and Mayence. The zone assigned the American command was the bridgehead of Coblenz and the district of Treves. This territory was to be occupied by an American Army, with its reserves held between the Moselle-Meuse Rivers and the Luxemburg frontier.

The instructions of Marshal Foch, issued on November 16, contemplated that 2 French infantry divisions and 1 French cavalry division would be added to the American forces that occupied the Coblenz bridgehead and that 1 American division would be added to the French force occupying the Mayence bridgehead. As this arrangement presented possibilities of misunderstanding due to difference of views regarding the government of occupied territory, it was represented to the marshal that each nation should be given a well-defined territory of occupation, employing within such territory only the troops of the commander responsible for the particular zone. On December 9 Marshal Foch accepted the principle of preserving the entity of command and troops, but reduced the American bridgehead by adding a portion of the eastern half to the French command at Mayence.

Various reasons made it undesirable to employ either the First or Second Army as the Army of Occupation. Plans had been made before the armistice to organize a Third Army and, on November 14, this army, with Maj. Gen. Joseph T. Dickman as commander, was designated as the army of occupation. The Third and Fourth Army Corps staffs and troops, less artillery, the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Thirty-second, and Forty-second Divisions, and the Sixty-sixth Field Artillery Brigade were assigned to the Third Army. This force was later increased by the addition of the Seventh Corps, Maj. Gen. William M. Wright commanding, with the Fifth, Eighty-ninth, and Ninetieth Divisions.

Headquarters of the Third Army was first located at Ligny-en-Barrois, that of the Third Corps at Dun-sur-Meuse, and that of the Fourth Corps at Woinville.2

When the armistice became effective (November 11, 1918) the Third Corps held the general line from left to right, as follows: From the Meuse River at Stenay along the northern and eastern edge of the Bois du Chenois to the southwest corner of Bois Robert; thence to a point 100 meters south of Hugne Ferme, thence 400 meters north of Louppy to 400 meters north of Remoiville, thence 400 meters east of Jametz, thence south along the Jametz—Peuvillers road to a point, thence south along the eastern edge of Bois Jametz and Bois de


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Lissey to a point on the Vittarville—Ecurey road, thence south to bridge over the Theiute River, where it joined the French. The 32d Division was on the right from Jametz (exclusive) to Peuvillers (inclusive). One regiment of the 2d Division was at Stenay. The 5th and 42d Divisions were in reserve.2 St. Pierremont Ferme, south of Sedan; 3d Division in vicinity of Bar-le-Duc.

On the same date the Fourth Corps was disposed as follows: 1st Division, 4th Division at Boucq. The 2d, 32d, and 42d Divisions were retained in the Third Corps for the army of occupation, and on November 17 held the same positions as those mentioned above. The 4th Division remained in the Fourth Corps and at 5 a. m. on November 17 the 1st and 3d Divisions moved into position through the 28th and 7th Divisions, which on that date were transferred to the Sixth Corps.3

General Pershing’s report continues:4

The advance toward German territory began on November 17 at 5 a. m., six days after signing the armistice. All of the allied forces from the North Sea to the Swiss border moved forward simultaneously in the wake of the retreating German armies.

When the march began all units of the various organizations of the Third Army were in place, and the forward movement began in perfect order. The zone of the advance of this army was as follows:3 Northern (left): Mouzon— Carignan—Florenville—Jamoignes—Etalle—Habay-la-Neuve—Redange—Grosbous—Diekirch—
Wallendorf (all inclusive). Southern (right): Thiaucourt—Chambley—Conflans-en-Jarnisy—Moyeuvre— Gandringen—Thionville—Mallingen—Schengen (all inclusive).3

Advance elements of the army on the first day reached the general line: Ecouviez—Sorbey—Gouraincourt—Mars-la-Tour. Next day they reached the line: Etalle—St. Leger—Ruette—Aubange—Longwy—Audun-le-Roman—Briey, and headquarters moved to Longuyon.5

On November 20 the general line of the army was: Grendel—Autelbas—Mondercange—Dudelange—Wollmeringen—Gentringen. Next day the line reached Vichten—Mersch—Schuttrange—Rentgen—Kattenhofen. Boundaries of the army zone of advance remained unchanged. Each corps kept two divisions in the front line and one in the second.6

The advance units passed through Luxemburg on November 21 in review before General Pershing, and the following day the line was advanced to Ingeldorf—Betzdorf—Wormeldange, thence to the Moselle River, to Schengen.6

Third Army headquarters moved to Hollerich, a suburb of the city of Luxemburg, on November 22. The boundary line between the Third and Fourth Corps was now extended as a line Roodt-sur-Syre—Berg-sur-Syre—Wasserbillig. On the 23d the army began its advance to the Luxemburg-German frontier, and there it remained until 5.30 a. m. of December 1, when it entered Germany as part of the entire allied force.6

General Pershing’s report continues:7

Upon entering the Duchy of Luxemburg in the advance, a policy of noninterference in the affairs of the grand duchy was announced. Therefore, when the French commander in the city of Luxemburg was given charge of all troops in the duchy, in so far as concerned the "administration of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg," my instructions


PLATE LV


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were that our troops would not be subject to his control. Later, at my request, and in order to avoid possible friction, Marshal Foch placed the entire duchy in the American zone.

After the passage of the Third Army through Luxemburg, the occupation of that principality for the purpose of guarding our line of communications was intrusted to the 5th and 33d Divisions of the Second Army. The city of Luxemburg, garrisoned by French troops and designated as headquarters of the allied commander in chief, was excluded from our control.4

Upon arrival at the frontier, a halt was made until December 1, when the leading elements of all allied armies crossed the line into Germany.4

Orders were issued on November 29 for the Third Army to resume the march, and on December 1 it had reached the general line Alfersteg—Winterscheid—Masthorn—Mulbach—Kill—Cordel—Trier—Konz; thence the Saar River within army limits.8 Headquarters of the Third Army, at Hollerich, was ordered to Bitburg on December 3; that of the Third Corps, at Junglinster, to Echternach on December 1 and to Kylburg on December 3; that of the Fourth Corps, at Hesperange, to Grevenmacher on December 1 and to Schweich on December 3; that of the Seventh Corps, at Virton, to Grevenmacher on December 4; that of the 5th Division, at Longuyon, to Hollerich on December 4.9

The general line reached through the advance of December 2 was: Krewinkel—Roth—Neuendorf—Dausfeld—Neidenbach—Metterich—Rievenich—Morscheid— Mandern—Hirschfelderhof.10

On the second day of the operations in Germany the roads were found to be poorer and progress was more difficult. Roads were below the standard of French and Luxemburg highways, and the several hilly sections which had to be traversed delayed the march.10 On the 3d of December the Third Army had reached the line: Budesheim—Salm—Dahlem—Ormont—Pronsfield—Arzfeld— Manderfeld— Olzheim—Salm—Eisenschmidt—Wittlich—Berncastel—Noviand— Heidenburg—Beuren—Wadril.11

On the same day, December 3, when Third Army headquarters moved to Bitburg, across the German frontier—a movement of over 50 km. (31 miles)—the army staff and the various sections were functioning the same date and liaison between the Third and Fourth Corps was complete. Supplies were being moved up in sufficient quantities, and the Signal Corps soon had completed telephone and telegraph connections with the rear.11

The army having established itself in German territory, at once took measures for carrying out orders regarding the treatment of German civilians and the protection of property. While the troops were not to fraternize nor to have anything resembling friendly intercourse with the Germans, forbearance was to be shown and property carefully protected. The army entered Germany as a conquering army, but there was to be no wanton destruction nor any act of violence.11

The general line at this time (December 4) was: Dahlem—Glaadt—Oberbettingen—Kalenborn—Wallenborn—Eisenschmidt—Wittlich—Zeltingen—


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Berncastel—Gornhausen—Hunolstein—Basch—Malborn—Nonweiler—Otzenhausen.11

German civilians evinced great curiosity and interest concerning the movement of American troops, but exhibited no unfriendliness, and as time passed they showed relief from early apprehension.10

The advance continued on December 5 and 6, and on the latter date the army front was the general line: Udelhoven—Dockweiler—Boos—Laubach—Driesch—Mesenich—Metzenhausen—Sulzbach.11 Next day the line took in Rupperath—Gilgenbach—Drees—Boos—Kempenich—Mayen—Greimersburg— Buch—Simmern—Kellenbach. On December 7 the boundary between the Third and Fourth Corps was extended to Naunheim—Ruber—Kobern (all to Fourth Corps), and thence to the mouth of the Moselle River.12

Third Army headquarters opened at Mayen on December 10; Third Corps headquarters, at Daun, to open at Polch on the same date, and Fourth Corps headquarters, at Zell, to open at Cochem on December 9. The Seventh Corps moved up to Grevenmacher and the 5th Division to Hollerich.12

The first unit of the Third Army to reach Coblenz was the 2d Battalion, 39th Infantry.

The general line reached on the 9th was the Rhine River from Rolandseck to Brohl, thence Wassenach—Kerben—Munstermaifeld—Liesenfeld—Rheinbollen. Exactly 22 days from the time the march to Germany had begun, and 25 days after issuance of orders for this march, the American Army had marched from the Verdun-Argonne battle front through Lorraine, Luxemburg, and over more than 150 km. (93 miles) of German territory to the banks of the Rhine. The long march had been made in perfect order. Every division and every corps had moved forward with precision. There had been no delays and no hitches in opening army headquarters. In the march from Luxemburg through German territory, more than 200,000 men marched through fields, towns, and villages and over roads and highways of a nation with whom until a short time before they had been at bitter war; yet not a complaint was registered by the conquered enemy of a single case of ill treatment, unfairness, or trouble of any kind.12 General Pershing, in this connection, made the following comment:4

The advance to the Rhine required long, arduous marches, through cold and inclement weather, with no opportunity for troops to rest, refit, and refresh themselves after their participation in the final battle. The army of occupation bore itself splendidly and exhibited a fine state of discipline both during the advance and throughout the period of occupation.4

From a military point of view the most important difficulties met during the advance were: (1) The formation of an army staff (167 officers) by drawing its members from all parts of France without disturbing existing staffs; (2) maintenance of communication and supplies for a command moving rapidly through evacuated, partially devastated territory where transportation facilities in many places had been completely destroyed and where food was extremely scarce; (3) the rebuilding of roads and reestablishment of telephone and telegraph lines; and (4) close check on all enemy movement, following


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his plan of withdrawal and verifying his compliance with the terms of the armistice.9

The Seventh Corps, assigned to Third Army November 22, was charged with the duty of covering the advance of the other corps and with maintenance of army communications. On December 12, the 33d Division was assigned to the Seventh Corps, then in Luxemburg, to be in turn relieved five days later and transferred to the Second Army.3

Boundaries of the zone of advance of the Third Army in Germany were: Northern (left): Between Garignan and Merzig (exclusive) Oberfeulen—Neiderfeulen—Bourscheid—Hoscheid—Consthum—Bockholz-les-Hosingen (all inclusive)—Munshausen (exclusive)—Marbourg—Roder (both inclusive)—Heinerscheid—Kalborn (both exclusive); thence the eastern frontier of Luxemburg; thence the administrative boundary separating the districts of Coblenz and Trier from those of Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle—approximately the line Lommersweiler—Manderfeld—Kronenburg—Waldorf—Rohr—Hilberath—Oberwinter.8 Southern (right): From Schengen to the southern limits of the circle of Saarburg; thence the northern and eastern limits of the circle of Merzig; thence the northwestern limits of the principality Birkenfeld; thence the northwestern limit of the circle of Kreuznach; approximately the line Schengen—Saarburg— Sitzerath— Muhlfeld—Zusch—Kemfeld—Kellenbach—Dichtelbach—Trechtingshausen.8

The Third Army headquarters were established at Coblenz and an advance general headquarters located at Treves. Steps were immediately taken to organize the bridgehead for defense, and dispositions were made to meet a possible renewal of hostilities.4

During this advance into German territory, staff officers had been sent ahead to study conditions, to prepare plans for crossing the Rhine, and for occupation of the bridgehead. In expectation that American troops would occupy the entire bridgehead at Coblenz, the original plans contemplated four divisions on the right (eastern) bank of the Rhine, two in support on the west side, and two in reserve farther toward the rear, with one on the lines of communication across Luxemburg. The four divisions were to cross the river simultaneously; one over the bridge at Remagen, one at Engers, one on the pontoon bridge at Coblenz, and the fourth on the Pfeffendorf bridge at Coblenz, with the added help of ferries at St. Goarshausen and Boppard. A preliminary survey was made also of the country composing the bridgehead, and a plan of action prepared in case hostilities should be resumed. Returning to army headquarters at Mayen, the staff officers detailed for this work found that plans must be modified somewhat, as only three divisions were to be sent across the Rhine. The southern boundary of the Third Army was changed. Near Schneppenbach it remained as before, thence became the administrative limits separating the Kreise of Berncastel, Wittlich, Cochem, Mayen, Coblenz, Montabaur, and Westerburg from those of Simmern, Zell, St. Goar, St. Goarhausen, Diez, and Limburg. This made it necessary to move the right division (3d) to the north, holding it on the left bank of the Rhine.13

Field Order No. 11, Third Army, issued on December 12, directed the Third Army to occupy the northern sector of the Coblenz bridgehead, advance


900

elements to cross the Rhine at 7 o’clock on December 13. Before this advance the 1st Division passed to the command of the Third Corps, which with the three divisions, 1st, 2d, and 32d, occupied the prescribed sector. On the same day the 42d Division passed to the command of the Fourth Corps, and the latter, in support of the Third Corps, continued its march to occupy the Kreise of Mayen, Ahrweiler, Adenau, and Cochem.13

After the Rhine was crossed, Field Order No. 12, Third Army, under date of December 13, prescribed the following forward limit of the American sector at Coblenz bridgehead, to be determined by straight lines joining the following villages:14 Malmeneich—Hundsangen—Molsberg— Salz— Mallren— Elbingen—Obersayn—Wolferlingen—Seeburg— Mundersbach—Hilgert— Steimel—Lahfbach— Dottesfeld—Heckerfeld—Fulenburg—Borscheid—Fernthal—Neschen —Weibenfels—Arnsau— Hakenen—Hothenrsuz—Ariendorf.14

The commanding general of the Third Corps was instructed to take immediate steps to have this line plainly marked by signs on every road crossing the boundary and to prevent all allied troops from crossing it. The civil authorities in each village on the prescribed boundary were also notified of the limits arranged. By nightfall of December 14, troops were occupying their positions at Coblenz bridgehead.14

These advanced positions were occupied without disorder. Though civilians in the Rhine area were less friendly than those seen farther west, no hostility to our troops was openly exhibited.

Third Army headquarters moved, on December 15, from Mayen to Coblenz; Third Corps headquarters from Polch to Neuweid, Fourth Corps headquarters remaining at Cochem, with that of the Seventh Corps at Grevenmacher. During the Third Army’s crossing of the Rhine no hostilities were encountered. Food and fuel supplies in the occupied area were adequate.13

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES

The order designating the chief surgeon, Third Army, was received by him November 14, and the next day, after reporting to the headquarters of this army, he proceeded to Chaumont for conference with members of the general staff concerning Medical Department arrangements for the march into Germany. Originally it had been planned to send forward a number of base hospitals to be grouped at Coblenz and Trier, but this plan was abandoned at request of the chief surgeon, Third Army, who apprehended a divided responsibility if these units operated in the army area. It was then decided to send sufficient evacuation hospitals with additional personnel, equipment, etc., these to operate under the army surgeon.15

The following personnel was on duty in the office of the chief surgeon, Third Army: Executive officer, hospitalization officer, personnel officer, medical supply officer, evacuation officer, and representative of chief surgeon, A. E. F., consultants in medicine, surgery, orthopedic surgery, neuropsychiatry, urology, opthalmology, otology and laryngology, finance and accounting, sanitary inspector, epidemiologist, chief dental surgeon, director of laboratories, director of nurses, water supply officer.16


901

The assistant chief of staff, G-4, exercised supervision over the Medical Department and coordinated its activities with those of the various other sections and services. The army surgeon’s office dealt directly with G-4, and through this section of the general staff.17

The hospitalization officer was sent forward immediately to arrange for our advance, and from this time until the troops reached Coblenz was as far forward as orders permitted, investigating sites and facilities for hospitalization.17

It was planned that the sick be evacuated from corps and field hospitals to the hospital center at Toul on the east and to Evacuation Hospital No. 15 near Verdun on the west while the army was within reasonable evacuating distance of these places. It was intended to move an evacuation hospital complete into the city of Luxemburg before the arrival of our troops in that area, and to that end the hospitalization officer preceded the army into Luxemburg and selected a large modern school building as the location for an army evacuation hospital. This building would have provided a complete 1,000-bed hospital. G-4, at General Headquarters, had ready an evacuation hospital complete in personnel and equipment and a sufficient number of motor trucks available to transport it into the city of Luxemburg. All arrangements had been perfected with the Luxemburg authorities, and everything was ready to locate these 1,000 beds for the use of the Third Army. When the necessary authority from army headquarters was requested, the chief surgeon, Third Army, was informed that the French high command objected to any American organization entering the city of Luxemburg, for which reason the request was disapproved.17 The army evacuation service had also met with another serious difficulty. Railroad communication over the devastated area had been completely destroyed, and for two weeks it was impossible to get a hospital train forward to relieve the field hospitals of corps or divisions, the first train arriving at Briey on December 1.17 Likewise, it was impossible at this time to move evacuation hospitals forward by train. Except for the movement of Evacuation Hospital No. 18 to Briey, which arrived there November 24, the first of these hospitals to move to a more forward position by train were Evacuation Hospitals No. 3 and No. 12, which reached Trier on December 2. In the meantime, the division and corps field hospitals, though not equipped with personnel, proper supplies, or nursing facilities for the protracted hospitalization of numerous patients, were forced to retain not only the slightly sick but also to care for all patients whatever their condition until the railroad situation could be relieved and an evacuation hospital could be sent forward. On November 24, 1918, Evacuation Hospital No. 18, from the Second Army, arrived at Briey and there took over a small German hospital, where they accommodated about 200 patients. This proved a great relief, though this hospital was not large enough to receive all the patients evacuable from divisions.18

The nearest hospital with proper equipment, supplies, and personnel for the care of pneumonia and other serious diseases was that at Briey, 80 km. (50 miles) from the divisions farthest forward, and seriously sick patients


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had to be evacuated the distance mentioned from those formations. The weather was bad and the roads had been torn by shell fire. Also, because of lack of hospital trains, evacuations from Briey and from Longwy, where the Third Corps maintained a field hospital, were by ambulance to Toul and Verdun, respectively. These were very long hauls, but there was no alternative. It should be noted here that a number of men who ordinarily would have been returned to their commands in a week or so had to be sent to the rear in order to clear beds for other patients from the front.18

From the foregoing it becomes evident that the carefully formulated plans originally developed by the Medical Department for field hospitalization and evacuation did not materialize.

The hospital at Briey was greatly overcrowded, for it had at least 1,000 patients, with hospital facilities for only 200, but fortunately the additional patients were of a class which required little save food and rest and fair shelter. The long evacuation and overcrowding in hospitals could have been obviated to a great extent if the American Army had been allowed to hospitalize in the city of Luxemburg, this being the only suitable location in the duchy for a 1,000-bed evacuation hospital. Though divisional, corps, and army sanitary trains were 100 per cent motorized, it was desired to reduce the transportation of the disabled, especially of the serious cases, to a minimum.18

About November 24 permission was obtained from army headquarters for the officer in charge of hospitalization to proceed, ahead of the army, into Trier. His mission was to find sites for hospitals in that city, but he was at once confronted by about 160 American and allied prisoners of war—including about 50 Americans—in German hospitals in a pitiful condition. The food supply was practically exhausted and there were no suitable diets available for the sick. German medical authorities had apparently given them the best of medical and surgical care, but they did not have food enough for themselves to constitute a balanced ration and some of these patients were suffering from lack of proper food.18 These facts were reported to the chief of staff, Third Army, who made every effort to permit the medical department to enter Trier at once with food, doctors, nurses, and supplies to care for our wounded prisoners of war; but the request of the commanding general, Third Army, was disapproved by General Headquarters. Instructions were given that no medical organization cross the Moselle River until December 1.19

A request was made to G-1, Third Army, for authority to take over, in Trier, barracks and German hospitals sufficient to afford 5,000 hospital beds for our use. After many requests and conferences with G-4 and G-1 and, finally, with the chief of staff, Third Army, two barracks which had been used as German auxiliary hospitals were turned over to the chief surgeon, Third Army, for hospital purposes. In these were to be installed two evacuation hospitals with a total bed capacity of about 2,000 patients. Competition between different services and army units to secure buildings in Trier was extremely keen, and it was very difficult to obtain a final decision in this matter. Finally, on December 1, Field Hospital No. 303, of the Fourth Corps Sanitary Train, was allowed to enter Trier. It then took over the German


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auxiliary military hospital in the Horn Kaserne, and began the care of the allied sick and wounded in this hospital. On December 2 a part of Evacuation Hospital No. 3, consisting of 16 officers, 25 nurses, and 28 enlisted men proceeded 160 km. (100 miles) by ambulance through Verdun, Longwy, and Luxemburg to Trier, where it found 1,000 sick—mostly mild cases—and relieved the corps field hospital above mentioned. The German female nursing staff continued on duty here for about a week. No supplies were brought by this detachment of Evacuation Hospital No. 3 except 3 days’ rations. At this time, too, there was great difficulty in getting rations from the army, and for several days the hospital food supply was rather limited.20

Evacuation Hospital No. 12, at Royaumeix, France, in the Second Army area, on December 1 received orders to proceed to Echternach, Luxemburg, and next day the advance party of this hospital organization started in ambulances furnished by the Second Army to join the army of occupation. En route its orders were changed and it was directed to proceed to Trier. On December 2 this hospital occupied the Stadt Kaserne, Trier, formerly used by the Germans as an auxiliary military hospital, with 1,500 beds. Patients began to arrive at about the same time as the personnel of Evacuation Hospital No. 12; 230 were admitted on the first day.20

On December 4, a hospital train was secured and practically all of the allied prisoners of war were evacuated from Trier and Echternach to France.20 By December 8, the advancing American army had close to 1,000 patients in the hospitals at Trier, which rapidly expanded by taking over all available buildings in the barracks.20

The establishment of Evacuation Hospitals No. 3 and No. 12, at Trier, with about 2,500 beds available and facilities for twice that number, sufficient personnel and supplies, had as a matter of fact considerably relieved the situation. This situation had existed from November 17 to December 3. Hospital trains were soon making frequent evacuations from Trier.20

Yet because of the bad condition of railroads and roads, amounting in places to total destruction, it was not possible to bring forward sufficient army hospitals and to have them function properly until the early part of December. Thereafter army hospitalization met all requirements. Meanwhile, though it had been necessary to require the medical departments of corps and divisions to perform services which their resources and equipment did not contemplate, their resourcefulness had met a difficult situation satisfactorily.

About December 10, the army surgeon received a statement of the permanent locations which would be held by the eight divisions of the army of occupation, and he instituted measures to establish 5,000 beds in Coblenz for the troops of the 42d, 32d, 1st, 2d, and 3d Divisions. The plans now contemplated that all sick who would probably be fit for duty in two months be retained in the army hospitals and that only other patients would be evacuated into the hospitals of the Services of Supply. Hospitalization of 5 per cent was planned for this army of 300,000 men, but this was never fully realized.21

Authority was obtained by the officer in charge of hospitalization to proceed ahead of army headquarters to inspect suitable locations for hospitals


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in the occupied area. Evacuation Hospitals No. 3 and No. 12 were assigned station in two casernes in West Trier, the advance general headquarters refusing to allow the Medical Department to take over the complete and well-equipped German military hospitals in the city of Trier proper, as that community was reserved for its exclusive occupancy. These hospitals had a capacity of 4,000 beds. The hospitals at West Trier were to receive the sick from the 90th Division.

The next location selected for an army hospital was Traben-Trarbach, on the Moselle River, midway between Trier and Coblenz. Three hotels and a school building were to be requisitioned there for Evacuation Hospital No. 4, which had been ordered into Traben-Trarbach and had actually arrived when word was received that no American troops would be allowed there as it was to be occupied by the French. A few days later Evacuation Hospital No. 4 was moved into Coblenz.21

FIG. 90.-American hospital and infirmary, Neuenahr, Germany, December 29, 1918

A large school building at Prum, about 60 km. (37.2 miles) from Trier in the area occupied by the 89th Division, was secured with comparatively little difficulty for Evacuation Hospital No. 7.19 The 4th Division was to be provided for by Evacuation Hospital No. 8, which was ordered to Mayen.21

It was the intention to establish 2,000 beds at Ems, where two large summer hotels were selected and arrangements made for moving two evacuation hospitals to that point, but in the readjustment of army areas Ems was re-


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moved from the American sector.19 Four German military hospitals in Coblenz were then taken over by the American Third Army. As these could accommodate only about 1,500 patients, it was necessary to secure German barracks for additional beds.19 A site at Neuenahr to serve the 42d Division in the extreme left of the American sector was also selected, but could not be utilized before February, 1919, when Evacuation Hospital No. 26 took over a large hotel there which would accommodate 1,000 beds.19

When, in the week of December 15, our divisions reached their final areas, additional evacuation hospitals arrived. As it was intended that these hospitals should function as base hospitals in order that as many men as possible might be retained in the army and returned to duty, their staffs were reinforced by expert, trained personnel, and they were supplied with ample matériel. They were well and suitably housed, a few in buildings constructed for hospital use; others were in large schools and military barracks, previously used by the Germans as hospitals. It was planned that these hospitals be grouped in centers, so far as possible, in order that their special services might be the more highly developed; but owing to the large area which the Third Army occupied, it was necessary to place a few isolated hospitals at outlying points. The largest hospital center was located at Coblenz, though competition for buildings there was very severe.16

FIG. 91.-Surgical and medical wards of the American hospital group, Coblenz, Germany

Evacuation hospitals of the Third Army were finally located as follows: No. 3 and No. 12, 1,500 beds each, at West Trier; No. 7, 500 beds, at Prum; No. 4, 450 beds, No. 6, 600 beds, No. 2, 1,500 beds, No. 9, 1,000 beds, No. 14, 550 beds, at Coblenz; No. 8, 500 beds, at Mayen; No. 26, 1,000 beds, at Neuenahr.19


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As nearly as conditions would permit, the various hospitals at Coblenz functioned as a hospital center, under control of the hospitalization section of the chief surgeon’s office, Third Army, each hospital being designated to receive certain classes of cases. Evacuation Hospital No. 6, established in a finely equipped German military hospital in Coblenz, admitted all surgical and orthopedic cases and sick officers and nurses. Evacuation Hospitals No. 2 and No. 9, at Coblenz, were the chief centers for medical cases, the former having in addition a contagious and a urological service. Evacuation Hospital No. 4, located in a schoolhouse on Oberwerth Island (Coblenz), had an eye, ear, nose, and throat service and a small medical service as well. Evacuation Hospital No. 14 took over the Bruderhaus Hospital, Coblenz, and later a military hospital in Ehrenbreitstein. This hospital provided neuropsychiatric and medical services and was also used as the triage to which all patients, except acute surgical and contagious cases received in Coblenz, were sent for distribution to other hospitals.22

The second hospital center, at Trier, consisted of Evacuation Hospitals No. 3 and No. 12, the former devoted to surgical, orthopedic, eye, ear, nose, and throat, and medical cases; the latter to urological, neuropsychiatric, contagious, and medical.23

Evacuation Hospital No. 8, in Mayen, Evacuation Hospital No. 7, in Prum, and No. 26, at Neuenahr, which served the more remote area, received all classes of cases but sent fracture and mental cases to Hospitals No. 6 and No. 14, respectively, at Coblenz.23

The following list of evacuation hospitals with the Third Army, showing the class of cases assigned to each hospital, was published for the information and guidance of all troops, Third Army, December 23, at headquarters:24


Hospital


Location

 


Class of cases

Evacuation Hospital:

 

 

No. 2

Coblenz

General medical; contagious; venereal; skin.

No. 4

…do…

General medical; eye, ear, nose, and throat; optical unit.

No. 6

…do…

Officers and nurses; all surgical cases draining into Coblenz; fractures; orthopedic

No. 9

…do…

General medical.

No. 14

…do…

General medical; mental; neurologic.

No. 3

Trier

Officers and nurses; all surgical cases draining into Trier; optical unit; eye, ear, nose, and throat; fractures; orthopedic; general medical; out-patient.

No. 12

…do…

General medical; contagious; venereal; skin; mental; neurologic.

No. 7

Prum

All classes. Mental cases will be transferred as soon as possible to Evacuation Hospital No. 12, at Trier; also such neurological cases as are severe or which resist treatment.

No. 8

Mayen

All classes. Mental cases will be transferred as soon as possible to Evacuation Hospital No. 14, at Coblenz; also such neurological cases as are severe or which resist treatment.

For service to the Sixth Corps, attached to the Third Army during the first two weeks of April 1919, Evacuation Hospital No. 13 was located at Walferdange, near the city of Luxemburg, and remained attached to the army after the Sixth Corps had been disbanded. This hospital was established in a château which accommodated 150 beds, additional accommodations to a total of 500 beds being provided in tents. On account of its limited capacity this hospital operated as an evacuation hospital only, to a certain extent, sending most of its cases to the center at Trier.23


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A thoroughly equipped medical supply depot was established at Trier and a smaller one at Coblenz under the Third Army. Supplies were plentiful and of excellent quality.23

During the march into Germany a general order was prepared, after consultation with the corps surgeons, concerning the evacuation of casualties. This was issued as General Orders No. 13, Third Army, on December 20, 1918.25

I—The following is published covering care of sick and injured in Third Army.

1. Division field hospitals.-Buildings will be used for division field hospitals wherever possible. The location of the field hospitals will be determined by the division surgeon under the direction of the division commander.

2. Regulations governing treatment of cases in division field hospitals:

(a) Ordinary medical cases who will recover in four days will be retained and treated in division field hospitals. All seriously sick will be sent at once to the nearest evacuation hospital. In each division an experienced and competent internist will be held responsible for the proper selection of cases for retention or evacuation.

(b) No surgery will be done in division field hospitals except minor surgery, ordinary surgical dressings, and such other cases as are ordinarily treated in a dispensary. No other surgery will be attempted except in absolute emergency when the patient could not stand transportation to the nearest evacuation hospital. Cases of hernia (unless irreducible or strangulated), hemorrhoids (unless irreducible or severe), and varicocele shall not be referred for operation at this time. All fractures will be sent to an evacuation hospital for treatment.

(c) Contagious diseases: Only mumps will be retained in division field hospitals. Patients with mumps will be retained for 15 days from time of onset, or until all symptoms and signs of the disease have disappeared. All other contagious disease will be sent at once to the evacuation hospital designated for this service. The hospitals selected for this purpose will be announced later.

(d) Venereal diseases: Uncomplicated gonorrhea will be retained and treated in divisional field hospitals. Complicated cases (epidymitis, prostatic abscess, stricture, cystitis, arthritis, ophthalmia) will be sent to the nearest evacuation hospital designated for venereal diseases. Chancroids and all cases of primary syphilis or suspected primary syphilis will be sent to the nearest evacuation hospital designated for venereal disease. Other cases of syphilis, except those showing visceral or cerebrospinal lesions, will be treated in the field hospitals. The evacuation hospitals selected for venereal disease will be announced later.

(e) Skin diseases: Ordinary cases will be treated in division field hospitals. Severe or complicated cases will be sent to the nearest evacuation hospital designated for that purpose.

(f) Mental cases will be sent to the evacuation hospital designated for such cases. If such a case requires special attention en route, the hospital will be notified and will send an ambulance, with an attendant trained in the care of such cases to bring him to the hospital. Neurological cases will be sent to the hospital designated for mental cases.

3. Corps field hospitals.-Corps field hospitals will be used to supplement division field hospitals wherever and whenever needed. The regulations governing them will be the same as for division field hospitals. The use of corps field hospitals to establish corps collecting stations and the specific location for the same is left to the judgment of the corps surgeon under the direction of the corps commander.

4. Evacuation.-Ordinarily all cases should be sent to the division field hospitals. Such cases as require evacuation to an evacuation hospital will here be selected and transferred accordingly—the remainder, as noted under paragraph 2, will be retained and treated in the division field hospitals.


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The following exceptions will be noted:

(a) Contagious cases except mumps will be sent direct to the appropriate evacuation hospital without passing through a division field hospital.

(b) Cases which are obviously seriously sick, and which are located in such position that evacuation by way of a field hospital will lengthen their haul, will be sent direct to the nearest evacuation hospital. This includes all fractures and acute surgical conditions.

5. Evacuation to the division field hospitals will be accomplished by the ambulance section, divisional sanitary train.

Evacuation from the divisional field hospitals to the evacuation hospital will be accomplished by the corps sanitary train. For this purpose the corps surgeon will call on the division surgeon for such assistance from the ambulance section, divisional sanitary train, as may be necessary.

Evacuation from evacuation hospitals to the replacement depot or by hospital train to the S. O. S. will be under the supervision of the commanding officer, army sanitary train, who is authorized to call on corps surgeons for such assistance in ambulances as may from time to time be required.

Some division and corps hospitals operated in the Third Army area after the troops were in position along and beyond the Rhine, but they retained only cases that could be returned to duty within a few days, with the exception of the field hospitals of the 90th Division. As this division occupied a large area, a field hospital at Cues was equipped to care for its pneumonia cases.23

During the month of March, 1919, certain evacuation hospitals which had been longest in the American Expeditionary Forces were relieved by others which had had a shorter overseas service, as follows: Evacuation Hospital No. 2 was relieved by No. 49, No. 6 by No. 27, No. 4 by No. 22, No. 8 by No. 30, No. 7 by No. 29, No. 3 by No. 19, and No. 14 by No. 16, April 3. The retention of the former commanding officers—with one exception—and of some of the directors of the medical service promoted continuity of policy. Decrease in the size of the Third Army led to the closure, during May, 1919, of the following hospitals: Evacuation Hospitals No. 9 and No. 22, Coblenz; Evacuation Hospital No. 12, Trier; Evacuation Hospital No. 26, Neuenahr; Evacuation Hospital No. 29, Prum. The special services which these hospitals had conducted were transferred to the hospitals which were retained.23

An epidemic of respiratory diseases which occurred during January and February, 1919, made necessary frequent evacuations to base hospitals, while the resulting congestion in hospitals of the Coblenz center was relieved by sending convalescent patients to Trier. After stabilization of the Third Army in the occupied area, patients to be evacuated to the Services of Supply were collected at hospital centers.23

A decline in the hospital rate of admissions after the early part of March, 1919, made it possible to retain in the army area a much larger percentage of patients until they could be returned to duty or sent back to the United States, but in order to carry out this policy it proved necessary to establish convalescent sections in hospitals. One such section was organized at Evacuation Hospital No. 19, at Trier, one at Evacuation Hospital No. 9, at Coblenz, and a third at Evacuation Hospital No. 26, at Neuenahr.23

The evacuation hospitals of the Third Army were in point of fact advanced base hospitals and at all times did advanced base hospital work.


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There were 1,500 beds—operated by three evacuation hospitals—in what had previously been German military hospitals. There were 5,500 beds—belonging to four evacuation hospitals—in German kasernes (barracks). One Evacuation Hospital—No. 26, at Neuenahr—of 1,000 beds, occupied a former hotel, and former school buildings provided shelter for 1,000 other beds. Our hospitals in former German military hospitals were splendidly equipped and suitable in every way, the only drawback being that their bed capacity was small. Cooking facilities, baths, sanitary arrangements, and lighting in these institutions were excellent, and the hospitals we maintained in them were equal in every way to the best civilian hospitals in the United States. The kasernes recommended themselves for hospital use only because of their large bed capacity. They were dirty when taken over, poorly arranged for hospital purposes, cooking facilities were limited, baths were inadequate, no central heating plants were provided, and lighting arrangements were unsatisfactory; but after much work they made very acceptable institutions.19

Each evacuation hospital was directly under control of the Third Army commander, local commanders having no jurisdiction over those in their divisional areas. These hospitals were controlled by the hospitalization section of the army surgeon’s office. The army surgeon had authority from his commanding general to transfer medical department personnel as he saw fit; he could promote and demote enlisted men up to and including the grade of sergeants, first class, and he was authorized to employ civilian labor. All monthly sanitary reports from evacuation hospitals were acted upon in the chief surgeon’s office, Third Army, and then forwarded through the commanding general of the army to Headquarters A. E. F., for the chief surgeon, A. E. F. Disposition of all medical supplies was directed by the army surgeon. Each hospital had its own summary court and special court-martial and was authorized to issue travel orders for patients returning to duty, having practically the status of a military station. All sick and wounded records from evacuation hospitals, Third Army, were sent direct to the chief surgeon, A. E. F., at Tours, but hospital fund statements from evacuation hospitals in the army of occupation were definitely acted upon in the army surgeon's office.25

The hospitalization section of that office controlled all evacuations from army hospitals and kept a daily record of all beds and of vacant beds in each hospital. It also kept a record of the hospitals receiving certain classes of cases and took proper measures to have patients classified and placed in the designated hospital. It regulated the distribution of incoming patients in such a way as to equalize the work of different hospitals, preventing overcrowding in any one hospital, and in general regulated the distribution of patients to meet any special condition. It secured orders necessary for the evacuation of patients, and in evacuations by train notified each receiving hospital of the departure of the train, the number of patients in each class—surgical, medical, mental, lying, sitting—to be evacuated to it. Every hospital kept a record of all patients evacuated, with date, destination, names, and numbers of patients evacuated, and such other data as might be necessary to


910

facilitate tracing outgoing patients. The hospital section familiarized itself with any conditions which would influence hospital capacity, such as ability to meet emergencies, quality of water, modification in buildings or equipment. It also kept a consolidated daily record of evacuable cases and made the necessary arrangements and reports to the regulating officer who ordered hospital trains.26

To promote coordination, the army surgeon held daily informal conferences with the chiefs of the sections of his office, weekly formal conferences with all members of his staff, and weekly conferences with the corps surgeons. The object of these conferences was to learn the status of the army medical service, its needs, accomplishments, problems of mutual interest affecting different elements, and to give instructions. Corps surgeons similarly held weekly conferences with division surgeons and these, in turn, with as many of their subordinates as could be assembled. These conferences promptly secured the transmission of information in respect to the army surgeon’s policies to the junior officers of the Medical Department and promoted coordination throughout. The head of the hospitalization section had weekly conferences with the commanding officers of the evacuation hospitals and made formal inspections of these as well as of division hospitals. The army surgeon’s office published a weekly bulletin of communicable diseases, including venereal, and of preventable accidents, showing by graphic charts the relative standing of army, corps, and division troops.26

During the first few weeks of the occupation obtaining proper food for diets for seriously sick patients proved a difficult problem. Only one evacuation hospital had a sales commissary where subsistence stores other than the ration could be secured, and advance general headquarters issued orders that no food supplies be bought from the Germans. Hospitals of the Third Army at this time contained hundreds of patients sick with pneumonia, typhoid fever, and other serious diseases, but the only food available was the straight ration. This condition had been anticipated on the march to Germany, and many earnest requests were made to the quartermaster department, Third Army, through the assistant chief of staff, G-4, to secure from the Services of Supply a sufficient stock of food suitable for diets for the use of the hospitals, but for some weeks no favorable action was taken. Many letters were written and every few days the subject was taken up with G-4, Third Army, but with no result. The response was that Tables of Organization did not call for a sales commissary for army hospitals. Finally, the American Red Cross made arrangements to purchase eggs, chickens, cereals, milk, and fruit in France to be shipped to Trier and Coblenz for the use of the sick of the Third Army, the purchase prices to be repaid to the American Red Cross by the hospitals. This plan was followed for several months with only fair success, as the American Red Cross did not have the proper organization to handle the matter consistently. The situation was of such importance that a personal appeal was made to General Headquarters for the establishment of two large hospital sales commissaries, one in Coblenz and one at Trier. After three months, authority was obtained to establish these sales commissaries, and a captain


911

of the Quartermaster Corps was attached to the army surgeon’s office to supervise them. Personnel for their operation was obtained from various sources. These commissaries functioned exactly as did the sales commissaries of the large hospital centers.27

The medical supply parks established in Coblenz and Trier were replenished on telegraphic requisitions to the Services of Supply. All requisitions from army hospitals were acted upon in the army surgeon’s office and forwarded to these medical supply parks for issue.28

The army sanitary trains always had available a number of evacuation ambulance companies which operated from central points in Trier and Coblenz. They provided ambulances for the hospitals in these cities, while to outlying hospitals sections of evacuation ambulance companies were assigned. The sanitary train also answered all calls from army troops.28

Arrangements of all matters pertaining to railroad transportation of personnel, equipment, and supplies were handled by the transportation officer in the office of G-4, Third Army.28

Every hospital was provided by the American Red Cross with a home and hospital service worker and an American Red Cross representative in charge of recreation. The former had a wide field of action, for she wrote letters for the sick and injured, attempted to trace missing soldiers, and distributed magazines, cigarettes, chocolates, etc., in the hospital wards. As some of the patients in army hospitals had not received any pay for some months and were without toilet articles, she supplied toothbrushes, tooth paste, shaving outfits, and many other necessities.29

Most of the recreational facilities at the army hospitals were provided by the American Red Cross, for officers as well as for patients, nurses, and enlisted men. It was not necessary to call upon the American Red Cross for medical or surgical supplies.29

THE THIRD CORPS

The Third Corps consisted of the 2d, 32d, and 42d Divisions. The 2d and the 32d Divisions started at 5.30 a. m. November 17 on their march to the Rhine. The 42d was to complete its concentration east of the Meuse and to follow the 2d Division after a few days. The movement was by two routes, the northern, followed by the 2d Division, traversing part of Belgium, and the southern, followed by the 32d Division, lying south of that country. Corps and 42d Division headquarters during the first day of the march remained unchanged in situation, but the headquarters of the 32d Division moved to Marville, and of the 2d Division to Stenay.

On the right of the Third Corps was the American Fourth Corps, composed of the 1st, 3d and 4th Divisions; on the left, the French Eleventh Corps marched with two divisions. Liaison was established with the flanking divisions of these two corps. During the first day of the march the head of the 32d Division advanced 19 km. (11.7 miles); the head of the 2d Division, about 14 km. (8.6 miles).30


912

The 32d and 2d Divisions continued the march on November 18, reaching this day the general line Etalle—St. Leger—Ruette—Aubange—Herserange—Audun (all inclusive). The weather continued excellent, and with good roads the day’s advance was made according to schedule, all units arriving in their billeting areas before 5 p. m. The 42d Division remained in place. Headquarters of the corps opened at 5 p. m. at Longuyon; headquarters of the 32d Division moved to Longwy and of the 2d Division to Virton. Heads of columns marched between 20 and 25 km. (12.4-15.5 miles).31

No advance was made on the 19th, the day being spent in resting and in cleaning equipment. All headquarters remained unchanged. Orders were issued for an advance movement of all three divisions on the 20th, the 42d to follow in rear of the 2d Division.31 During the day, some 4,000 Russians, several hundred French, and a few Italian and American released prisoners of war entered the American lines. Many were weak and sick from lack of food, and many complained of the treatment they had received while in German and Austrian hands. At Virton, there was a large German hospital containing 1,500 sick and wounded Germans, with 25 American prisoners. Women nurses, in attendance, and American soldiers stated that they had been well cared for.31

Large quantities of German war material of all kinds were daily received. The more important German dumps were turned over by guards of German troops who had been left behind to protect the property. Armistice terms were observed and no hostile incident was reported. There were, however, reports of pillaging by the retreating Germans.32

The march of the three divisions of the Third Corps began on November 20 at 7.30 a. m., and the advance was made in good order and without special incident, advance divisions reaching the general line Grendel—Aultelbas—Mondercange. The 2d Division’s advance was 25 km. (15.5 miles); that of the 32d Division, about 15 km. (9.3 miles). All units reached billeting areas by 6 p. m. Roads continued excellent and good weather prevailed, as was the case from the first day of the march. A certain amount of straggling was observable in the divisions, caused largely by the British field shoes which the men wore.32 There was some shortage in the supply of gasoline, due chiefly to a delay in connecting and opening up the railway system and the rapid advance of the divisions. The following changes were made in locations of headquarters: Corps, to Longwy; 32d Division, to Petange; 2d Division, to Arlon; 42d Division, to Montmedy.32 Many released prisoners of war passed through American lines during this day, chiefly French, Russians, and Italians. Almost all these men were in poor physical condition. Their mental condition seemed to be that of dull relief, with an intense desire to reach their homes.32 Large supply depots at Virton and Mousson were taken over.32

On November 21 the three divisions again advanced, reaching at the close of the day the general line Schandel—Boevange—Bofferdange—Neuhausen. The 42d Division billetted for the night in the area St. Leger—Mussy-la-Ville—Signeulx—Harnoncourt—Robelmont. Leading elements covered 25


913

km. (15.5 miles). All troops made the march in good order and were in place by 4 p. m. The following changes in headquarters were made during this day: Corps, to Mamer; 32d Division, to Walferdange; 42d Division, to Brouch; 2d Division, to St. Leger.33 Numbers of repatriated prisoners of war continued to enter American lines, including some 700 Russians.33

All organizations of the Third Corps marched on November 22, troops arriving in place before 5 p. m. Advance units of the corps reached the general line Ingeldorf—Betzdorf, covering from 12 to 15 km. (7.4-9.3 miles). Continued good weather and the fine condition of roads aided greatly the progress of the march.33 The following changes were made in headquarters locations during the day: Corps, to Junglingster; 32d Division, to Niederanven; 2d Division, to Mersch; 42d Division, to Arlon. Barrier posts from Florenville to Hussigny were taken over at 4 p. m. by detachments of the 42d Division, with instructions that these posts be held until relieved by troops of the lines of communications.33

Orders were received from the Third Army headquarters that no troops be billeted in the cities of Luxemburg and Thionville and forbidding molestation of property belonging to the Grand Duchess of Luxemburg.33

Troops of the Fourth Corps marched approximately abreast those of the Third Corps. The line of the French Eleventh Corps, on the left, was slightly behind that of the Third. Two more divisions had been ordered to join the French Eleventh Corps in the immediate future.33

No hostile or overt acts had been experienced thus far, and all terms of the armistice apparently were observed by the retiring foe. Material turned over by him was found to be serviceable.34

On November 23 all troops completed the day’s march in good order by 5 p. m., the line having reached the Sauer River, which was the border. Advanced elements marched approximately 15 km. (9.3 miles). The Third Corps now remained halted for a week, awaiting further instructions before the march was resumed. The journey to the Rhine was now half completed. Corps headquarters remained at Junglinster during this halt. Changes in division headquarters were as follows: 32d Division, to Consdorf; 2d Division, to Fels; 42d Division, to Mersch.34

A few prisoners of war entered our lines, and a considerable number of German ex-soldiers recently discharged and on their way to their homes in Alsace were met at examining posts. Several German deserters also were encountered.34

During the time that it occupied this area the Third Corps organized an outpost line of defense along the banks of the Sauer River, slightly rearranged its units, carried on drills, training exercises, and inspections. Opportunity was given the troops to rest and to clean their equipment. So far as practicable new clothing and equipment were issued.34

Released prisoners of war continued to present themselves at American examining posts and appeared to be in better mental and physical condition than those at first seen.34


914

A detailed reconnaissance of bridges over the Sauer River was made between Weilerbach and Wasserbillig, for the purpose of determining the most practicable routes for troops on the resumption of the march.35

On December 1 the first day’s march through hostile territory was completed without unusual incident. The rainy weather which had prevailed during the immediately preceding occupation of Luxemburg continued, and this, with narrow roads, in poor condition, and with many steep grades, made the advance difficult and wearisome. The general line reached for the night was Lichtenborn—Lauperath—Mulbach—Idenheim and the line of the Kyll River. Leading elements of the 2d Division covered 30 km. (18.6 miles); those of the 32d Division advanced 22 km. (13.6 miles).

Headquarters of the 42d Division remained unchanged. The 32d Division headquarters moved to Welschbillig; 2d Division headquarters to Mettendorf; corps headquarters to Echternach.36

The attitude of the civil population was that of curiosity and some concern, but no hostility was shown.36

The march continued the following day, retarded by hilly country and by rain. The unusual narrowness of German roads caused much congestion and road blocks that with roads of the usual width could have been avoided. All units were slightly late in reaching their billeting areas, the general line for the night being Hontheim—Prum—Schonecken—Neidenbach—Metternich—Rievenich.37 Corps headquarters remained unchanged. Changes in divisional headquarters were as follows: 32d Division, to Speicher; 2d Division, to Rittersdorf; 42d Division, to Consdorf.37

The attitude and behavior of the German people in the occupied territory was all that could have been desired. They seemed favorably impressed by our well-behaved troops and by the fact that no pillaging or disorder prevailed. Their first nervous apprehension gave way to relief. All our orders were obeyed, and the best billets in the towns were turned over without hesitation to the army of occupation.37

On December 3, the march was somewhat shorter than usual, and in spite of steep grades and slippery roads, all units reached their billeting areas by 3 p. m. The line for the night was Manderfeld—Olzheim—Budesheim—Salm—Eisenschmitt—Wittlich.37 Changes in headquarters were as follows: Corps, to Kylburg, 2d Division, to Prum, 42d Division, to Helenenburg (1 km. west of Welschbillig). Headquarters of 32d Division remained unchanged.37

The 2d Division, on the left, renewed its march on the 4th, while the 32d Division halted and spent the day in rest and in cleaning equipment. The 42d Division also remained halted, with the exception of its artillery column, which was advanced during the day to the line Birtlinger—Masholder. The line of the 2d Division for the night was Dahlem—Oberbettingen—Gerolstein—Salm. All headquarters remained unchanged.38

The character of the country through which the troops were passing became more and more rugged and roads showed no improvement. Shortage of forage, added to the difficulty of travel, made the march a trying one for artillery horses. Daily inspections of the troops en route showed marked


915

general improvement in march discipline and in the appearance and personal equipment of the men. Straggling had been reduced to a minimum.38

Field Orders, No. 73, Third Corps, prescribing details of the march for December 5, was amended upon receipt of orders from the Third Army. The next day the 2d Division remained in place on the line Glaadt—Weidenbach and prepared to resume the march on December 6.38

The 32d Division reached the line Nerdlen (exclusive)—Darscheid (exclusive)—Ellscheid—Gillenfeld, though on account of bad roads some of its organizations were forced to march 36 km. (22.3 miles).38

The same day the 42d Division moved to the area Schleid—Seffern—Malberg—Orsfeld—Gindorf—Dudeldorf—Speicher—Blersdorf. Headquarters of the Third Corps and of the 2d Division were unchanged, headquarters 32d Division moved to Daun, and of the 42d Division to Speicher.38

Liaison had been established with the Canadian Corps of the British Second Army, which had taken the place of the French on the left of the Third Corps.39 The Fourth Corps, on the right of the Third Corps, continued its advance abreast of the latter. Its headquarters was now at Schweich.39

Progress on December 6 was slow, owing to rain and poor roads, but all units reached their billeting areas by 6 p. m. Horses were in poor condition, the forage supply still being inadequate; but march discipline showed decided improvement, and the troops presented a neat and orderly appearance. The 32d Division reached the line Boos—Laubach—Driesch; headquarters at Daun.39

Because of the poor roads in the southern part of the 32d Division’s sector it was necessary to echelon the two leading divisions by one day’s march so that the left of the 32d Division could pass over the Boxberg—Kelburg road on the 6th. The right column of the 2d Division was ordered to pass over the same road on the 7th. Line of 2d Division was Udelhoven—Ober Ehe—Dockweiler; headquarters at Gerolstein. The 42d Division occupied for the night the region Budescheim—Lissingen—St. Thomas—Feuerscheid—Schonecken and the region Manderscheid—Bettenfeld—Eisenschmitt—Oberkail. Headquarters were at Birresborn. Corps headquarters remained at Kylburg. Both adjacent corps continued their advance in conjunction with the Third Corps.39

It was reported that the larger part of the enemy retiring forces had crossed the Rhine.39

The day’s march of December 7 was completed by all units in good condition, though the scarcity of roads in the region traversed, and their poor condition, somewhat delayed the progress of most columns. The army line was reached by the 32d Division: Ettringen—Mayen—Greimersburg, with headquarters at Mullenbach. The 2d Division reached the line Rupperath— Gilgenbach—Drees, with headquarters at Nohn. Advance columns of the 42d Division halted on line Feusdorf—Birgel—Pelm, headquarters remaining at Birresborn. Third Corps headquarters moved to Daun at 3 p. m. Both front-line divisions advanced about 23 km. (13.8 miles).40

Having reached the army line, the 32d Division remained halted during December 8, while the 2d Division marched to the line Meckenheim—Ahrweiler—Kempenich—Ettringen, the 42d Division assembling its elements in


916

the zone Udelhoven—Boxberg—Wallenborn—Glaadt. Advance cavalry patrols from Troop I, 2d Cavalry, sent out to reconnoiter the Rhine from Remagen to Sinzig, reported the Remagen bridge blocked with cars of coal and stone. These were the first organized detachments of American troops to reach the Rhine.40

Headquarters of the corps and 32d Division remained unchanged. Headquarters of the 2d Division moved to Adenau; 42d Division headquarters to Dreis.40

From this time the entire 2d Division was obliged to march on the one road through the Ahr Valley.40

On December 9, the three divisions renewed the march, which was made easier by the less rugged character of the country, and by the better roads which characterized the Rhine valley. Lines reached were as follows: 32d Division, eastern edge of Laacher See—Kerben—Munstermaifeld, headquarters at Mayen; 2d Division, Rhine River from Rolandseck to Brohl—eastern edge of Laacher See, headquarters at Ahrweiler; 42d Division, line Dumpelfeld—Adenau—Boos, headquarters at Adenau.41

The next day the two advance divisions only continued the march. For the 2d Division it was necessary only to swing its right flank forward, thus bringing its advance elements on the line of the Rhine along the entire divisional front from Rolandseck to Andernach (exclusive). Headquarters of the 2d Division was unchanged. The extreme left flank of the 32d Division reached the river, its line for the night being Andernach—Winningen. Headquarters of this division moved to Ochtendung. The 42d Division remained in place. Corps headquarters moved to Polch.41

At the end of December 11, troops of the Third Corps everywhere along the corps front had reached the Rhine, there to remain halted until further instructions were received from the Third Army.41

Only a short advance had to be made by the 32d Division to bring its forward elements along the line of the Rhine, from Andernach (inclusive) to the Moselle River. This movement, and the change of divisional headquarters to Bassenheim, was completed by 12 noon. The 2d and 42d Divisions made no other movement than some slight readjustments of units in preparation for starting to cross the Rhine. The day was spent in a general cleaning of clothing and equipment and in rest.41

During December 12, all troops of the Third Corps remained in place. The Third Corps was designated as the only corps of the army of occupation to cross the Rhine and establish itself in the Coblenz bridgehead area, with headquarters at Neuwied. Only the northern sector of the bridgehead, the southern boundary including Coblenz—Gackenbach and Gorgeshausen, was to be occupied by American troops; the southern sector was to be held by the French. The Fourth Corps was to remain in close support, north of the Moselle, and the Seventh Corps on the line Gerolstein—Wittlich—Berncastel. Headquarters were to be as follows: Third Army, Coblenz; Third Corps, Neuwied; Fourth Corps, Cochem; Seventh Corps, Wittlich.42

Field Orders No. 80 was issued, defining the "Plan of action, Third Army Corps." Instructions were received from the army that the 1st Division


917

would pass under the command of the Third Corps at 6 a. m. on December 13, and that on the same date and hour the 42d Division would pass to the command of the Fourth Corps.42

All three divisions began to cross the Rhine at 7 a. m. of the 13th. The 1st Division, on the right, utilized the pontoon bridge at Coblenz. The 32d Division crossed on the Engers bridge and also used the ferry at Neuwied. The 2d Division, on the left, passed over the bridge at Remagen and the ferry at Andernach.42

Without exception, all crossings were effected in a smooth and orderly manner, due largely to the excellent road discipline which prevailed. The fine appearance of men, equipment, and material elicited the highest praise from all who reviewed the passage.42

By nightfall all organizations, with the exception of divisional trains, special units, and corps troops, had crossed the Rhine and were well into the bridgehead area. Corps headquarters remained at Polch. Headquarters of the 1st Division moved from Coblenz to Montabaur; the 32d Division to Sayn; and the 2d Division to Heddesdorf.42

The Third Corps held the north sector of the bridgehead, with the 1st Division (on the right) and the 32d Division (left) in the front line and the 2d Division in support. The mission of the corps was to hold itself in readiness for aggressive offensive action in case of a resumption of hostilities, in which case it was to cover the crossing of the Rhine by troops of the Fourth Corps. The ground was to be organized in three positions, consisting of an outpost, a second or main position of resistance, and a third position, with switch positions on the left for the purpose of connecting with the British in the event hostilities were resumed.42

On December 14 further advance into the bridgehead area was continued by the divisions. At the close of this day practically all troops of the Third Corps were across the Rhine. At 7 p. m. all units of the 1st and 2d Divisions were reported in their billeting areas, while the 32d Division still had a short distance to march before the most advanced elements would arrive in place. No change occurred in divisional headquarters. The Fourth Corps began this day its movement into the new area as support to the Third Corps, headquarters remaining at Cochem. Troops of the Canadian Corps, on the American left, were in place in the Cologne bridgehead, with corps headquarters at Bonn.42

By nightfall of December 15 the 32d Division had completed the short march necessary to place its troops on the perimeter of the bridgehead, while all corps troops and divisional special units had arrived in their permanent billeting areas. Corps headquarters was established at Neuwied, and Third Army headquarters opened at Coblenz.43

The march of the Third Corps, the advance section of the American army of occupation, to the Rhine River and into Coblenz bridgehead was now completed, after covering approximately 300 km. (186 miles) in 16 marching days. The strength of the corps on this date was 3,261 officers and 79,514 men.43


918

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES

On November 18 the corps surgeon’s office moved to Longuyon, remaining there until the 20th. Divisional triages were concentrated at Dun-sur-Meuse, evacuating to Evacuation Hospital No. 15, at Glorieux.44 An army medical officer was sent forward, by arrangement with the armistice commission, to Luxemburg, Trier, and Coblenz to reconnoiter hospitalization resources for the Third Army, but as it proved the Third Corps obtained little in the way of army hospitalization or evacuation until it entered the Rhine Valley.45

The divisions established their triages at favorable points at each stage of the march and evacuated to the corps collecting hospitals, whence evacuations were made by corps ambulances to the evacuation hospitals which remained as located for the last phase of the Meuse-Argonne operation. Both the corps and divisions utilized the system of "leapfrogging" developed during the offensives in which they had participated, but the absence of army hospitals near the troops was at first a source of considerable difficulty. Later the Third Army established evacuation hospitals at the more favorable sites of the corps collecting hospitals, and these, in turn, were located at the triage points of either the northern or the southern division in the corps front.45

At the beginning of the march out troops were faced by the need of providing for refugees, and corps hospitals participated in the care given them. One of the hospitals of the 32d Division at Longwy cared for many hundreds until relieved by a corps hospital, which was also the collecting point for American disabled in that vicinity.45

The evacuation order issued by the Corps on November 16, covering the first portion of the march to the Rhine, read as follows:45

Each division will establish its own triages within its area and evacuate as follows:

Surgical cases; very seriously sick: Mobile Hospital No. 1, Bantheville.
Moderately sick: Evacuation Hospital No. 15, Glorieux.
Slightly sick: Evacuation Hospital No. 4, Fromereville.
Contagious: Evacuation Hospital No. 8, Petit Maujouy.
Nervous: Psychopathic Hospital No. 1, Benoite Vaux.

Changes in evacuation will be announced in orders from time to time. When evacuation by train is possible, the corps will maintain a collecting hospital at railheads.

Additional ambulance or hospital service will be furnished on request to corps surgeon.

Each division will make proper provision for ambulances to march in rear of the columns to take care of the sick and footsore.46

After the front lines of the divisions reached the German frontier they retained that position until December 1. Meantime the corps hospital at Longwy was ordered to Echternach in time to serve troops after the march was resumed, so that it received patients during the first three days of December. On December 4 the following evacuation order was published:47

Divisions will establish triages within their own areas, and such number of field hospitals, at least one, as will accommodate the sick who are apt to return to duty within three or four days.


919

All contagious cases, including influenza, all surgical cases, except the very slight ones apt to recover within three or four days and all other cases not apt to return to duty within three or four days, will be evacuated by divisions to the 3d Corps collecting hospital at Echternach.

The corps collecting hospital will be moved forward at a date to be announced later.

The sanitary train, which had had its headquarters at Mont St. Martin, just outside of Longwy, and later at Steinsel in Luxemburg, now moved to Echternacherbruck, crossing into Germany as soon as the troops had advanced. While the corps collecting hospital remained at Echternach, the divisional triages followed the troops closely, establishing temporary collecting points. For example, the 32d Division had such a formation at Daum, and the 2d Division a more elaborate one at Prum.47

When the advance had gone far enough the corps collecting hospital was established at Prum, where it took over the building by the triage of the 2d Division, and the headquarters of the Third Corps Sanitary Train was moved from Echternacherbruck to the same place. When the 2d Division moved forward to another triage the corps collecting hospital took over all its patients and established a hospital of about 1,000 beds which served the corps until the line had nearly or quite reached the Rhine. Thereafter, until army hospitals were established in the bridgehead area, patients were evacuated to Trier. In the last days of the march, the Third Army evacuated the corps hospital at Prum by a hospital train, but in the meantime it had been partially evacuated by the Third Corps ambulance section, which later assisted in evacuating the hospital at Trier.48

After corps headquarters was officially opened at Neuwied, in the bridgehead area east of the Rhine, on December 15, corps hospitals were soon opened in the same area. For the northern part of the bridgehead, Neuwied was selected as the best location for a corps collection hospital, and for the southern part, Ehrenbreitstein. Good buildings were obtained for both of these institutions, and they were established at once, but were not completely manned until after the army took over the hospital at Prum, thus releasing field hospital personnel of the corps stationed at that place.48 For a few days in the early period of occupation, the 32d Division, with a triage at Andernach, and the 2d Division, with a triage at Neuenahr, assisted the corps by retaining and caring for large number of the sick.49

When the Third Army began to receive patients in Coblenz some changes took place in the distribution of corps medical organizations. The 1st Division maintained its triage and hospital at Dernbach, while the 32d Division had its triage at Sayn and its hospital in a summer hotel at Rengsdorf, the 2d Division placing its triage at Engers and its hospital at Vallendar. The corps collecting hospital at Ehrenbreitstein was taken over by a hospital of the Third Army, but the corps continued to maintain its hospital at Neuwied, chiefly for the reception of sick from among corps troops. The sanitary train was established in one of the modern fortifications on the heights of Ehrenbreitstein. An army evacuation order was issued which in effect sent patients direct from the divisions to army hospitals, and in consequence corps collect-


920

ing hospitals practically ceased to function. The officer in charge of evacuation for the Third Army was directed to consult directly with the corresponding officer in the corps. The functions of the corps surgeon, already reduced, were thus further limited.49

THE 2D DIVISION

In preparation for its march, 11 additional trucks and 25 G. M. C. ambulances were received by the sanitary train of the 2d Division. Animal-drawn ambulances were assigned to follow each column, and motor ambulance details called twice daily at all elements of the division, evacuating patients to division field hospitals and from the latter to corps hospitals. During a part of the march convoys of motor ambulances were detailed also to follow up the column and carry forward to their organizations men who fell out or straggled.50

Hospitalization was provided by sending with the advance a part of the 1st Field Hospital, which would establish itself as far forward as the day’s march permitted, while the other part of this unit cared for the disabled who were left behind, until they were evacuated. The latter then moved up and took over the hospital which had already been established by the former. On a few occasions, when evacuations to the rear were long and difficult, other field hospitals relieved the one mentioned, or another field hospital was established to assist it. A section of the medical supply unit accompanied the advance field hospital to meet its needs and those of the Medical Department detachments with troops.50

Hospitals were established as follows on the line of march:

Place

Date

Organization

Number of patients

Chauvency-le-Chateau, Meuse

Nov. 17-Nov. 18

1st Field Hospital

40

Virton, Belgium

Nov. 19-Nov. 20

…do…

54

Arlon, Belgium

Nov. 20-Nov. 22

…do…

130

Mersch, Luxemburg

Nov. 22-Nov. 23

…do…

50

Cruchten, Luxemburg

Nov. 23-Dec. 1

…do…

450

Fischbach, Luxemburg

Nov. 25-Dec. 7

23d Field Hospital

a21

Oberweiss, Rhine Province, Germany

Dec. 3-Dec. 5

16th Field Hospital

180

Gerolstein, Rhine Province, Germany

Dec. 3-Dec. 10

1st Field Hospital

130

Prum, Rhine Province, Germany

Dec. 4-Dec. 9

15th Field Hospital

413

Adenau, Rhine Province, Germany

Dec. 8-Dec. 10

16th Field Hospital

132

Neuenahr, Rhine Province, Germany

Dec. 10-Dec. 14

15th Field Hospital

343

Neuenahr, Rhine Province, Germany

Dec. 15-Dec. 19

16th Field Hospital

b5

Engers, Rhine Province, Germany

Dec. 14-Dec. 31

1st Field Hospital

880

Bendorf, Rhine Province, Germany

Dec. 15-Dec. 31

15th Field Hospital

140

Engers, Rhine Province, Germany

Dec. 27-Dec. 31

16th Field Hospital

24

 

 

 

2,152

aAdmissions in addition to those transferred from 1st Field Hospital, at Cruchten, on departure of the latter.
bAdmissions in addition to 349 transferred from 15th Field Hospital, at same place, on departure of the latter.

On the 25th of November, at Cruchten, Luxemburg, 24 Ford ambulances were received, but on the 28th all surplus ambulances were ordered turned in and a convoy of G. M. C. ambulances and 8 of these new Ford ambulances were sent back to the Medical Department concentration area at Joinville, Haute-Marne, France. This left ambulance strength of the ambulance section


921

as follows: 11 animal-drawn ambulances and 16 Fords to 16th Ambulance Company, and 12 G. M. C. ambulances to each of the other three companies, 1st, 15th, and 23d.50

THE 32D DIVISION

On cessation of hostilities the entire 32d Division was transferred across the Meuse and replacements were received, including both medical and dental officers. The sanitary train turned in Peerless trucks, which were replaced by Packards. Animal-drawn units were motorized. New clothing and, in so far as practicable, new shoes were issued throughout the division, but the supply of the latter was insufficient. On November 19, when the division started on its march to the Rhine, ambulances followed each infantry column, field hospitals opening for the reception of patients. At Longwy, Field Hospital No. 127 was established to care for some 250 sick and wounded found there, of whom 8 were Americans. Later this hospital transferred its patients to the sanitary train of the Third Corps. During the march Field Hospital No. 125 established at Noers, Daun, and Andernach; Field Hospital No. 126 at Dun-sur-Meuse, Minden, and Andernach; Field Hospital No. 127 at Longwy, Walferdange, Nieder Mendig, and Rengsdorf; Field Hospital No. 128 at Dudeldorf and Sayn.51

The chief difficulty which the Medical Department experienced on this march was that of moving the field hospitals forward to keep pace with the advance, transportation available having been reduced to two-thirds of the regulation quota. About every second day a hospital would be opened at a new location, and as soon as it could be cleared by corps hospitals, acting as evacuation hospitals, trucks were sent back to move it forward. The amount and character of work which the field hospitals were called upon to perform were considerably heavier than was provided for in their Tables of Organization and Equipment. The problem of rationing these hospitals, which sometimes were scattered over a route 100 km. (62 miles) in length, was very difficult.52

Evacuation to corps collecting stations was effected by division ambulances. There was some sickness, particularly among unseasoned recruits, but most cases were admitted for treatment on account of sore, bruised, or lacerated feet—conditions attributed chiefly to an insufficient supply of good shoes. Three men per thousand were evacuated from the division. On December 13, when the 32d Division crossed the Rhine, Field Hospital No. 128—later supplemented by Field Hospital No. 126—was established in two hotels at Sayn, which town later became the billeting area of the entire sanitary train. These hospitals here received patients from the area of the 64th Brigade, while Field Hospital No. 127, at Rengsdorf, performed a similar service for the 63d Brigade.51

THE 42D DIVISION

In this division, in preparation for the march to the Rhine, one motor and two animal-drawn ambulances were assigned to each Infantry regiment, one of each to every Artillery regiment, and one motor ambulance to each


922

Machine Gun Battalion, to the Artillery brigade headquarters, and to the division surgeon’s office. A liaison officer was assigned to each Infantry regiment and to the Artillery brigade.53 Working in close cooperation and using the "leapfrog" system, the units of the sanitary train furnished, during each day’s march and at its end, collecting points for the disabled from all parts of the division. A field hospital and an ambulance company constituted a team, the former housing and treating patients until the latter had cleared the particular area concerned and completed evacuations to the rear. The team then moved forward, overtook the division, and in its turn again opened a division triage. Thus at the end of each day’s march a hospital was found receiving patients who should be evacuated and an ambulance company supplementing as needed the ambulances assigned to the troops.54

Though the plan worked well, its actual operation required unremitting attention. In many instances the distance to evacuation hospitals was considerable, and distribution of rations was difficult when the four evacuating teams were scattered (each an ambulance company and a field hospital) from 30 to 50 km. (18 to 31 miles) apart. After the division reached Mersch only hospital cases were evacuated, men with minor ailments being carried forward by truck or ambulance. By this means more than 1,400 men were retained with the troops, while a total of 1,000 were evacuated.54

On December 15 the sanitary train, less one field hospital and one ambulance company which had been left at Adenau to care for a small group of desperately sick patients, had reached its destination at the Kreis of Arhweiler, on the Rhine.55

THE FOURTH CORPS

Headquarters of the Fourth Corps, now a part of the Third Army, moved to Buxerulles in anticipation of the move into Germany, and the composition of the corps was changed so that it now consisted of the 1st, 3d, and 4th Divisions. Field Orders, No. 66, Fourth Corps, issued on November 16, directed the 3d Division to enter No Man’s Land at 5.30 a. m. on the 17th on the two roads: Charey—Chambley and Woel—Latour-en-Woevre—Friauville, to the line Jarny—Conflans—Abbeville; the 1st Division to enter No Man’s Land at 5.30 a. m., marching via Moranville—Warcq—Rouvres and Abaucourt—Etain, to occupy the line Gondrecourt—Domremy-la-Canne; the 4th Division to march on the Bernecourt—Thiaucourt—Gironville—Vigneulles-les-Hattonchatel, to Thiaucourt and Vigneulles-les-Hattonchatel, and corps troops to be ready to follow on short notice. Designated places were reached, as directed, on the same day. Corps headquarters was at Woinville on the night of November 16-17. That of the 1st Division, at Le Cabaret Ferme; of the 3d Division, at St. Maurice; and of the 4th Division, at Boucq.56

On the night of November 17-18 corps headquarters was still at Woinville; 1st Division, Etain; 3d Division, Conflans; 4th Division, Boucq.56

Divisions marched prepared at all times to resume the offensive upon receipt of orders to do so. After this date, corps troops were moved and stationed according to the uses to be made of them.56


923

On November 18 the Fourth Corps occupied the line Ste. Marie-aux-Chenes—Briey— Audun-le-Roman—Fillieres; the 3d Division marching via Jarny—Auboue and Conflans—Briey; the 1st Division marching via Landres—Audun-le-Roman and Norroy-le-Sec—Sancy; the 4th Division remaining in its billeting area prepared to march, and the corps troops marching on the roads between the two leading divisions.56 Corps headquarters moved to Etain at 10 a. m. Headquarters of the division was at Landres; no change in location of 3d and 4th division headquarters.56

On November 19 the Fourth Corps was halted, headquarters at Joppecourt; no change in headquarters of 1st, 3d, or 4th Divisions. On the 20th the corps advanced to the line Gandrigen—Hayingen—Angevillers—Wollmeringen—Mondercange, corps headquarters at Joppecourt, division headquarters as follows: 1st, Audun-le-Tiche; 3d, Moyeuvre; 4th, Thiaucourt.57

Next day the corps continued its advance to the line Cattenom—Breistroff la Grande—Rentgen-Basse—Freische—Aspelt—Dahleim—Moutfort—Schuttrange, with its leading divisions, and the 4th Division occupied the line Batilly-Hatrize—Ozerailles. Corps headquarters remained at Joppecourt, those of the divisions as follows: 1st, Hesperange; 3d, La Grange St. Francois; 4th Division, Conflans.57

On the 22d of November the leading divisions occupied the line Schengen—Remerschen—Remich— Stadtbredimus—Greiweldange—Wormeldange—Flaxweiler—Betzdorf, and the 4th Division occupied the line Gandringen—Hayingen—Algringen.

A safety zone of approximately 10 km. (6.2 miles) was maintained between advance elements and the German rear elements. Headquarters of the corps was at Bettembourg; 1st Division at Canach, 3d at Fixem, and 4th at Briey.57

On the 23d the 3d Division remained in place, the 1st occupied the line Ahn—Machtum—Grevenmacher—Mertert—Wasserbillig (exclusive), and the 4th Division marched to the line Garsch—Gr. Hettingen—Otringen (all inclusive). Headquarters of the corps was at Hesperange, of the 1st Division at Canach, the 3d at Remich, and the 4th at Hayingen.57

From November 24 to 30, inclusive, the corps was halted on the west bank of the Moselle River, with headquarters at the following places: Corps, Hesperange; 1st Division, Canach; 3d Division, Remich; 4th Division, Hayingen.57

At 8 a. m. on December 1 the Fourth Corps crossed the German frontier. The 1st Division utilized bridges at Wormeldange and Grevenmacher over the Moselle, at Wasserbillig over the Sauer, and at Konz and Wiltingen over the Saar, and occupied the line Schoden (exclusive)—northern outskirts of Trier (exclusive)—Steigenberg Hill. The 3d Division utilized the bridges at Schengen and Remich and occupied the line Hill 440, 1 km. (0.6 mile) southeast of Traben—east bank of Saar—Schoden. The 4th Division prepared to follow the 3d, but made no change. Headquarters of the corps was at Grevenmacher, that of the 1st Division at Konz, of the 3d Division at Saarburg, with no change in 4th Division.58


924

On December 2 the 1st Division occupied the line Waldrach (exclusive)—Riol—Hetzerath (inclusive); and 3d Division the line taking in Hill 659—Ruwer Creek to Waldrach (inclusive); the 4th Division cleared the line Diedenhofen (exclusive)—Gr. Hettingen—Suftgen—Bettembourg. Headquarters were as follows: Corps, Grevenmacher; 1st Division, Schweich; 3d Division, no change; 4th Division, Remich.58

Next day the 1st Division occupied the line Heidenburg (inclusive)—Minheim—Osann—Platten—Wittlich (inclusive); the 3d Division occupied the line Grimburgenhof—Heidenburg (exclusive), and the 4th Division cleared the line Fixem—Mondorf—Schuttrange and prepared to cross the Saar at Saarburg, Wiltingen, and Konz. Headquarters were located as follows: Corps, Schweich; 1st Division, Hetzerath; 3d Division, Osburg; 4th Division, Remich.58

On December 4 the corps continued its advance astride the Moselle, the 1st Division occupied the line Gornhausen (exclusive) —Berncastel—Wittlich; the 3d Division occupied the line Nonnweiler—Deuselbach—Gornhausen (inclusive), and the 4th Division moved to the line Nieder-Zerf—west bank of the Ruwer, clearing the line of the Moselle, using the bridges at Schengen, Remich, and Wormeldange. Headquarters as follows: Corps, Schweich; 1st Division, Hetzerath; 3d Division, Osburg; 4th Division, Saarburg.58

On December 5 the 1st Division occupied the line Raversbeuren (exclusive)—Enkirch—Bengel— Scheidweiler—Wallscheid; the 3d Division occupied the line Ringel-Kpf—Raversbeuren (inclusive), and the 4th Division moved to the line Waldweiler—Kell—Farschweiler—Riol (all inclusive). Headquarters were as follows: Corps, Schweich; 1st Division, Wittlich; 3d Division, Morbach; 4th Division, Pellingen.59

Next day the 1st Division occupied the line Hesweiler (exclusive)—Senheim—Bremm—Driesch; the 3d Division occupied the line Hausen—Todenroth—Hesweiler (inclusive), and the 4th Division moved to the line Nonnweiler—Thalfang—Mulheim—Osann. Headquarters of the corps was at Schweich; of the 1st Division at Alf, 3d Division at Morbach, 4th Division at Osburg.59

On December 7 the 1st Division occupied the line Morsdorf—Klotten—Landkern; the 3d Division the line Kellenbach—Simmern—Bell—Morsdorf (exclusive), and the 4th Division occupied the line Allenbach—Sensweiler— Lotzbeuren—Traven—Kinderbeuren. Headquarters of the corps was at Zell, of the 1st Division at Alf, 3d Division at Kirchberg, and of the 4th Division at Cues. On the 8th the corps remained halted and headquarters unchanged.59

December 9 the 1st Division occupied the line Liesenfeld—Burgen—Gappenach; the 3d Division occupied the line Rheinbollen—Liesenfeld (exclusive), and the 4th Division moved to the line Rhaunen—Oberkostenz—Schauren— Zell—Beuren. Headquarters were as follows: Corps, Cochem; 1st Division, Treis; 3d Division, Simmern; 4th Division, Cues.59

Next day the 1st Division occupied the line Boppard—Waldesch—Winningen (exclusive), the 3d Division the left bank of the Rhine to Boppard (exclusive), and the 4th moved to the the Mengerschied— Simmern—Mors-


925

dorf—Klotten (exclusive). Headquarters were: Corps, Cochem; 1st Division, Treis; 3d Division, Rheinbollen; 4th Division, Kirchberg.59

On the 11th the 1st Division occupied the line of the Rhine to Coblenz (exclusive), the 3d Division made no change, and the 4th remained as on the preceding day. No change was made in headquarters. Next day the 1st Division passed to the Third Corps and the 42d was transferred to the Fourth Corps. Corps dispositions remained unchanged.60

On the 13th, on account of changes in the southern boundary of the Third Army and the Fourth Corps area, the corps was assigned a position west of the Rhine and north of the Moselle. The 3d Division prepared to march via Boppard—Coblenz, to occupy the Kreis of Mayen, using the bridge at Treis in part. The 4th Division marched via the bridges at Treis and Bullay to occupy the Kreises of Cochem and Adenau. The 42d Division prepared to occupy the Kreis of Ahrweiler. No change was made in headquarters of the corps nor of the 3d and 42d Divisions; 4th Division headquarters was at Alf.60

On the 14th the corps continued the movement to occupy areas assigned to the divisions. The 3d Division remained halted, as did the 4th. The 42d occupied a portion of the Kreis of Ahrweiler. Headquarters of the corps and of the 3d Divisions remained unchanged. Headquarters of the 4th Division was at Alf and of the 42d at Adenau and Ahrweiler.60

On December 15 the Fourth Corps continued the movement. The 3d Division marched via Coblenz and the 4th marched to occupy its area. The 42d Division completed the occupation of the Kreis of Ahrweiler. Corps headquarters was not changed. Division headquarters were as follows: 3d, Boppard; 4th, Bertrich; 42d, Ahrweiler.60

The corps continued its movement next day, but headquarters remained as on the preceding days. Headquarters of the 3d Division was at Andernach, 4th Division at Bertlich, and 42d Division headquarters remained at Ahrweiler.60

The corps completed the movement on December 17 when divisions were all placed in their areas. Corps headquarters remained at Cochem, the 3d Division at Andernach, 4th at Bertrich, and the 42d at Ahrweiler.61

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES

The corps was supplied with a corps sanitary train whose personnel and field hospital equipment were drawn from the 76th Division and the ambulances and trucks from various near-by divisions which did not participate in the march. By working day and night, the personnel overhauled these vehicles and put them into condition within two days, so that they were ready for use on the day that the march began. For the most part the corps train moved as a unit, such ambulances as were necessary being detached to accompany various corps organizations.62

As no buildings were left standing in the territory first traversed, the problems of hospitalization and evacuation of the sick presented difficulties. The 1st Division, which came from the Argonne region by way of Longwy and Longuyon, joined the corps on the march, evacuating its ineffectives to


926

the hospitals already established in the region it was leaving, which was still operating under the First Army. During the first two days of the march the sick of the 3d and 4th Divisions had to be transported back over No Man’s Land to a receiving hospital moved forward for that purpose by the Second Army. This was in the region of Mars-la-Tour, to which point the division ambulance companies transported these patients. Thence they were carried by the Second Army to hospitals in the environs of Toul.62

During the early part of the march no attempt was made to establish corps hospitals, but as it progressed two of these hospitals were established at Jarny in school buildings. They operated here for two days, but were more concerned in feeding stragglers and such troops as had failed to get their rations than in actual care of the sick. After this evacuation was still to the rear, across the devastated region, even though the haul was becoming a long one. It having been learned that some American wounded prisoners had been left in Briey, a corps hospital and corps ambulance company were sent forward to that town, where the former took over a well-equipped and modern civil hospital which had been used as a military hospital by the Germans. A number of nontransportable wounded were found, including some Americans, but most of the patients here were Germans or Austrians. One German medical officer and a few sanitary corps men had been left behind to look after them, but only three days’ supply of poor food had been left when the Germans evacuated the hospital, and this was entirely exhausted when the Fourth Corps sanitary formations took it over. The hospital continued to operate at Briey under the same jurisdiction until relief was provided by an evacuation hospital of the Third Army.62

Patients in the corps field hospitals at Jarny having been evacuated, these two units were moved forward and established in Esch, Luxemburg, where excellent school buildings, well adapted to hospital purposes, were found. The 4th Field Hospital of the corps sanitary train took over the location of a field hospital established in Esch by the 1st Division, relieving the latter for forward movement.62

Until the troops reached Luxemburg the weather had been excellent, there had been no great amount of sickness, and the march had continued daily. During a rest period of some eight days in that duchy, the weather turned cold and rainy, and influenza cases complicated by pneumonia increased so that the hospitals in Esch were taxed to capacity. Now, evacuation to France and rear areas by ambulance had to be abandoned and evacuation to forward occupied areas begun, since it was necessary for its hospitals to stay within the corps area as it advanced.63

The march having been resumed on December 1, the corps hospital which had been relieved at Briey took over the site of the field hospital of the 1st Division at Grevenmacher. Two of three corps hospitals at Esch also moved forward at once and occupied large barracks of good capacity in Trier, establishing themselves at once for the reception of such patients as could bear transportation from Esch forward. (Patients with influenza were evacuated, but those with pneumonia were held.) At the time these patients


927

were being received, Evacuation Hospitals No. 3 and No. 12 arrived and took over the hospitals established in Trier; but as only part of their personnel and none of their equipment came with them the corps hospitals were left in situ and operated under direction of their commanding officers, pending the arrival of the full equipment of the evacuation hospitals. The corps hospital in Grevenmacher was also evacuated and moved to occupy a hotel building near Traben-Trarbach, on the eastern bank of the Moselle. The latter was operated for some time, caring especially for influenza and pneumonia patients whose evacuation was deemed inadvisable.63

Upon resumption of the march from the Duchy of Luxemburg into Germany proper, foot trouble among Infantry troops began to assume formidable proportions. This was due not to the long-continued marching, but chiefly to improperly fitting shoes. The majority of the soldiers had been issued the British army shoe, which was heavier, built on different lines, and made of less pliable leather than the American shoe. A great many of the troops fell out on the line of march because of blistered and excoriated feet. Though of only temporary character, this disability threw a great burden on ambulance companies and accounted for an increased sick rate. Influenza, which had appeared while the troops were at rest, continued, but to a lesser extent. Foot troubles and influenza caused practically all the disabilities toward the end of the march.63

The area assigned the Third Army, extending along the western bank of the Rhine, joined the British sector to the north and the French to the south and extended back in the occupied territory some 80 km. (50 miles). The 1st Division, which had been part of the Fourth Corps on the march, passed to the Third Corps, its place in the Fourth being taken by the 42d Division, which held the northern portion of the sector, the 3d Division the southern portion, and the 4th Division the back area. Corps headquarters was placed at Cochem and there remained.63 Division field hospitals were located at the places most advantageous for service of the division areas concerned, and corps hospitals were distributed so as best to serve the divisions as entities—one at Cochem, one near Mayen, one at Andernach, and one at Neuenahr. The hospital at Neuenahr was relieved later by an evacuation hospital of the Third Army, and was then moved to Andernach.63

After reaching Cochem, the corps ambulance companies were reinforced by 36 Ford ambulances, thus securing ample ambulance transport to the corps. Extra corps ambulances were stationed at the various division hospitals to evacuate patients to corps hospitals. From the latter, such patients as evidently required hospitalization for a period longer than four to seven days, in accordance with instructions from the chief surgeon, Third Army, were evacuated to evacuation hospitals of the Third Army, where definitive treatment was given them.64

THE 1ST DIVISION

On November 17, as part of the Fourth Corps, the 1st Division started on its march to the Rhine after an unsuccessful attempt to reequip the troops.


928

Its troops started on the march thinly clad, poorly shod, and without having had an opportunity to bathe or disinfect themselves. Notwithstanding these conditions, however, the number of men requiring hospitalization was small.65

When the division assembled after the last offensive it was only with the greatest difficulty that the sanitary train was able to extricate its transportation from mired roads and to reach division headquarters at La Cabaret Ferme in the area east of Verdun. Men reporting sick were picked up by battalion or regimental medical personnel and evacuated as was necessary to Evacuation Hospital No. 15, at Glorieux, just west of Verdun. An ambulance was attached to each regiment to care for emergency cases, and other ambulances visited each battalion and regimental station to evacuate the sick.65

The command reached the Duchy of Luxemburg November 20, and Field Hospital No. 3 operated as a division hospital at Esch until the 25th. Nearly all the 295 patients it here received were suffering from foot trouble caused by improper shoes.65 In a few days most of these men were returned to the lines, but seriously sick patients were transferred to the Third Corps hospital, also located at Esch. The division remained in Luxemburg until December 1, billeted, as a rule, in barns, but enjoying bathing facilities adequate to give all men at least one bath. There were no facilities for disinfestation, however, and almost every member of the command harbored vermin. Field Hospital No. 2, established at Grevenmacher, admitted 534 patients up to December 1, most of them because of foot troubles. More than half the cases of disability during the march were due to this cause.66 After the division reached Coblenz December 12 and deployed through the area beyond the bridgehead, the sanitary train was billeted first at Hoehr and then at Hillschied, serving at the latter location until the divison was withdrawn. The division surgeon’s office was located at division headquarters in Montabaur. Field Hospital No. 3 occupied a part of a German hospital building at Dernbach, where it functioned as a division hospital until March 5, on which date it was relieved by Field Hospital No. 2. From December 15, 1918, to March 15, 1919, 2,042 patients were received. Corps orders directed that patients who did not recover in three days be evacuated to the corps hospital at Neuwied.67

THE 3D DIVISION

The 3d Division started on its march to the Rhine November 16, its route lying through Commercy, Vigneulles, Conflans, Briey, Moyeuvre-la-Grande, Thionville, and Remich, Luxemburg.68 Entering Germany on December 1, the division passed from the high, rolling plateau, across which it had marched up to this time, and entered a more rugged terrain. Passing through Saarburg, Morbach, Kirschberg, and Simmern, it reached the Rhine near Bacharach and St. Goar. On December 16 it reached its billeting area, with headquarters at Andernach.69

By November 1, after the division had entered the rest area south of Bar-le-Duc, the sanitary train congregated at Tronville and Velaine. Here all organizations were brought up to full strength and were reorganized, equipment was repaired, and shortages were filled. Special attention was given to personal cleanliness, and a vigorous training schedule was followed.


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Repair and replacement of equipment and training of personnel were continued throughout the march.70 Moving from Tronville on November 16, headquarters of the sanitary train reached Elvange, Luxemburg, on November 23 and there remained until the division entered Germany on December 1. As the several organizations of the train were moving constantly and usually independently, it was not until train headquarters reached a permanent place that difficulties pertaining to the rendition of reports were overcome and all such papers were brought up to date. During much of the march dismounted members of the train were carried on trucks or in ambulances.71

During the march the division surgeon held frequent conferences with regimental surgeons, who reported that the physical condition of the troops was excellent, yet by the time the division reached Remich a considerable number—chiefly replacements—were suffering from chronic arthritis, flat-foot, and other foot conditions which required their evacuation. Nevertheless, transfers to hospital were not excessive. Close inquiry was made concerning the health of inhabitants in the territory traversed, and appropriate measures were taken to avoid infection.69

On the march the sanitary train functioned as follows:

Ambulance Company No. 5, from November 1 to 17, evacuated patients from Field Hospital No. 27, at Velaines, to Base Hospital No. 83, at Revigny. On the 17th the company proceeded to Mondorf where, on the 23d, it evacuated patients to the corps hospital at Esch. On the same date the company was assigned to the 6th Brigade, which it served during the remainder of the march.72 During this time it evacuated patients from regimental infirmaries to hospitals at Mondorf, Saarburg, Treves, Buchenbeuren, Salzig, and Maria Laach. On December 16 it reached its final station at Mayen, Germany, when it evacuated patients to Field Hospital No. 5 at Maria Laach.73

Ambulance Company No. 7, after being relieved in the Meuse-Argonne, was stationed at Tronville until November 14, when it was assigned to the 6th Brigade, which it served until November 23, when it was relieved by Ambulance Company No. 5.72 On December 1 the company arrived at Mondorf-les-Bains, where it evacuated patients from the corps hospital. December 6 it proceeded to Saarburg, where it evacuated Field Hospital No. 7. On the following day it proceeded to Buchenbeuren, where Field Hospital No. 7 established a hospital; the ambulance company evacuated this until the 14th. The following day the company left for Simmern, where it served Field Hospital No. 5. On the 16th it again moved forward and evacuated Field Hospital No. 27 at Salzig until the 28th, when it proceeded to its final station at Welling, Germany.73

Ambulance Company No. 26, animal drawn, after its relief from the Meuse-Argonne, accompanied the 5th Brigade animal-drawn train to Tronville, where it remained until the 14th, when it proceeded to Mars-la-Tour, arriving there on the 19th. The following day it started with the train on its march into Germany, arriving at its final destination, Trimbs, on December 17.72

Ambulance Company No. 27 was stationed at Tronville November 1 to 16, where it conducted ambulance service for the 6th Brigade. On the 17th it


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accompanied the 5th Brigade on its march into Germany, arriving at its final destination, Andernach, Germany, on December 17. Throughout the march the company served the different regiments of the 5th Brigade.72

Field Hospital No. 5 was billeted at Velaines November 1 to 17, when it started on its march into Germany.74 It did not function until it reached Simmern, Germany, on December 9, where it established a divisional sick hospital. December 15 all patients were evacuated, and the organization proceeded to its final destination at Maria Laach, where it established a hospital in a monastery and a hotel, caring for division sick. Up to the last of December it admitted 397 patients, with 2 deaths.75

Field Hospital No. 7 was billeted at Velaines November 1 to 17, when it started on its march into Germany. On December 2 it reached Saarburg, Germany, where a detachment of 3 officers and 13 enlisted men opened and operated a hospital until the 8th. The remainder of the company operated a hospital at Buchenbeuren, Germany, from the 6th to 13th. The organization then proceeded to Andernach, where it opened and operated a hospital.75

Field Hospital No. 26, animal drawn, after the Meuse-Argonne operation, was located at Velaines, leaving there on the 14th for Mars-la-Tour, where it arrived on the 19th. The following day the hospital resumed its march, arriving at its final destination at Trimbs, December 17. The organization did not operate any hospitals during the march.75

Field Hospital No. 27 was established at Velaines November 1 to 17, caring for divisional sick. During this time it admitted 546 patients. Evacuating all its patients to Base Hospital No. 83, at Revigny, it then started on the march into Germany. It resumed operations at St. Elizabeth’s Convent, about 1 km. (0.6 mile) from Mondorf, Luxemburg, where it received patients from November 24 to 25. On the latter date the hospital returned to Elvange, and on December 1 it again opened at the St. Elizabeth’s Convent. This operated until December 6, when its patients were turned over to a hospital of the 4th Division. During this time it cared for 202 patients, with 1 death. On December 12, the hospital arrived at Bad Salzig, where it operated until January 18, 1919. During this period it admitted 325 patients with 7 deaths from pneumonia.75

THE 4TH DIVISION

Orders originally issued concerning the evacuation service of the 4th Division during its march to the Rhine are quoted below:76

HEADQUARTERS 4TH DIVISIO,
AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARYFORCES,
OFFICE OF THE DIVISIONSURGEON,
France, 14th November, 1918.

Circular letter No. 4.

To all medical officers, 4th Division.

I. In case the division is called upon to carry out a march of more than one day’s duration, the following sanitary tactics will ordinarily be applied:

1. Disposition of sanitary units on the march:

a. Combat equipment with combat train of battalion and regiments.

b. Camp infirmaries with combat train of regiments.


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c.One field hospital and one ambulance company in rear of advance guard or center column.

d. Remainder of sanitary train in rear of main body.

e. Two animal-drawn ambulances with each regiment of Infantry, one with each regiment of Engineers and Field Artillery.

f. One motor ambulance detachment patrolling the roads in the rear of the marching troops.

2. Care and evacuation of the sick and injured on the march:

a. Soldiers who are unable to march with their units on account of sickness or injury will be given a pass signed by a commissioned officer and, accompanied by a noncommissioned officer, will await the arrival of or proceed to the medical officer marching in the rear of the battalion, who will make proper disposition of the case and who will send back the pass to the unit commander by the noncommissioned officer, having noted thereon the disposition made of the case.

b. According to the condition of the soldier, he will march with the sanitary detachment or be transported upon the animal-drawn ambulance marching with the column.

c. In case it is assured that the soldier will be unable to march with his unit on the following day, or that he is in need of immediate hospital care, he will be turned over to the motor ambulances patrolling the roads in the rear of the column. In case the motor ambulance can not make contact with the particular body of troops, the soldier, accompanied by the necessary personnel of the sanitary detachment, will await the arrival of the motor ambulance at the side of the road.

d. Motor ambulances will evacuate patients to the division field hospital operating as the evacuation point for that particular day, as explained below.

e. All soldiers disposed of as indicated above will be tagged with a diagnosis tag whether accompanying the column either by walking or in ambulance, or evacuated.

3. Care and evacuation of sick and injured at conclusion of day’s march:

a The Field Hospital accompanying the advance guard will open immediately upon arrival at halting place for the night and will be the evacuation point for the following twenty-four hours.

b. Sick call will be held by battalions as soon as practicable after the troops are settled in billets, camp or bivouac.

c. Motor ambulances of the ambulance company accompanying the advance guard will call at each battalion and regimental aid station or infirmary at the hour designated for sick call or, if none is designated, will call between the hours of 16 and 17 o’clock and will evacuate patients in need of hospital care to the field hospital designated above.

d. Patients not in need of evacuation, but assumed to be unable to march with the units on the following day, will be tagged "Quarters," and ordered to report at the beginning of the next day’s march to the sanitary detachment for transportation upon the animal-drawn ambulance.

e. Patients in need of evacuation at the hour of the beginning of the day’s march may be left at the side of the aid station, where the ambulance detailed to the duty of patrolling the roads for that day will report at least one-half hour before the hour of marching and from which point these ambulances take up their day’s work.

f. In case of emergency need of a motor ambulance during a halt, it may be obtained at the field hospital with the advance guard, where one ambulance will be retained for emergency calls.

g. In case of a halt of more than one night, surgeons will ordinarily open their camp infirmaries at which "quarters" cases can be given better observation and care than within their units.

4. Disposition of units of sanitary train:

a. Evacuation to the field hospital designated above will begin as soon as possible to the evacuation hospital designated to the commanding officer of the sanitary train as his evacuation point, and will be completed not later than the evening of the following day, whereupon this field hospital will close and prepare to rejoin the volume of the sanitary train for the following day’s march.


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b. At the conclusion of each day’s march a second field hospital and a second ambulance company will be designated by the commanding officer of the sanitary train to join the troops that are to form the advance guard upon the following day. The place and hour at which these sanitary units will report will be designated in the march order.

c. In this way it appears that two field hospitals are always open. In case evacuation to the rear from the field hospital is delayed, or the number of patients is relatively large, three field hospitals in echelon may be open at the same time.

d. In case one brigade is detached from the division for duty at a distance, one field hospital and one ambulance company will ordinarily be detailed for duty with such brigade.

e. The disposition of the motor ambulance detachments is therefore as follows:

(1) One detachment with advance guard, which collects from battalions after the halt and evacuates the field hospitals after collection is completed.

(2) One detachment with the field hospital opened at the preceding halt and evacuating its cases to the rear.

(3) One detachment patrolling the roads in rear of the troops and evacuating them to the field hospital opened at the preceding halt.

(4) These detachments perform the duties indicated in paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 above in daily rotation, in the sequence in which they appear above; i. e., the detachment with the advance guard becomes the detachment evacuating the field hospital on the following day, and on the detachment patrolling the roads behind the troops.

f. In case of a halt of more than one night the disposition to field hospitals and ambulance companies remains as on the night of the halt.

g. In case a motor ambulance is required at any point in real emergency and an ambulance patrolling the roads is not to be had in time, an ambulance may be obtained from the detachment with the advance guard or center column.

h. The commanding officer of the sanitary train will issue the necessary orders to put these general provisions and those of the daily march order into effect.

5. When patients are reported for evacuation, in case the routine ambulance service will not meet the particular need, the following information is desired in order that an ambulance may be sent promptly and certainly:

From: (Individual sending the message.)
Representing: (Surgeon, 39th Infantry.)
At: (Place from which message is sent—geographic location.)
No. of patients (3); sitting (2); recumbent (1).
Contagious: (Yes or no.) Type: (Mumps.)
Organization: (Hdqrs. 39th Infantry.) At: (Vignot.)
Ready at: (Once or 16:00 o’clock, 15 Nov.)

These orders were soon modified by memoranda issued by the division surgeon.77

17TH NOVEMBER, 1918.

Memorandum to the commanding officer, 4th Sanitary Train.

I. In order to carry out the general provisions for the evacuation of sick and the movement of the sanitary train on the march with the division, the following principles will apply in addition to those already indicated in previous orders or instructions:

1. The area for each night’s bivouac or billeting will be indicated in the day’s march order for each brigade of Infantry and the brigade of Field Artillery. The Field Artillery brigade will ordinarily be one day’s march in rear of the Infantry. The area between that of the Field Artillery and that of the two Infantry brigades will be available for the sanitary train for bivouac or billets. In default of specific orders, the commanding officer, sanitary train, will select the bivouac or billeting area for his train within the area designated above for each halt, this area to be along the division axial roads or on crossroads leading thereto from the corps axial roads. This area will include ordinarily the place at which the field hospital is opened each afternoon as the evacuation point for the follow-


933

ing twenty-four hours. The immediate vicinity of the corps axial roads will not be utilized for bivouac, billets, or establishment of field hospitals without special request to and authority from this office.

            18TH NOVEMBER, 1918.

Memorandum to commanding officer, 4th Sanitary Train.

I. Previous instructions concerning movement of route ambulances by corps axial roads are rescinded.

II. Corps axial roads will not be used by the 4th Sanitary Train.

III. Motor ambulances evacuating from organizations will move on the division axial roads and on the roads included within them.

Before the march each regimental surgeon was provided with a Ford car and one motor ambulance was assigned to each regiment. During each day’s march motor ambulances were stationed at important crossroads and in towns passed by each column, remaining in place until the troops had passed, to collect any disabled who might have been overlooked. Ambulances patrolled the roads and visited all towns where troops had rested or had passed the night. All but 7 patients were collected by the primary regimental ambulance service, and of these all but 1 was picked up by this supplementary patrol.78

When, after resting in the latter part of November, the troops again advanced on December 2, evacuation orders were changed. The march could have been continued under these substituted orders for one or two weeks longer than proved necessary, but some of the divisional units fell far to the rear. The order under which field hospitals now operated was as follows:79

1ST DECEMBER, 1918.

Memorandum to the commanding officer, 4th Sanitary Train.

I. The evacuation and care of the sick on resumption of the march will be in general as follows:

1. One field hospital will open each second day in advance portion of division area as evacuation point for following two days and will remain open for seven days, or until necessary to bring it forward to rejoin command.

II. Evacuation further to the rear will be limited to definite necessities in order to avoid unnecessary loss of soldiers to duty and unnecessary crowding of hospitals of the rear. The following cases will ordinarily be evacuated at once:

1. Contagious cases, excepting the milder influenza and respiratory infections.
2. Major surgical cases.
3. Disability cases unfit for combat duty.

III. When a field hospital receives orders to close and rejoin command, if it has remaining cases who will probably return to duty within seven days, these patients will be transferred to the field hospital next toward the front.

IV. In order to facilitate evacuation from units when the field hospital operating as evacuation point is at a distance, a collection station may be opened at headquarters, 4th Sanitary Train, at the halt when new field hospitals are opened for the purpose of transferring patients to other ambulances with economy of transport.

Orders such as the following were issued daily under the foregoing general plan:80

5TH DECEMBER, 1918.

Message to commanding officer, 4th Sanitary Train.

I. The division continues its march at 8 o’clock, 5th December.

II. The 4th Sanitary Train, less Field Hospitals Nos. 19, 21, and 23, will proceed to Riol, 6th December, for billets night, 6/7 December. Transport will proceed via Nieder—Zerf—Pelligen—Trier [Treves]. Marching troops will take the most direct practicable route.


934

III. Field Hospital No. 28 will open at Riol (Ruwer-Paulin being out of division area) at 9 o’clock 6th December, as evacuation point.

IV. Field Hospital No. 19 will rejoin command at Riol.

V. Acknowledge receipt of this message and of Field Order No. 98 these Hq. to this office by radio.

It was estimated that 100 cases a day would be admitted to the field hospital opened for the service of the division, and that at the end of five days 125 of these patients would have returned to duty, leaving 75 to be carried to the next field hospital then operating farther forward. The number of patients in the latter hospital would have been reduced meanwhile to 125, thus enabling it to admit the patients from the rear hospital. Admissions were actually at the rate of 86 a day, but because of difficulty in finding hospital accommodations in the small towns there was some irregularity in the program. Hospitals enjoying the best facilities e. g., those located at Mondorf and Cues, remained open somewhat longer than had been planned originally. As many cases as possible were retained with the division. Admissions were due chiefly to foot troubles caused by hurried equipment of the command just before the march began, and the consequent lack of opportunity for breaking in new shoes, to lack of endurance and morale among several thousand replacements received just before the march began, and to an epidemic of mumps which appeared in the division.81

The following statistics are quoted:82

Approximate length of march

330 km.

Total number of days included in march

26

Actual number of marching days

15

Average day’s march

22 km.

Mean strength of division on march

24,996

Total number of admissions to field hospitals

2,167

Rate per 1,000 of admissions

86.6

Average daily number of admissions

86

Average daily rate per 1,000 of admissions

3.4

Total number evacuated farther to the rear

1,097

Total number returned to duty from field hospitals

732

Average number remaining in field hospitals at 12 noon

222

THE SEVENTH CORPS

Organized in August, 1918, with headquarters at Remiremont, Vosges, the Seventh Corps served in the zone of the French Seventh Army until November 7, under the administrative control of our American First Army. On November 8 the corps was relieved from duty in the Vosges sector, assigned to the First Army, and located at Benoite Vaux until after the armistice. On November 15 it moved to Laheycourt and November 22 became part of the Third Army. It moved successively to Dun-sur-Meuse on November 20, Virton, Belgium, November 23, Grevenmacher, Luxemburg, December 4, and on December 12 to Wittlich, Germany, remaining at the last-named place until it was repatriated.

During the march into Germany the Seventh Corps, consisting of the 89th and 90th Divisions, was the rear element of the Third Army. The 33d


935

Division passed to the corps on December 12 and on the 17th was transferred to the Second Army. After arrival in Germany the Seventh Corps was located in the western part of the American sector, with headquarters at Wittlich, 89th Division headquarters being at Bitburg and that of the 90th Division at Berncastel.83

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES

With the exception of Field Hospital No. 156, which was retained to assist Camp Hospital No. 70, at St. Florent, the hospital section of the 114th Sanitary Train moved to Souilly, where on November 11 Field Hospital No. 155 was detached and the other two, Field Hospitals No. 153 and No. 154, were assigned to the sanitary train of the Seventh Corps. These hospitals were billeted at first at Rambluzin, remaining there until November 16 when they went with the Seventh Corps to Auzecourt. November 21 they moved to Dun-sur-Meuse and were joined there by Evacuation Ambulance Companies Nos. 5, 6, and 8. On November 23 the train moved to Virton, Belgium, and thence, on December 5, to Berg, Luxemburg. Field Hospital No. 155, which had rejoined shortly before the last movement, Field Hospital No. 154, and Evacuation Ambulance Company No. 5 were ordered to Echternach on December 12, to establish a corps collecting hospital and to relieve hospitals of the 89th and 90th Divisions.84 One of these units was also established for a few days at Hetzerath, Germany, to care for the sick from corps troops and for stragglers from divisions in advance.85

On December 14 headquarters of the field hospital section, Field Hospital No. 153, and Evacuation Ambulance Companies No. 6 and No. 8 accompanied Seventh Corps headquarters to Wittlich, where, on the 16th, Field Hospital No. 153 opened the corps collecting station, which also functioned as a camp hospital as long as the corps remained in Germany. The units which had been located at Echternach were relieved on December 27 and rejoined at Salmrohr, Germany, but on January 8 the personnel of Field Hospitals No. 154 and No. 155 were assigned to duty with Evacuation Hospital No. 3, at Trier. On January 11 headquarters of the sanitary train and of its field hospital section were located at Dreis, where Field Hospitals No. 154 and No. 155 rejoined on February 8. Headquarters of the 114th Sanitary Train and of its ambulance section, with Ambulance Companies Nos. 153, 154, and 155 joined on January 18, having been retained for duty until this time in the 39th divisional area. The designation of the train was changed on January 20 to that of Seventh Corps Sanitary Train, which then consisted of train headquarters, headquarters of its ambulance company, and hospital sections Ambulance Companies Nos. 153, 154, and 155, and Field Hospitals Nos. 154, 155, and 156. Evacuation Ambulance Companies Nos. 5, 6, and 8, which had served the corps throughout the march, were relieved on January 24 and returned to the First Army.84 These companies had assisted in the evacuation from divisions, had cleared corps hospitals, and furnished ambulances to the various organizations composing the corps troops.


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From the field hospitals as finally located evacuations were effected by division and corps ambulance companies to two evacuation hospitals in Trier and to one in Prum.

THE 33d DIVISION

On December 7 the 33d Division began its movement to the Third Army area, reaching Conflans, 50 km. (31 miles) distant, in two days. On the 10th, it reached Aumetz and on the 12th, Esch, in the southern part of the Duchy of Luxemburg. The total length of the march approximated 98 km. (60.8 miles), covered in six days. Rain was continuous. On December 16 the division started to move to the Grevenmacher area in eastern Luxemburg, and thence to Diekirch, where it arrived on the 20th.80

Arrangements of the medical department were as follows: Ambulances in rear of the columns collected men who were unable to continue the march and took them to the field hospitals. Field Hospital No. 129 was located at Creue on December 7 and 8, receiving patients during the first day of the march; Field Hospital No. 131, at Conflans, received those incapacitated the following day. Similarly, Field Hospital No. 130 opened at Briey on December 10, receiving those incapacitated as the march progressed toward that point and beyond it. On December 9, Field Hospital No. 129 closed and moved to Ottingen, where it opened the next day as a collecting post for the sick. To this place that class of casualties continued to be removed as the march progressed. When division headquarters was established at Esch the sanitary train, with the exception of Field Hospital No. 130, which remained at Briey, was located at Ottingen, with its headquarters at Schifflingen. Until this time there had been but 135 evacuations from the division. During the first part of the march which ensued, Field Hospital No. 129, at Ottingen, received casualties; during its latter part Field Hospital No. 131, at Grevenmacher. When the division reached the Diekirch area that town was made headquarters of the sanitary train and of its sections. The field hospitals were located (December 26) at Ettlebruck, La Rochette, Grevenmacher, and Cruchten. In the latter part of the march 115 men became incapacitated.87

THE 89TH DIVISION

After the armistice the 89th Division was assigned to the army of occupation and began its march to Germany on November 24. The first troops of the Division crossed into Germany on December 5, at Echternach. Headquarters was established at Kylburg, and remained there until the division returned to the United States.88

Unfortunately there is no report available of the activities of the Medical Department of the 89th Division during its march to the Rhine.

THE 90TH DIVISION

After the armistice the division was assigned to the army of occupation and later marched into Germany. The first troops crossed into Germany on December 6. Headquarters were established at Berncastel December 21, and remained there until the division returned to the United States.88


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As the 90th Division moved into Germany the field hospitals advanced by "leapfrogging," each operating at a given site for a few days only.89

Field Hospital No. 359 functioned at Blanc Fontaine from November 13 to December 3; Field Hospital No. 358 at Ire-le-Sec, from November 23 to December 6; Field Hospital 360 at Hesperange, from December 3 to 8; Field Hospital No. 358 at Karthaus, from December 7 to 10; No. 359 at Remich, from December 7 to 11; No. 357 at Hetzerath, from December 10 to 21; No. 359 at Ernst, from December 12 to 20; and No. 360 at Udersdorf, from December 14 to 16. After arrival in Germany the field hospitals were used as camp hospitals and located at Daun, Gerolstein, Cues, and Manderscheid.89

On November 23 the ambulance section, less Ambulance Company No. 359, which remained at Blanc Fontaine for duty with Field Hospital No. 359, moved with the other field hospitals to Ire-le-Sec. On December 1, Ambulance Company No. 360 moved to Gouraincourt, where it received a new allotment of animals and was attached to the 343d Field Artillery. The remainder of the ambulance section proceeded with the train, arriving at Manderscheid on December 16.  Here it was joined by Ambulance Company No. 360 and ambulances were distributed throughout the division over an area some 135 km. (83.8 miles) long by 53 km. (32.9 miles) wide.89

THE 5TH DIVISION

As rapidly as possible, after the armistice, the troops of the 5th Division were provided with bathing facilities, were disinfested, and furnished new clothing, meanwhile undergoing training. Twenty-five motor ambulances were transferred to the 1st Division at Nantillois on November 15 and the animal-drawn transport of Ambulance Company No. 30, 5th Sanitary Train, was turned over to the 5th Division salvage dump at Doulcon on November 30.90

By Field Orders, No. 80, Third Army, dated November 21, the 5th Division was detached from further duty with the Seventh Corps and assigned to duty with the line of communications. To function directly under the Third Army, the division commander being designated as the commanding general of the Third Army, line of communications. On November 25, division headquarters advanced to Longuyon, where Field Hospital No. 17 had opened on November 23 to receive patients from the 5th Division and returned allied prisoners and also to conduct a clinic for French civilians living in the vicinity. Field Hospital No. 30 opened at Longwy on the 29th, assisting a hospital of the Third Corps. At Virton and at Montmedy Medical Department detachments operated small hospitals, the former for allied soldiers and French civilians, the latter for sick and wounded Germans. A third detachment took over patients at Stenay, thus releasing a hospital of the 90th Division, while a similar detachment released the hospitals at Ire-le-Sec. Evacuation Ambulance Companies No. 5 and No. 8 joined on November 28, but were relieved two days later by United States Army Ambulance Service Sections No. 560 and No. 571.


938

When division headquarters moved to Hollerich on December 4 it was accompanied by Field Hospital No. 29. On the 12th headquarters advanced to Merl and on the 17th to Esch, but Field Hospital No. 29 remained at Hollerich until the 18th, when it rejoined headquarters at Esch.91

REFERENCES

(1) Final Report of Gen. John J. Pershing, September 1, 1919, 55.

(2) History of the Third U. S. Army, November 14, 1918, to July 2, 1919, undated, 3. On file, Historical Section, the Army War College, 193-11-4.

(3) Ibid., 4

(4) Final report of Gen. John J. Pershing, September 1, 1919, 56.

(5) History of the Third U. S. Army, November 14, 1918, to July 21, 1919, undated, 5. On file, Historical Section, the Army War College, 193-11-4.

(6) Ibid., 6

(7) Final Report of Gen. John J. Pershing, September 1, 1919, 57.

(8) History of the Third U. S. Army, November 14, 1918, to July 2, 1919, undated, 7. On file, Historical Section, the Army War College, 193-11-4.

(9) Ibid., 1

(10) Ibid., 8

(11) Ibid., 9

(12) Ibid., 10

(13) Ibid., 11

(14) Ibid., 12

(15) History of hospitalization for the Army of Occupation in Germany, by Major H. C. Maddux, M. C., undated, 1. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(16)Report on the activities of the Medical Department in Germany to May 31, 1919, from chief surgeon, Third Army, to the assistant chief of staff, G-4, Third Army, June 20, 1919, 1. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(17) History of hospitalization for the Army of Occupation in Germany, by Major H. C. Maddux, M. C., undated, 2. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(18) Ibid., 3

(19) Ibid., 6

(20) Ibid., 4

(21) Ibid., 5

(22) Report on the activities of the Medical Department in Germany to May 31, 1919, from the chief surgeon, Third Army, to the assistant chief of staff, G-4, Third Army, June 20, 1919, 2. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(23) Ibid., 3

(24) Memorandum 34, Headquarters Third Army, A. E. F., December 23, 1918, 3. On file, Historical Section, the Army War College, 193-43-1.

(25) History of hospitalization for the Army of Occupation in Germany, by Major H. C. Maddux, M. C., undated, 7. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(26) Ibid., 8

(27) Ibid., 9

(28) Ibid., 10

(29) Ibid., 13

(30) History of the Third Army Corps, November 12, 1918, to June 28, 1919, undated, Vol. III, 2. On file, Historical Section, the Army War College 183-11-4.

(31) Ibid., 3

(32) Ibid., 4

(33) Ibid., 5

(34) Ibid., 6

(35) Ibid., 7

(36) Ibid., 8


939

(37) Ibid., 9

(38) Ibid., 10

(39) Ibid., 11

(40) Ibid., 12

(41) Ibid., 13

(42) Ibid., 14

(43) Ibid., 15

(44) Report of Medical Department activities, Third Army Corps, by Col. James L. Bevans, M. C., corps surgeon, undated, 39. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(45) Ibid., 40

(46) Ibid., 41

(47) Ibid., 42

(48) Ibid., 43

(49) Ibid., 44

(50) Report of operations, November 12 to December 31, 1918, from commanding officer, 2d Sanitary Train, to the commanding general, 2d Division, February 20, 1919.

(51) Report of Medical Department activities, 32d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part II, 18. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(52) Ibid., 44

(53) Report of Medical Department activities, 42d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part I, 63. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(54) Ibid., 64

(55) Ibid., 65

(56) Report of Fourth Army Corps, "Advance on Germany," following the signing of the armistice, November 11, 1918, December 29, 1918, 1. On file, Historical Section, the Army War College.

(57) Ibid., 2

(58) Ibid., 3

(59) Ibid., 4

(60) Ibid., 5

(61) Ibid., 6

(62) Report of Medical Department activities, Fourth Army Corps, by Col. J. W. Hanner, M. C., corps surgeon, undated, 2. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(63) Ibid., 3

(64) Ibid., 4

(65) Report of Medical Department activities, 1st Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part II, 57. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(66) Ibid., 58

(67) Ibid., 59

(68) Report of Medical Department activities, 3d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part I, 18. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(69) Ibid., Part I, 19

(70) Ibid., Part II, 76

(71) Ibid., Part II, 77

(72) Ibid., Part IV, 57

(73) Ibid., Part IV, 58

(74) Ibid., Part IV, 59

(75) Ibid., Part IV, 61

(76) Report of Medical Department activities, 4th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part I, 11. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(77) Ibid., Part I, 13

(78) Ibid., Part I, 15

(79) Ibid., Part I, 23

(80) Ibid., Part I, 26

(81) Ibid., Part I, 16

(82) Ibid., Part I, 14


940

(83) Special report of the Seventh Army Corps as the Reserve Corps of the Army of Occupation, undated.

(84) Account of Service of the Seventh Corps Sanitary Train with the American Expeditionary Forces, by Lieut. Col. G. F. Carroll, M. C., undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(85) Report of Medical Department activities, Seventh Corps, by Lieut. Col. Wallace De Witt, M. C., corps surgeon, July, 1920, 2. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(86) Report of Medical Department activities, 33d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part I, 10. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(87) Ibid., Part I, 11.

(88) Outlines of Histories of Divisions, U. S. Army, 1917-1919, prepared in the Historical Section, the Army War College. On file, Historical Section, the Army War College.

(89) Report of Medical Department activities, 90th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part II, 11. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(90) Report of Medical Department activities, 5th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part V, 44. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(91) Ibid., Part V, 45, 46