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Chapter III

Field Operations, Table of Contents

CHAPTER III

COMBAT DIVISIONS IN TRAINING AND REST AREAS AND ON THE MARCH; DEPOT AND REPLACEMENT DIVISIONS

As stated elsewhere, the general organization project dated July 10, 1917, approved by the commander in chief, A. E. F., July 11, 1917, provided for the organization of the American forces, each army to consist of five corps and supplementary units, designated as army troops.1

A corps was to have six divisions, four of which were to be combat divisions, one a replacement and school division, one a base and training division, and supplementary units designated corps troops. Provision was thus made for a replacement system of two echelons, each echelon to consist of a division from each corps.2

The function of a combat division is so well understood that no description is necessary. The function of the rear echelon, the corps base and training division, was to be the reception, classification, and preliminary training of troops arriving from the United States. The forward echelon, corps replacement and school division, was to receive replacements from the base division, to continue their training, to forward them to combat divisions, and to supply the troops for the corps schools.2

The provisions of the general organization project and the priority schedule, A. E. F., contemplated that the third division in each corps (or group of six divisions) to arrive in France should be the replacement division, and that the sixth to arrive should be the base division.3

The first four divisions to arrive in France were the 1st, 2d, 26th and 42d.3 However, the first division to be designated for replacement purposes was the 41st, which was the fifth division to arrive.3 It was at first intended that this division should become the replacement division of the First Corps, but during the period of its assembly at La Courtine it was determined to utilize it as the base division instead.4 The 41st Division was formally designated the base and training division, First Corps, January 15, 1918,5 which designation was changed to First Corps Depot Division, by telegraphic instructions from General Headquarters, A. E. F., March 5, 1918, to the commanding general, Service of the Rear.4

The necessity of providing the other echelon of the replacement system for the First Corps having been decided, the sixth division (32d) to arrive in the American Expeditionary Forces was announced as the replacement division of the First Corps.4 The portion of this division which had been assembled in the tenth training area functioned as a replacement depot only until the great German offensive, which began on March 21, 1918, led to the division being ordered into the line for training as a combat division.4 It ceased to function as a replacement division.

The military situation at this time also led to the training of all divisions of the American Expeditionary Forces, except the 41st, as combat divisions,


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until the arrival of the 83d Division, which was designated as the 2d Depot Division on June 27, 1918.4

By the time 30 divisions had arrived in France, only 4 of them had been designated depot divisions.4 In all, there were seven depot divisions, 41st, 83d, 76th, 85th, 39th, 40th, 31st, though one, the seventh to arrive, never functioned as such.6 Except for the brief time when the 32d Division functioned as a replacement division, there were no replacement divisions.6

COMBAT DIVISIONS IN TRAINING AND REST AREAS

Combat divisions on arrival in France were assembled in training areas, where they received their preliminary instruction prior to going into the line.

When withdrawn from the line after combat, such divisions habitually moved to training or rest areas, where they received replacements, renewed equipment, and in some instances underwent intensive training.

LOCATION

Areas where American troops were trained (save for those divisions which served with the British) were located in the northeastern part of France, in the advance section, Services of Supply. In general terms it might be said that they were grouped around Neufchateau. Though they varied considerably in size and contour, most of them averaged from 250 to 300 square miles in area and were roughly quadrangular or elliptical; some were much smaller and a few were larger. Each contained from 30 to 60, usually about 50, small communities whose populations varied from less than a hundred to several thousand. In these communities and to a very much less extent in barracks, or in isolated buildings at a distance from the local communities, troops were billeted. The proximity of the communities in question varied considerably. In the Neufchateau area, generally speaking, they were from 1 to 6 km. apart (0.6 to 3.6 miles), but sometimes they were more, with the result that the troops were more widely separated.

BILLETING FACILITIES

As the billeting facilities of the average French town were very limited, our organizations were often necessarily scattered among a number of towns. Thus at one time the sanitary train of the 1st Division was quartered in four villages and the 53d Infantry Regiment was distributed among seven villages. The billeting of troops in individual buildings at a distance from communities added especially to dispersion. In training areas, troops occupied all available structures which afforded any shelter, such as public buildings, barracks, storehouses, barns, houses, lofts, stables, and sheds.7 The Field Artillery, e. g., the 20th, sometimes occupied gun emplacements and dugouts. In some commands, e. g., the 80th Division in the Samer area during June, 1918, shelter tents were used on any convenient site. Any barracks that were available in the area were taken over by our troops, for example, by the 1st Division in the Gondrecourt area, but relatively speaking such buildings were very few, especially when our troops first moved to the areas in question. Occasionally men were quartered in tents loaned by welfare organizations. Billeting facili-


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ties varied considerably in the different areas, being reported as good in some and as poor in others. As rapidly as possible new buildings were erected, the Medical Department bending its efforts especially toward the construction of a camp (i. e., a class B) hospital in each area.

STAFF DIFFICULTIES INCIDENT TO DISPERSION OF TROOPS IN BILLETS

Usually the divisions arrived in successive increments, the staff reporting, as in the 26th Division, in small detachments, the last of which did not arrive until nearly a month after the first.8

Division artillery was sent for training to an area other than that to which the infantry was assigned. The earlier arrivals of each division, infantry or artillery, sought to make every suitable arrangement for the troops of their command which were to follow in the same area. Separate areas for infantry and artillery augmented appreciably the difficulties of staff service, including those of the Medical Department. Chief among its duties in the special circumstances were sanitation, procurement of supplies and transportation, provision of hospital facilities, care and evacuation of sick, perfection of organization of Medical Department formations, training of the same, and elimination from the division of all officers and men found physically unfit for combat. Sanitation and care of the sick usually proved of most urgent importance, but all the duties mentioned were prosecuted simultaneously. Sanitation of the training areas is discussed in the volume on that particular subject.

DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL DEPARTMENT PERSONNEL

Division surgeons had been carefully selected at home and were officers of experience, but their office forces usually consisted largely of personnel unfamiliar with many military details, though some organizations fortunately included commissioned and enlisted Medical Department personnel who had had experience in the National Guard or elsewhere. Thus in the 26th Division the office force had formerly performed the same duties for the surgeon general of one of the States whose contingent became a part of the division. Such men quickly learned their new duties, but there was a great and constant need for experienced noncommissioned officers. The problems confronting the newly arrived division surgeons were numerous and pressing; and though they differed somewhat in different organizations, there was great general similarity, especially in divisions which arrived in France at the same period of development of the American Expeditionary Forces.9

In our earlier overseas service, the armies and army corps had not yet been organized. The general staff, A. E. F., on the contrary, was organized, but it had not been developed, as it was later. It was still possible, however, then to call up the chief surgeon, A. E. F., at Chaumont, and thus to straighten out some of the constantly arising complications by direct conversation over the telephone.

While a division was in training there usually was a daily conference of its chief medical officers, including the consultants, and a weekly conference attended by all medical officers who could be present. The places where


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the officers so congregated were changed frequently in order that they could inspect various parts of the division area. These conferences proved a convenient expedient for checking up what was being accomplished and for discussing many matters of mutual interest.

PROVISION FOR MEDICAL CARE OF TROOPS

Offices were established for the attending surgeon and the dental surgeon for the troops at division headquarters, but for the command at large medical attention was provided primarily by battalion surgeons. Battalion surgeons sent cases, requiring more thorough treatment than they could give locally, to a regimental infirmary or to a camp hospital. The number of infirmaries established varied considerably according to needs, geographic distribution of troops, and cognate conditions. Sometimes they grew to considerable size, as in the 39th Division during September and October, 1918, in the St. Florent area, each of whose three infirmaries expanded to 100 beds.10 For the 26th Division infirmaries were built in the Neufchateau area in the winter of 1917 in almost every village by an organization called "divisional areas," then in control of the training territories, and these housed a fairly large percentage of the sick.11 In the Rimaucourt area during the winter of 1917 the 42d Division established a small infirmary in each village where troops were billeted. Sometimes, as in the 39th Division in the St. Florent area, infirmaries had to be extemporized, and because of limited hospital facilities this division treated in infirmaries cases which otherwise it would have transferred to hospitals.10 In this manner mild cases in the Artillery of the 90th Division were treated at Le Courneau in the fall of 1918, though sometimes, as in the 1st Division in the Valdahon area, a field hospital was provided for the artillery. Equipment for 17 infirmaries was requisitioned by the 39th Division to meet its needs in the influenza epidemic.10

ESTABLISHMENT OF CAMP HOSPITALS

In each divisional area a camp hospital was established which ordinarily was operated by one of the field hospitals of the division. Sometimes this personnel was augmented by details from other parts of the sanitary train whose companies normally were billeted in different towns. As rapidly as resources permitted, the personnel of these hospitals was replaced by other personnel assigned to them permanently. It was found that the detail of divisional personnel to such duties interfered seriously with their training and also detained them, to care for the sick left behind, when the division moved. This question has been discussed in connection with personnel in Chapter I. The camp hospitals were at first established in any buildings available such as hotels, factories, châteaux, or barracks, and as the capacity of these buildings usually was small it was sometimes necessary to have recourse to several hospital establishments in an Infantry area. As already indicated, the 39th Division found no buildings suitable for a camp hospital and was obliged, therefore, to develop its infirmary service and to send its


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patients to three small hospitals in its vicinity until the camp hospital was constructed.10 The 26th Division operated as a camp hospital one of its field hospitals in barracks at Neufchateau during the winter of 1917 and a little later another at Liffol-le-Grand. The former, which grew to a capacity of several hundred beds, was taken over eventually by a base hospital.9 As rapidly as possible, a barrack camp hospital (type B) was constructed in each area, staffed by personnel permanently assigned thereto; but a number of divisions, especially those which first arrived, did not have the benefit of these facilities or had them only to a limited extent, though the Medical Department strained every resource to provide them.

Each of these units (type B hospitals) had a normal capacity of 300 beds, and facilities for a crisis expansion to 500.12 Sometimes these camp hospitals were under construction when a division arrived; sometimes, on the other hand, they had not been started until the division entered the area. Several camp hospitals were established by some divisions; for example, the 1st Division while training in the Gondrecourt area operated one camp hospital at Gondrecourt for the majority of the division and another in an entirely different area at Valdahon where its artillery was located.13 Sometimes other and special hospital establishments were provided, such as a camp for venereal cases, or one for skin and venereal diseases.14

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT TRANSPORTATION

Until ambulances became available, which was not the case in the beginning, patients were sent to these camp hospitals in any transportation available, such as peasant wagons or motor trucks. Even much later, lack of transportation, especially in the presence of the epidemic of influenza, rendered transfer of patients difficult in a number of divisions.

Ambulances on receipt were distributed in a number of different ways. The 82d Division assigned one motor and one animal-drawn ambulance to each regiment or separate battalion and sent collecting ambulances which visited each battalion headquarters daily.15 In some divisions ambulances made daily visits to regiments; and, as was the case in the 85th Division, emergencies were met by sending ambulances on call.16 Liaison was maintained by runners if the telephone service was inadequate.

EVACUATION OF PATIENTS

From the camp hospitals patients were sent to any neighboring hospital prepared to receive them. Usually these were American base hospitals. Thus the 1st Division in the Gondrecourt area evacuated to Bazoilles 30 km. (18.6 miles) distant,17 the 2d Division sent contagious cases to Neufchateau, and special cases to Bazoilles, but later sent all its patients to the base hospitals at Vittel and Contrexeville.18 The 88th Division sent its sick to a French hospital, whose staff it reenforced by details from its Medical Department personnel, and the 90th to Field Hospital No. 42, to which it assigned some of its personnel for instruction.19


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 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFICERS AND MEN

A very important duty of the Medical Department in training areas was the classification of all officers and men of the divisions.

Under the provisions of General Orders, No. 41, G. H. Q., A. E. F., March 14, 1918, the classification was to be as follows: "A," for combat service; "B," temporarily unfit for such service but fit for other duty and potentially class "A" within six months; "C," permanently unfit for combat duty but not so disabled as to justify return to the United States; "D," those unfit for any duty with the American Expeditionary Forces. Classification of officers and men began as soon as a division entered its training area and continued until it was completed. Though efforts to eliminate all the unfit had been made while the divisions were in the United States, reexamination in France led to the transfer of hundreds of others including officers of both line and staff. Though the less efficient officers had been eliminated in the United States, some of them had accompanied the troops to France, often in the higher grades (26th Division).11

Many mental defectives in troops had escaped the examining boards at home. The division psychiatrist aided greatly by picking out these men, for he frequently was called upon as a consultant in cases of exceptional difficulty. Sometimes he was a member of boards determining the efficiency of officers. Before a trial by court-martial he was valuable as an adviser or, later, as a witness, and had a peculiar usefulness in imparting instruction concerning mental hygiene and the control of war neuroses or psychoses.20

ELIMINATION AND REASSIGNMENT OF MEDICAL OFFICERS

During the training period, as the qualifications of individual members of the Medical Department personnel became more and more apparent, some officers were eliminated from the division concerned, and others were reassigned. In some divisions a number of officers were shifted in order both to assign them to those duties for which they were best fitted and to avoid the necessity of placing junior officers over seniors. In the 26th, some lieutenants were assigned as regimental surgeons, for to secure best results it was found necessary to ignore rank to a certain extent.11

DIVISION VENEREAL DISEASE CAMP

During the early training period of most divisions no camp for the treatment of venereal disease was established; but though this was done later, the study of the venereal problem, from the beginning, kept the division urologist fully occupied. His supervision of the semimonthly inspections and of social diversions developed both appreciably. Much of his time was devoted to lectures and to personal inspection of all the prophylaxis stations of the division.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

Experience in obtaining equipment varied considerably. Ordinarily, when divisions arrived in France the equipment of their sanitary trains was


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salvaged, and organizations proceeded to their training areas with a minimum of supplies. Thus the 42d arrived in its training area with only the drugs that had been carried on the persons or in the lockers of individuals.21 Supplies were issued to all such divisions as promptly as possible after arrival, issues corresponding to requisitions or needs. As a rule they were obtained readily because of direct communication between the division surgeon and the chief surgeon, American Expeditionary Forces, or his representative at Chaumont, and proximity of the training areas to the advance medical supply depot at Is-sur-Tille, but to this general rule there were some exceptions. The 26th Division records:11

It was not long before supplies began to arrive in great quantities, and thereafter one of the most striking features of the service in France was that in spite of lack of precision in determining what were trench stores and what were organization supplies, and in spite of the fact that later the medical supply system of the army was consolidated with that of other departments, the flow of medical supplies for combatant troops was not only sufficient in quantity but its great abundance never failed. No matter what the difficulty of the situation or the extravagance of the demand, advance depots were always prepared to furnish the needed dressings, medicines, or other medical supplies.

There was a considerable difference in respect to the immediate needs of the divisions which moved to areas where camp hospitals had been established and in respect to those where there were no such hospitals. Adequacy of supplies sometimes fluctuated in the same division. Supplies normally adequate ran short in some divisions in the presence of the influenza epidemic, when the number of patients reached proportions which had not been foreseen. Some divisions reported their equipment as incomplete, in others the equipment of the sanitary troops and train was satisfactorily completed except in the matter of transportation. Sometimes delivery of supplies was delayed because of traffic embargoes. In the 1st Division a source of some difficulty was lack of spare parts for ambulances and the need that new rims be made for ambulance wheels in order to fit French tires.17 In the 39th Division special difficulties were encountered, for lack of adequate supplies was aggravated by lack of transportation and of hospital facilities. Almost all divisions in training areas were embarrassed by lack of ambulances, for in general there was a great ambulance shortage, especially when a division first occupied an area. Thus the 90th Division received no ambulances until just before it moved into the lines,19 and the 71st Division (except when it was able for a few days to use ambulances borrowed from another division) had a similar experience. Sections of the United States Army Ambulance Service were assigned temporarily to some divisions.19

When the earlier divisions arrived in France, War Department Tables of Organization did not provide a divisional medical supply unit, but the necessity for this was so evident that one was established in each division then in France.22 Later such a unit was prescribed by the Tables of Organization which assigned it to the sanitary train.23 At first the demands of the division supply units on the Is-sur-Tille depot were very great, because all of the Medical Department organization of the division needed to be brought up to standard. On the other hand, when divisions prepared to


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move to the trenches some of the supplies used in the training areas were salvaged, for only mobile equipment was taken to the front.

Conditions forced many changes in supplies within the divisions, nor were divisions alike in their distribution or use of supplies. Generally speaking, the total weight of equipment, as stipulated in the Manual for the Medical Department, was reduced when a division prepared to leave a training area; but on the contrary there were increases in the weight of certain supplies, such as blankets, litters, and dressings of the larger sizes.

Automatic replenishment of supplies by means of returning empty ambulances was worked out to a certain extent in the training areas, but this system was developed to a much higher degree when divisions moved into the lines.

When the first divisions arrived in France there were no attempts at specialization in their field hospital service, but later certain field hospitals in each division were specialized after receiving equipment for the treatment of gassed and surgical cases, respectively.24

The Medical Department organizations of the Second Corps turned in their equipment and were refitted to conform to British standards. Their regimental detachments and their sanitary trains were reorganized. By consolidation of one field hospital and one ambulance company, a unit was formed similar to the field ambulance of the British, and two of these were assigned to the division from whose sanitary train they had been organized. The surplus field hospitals and ambulance companies, two of each per division, were detached from the British Expeditionary Forces and assigned to the American Expeditionary Forces in France.25

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT TRAINING

Training began immediately after divisions reached their respective areas and was very intensive. Generally speaking, training of the Medical Department was handicapped by the necessity of inaugurating and supervising sanitary measures and of operating infirmaries and hospitals. Also, the wide dispersion of that department in a division precluded the assembly of its sanitary train except when it participated in divisional maneuvers, and even then a part of the train usually was obliged to remain in attendance at the camp hospital or to perform routine evacuation service. Thus the ambulance section of the 26th Division was located at Liffol le Grand, two of its field hospitals at Bazoilles-sur-Meuse, a third at Neufchateau, and a fourth in a rear area.11 Later, one of its field hospitals operated as a camp hospital at Liffol le Grand. Similarly, the sanitary train of the 1st Division was dispersed in three villages, included in its Infantry area, while one of its field hospitals operated as a camp hospital in a fourth, also a part of the division medical personnel remained with the Artillery in another area from that occupied by the Infantry.13 For these and other reasons, training of the Medical Department varied considerably in thoroughness and scope and in the relative amount of stress laid on different subjects.

In some divisions there was little Medical Department training except drills and in gas defense. So far as possible, however, extensive and thorough


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schedules of training were thoroughly followed, as in the 1st Division, whose sanitary train conducted or participated in elaborate maneuvers covering a wide area and lasting over a considerable period.26 Ordinarily, Medical Department organizations of a division conducted terrain exercises in conjunction with line troops; and constant instruction was given to commissioned and enlisted Medical Department personnel, as the case might be, in such subjects as hygiene, sanitation, nursing, ward and mess management, treatment of gassing, pathology and treatment of wounds and wound infection, trench foot, road sketching, and first aid. In this last subject, which was specially for enlisted men, particular stress was laid on control of hemorrhage, treatment of fractures and dislocations, and the application of splints. Consultants gave instructions in their respective specialties. The training of the divisions which first arrived in France was more thorough than that of those which came later, as the need for all troops on the firing line was increasingly urgent after the spring of 1918.27

Throughout, training in open warfare was stressed, but different divisions emphasized certain other items to different degrees, so far as was possible under the schedule. Thus the 1st Division gave special attention to the physical development of troops, to first-aid, and to degassing.26

In the 32d Division special attention was given to treatment of fractures and to the application of different kinds of splints. Instruction in this division, as was the case in others, was in continuation of that already given in the United States, supplemented by that prescribed by bulletins issued by General Headquarters and by drills and maneuvers.28 Some medical officers of this division were assigned to French hospitals to learn war surgery. The 36th Division gave special attention to training litter bearers of the line.29 Training of its sanitary troops included lectures, map reading, and field sketching. Also much attention was given to coordination of the Medical Department with the line in the care and removal of casualties and to the instruction of all troops in the application of shell-wound packets. Some divisions were largely trained by the French. In practically all divisions medical officers gave lectures to the troops. Some divisions sent officers from regimental medical detachments and the sanitary train to the sanitary school at Langres, but others did not. Officers who had attended the school gave instruction to those that remained in the divisional training area, and these relayed it to others.27

The amount of instruction which the medical officers received varied considerably. Thus the medical officers of the 36th Division received but two general lectures, one of which was given by the divisional orthopedist.29 Other instruction in this division was given by the medical officers of their organizations among themselves. In the 91st Division medical officers were assembled for but three general lectures.30 Laboratory officers were sent for instruction to the Army laboratory at Dijon.

Ordinarily, when a division was withdrawn from the lines for rest and renewed training, a conference of all the medical officers of the division was held, as in the 3d Division, after its operations in the Marne area, with a view to improvement of service and thorough instruction in the lessons learned at


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the front.31 The animal-drawn ambulance company of this division was designated by the division surgeon as a training and replacement unit for other Medical Department organizations of the division.

In the British areas, our organizations, after replacing their supplies with British equipment and organizing to conform to the British standard, were trained in conformity with British methods of warfare. This training was very thorough; it included the following subjects: Instruction in the British system of collection and evacuation of wounded; performance of regimental ambulance service for troops in the trenches; assignment of detachments of ambulance companies to British dressing stations and to bearer posts; temporary assignment of medical officers to British medical units and the operation of these units by them under British supervision; assignment to field ambulances at the front; detail of officers to the Army sanitary school at Langres and attendance at other schools where lectures and drills were given in such subjects as gas defense, operation of the evacuation service, bathing, disinfestation, provision and operation of laundries, methods of cleaning clothing, etiology, pathology and treatment of trench fever and trench foot, and treatment of fractures and wounds. In connection with these lectures demonstrations were given of surgical and sanitary equipment.32

SANITARY SQUADS

The first regulations concerning sanitary squads as distinct military entities of our Army were published in the Manual for the Medical Department, 1911. These instructions, which were general in character, contemplated that the personnel of these units would be drawn from medical organizations on the line of communications; would be under the direct control of the chief surgeon of the line of communications; and would be charged with the supervision of sanitation, operation of sanitary apparatus, selection of water, disposal of wastes, and under certain circumstances the performance of duties of sanitary detachments. The edition of the manual published in 1916 prescribed that these units be organized on the line of communications at such places as might be necessary; that they consist, under the immediate command of a medical officer, of enlisted men of the Hospital Corps and such numbers of other enlisted men and civilian laborers as circumstances required; that they be charged with the duties mentioned above; and that they be not employed to relieve regimental and other sanitary organizations of the responsibility of providing for the sanitation of their own camps.

On December 3, 1917, sanitary squads were provided in the proportion of two for each division, each squad to consist of the following personnel: One officer, 4 noncommissioned officers, 20 privates, and 2 chauffeurs.33 Though these squads accompanied their respective divisions to France, and at first accompanied them to the front, they were designated in June, 1918, as organizations belonging to the Services of Supply,34 and thereafter they were used to assist the sanitary inspectors of divisions, or, later, the town majors (billeting officers), in the performance of their sanitary duties as these were prescribed in General Orders, No. 18, G. H. Q., A. E. F., January 31, 1918. Town majors belonged to the Services of Supply, and were permanently assigned to


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the training areas through which the successive divisions passed. The eventual relationship of the sanitary squads to these officers and to the authorities of the division is shown by the following communications from the office of the chief surgeon, A. E. F.:

July 16, 1918: "Sanitary squads are Services of Supply organizations, and while at present some are attached to divisions it is only a question of time before they will be removed and used for Services of Supply purposes entirely. No equipment has been designated."35

August 5, 1918: "It is the intention to use all sanitary squads for the various divisional areas and hospital centers, etc. The sanitary squad should not accompany the division when it moves to the front or at any other time unless the area is being totally abandoned. While in the divisional area the sanitary squad should be under the control of the division surgeon."36

September 3, 1918: "The sanitary squads will remain with a division until it goes into the line. Thereafter they will be separated from the division, remaining in the divisional area. The idea is to have sanitary squads with each divisional area that are familiar with the conditions and remain there constantly.37

October 1, 1918: "It is not the policy to detach sanitary squads from divisions which are serving permanently in the Services of Supply."38

In a number of divisions and divisional areas, as there was at first no clear conception of the duties of sanitary squads, these squads were required to perform the duties of prisoner fatigue details, to do general police or miscellaneous work only remotely connected with sanitation. Later, when responsible officers became better educated in the matter and came to appreciate the value of trained men in promoting sanitation, members of these squads were employed to a progressively greater degree in educating troops in the measures necessary to maintain health, the construction and operation of bathing and disinfesting plants, supervision of disposal of sewage, garbage, and refuse, sanitary inspections, and cognate duties.39 Such activities as care of bathhouses and laundry and disinfesting plants and conservancy outside of divisional areas, it was soon established, properly pertained to the Quartermaster Department.40

When a division, well trained in sanitation, occupied an area, the sanitary squads, with the concurrence of the zone major, were used for any necessary work, the nature of their service being influenced by existing conditions. Intervals between particular periods of activity were spent often in estimating the actual billeting space per man available for troops in the areas, for this information proved to be of considerable value not only when divisions entered these areas for the first time but also when they reentered them from the line.41

The men of the sanitary squads were encouraged to enlarge their opportunities and to use their own discretion in the formulation of plans which might yield the best results under differing circumstances. They were given a clear outline of work that they were expected to perform, the details to be filled in by them as conditions indicated.


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COMBAT DIVISIONS ON THE MARCH

In general, the duties of the Medical Department of a division on the march had been adequately outlined in the Manual for the Medical Department, which was published prior to our entrance into the World War. However, because of the unique situation that existed in the American Expeditionary Forces, there were, necessarily, some divergences from the principles outlined in the manual.

It was the exception rather than the rule for a division as a whole to march when changing from one area or sector to another. Railroads usually were used in the transportation of divisional troops from base ports to their training areas near the front; and, because of the imperative demands of the World War, motor transportation was utilized to a great extent for quick transport of troops from one part of the front to another. At times, when a division moved, marching, motor transportation, and railroads were all used. For present purposes the change of locality of a division is considered marching, since in no other way can the duties of the Medical Department connected with this activity be briefly covered.

In short, the duties of the Medical Department on the march are to render first aid where required, to transport the sick and wounded, and to make suitable disposition of them on arrival in camp.42 The coordination of the discharge of these responsibilities by the various Medical Department organizations of the division is the function of the divisional surgeon.

Back of the front lines, when our divisions moved from one location to another in France, it was not the custom to make use of field hospitals of the divisions for the reception and care of the sick and wounded at the end of each day’s march. The necessity for this was obviated because there existed in France sufficient immobile hospitals in close proximity to the routes which divisions took in moving from one area to another, thus permitting of immediate evacuation from the moving columns to hospitals. There being, then, no necessity for using field hospitals en route, the sanitary train moved as a unit, frequently being left behind the division for a day or two to care for and evacuate its sick to near-by hospitals. When the troop movement was made by train the sanitary train moved overland.43, 44

Usually, ambulances were assigned to regiments on the march. The number so assigned varied, as did the type of ambulance. Some divisions used animal-drawn ambulances for work connected with marching troops, others used motor ambulances:

The following extract from the report of a division surgeon illustrates the use made of animal-drawn ambulances in connection with a marching division:44

Before a march animal-drawn ambulances were distributed to regiments, and were used just in the rear of marching columns to pick up such cases requiring attention as "fell out." Motor ambulances could not be used immediately behind troops because of the impossibility of running them at the low speed required. These last-mentioned vehicles remained with the other motorized elements of organizations and picked up such cases as required hospitalization and evacuated them to hospitals in the rear. These cases to be evacuated were left with a member of the Medical Department detachment at


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definite places on the road. As a rule it was the experience of medical officers that very few hospital cases were picked up on marches. Such a condition was obviated by careful examination of all potential cases of that character before the movement began. One great advantage of the presence of an animal-drawn ambulance with moving troops was the fact that a medical officer could examine and, generally, administer all necessary treatment to minor cases in the moving ambulance without getting out of touch with his organization. In many instances the men so picked were able to return to their companies after they had been given brief attention and a short rest in the ambulance and complete the march with no further trouble.

On the other hand, animal-drawn ambulances were not so favorably considered in other divisions, as evidenced by the following extract from the report of a division surgeon (26th Division):45

The division left Soissons March 18, 1918, and detrained between Brienne-le-Chateau and Bar-sur-Aube. There was to be a maneuver, with practice in entrainment, detrainment, and a march in several columns toward the Marne against a hypothetical enemy.

Although there was a military problem to solve, the real work consisted of maintaining the supply of rations, reclothing the division, and evacuating the sick while moving away from the railway. A considerable amount of clothing left in the hands of the Medical Department after the treatment of gas cases was distributed at this time. Although the marches were long and there were many cases of sore feet, due to worn-out shoes or to improperly fitted ones, it was noted that the physical condition of the men improved at once after getting away from the dugouts and the strain of battle which they had endured at Soissons.

This move gave the Medical Department its lesson in functioning while covering long distances by train, by truck, and by marching, with coincidental sanitary activities, long runs to hospitals, and care of transportation. Here was shown the uselessness of horse-drawn as compared with motor transportation. The horse-drawn ambulances which had been attached to the Artillery regiments proved finally to be of some value acting as portable aid stations in open warfare, and could be immediately used for ambulance service over short hauls. The condition of the horses, however, prevented this latter use except in rare emergencies.

The French transportation authorities refused to permit any medical units to entrain with the first elements of the division; this in spite of specific instructions for such entrainment. The result was evacuation of the sick from the entire division had to be accomplished with one ambulance. It was fortunate that there were little French hospitals at both Brienne-le-Chateau and Bar-sur-Aube, the chief detrainment points of the division, and, until the ambulance companies of the division arrived, that the haul was very short.

During the later days of the maneuver the evacuation of the sick for the most part was to Chaumont, and at a still later period men were evacuated to the base hospital at Neufchateau. In view of the shortage of hospital and transport facilities there was some concern about 175 cases of delayed mustard-gas action, which occurred in this area, but they proved not to be severe. The 102d Infantry was shelled just before it left Soissons; it was not until 24 hours after detrainment at Bar-sur-Aube that marching and perspiring made the burns apparent.

Division headquarters was established at Bar-sur-Aube, and for the first time there was a distinct separation into two echelons. The commanding general, his aides, and the general staff sections were billeted in one hotel, the technical staff in another, with junior officers scattered throughout the town. From then on this division of the headquarters staff became customary.

Something in the military situation became urgent, and plans for the maneuver ceased. The troops were marched rapidly to the Rimaucourt area, where a rest was expected. On arrival the sanitary train was concentrated at La Fauche and Pressous-la-Fauche. A period of inspection, with attention to equipment and instruction of personnel, would have been useful after the disorganization due to the training period. This was not


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accomplished, however, and on March 31, 1918, the division was put aboard trucks and trains and sent to the Toul sector. The transportation of the sanitary train traveled over the roads.

There were occasions when the sanitary train was removed from control of the division surgeon while the division was on the march. Such an instance wasreported by the division surgeon, 1st Division, when that division moved to its assembly area near Beauvais in July, 1918.44 The division had been moved by truck, and in consequence the troops arrived in the assembly area well ahead of the division train (of which the sanitary train formed a part). The effect of this measure was to delay the arrival of the field hospitals and Medical Department supplies at a time when the division was scheduled to advance on the enemy within 30 hours, thus preventing the division surgeon making orderly and complete arrangements for the care of the wounded.

Another instance where ambulances were separated from a division changing areas occurred when the 2d Division moved in May, 1918, from the Verdun sector to its new area, of which Chaumont, Oise, was headquarters.46 The division was relieved from the Verdun sector on May 12, 1918. During the next four days all organizations had moved by train, truck, or by marching to an area slightly west of Bar-le-Duc. Prior to leaving the Verdun sector, nine animal-drawn ambulances were assigned to the three regiments of artillery, to accompany them on the march.

On May 19, 1918, the move to the Marne was begun. The motorized trains,in convoys of motor cycles, touring cars, ambulances, and trucks, skirted Paris and after a run of two days arrived in the new division area. The Infantry, Artillery, and animal-drawn trains arrived by rail at the edge of the area, and reached their destination by marching. Influenza was epidemic, and the trip in the box cars exposed many of the men. Consequently, when the troops started on the march, after detraining, a great many of the men, who had developed the disease, were unable to undertake the march. The motor ambulances had gone on ahead with the motorized trains, and liaison with the division surgeon could not be established and regimental surgeons had difficulty in evacuating those taken sick during the trip. Fortunately, the distance to division headquarters was not great, and as soon as possible ambulances were sent to the aid of the regimental surgeons. Subsequent to this experience, the division surgeon, 2d Division, always assigned ambulances to troops on the march, to remain with them until their billets or entraining points were reached.46

Because of the slow movement of railroad trains, especially in the zone of the armies, it was possible to send motorized ambulances to detraining points prior to the arrival of troops moving by train, so as to evacuate the sick promptly to hospital, and to accompany the troops on the march from the detraining points.

On the march the services of the Medical Department personnel attached to combatant organizations were constantly available to men of those organizations. This availability was effected by distributing the medical personnel


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among the troops, usually by battalion. The ambulance accompanying the marching troops was used for the care of those dropping out of the marching column. When the troops went into bivouac, or billets, at the end of the day’s march, regimental surgeons established infirmaries where sick call was held. Medical Department supplies, carried in the medical carts, were used at this time. On the other hand, when troops moved by train, contact between the Medical Department personnel and troops of the division could not be constantly maintained. This was due to the fact that box cars, between which there was no communication, were used. During brief halts of the train, medical officers of a regiment had opportunity to visit the men in the cars and to administer to their needs from emergency medical cases which were carried by medical officers.

DEPOT AND REPLACEMENT DIVISIONS

MEDICAL SERVICE

The medical service in depot divisions differed essentially from that in combat divisions and, therefore, requires special description; but as in all such divisions the medical service was similar, an account of one depot division will serve for all. The Medical Department activities of the First Depot Division (41st Division) have been chosen for description.

FIRST DEPOT DIVISION

Headquarters of this organization arrived in France December 30, 1917.47 Upon landing at Brest individual regiments were scattered throughout the line of communications, while division headquarters and about one-fourth of the division, including two field hospitals and two ambulance companies, moved to La Courtine for station.47 The weather was bitterly cold, buildings were unheated, wood was scarce, and there was entire lack of sanitary apparatus. No transportation, either motor or animal-drawn, was available. The hospital facilities consisted of an empty barrack. In this a camp hospital was established, equipped with the small amount of the medical combat supplies which it had been possible to bring from the port of embarkation.

Acute infectious diseases which had been prevalent on shipboard persisted at La Courtine, where a number of cases of pneumonia developed and where several deaths occurred from this disease.47

Through the chief surgeon of the line of communications, needed equipment was obtained as speedily as possible. The shortage which existed was due to the fact that most of the supplies which had been brought from the United States had largely been salvaged en route. The majority had been taken over at the port of debarkation (Brest) by the medical supply depot. What was left was received very slowly.

On January 24, 1918, the division left this station for St. Aignan-Noyers, where it arrived January 25.47 This change of station had an immediately beneficial effect upon the health of the command, which was enhanced by the fact that a detachment had been sent ahead to provide quarters and supplies.


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Troops were billeted in empty buildings, barns, and lofts. While there were no medical supplies except the small amount which had been brought with the troops, more were purchased locally.

Three ward units of 50 beds each and 24 ambulances were obtained and arrangements made to evacuate patients to base hospitals at Chateauroux and Blois. The former was receiving patients at this time; the latter was still in process of organization.

The health of the command steadily improved. Acute infectious diseases greatly diminished, and in a short time pneumonia ceased to be of importance.

HOSPITAL FACILITIES

At various points throughout the divisional area, buildings were hired for hospital purposes, and in these the sick were placed upon litters or bed sacks. Facilities for their care were few at first, but the men were made comfortable and carefully looked after. Happily the sick were not numerous at first nor were their ailments serious.47

As the troops were billeted in small training detachments throughout an area covering about 250 square miles, the medical administration of this territory was divided into three districts, each provided with a district surgeon, a district sanitary inspector, and an infirmary of50 beds.48 As the principal infirmary grew, near-by buildings were rented so that finally it accommodated nearly 200 patients and began to assume the functions of a central camp hospital for the area.48

During the reorganization of the division, the field hospitals and ambulance companies, which were numbered from 161 to 164, inclusive, were detached, sent to the front, and the establishment of camp hospital No. 26 was begun.49 This camp hospital, which was established April 10, had previously operated a small infirmary where adequate care of the sick was provided. It now consisted of 15 Service de Santé buildings, each of which had a capacity of about 30 beds. After providing space for officers’ quarters the operating room, laboratories, and other hospital departments, the capacity of the hospital proved to be about 300 beds. The personnel for the operation of this hospital was drawn from the Medical Department of the division. Generally an important part of this institution was a large dental clinic, later (July 29) supplemented by the central dental laboratory which was provided with base laboratory equipment for the purpose of doing prosthetic dental work.49 In this clinic a course of instruction was carried on for enlisted dental assistants.

After the camp hospital had been established, Infirmary No. 1 was converted into a neurological unit and placed under the direction of the division neurologist.

The camp hospital was rapidly increased by the addition of new barracks, until by the 1st of September, 1918, it had 1,000 beds. Because of the appearance of influenza it already had more patients than that, and the overflow had to be cared for in tents.50


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On September 10 a convalescent hospital was established in the conventbuilding at Pontlevoy. Hospital accommodations here were 250 beds, with an anticipated expansion to three times that number.50

On October 20, 1918, Infirmary No. 3 was established. This infirmary had a capacity of 300 beds.50

In the early part of November authority was obtained to enlarge the camp hospital 900 beds by constructing additional wards, each measuring 30 by 156 feet. The Château la Leu was leased in order to accommodate 200 additional patients for the convalescent hospital at Pontlevoy.51

On November 14, 1918, an infirmary with a capacity of 250 beds was established at St. Aignan.52 It occupied a French hospital and a three-story building formerly used as a school. Personnel for its operation was drawn from the 304th field hospital, which had been assigned to the division as a neurological hospital. As the wards of the neurological hospital were now almost empty, it was practical to close it by transferring its patients to Camp Hospital No. 26.52

CHANGES IN MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OPERATIONS

On March 7, 1918, the name of the division was changed from the 41st Division to First Corps Depot Division.48 Its chief function was to receive, classify, equip, and train troops for combat divisions; and in order that this might be accomplished, casuals from the United States and patients discharged from base hospitals were forwarded to it.

In order to meet the special duties incumbent upon the Medical Department of the division, it now became necessary to make certain changes in its operation. Its chief functions were now as follows:48 (1) The care of the sick of the permanent organization and of the casuals passing through the area. (2) Sanitation of the area. (3) The removal of the physically unfit from combat organizations and assignment of them to appropriate duties. (4) The training of the enlisted men of the medical detachments prior to sending them to the front for duty.

On the last of July, 1918, the area was divided into six districts in order to promote medical administration, and in each of these districts a district surgeon and a district sanitary officer were assigned.53

Incoming troops were received at the classification camp, where each man was given a physical examination.49 Those found physically fit were passed on, while the physically unfit were sent, if necessary, to hospital for treatment or to the disability board for classification.

The military population of the divisional area was increasing, and in order to meet its sanitary requirements it became necessary to augment the size of the sanitary squads by details from the line, but as this necessarily interfered with the training of these details the sanitary squads were then entirely reorganized. Their original personnel was greatly increased by men in class B or C being transferred to the Medical Department for the period of their service in sanitary organizations. These squads now took over all the police work of the area except the care of kitchens and billets.


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Their work included such tasks as the procurement and supervision of water bags and shower baths, cleaning of the streets, care of latrines, disposition of wastes, and similar duties.54 Because of the difficulty in enforcing proper sanitation of the towns, the Medical Department took over complete control of all police work therein and performed it as in the area at large through its sanitary squads.

As the number of casuals passing through the area was very great, sometimes numbering as many as 4,500 a day, the quarantine for infectious diseases became very difficult. The usual system had to be abandoned.

When orders were received, as was the case, that the division hereafter would receive men in classes B, C, D, and organize them into companies of 2 officers and 150 men each, another disability board was appointed with station at the special training battalion at Mehers.52

Four American steam sterilizers were procured, and provision was made at the classification camp that all men in classes B and C have their clothing sterilized before leaving the division. Arrangements were also made whereby they would be given new underwear and class A equipment except rifles, helmets, and gas masks.52

In order to avoid great delay in the movement of troops and overcrowding of the area, a medical officer was appointed division epidemiologist. He was authorized to issue necessary orders in the name of the commanding general.54 Cases of infectious diseases among casuals were sent to the hospitals, and only the immediate contacts were isolated. When epidemics occurred in the permanent personnel, quarantine of companies and other organizations was practiced when necessary.

Many casuals arrived in a dirty condition because of their long journey from the United States and the inadequacy of bathing facilities en route. Some were infested with lice. This situation was met by establishing a disinfesting station and portable shower baths in a local canning factory. The clothing of the men was treated by steam under pressure in the vats that had been used by the plant.

On July 9 casual officers and enlisted men of the Medical Department were ordered to report to this division for classification as replacements instead of to the Medical Department camp at Blois, as had been the former practice.13

On July 26, 1918, 100 officers and 2,000 enlisted men of the Medical Department reported at the sanitary school which had been established at Thesee.

The sanitary personnel of six divisions was forwarded to the depot division for disposition, one field hospital, and two ambulance companies. The organizations so received were skeletonized, each to consist of one officer, one noncommissioned officer, and five privates; the rest of the personnel was used as replacements.

On the 24th of September plans for a cantonment at Thesee to accommodate 2,000 troops were completed, and a camp was established there to receive the sanitary troops which formerly had been scattered throughout the town.50

In order to combat the influenza, the following measures were adopted on October 22, 1918:


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All troops upon arrival were given a physical examination. Seriously sick were immediately transferred to the hospital, and the slightly sick were placed in certain barracks at the classification camp, which had been set aside for the purpose. Here they were kept under the observation of a physician and ward attendants. If they recovered within a few days, they were sent to their organizations, otherwise they were sent to the hospital. This measure had for its object the segregation and observation of cases before the actualonset of serious disease. Whenever it was practicable to do so, troop trains passing through the area en route to other destinations were stopped and the men on board were taken off and given a medical examination. They were permitted to dry their clothing and were given a hot meal.51 The men of the command who showed minor symptoms were carefully observed, and those with slight coughs were segregated in separate billets. Divisional orders were issued that men sleep head to foot. Twenty square feet of floor space was the minimum allowance, but provisions were made for 40 squarefeet where this could be afforded. Officers of the day were required to inspect billets at night in order to see that proper ventilation was maintained, and that the men were sleeping head to foot.51

ORTHOPEDIC TRAINING BATTALION

On March 23, 1918, a special orthopedic battalion was organized at Mareuil, which was within the division area.49 This unit was organized on military lines by the assistance of the chief consultant in orthopedics for the American Expeditionary Forces. The training was conducted by medical officers. The purpose of this orthopedic training battalion was to rectify, or at least improve, the condition of the men suffering from flat foot or other orthopedic disabilities. Men sent to it were selected from the classification camp of the division or in a few instances transferred to it from other divisions. Members of the orthopedic battalion were on a duty status. Within a month its personnel rose to 1,000 men. On April 29, this detachment was moved to Mehers, where its capacity was enlarged to 2,500 and shelter provided in tentage and temporary barracks.49 In addition to the orthopedic cases, convalescents of all types were now sent to the camp for recuperation and training, with successful results.

VENEREAL LABOR CAMP

A number of casuals had venereal diseases. To care for these a venereal labor camp was established during the month of July, 1918; and while all acute cases of this character were isolated and assigned to light duties while undergoing treatment, such cases as required hospital attention were sent to venereal wards in the camp hospitals.55

By October 10, the venereal labor camp had 950 patients under treatment. The greater part were accommodated in tents, but generally some permanentbuildings were constructed. To this camp were sent all patients suffering from venereal diseases who did not require rest in bed or surgical treatment. Its occupants came from the depot division and from the casuals


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passing through the camp. On October 11, its designation was changed to medical labor camp, the former nomenclature being objectionable as a mail address, both for patients and for attending personnel.55

FIRST DEPOT DIVISION DISCONTINUED

The First Depot Division was abolished December 26, 1918, pursuant to telegraphic instructions, headquarters, Services of Supply.56 Units of the 41st Division were ordered to reorganize with as many of the personnel of that division as remained in the divisional area, supplemented by a sufficient number of casuals to bring them up to authorized strength. Officers and enlisted men who desired to remain in France and requested to do so were transferred to the first replacement depot, which thereafter was to replace the First Depot Division.56

REFERENCES

(1) Final Report of Gen. John J. Pershing, September 1, 1919, 8.

(2) Report of activities G-1, G. H. Q., A. E. F., undated, Vol. II, 3.

(3) Ibid., 23.

(4) Ibid., 24.

(5) G. O. No. 9, G. H. Q., A. E. F., January 15, 1918.

(6) Report of activities G-1, G. H. Q., A. E. F., undated, Vol. II, 27.

(7) Report of Medical Department activities, 1st Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part 1, 8. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(8) Report of Medical Department activities, 26th Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated, Part I, 3. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(9) Ibid., Part I, 2.

(10) Report of Medical Department activities, 39th Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 39th division, undated, 3. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(11) Report of Medical Department activities, 26th Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 26th Division, undated, Part I, 4. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(12) Report on activities of G-4-B, medical group, fourth section, general staff, G. H. Q., A. E. F., by Col. S. H. Wadhams, M. C., chief of section, December 31, 1918, 22. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(13) Report of Medical Department activities, 1st Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 1st Division, undated, Part I, 39. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(14) Report of Medical Department activities, 42d Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 42d Division, undated, Part III, 16. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(15) Report of Medical Department activities, 82d Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 82d Division, undated, 9. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(16) Report of Medical Department activities, 85th Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 85th Division, undated, 48. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(17) Report of Medical Department activities, 1st Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 1st Division, undated, Part I, 7. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.


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(18) Report of Medical Department activities, 2d Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 2d Division, undated, Part I, 7. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(19) Report of Medical Department activities, 90th Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 90th Division, undated, Part I, 2. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(20) Report of Medical Department activities, 26th Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 26th Division, undated, Part I, 6. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(21) Report of Medical Department activities, 42d Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 42d Division, undated, Part I, 2. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(22) Equipment Manuals for Service in Europe, Series A, No. 13, Sanitary Train, General Headquarters, A. E. F.

(23) Tables of Organization and Equipment, U. S. Army, Series A, Table 28, April 17, 1918.

(24) Evacuation system of a field army, by Col. C. R. Reynolds, M. C., undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(25) Report on activities of G-4-B, medical group, fourth section, general staff,   G. H. Q., A. E. F., by Col. S. H. Wadhams, M. C., chief of section, December 31, 1918, 58. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(26) Report of Medical Department activities, 1st Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 1st Division, undated, Part I, 11. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(27) Report on Medical Department training in the A. E. F., by Col. B. K. Ashford, M. C., undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(28) Report of Medical Department activities, 32d Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 32d Division, undated, Part II, 38. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(29) Report of Medical Department activities, 36th Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 36th Division, undated, Part I, 99. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(30) Report of Medical Department activities, 91st Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 91st Division, undated, 2. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(31) Report of Medical Department activities, 3d Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 3d Division, undated, Part V, 2. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(32) Report of Medical Department activities, Second Army Corps, by Col. C. C. Collins, M. C., corps surgeon, undated, 3. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(33) Letter from Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to The Adjutant General, December 3, 1917. Subject: Sanitary Squads. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.91-21. (Sanitary Squads).

(34) G. O. No. 85, G. H. Q., A. E. F., June 3, 1918.

(35) First indorsement from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the division surgeon, 82d Division, July 16, 1918. Subject: Sanitary Squads. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, Medical Records Section (Chief Surgeon’s Files 322.324).

(36) First indorsement from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the division surgeon, 79th Division, August 5, 1918. Subject: Sanitary Squads. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, Medical Records Section (Chief Surgeon’s Files 322.324).

(37) First indorsement from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the division surgeon, 80th Division, September 3, 1918. Subject: Sanitary Squads. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, Medical Records Section (Chief Surgeon’s Files 322.324).

(38) First indorsement, from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the division surgeon, 6th Depot Division, October 1, 1918. Subject: Sanitary Squads. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, Medical Records Section (Chief Surgeon’s Files 322.324).


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(39) Report on the activities of sanitary squads, A. E. F., by Maj. Henry Pleasant, jr., M. C., undated, 3. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(40) Ibid., 5.

(41) Ibid., 20.

(42) Manual for the Medical Department, 1916, par. 635.

(43) Report of Medical Department activities, 26th Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 26th Division, undated, Part I, 11. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(44) Report of Medical Department activities, 1st Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 1st Division, undated, Part II, 36, 37. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(45) Report of Medical Department activities, 26th Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 26th Division, undated, Part I, 11, 12, 13. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(46) Report of Medical Department activities, 2d Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 2d Division, undated, Part I, 20. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(47) Report of Medical Department activities, 41st Division, A. E. F., prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, 41st Division, undated, 4. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(48) Ibid., 5.

(49) Ibid., 6.

(50) Ibid., 9.

(52) Ibid., 12.

(53) Ibid., 8.

(54) Ibid., 7.

(55) Ibid., 10.

(56) Ibid., 13.