U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History
Skip Navigation, go to content

ACCESS TO CARE External Link, Opens in New Window

HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL HISTORYPDF document

ANC HISTORY

AMEDD BIOGRAPHIES

AMEDD CORPS HISTORY

BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS

HISTORICAL ART WORK & IMAGES

MEDICAL MEMOIRS

AMEDD MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS

ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORIES

THE SURGEONS GENERAL

ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

AMEDD UNIT PATCHES AND LINEAGE

THE AMEDD HISTORIAN NEWSLETTER

Brief Histories of Combat Divisions

Field Operations, Table of Contents

THE 1ST DIVISION1,  2

(Regular Army.  Insignia: A crimson figure 1 on a khaki shield)

The 1st Division was organized in June, 1917, from troops of the Regular Army which, at that time, were much scattered, most of them being in service on the Mexican border. All were at peace strength and were raised to war strength by transfers from other units. The division was not concentrated until arrival in France. The organization was as follows:

1st Infantry Brigade:
     16th and 18th Infantry; 2d Machine Gun Battalion.
2d Infantry Brigade:
     26th and 28th Infantry; 3d Machine Gun Battalion.
1st Field Artillery Brigade:
     6th and 7th (light), 5th (heavy) Field Artillery; 1st Trench Mortar Battery.
1st Machine Gun Battalion.
1st Engineers.
2d Field Signal Battalion.
Trains:
     1st Sanitary Train (Field Hospitals Nos. 2, 3, 12, 13, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 2, 3, 12, 13).


974

The first troops sailed from Hoboken on June 13, 1917, and disembarked at St. Nazaire on June 26, 1917. Division headquarters landed on June 27, 1917. The remainder of the troops followed in rapid succession, except the supply train, which did not arrive in France until May 6, 1918. The division (less Artillery) was sent to the Gondrecourt area for training. For a similar purpose the Artillery brigade went to Valdahon. En route from St. Nazaire to Gondrecourt, the 2d Battalion, 16th Infantry, participated in the Fourth of July parade in Paris, the first public appearance of American troops in France.

Field Hospital No. 13 and Ambulance Company No. 13 arrived at St. Nazaire, with the division, on June 27, 1917. Headquarters field hospitals, headquarters ambulance sections, Field Hospitals No. 2 and No. 12, and Ambulance Companies No. 2 and No. 12 arrived September 26, 1917. Field Hospital No. 3 and Ambulance Company No. 3 arrived December 29, 1917. While the division remained in the vicinity of St. Nazaire, all sick were cared for by a French military hospital, in that city. Later a part of this hospital was turned over to us and staffed by American medical officers, nurses, and enlisted men from Base Hospital No. 18 (Johns Hopkins), which had arrived in the same convoy with the 1st Division. On July 11, 1917, Field Hospital No. 13 and Ambulance Company No. 13 (the only sanitary train units in France at that time) proceeded under their own transportation to the training area around Gondrecourt, arriving there July 15, 1917. The field hospital established a hospital in frame barracks at Gondrecourt, which was expanded by additional equipment, and designated Camp Hospital No. 1. It provided permanent care for all sick, there being no hospital, except a small French one, to which it could evacuate. When, later (in September, 1917), Base Hospital No. 18 was established at Bazoilles, Camp Hospital No. 1 evacuated all its serious sick and operative cases to that hospital. Field Hospital No. 13 was relieved by Field Hospital No. 12 on October 21. On November 7, Field Hospital No. 12 was relieved and a permanent personnel was assigned to Camp Hospital No. 1. On January 25, 1918, Field Hospital No. 3 took over the camp hospital and operated it until April 3, 1918, when it was taken over by the Services of Supply. The training area, consisting of 32 towns, was evacuated in turn by Ambulance Company No. 13, stationed at La Neuville, and by Ambulance Company No. 12. stationed at Hevilliers; their evacuation included that to the base hospital. The remainder of the sanitary train was located at Villiers le Sec, Hevilliers, and La Neuville.

Luneville Sector, October 21, 1917, to November 20, 1917.

On the night of November 29, the division was withdrawn from the line to the Gondrecourt area, where it continued its training until January 15, 1918.

Ansauville Sector, January 15 to April 3, 1918.
Cantigny Sector, April 25 to June 8, 1918.
Montdidier-Noyon operation, June 9-13, 1918.
Cantigny Sector, June 14 to July 7, 1918.
Aisne-Marne operation, July 18-23, 1918.

The division, after its relief from the Soissons operation, was again moved eastward. On August 7, 1918, it took over the quiet Saizerais sector, near Toul. Here it remained until August 24, when it was withdrawn to Vaucouleurs, in preparation for a new offensive. When the division moved into the Saizerais sector, on August 7, 1918, the sanitary train was disposed of as follows:

Field Hospital No. 2 was stationed at Avrainville for contagious and venereal diseases. Field Hospital No. 3, at Griscourt, functioned as triage. Field Hospital No. 12, at Roziers-en-Haye, was for surgical cases. Field Hospital No. 13, at Rogeville, took care of sick and skin diseases.

A dressing station was established by Ambulance Company No. 12 at Jezainville; United States Army Ambulance Service Section 649, assigned to the division, took station at Pont-a-Mousson and evacuated wounded from the front to the dressing station. Divisional ambulance companies evacuated from the dressing station to the triage and hospitals


975

at Toul. During its stay in this sector, intensive efforts were made to free the division from lice and to overhaul all motor equipment. Field Hospital No. 2, heretofore animal drawn; was motorized, thus rendering all these units equally mobile. When the division moved to the vicinity of  Vaucouleurs, most of the sanitary train was located at Pierrot. Field Hospital No. 12 was established at Burey-en-Vaux for the sick and Field Hospital No. 13, at Sauvigny, for skin and venereal diseases. All seriously sick were evacuated to Base Hospital No. 66 at Neufchateau.

Here the division engaged in maneuvers, simulating those it expected to employ in the coming St. Mihiel operation. Field hospitals and dressing stations were actually established and moved in conformity with the general problem worked out by the division.

Ambulance company equipment was increased by the addition of large quantities of dressings, litters, splints, and blankets, each ambulance now carrying 12 blankets, 6 to 8 litters, and a supply of leg and arm splints. Arrangements were made for replacing supplies unloaded with patients. Dressing-station supplies were supplemented by such additional articles as antigas suits and gloves, sodium bicarbonate (for mustard gas), hot water bottles, shell-wound dressings in three sizes, issued to litter-bearer detachments, and additional tourniquets, furnished to stations and bearers.

The Medical Department belt for enlisted men was abandoned at this time and small pouches were issued in their stead. The former would not hold the larger dressings now required, nor did it permit the wearer to carry a litter. Each field hospital now carried 70 litters and 500 or more blankets.

After training and reequipment the 1st Division moved to the St. Mihiel salient, and the entire sanitary train was assembled at Raulecourt.

St. Mihiel operation, September 12-13, 1918.
Meusse-Argonne operation, September 26 to November 11, 1918.
Army of Occupation.

Division headquarters embarked at Brest on August 25, 1919, and arrived at New York, September 5, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS

Col. Bailey K. Ashford, M. C., June 8, 1917, to October 23, 1917.
Col. Herbert G. Shaw, M. C., October 24, 1917, to July 13, 1918.
Col. James I. Mabee, M. C., July 14, 1918, to February 16, 1919.
Col. Perry L. Boyer, M. C., February 17, 1919, to June 18, 1919.
Lieut. Col. Edwin B. Maynard, M. C., June 19, 1919, to August 27, 1919.
 

THE 2D DIVISION1, 4

(Regular Army and Marines. Insignia: An Indian head on a white star background)

The 2d Division was organized in October, 1917, from troops of the Regular Army and the Marine Corps. The organization was as follows:

3d Infantry Brigade:
     9th and 23d Infantry; 5th Machine Gun Battalion.
4th Infantry Brigade:
     5th and 6th Marines; 6th Machine Gun Battalion.
2d Field Artillery Brigade:
12th and 15th (light), 17th (heavy) Field Artillery; 2d Trench Mortar Battery.
4th Machine Gun Battalion.
2d Engineers.
1st Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (2d Sanitary Train: Field-Hospitals Nos. 1, 15, 16, 23, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 1, 15, 16, 23).

The first unit of the division arrived in France June 27, 1917; the last, March, 15, 1918.


976

For training purposes, the infantry was sent to the Department of Haute Marne and division headquarters was established at Bourmont. Upon arrival of the artillery, in December and January, 1918, it was sent to Valdahon for instruction. During the latter month, all elements of the division were assembled in the vicinity of Bourmont for final training.

On March 16 the division went into a quiet portion of the line between Verdun and St. Mihiel--the Toulon--Troyon sectors. Here the troops were mingled with the French, and took part in numerous minor operations; on the night of April 13-14 the 9th Infantry repulsed an unusually strong raid with complete success. The division remained in this sector until May 13 when it moved to the vicinity of Chaumont-en-Vexin (Oise) for further training preparatory to relieving the 1st Division, near Montdidier. But on May 27 the Germans began their offensive between the Aisne and the Marne, and the division was placed at the disposal of the French.

Field Hospital No. 15 and Ambulance Company No. 15 arrived at Brest December 20, 1917. Field Hospital No. 1 and Ambulance Companies No. 1 and No. 23 arrived at St. Nazaire December 22, 1917. Field Hospital No. 16 and Ambulance Company No. 16 disembarked at Brest February 5, 1918. Field Hospitals Nos. 1, 15, and 23 were sent to Bourmont for training where Field Hospital No. 15 opened Camp Hospital No. 3 for the divisional sick. It evacuated contagious cases to Neufchateau and special cases to Base Hospital No. 18, at Bazoilles. Later it also evacuated cases to the hospitals at Vittel-Contrexeville. Field Hospital No. 16 (animal drawn), upon arrival in France, was sent to Blois, where it remained until March 14, 1918.

The ambulance companies, with the exception of Ambulance Company No. 16, were stationed at Rozieres, where they underwent training and evacuated sick. Ambulance Company No. 16 was at Blois, where it trained and performed fatigue and general duty. On March 16, the sanitary train arrived in the Toulon-Troyon sector.

Field Hospital No. 1 took station at Fontaine Brillante, where the French operated a triage. Here they assisted in operating the French dressing station, until given barrack space for the sick and wounded of the division. From here patients were evacuated to the French hospitals in the rear.

Field Hospital No. 15 was located at Genicourt, where the personnel assisted the French in the operation of a triage until April 2, when this hospital was sent to Souilly to assist in a French evacuation hospital. Later, three wards were turned over to Field Hospital No. 15 for divisional casualties. Evacuations from this hospital were made by hospital trains to base hospitals in the interior.

Field Hospital No. 23 took over a French triage at Ambly. The station had a capacity of 100 beds and good operating and sterilizing rooms. On April 10, the unit moved to Fontaine Routon, where it worked in conjunction with a French mobile surgical unit. On April 26, it moved to Maujouy, where it took up similar duties.

Field Hospital No. 16 arrived in this sector by rail from Blois, on March 13, and was sent to a French hospital at Maujouy for duty and training. On April 10, one officer and 20 men of the unit were assigned to duty at a French hospital at Petit Monthairon. On April 26, it reopened the triage (formerly operated by Field Hospital No. 23) at Ambly, which it operated until May 9.

Ambulance Company No. 1, was sent to Fontaine Brillante, from which place it furnished ambulance and litter-bearer service for the left area of the sector. On March 31, the company moved to La Chiffoure, but continued the same service.

Ambulance Company No. 15, was located at Genicourt, whence it furnished ambulance and litter-bearer service for that portion of the sector.

Ambulance Company No. 23 took station at Troyon, and served the right area of the sector.

Ambulance Company No. 16 arrived in the sector on March 24, from Blois, and took station at Revigny. The majority of its personnel was distributed among the other three companies for training and instruction. Details were also sent to French hospitals at Dieue and Petit Monthairon. The animals and equipment of this company were received the latter part of April.


977

Medical supplies were handled by the headquarters ambulance sector. Requisitions were filled by the divisional medical supply depot at Bourmont.

Evacuations, at first, were made through the French triage near the front at Genicourt, on the right, and at Fontaine Brillante, on the left. About April 1, divisional triages were established at Ambly and Fontaine Brillante.

Patients were evacuated to the following hospitals:

     Seriously wounded and all officers: French hospital at Petit Monthairon.
     Wounded: French hospital, Maujoue.
     Gassed: French hospital, near Rambluzin.
     Infectious: French hospital, Benoite Vaux.
     Sick: To any division field hospital.
     Evacuation: To French evacuation hospital at Souilly.
     Aisne operation, May 31 to June 5, 1918.

Chateau-Thierry Sector, June to July 9, 1918.

On July 9, after having spent 40 days in action, which cost losses of 9,000 men, the division was relieved and moved to a reserve position along the line Montreuil-St. Aulde.

Aisne-Marne operation, July 18-25, 1918.

The division was in training in the Ormoy-Villers area until July 28, when it moved to the vicinity of Nancy. On August 6 it relieved a French unit in the Marbache sector where it remained until relieved by the 82d Division, on August 16.

It then moved to the Colombey-les-Belles area, where active preparation for the impending St. Mihiel operation was taken up.

In the Marbache Sector the sanitary train took over various ambulance posts, dressing stations, and field hospitals from the French Service de Santé; its units were located as follows:

Field Hospital No. 1 and Ambulance Company No. 23 were at Dieulouard, the other hospitals serving troops east of the Moselle in a group of French hospital buildings at Millery with the other ambulance companies in their vicinity. Here Field Hospital No. 16 cared for the sick and Field Hospitals Nos. 15 and 23, formerly Unit No. 3, which joined at this time, formed a group which cared for surgical cases only. Because of the proximity of these formations to the front, no dressing stations were established, and the ambulances at night brought the wounded direct from the battalion posts. During the day, as the roads were under direct enemy observation, patients had to be brought back to ambulance heads by the litter-bearer squads assigned to the several battalions. The medical supply unit was located at Belleville, the railhead, and distributed supplies by ambulance in advance of the field hospitals.

The wounded were evacuated to Evacuation Hospital No. 1, at Sebastopol, a distance of 20 km. (12.4 miles) from the field hospitals and the sick to the evacuation hospitals at Toul.

St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16, 1918.
Meuse-Argonne operation, October 1-10, and October 22 to November 11, 1918.
Army of Occupation.

The division headquarters sailed from Brest July 25, 1919, arriving at New York August 3, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS3

Col. Ralph S. Porter, M. C., November 7, 1917, to December 7, 1917.
Col. Charles R. Marrow, M. C., December 8, 1917, to July 19, 1918.
Col. John W. Hanner, M. C., July 20, 1918, to September 22, 1918.
Lieut. Col. Richard Derby, M. C., September 23, 1918, to January 7,1919.
Col. W. A. Powell, M. C., January 18, 1919, to February 20, 1919.
Col. Orville G. Brown, M. C., March 4, 1919, to June 18, 1919.
Col. Perry L. Boyer, M. C., June 19, 1919, to August 8, 1919.


978

THE 3D DIVISION1, 5

(Regular Army. Insignia: Three white stripes superimposed diagonally on blue square)

The 3d Division was organized in November, 1917, at Camp Greene, N. C., from troops of the Regular Army, and by transfers from other units. The organization was as follows:

5th Infantry Brigade:
     4th and 7th Infantry; 8th Machine Gun Battalion.
6th Infantry Brigade:
     30th and 38th Infantry; 9th Machine Gun Battalion.
7th Machine Gun Battalion.
3d Field Artillery Brigade:
     10th and 76th (light), and 18th (heavy) Field Artillery; 3d Trench Mortar Battery.
6th Engineers.
5th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (3d Sanitary Train, consisting of Field Hospitals Nos. 5, 7, 26, 27, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 5, 7, 26, 27).

The first unit to go overseas was the 6th Engineers, which was designated for early duty in France. It arrived there December 20, 1917. A detachment of the regiment serving with the British occupied active sectors and took part in the operation known as the Somme defensive. Division headquarters arrived in France on April 4 and the last unit May 12, 1918.

For training purposes the division (less artillery and engineers) was sent to the Chateauvillain area, the artillery going to Coetquidan for the same purpose. The artillery rejoined the division July 6, 1918, and was present with it in the Maine operation, and the Aisne-Marne operation, remaining with the division until September 7, 1918, when it was detached for participation in the St. Mihiel operation with the Fourth Corps. The artillery brigade rejoined the division September 15, 1918, and from this time until the armistice served as divisional artillery either with the 3d or with some other division.

On May 27 the Germans began their offensive between the Aisne and the Marne, and the 3d Division was placed at the disposal of the French. Unfortunately the history of the sanitary train in the training sector is not available.

Aisne-Marne operation, July 18-30, 1918.
Chateau-Thierry Sector, June 6 to July 14, 1918.
Champagne-Marne operation, July 15-18, 1918.
Aisne-Marne operation, July 18-30, 1918.

The division was relieved on July 30 by the 32d Division, and assembled south of Chateau-Thierry. On August 2 the 6th Brigade was dispatched to support of the French Third Army Corps operating toward the Vesle. It was relieved from this duty on August 10 and rejoined the division, which had gone into rest area near Gondrecourt.

On September 4 the division proceeded to the Vaucouleurs area preparatory to taking part in the St. Mihiel operation. In this operation it was in the reserve of the Fourth Army Corps.

After its relief from the Aisne-Marne operation, the sanitary train moved to the vicinity of Bonet, where it resumed training and received replacements. Field Hospital No. 5 opened a scabies hospital at Demange on August 22. On September 4 the entire sanitary train proceeded to the St. Mihiel sector and located near Boucq, where it remained in reserve during the St. Mihiel operation. After this action, the train moved to the Bois de la Cote, where it remained in camp until the beginning of the operation on September 26.

Meuse-Argonne, September 26 to November 11, 1918.
Army of Occupation.

The division headquarters sailed from Brest on August 14 and arrived in New York August 23, 1919.


979

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. William R. Eastman, M. C., November 24, 1917, to July 14, 1918.
Col. Frederick S. Wright, M. C., July 35, 1918, to November 20, 1919.

THE 4TH DIVISION 1, 6

(Regular Army. Insignia: A green four-leaved ivy about a green circle)

The 4th Division was organized in December, 1917, at Camp Greene, N. C., from units of the Regular Army.

The organization was as follows:

7th Infantry Brigade:
     39th and 47th Infantry; 11th Machine Gun Battalion.
8th Infantry Brigade:
     58th and 59th Infantry; 12th Machine Gun Battalion.
4th Field Artillery Brigade:
     16th and 77th (light), 13th (heavy) Field Artillery; 4th Trench Mortar Battery.
10th Machine Gun Battalion.
4th Engineers.
8th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (4th Sanitary Train consisted of Field Hospitals Nos. 19, 21, 28, 33, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 19, 21, 28, 33).

The first unit to go overseas arrived in France May 10, 1918, the last, June 8, 1918. The transport Moldavia, carrying Companies A and B of the 58th Infantry, was torpedoed and sunk on May 23; 56 men of the two companies were lost.

The division (less artillery) was assigned to the American Second Army Corps, serving with the British, and was concentrated at Samer (Pas de Calais) for training. The Artillery brigade went to Camp de Souge near Bordeaux for the same purpose, and did not rejoin the division until the first week in August. Early in June, the division was placed at the disposal of the French and moved to Meaux (Seine et Marne), where training was continued nearer the front. During the German offensive of July 15 it was in reserve divided between the French Second and Seventh Corps between Soissons and Chateau-Thierry. Here it suffered its first battle casualties. While the division was in training with the British, casualties were cared for by British medical units.

The 4th Sanitary Train arrived in France in the early part of June, 1918, and joined the division at Meaux. On June 22 Field Hospital No. 33 established a hospital for the care of sick at Chateau Montebise, which it operated until July 6. Field Hospital No. 28 opened at Meaux on July 1. Ambulance companies arrived with no transportation and all casualties were evacuated by the French sanitary service.

Aisne-Marne operation, July 18 to August 6, 1918.
Vesle Sector, August 7-12, 1918.

On the night of August 11-12 the division was relieved by the 77th Division, and withdrew to the Boise de Dole and the Foret de Nesles, the Artillery brigade remaining in action until August 17. While in this sector, the sanitary train was billeted in Prez-sous-La-Fauche and Liffol-le-Petit. Field Hospital No. 33 opened in the latter station for care of the division sick. Intensive training schedules were resumed in preparation for the coming St. Mihiel operation.

St. Mihiel operation, September 14, 1918.
Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to October 22, 1918.
Army of Occupation.

The division returned to the United States in July, 1919; headquarters sailed from finest July 24 and arrived in New York July 31.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Robert L. Carswell, M. C., December 9, 1917, to October 5, 1918.
Col. Paul Waterman, M. C., October 6, 1918, to August 3, 1919.


980

THE 5TH DIVISION 5, 7

(Regular Army. Insignia: A red diamond)

The 5th Division was organized at Camp Logan, Tex., December 1, 1917, from units of the Regular Army. These being at peace strength, the shortage was made up by assignment of National Army men.

The following organizations composed the division:

9th Infantry Brigade:
     60th and 61st Infantry; 14th Machine Gun Battalion.
10th Infantry Brigade:
     6th and 11th Infantry; 15th Machine Gun Battalion.
13th Machine Gun Battalion.
5th Artillery Brigade:
     19th and 20th (light), 21st (heavy) Field Artillery; 5th Trench Mortar Battery.
7th Engineers.
9th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (5th Sanitary Train, Field Hospitals Nos. 17, 25, 29, 30, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 17, 25, 29, 30).

The first unit of the division arrived in France March 20, 1918, the last June 19, Bar-sur-Aube was selected as the training area for the infantry, while the artillery was sent to Valdahon for a similar purpose.

On June 1 the division was placed at the disposal of the French Thirty-third Army Corps, then operating in the Vosges. To this sector it was immediately moved. Here the troops were mingled with the French behind the lines for further training. June 14 the division entered the line with combat units, half French. The sector was quiet, but the division suffered its first casualties June 14.

On July 15 the division was transferred to the quiet St. Die sector, and on July 19 the command of this sector passed to the Americans. The artillery joined the division July 28, after having completed its training at Valdahon. In a local engagement of August 17 the town of Frapelle and Hill 451 were taken and held against counterattacks.

The division was relieved by the French August 26, and repaired to Arches, south of Epinal, for rest and training. From this point it moved to the vicinity of Luneville, August 28.

The 5th Sanitary Train did not arrive until June 20; but due to the urgent need of medical personnel and transportation, Field Hospital No. 161 and Ambulance Company No. 161, 41st (Depot) Division, were assigned to the 5th Division on May 11, 1918. These units opened Camp Hospital No. 42, at Bar-sur-Aube, for division sick. When the division moved to the Anould sector, in the Vosges, on June 2, 1918, Field Hospital No. 141 and Ambulance Company No. 141 were ordered to duty with French Evacuation Hospital 2/29 at Fraize. On June 8 Field Hospital No. 163 and Ambulance Company No. 162, of the 41st Division, reported for duty. The field hospital was assigned to French Evacuation Hospital 2/8 at Gerardmer and the ambulance company performed evacuation. These organizations were relieved from duty with the 5th Division during the latter part of July and early part of August.

Service in the Anould sector was of peculiar interest because of the character of the terrain and the close association with the French. The country was rugged, with but few roads leading through the mountain passes. Though steep, these roads were good, and at certain points narrow-gauge railways were sometimes available for the evacuations of wounded. As allied trenches were usually on the eastern slope of the hills, roads leading to them were under direct enemy observation and frequently were shelled, especially during a raid from either side. These circumstances prohibited the near approach of ambulances to the advance stations and required that the wounded be removed from them by hand carriage or wheeled litter for a distance of from 3 to 5 km. (1.8 to 3.1 miles) over steep


981

and winding trails. From one advance station it was necessary that eight bearers carry a wounded man for four hours before he could be placed on a vehicle. First aid was applied at battalion stations located in front-line trenches, and the patients were then taken by handcarriage or on wheeled litters through communicating trenches or over trails to the nearest point accessible by motor-cycle litter or ambulance. Ambulance centers were maintained near the hospitals, from 5 to 8 km. (3 to 4.9 miles) from the front. Here approximately two-thirds of the ambulances were parked, the others being posted at protected and accessible points as near the lines as possible. When casualties occurred, notice was telephoned to the hospitals and an ambulance was sent forward to the post which had been vacated by the ambulance sent to collect the casualties in question. Thus there was kept up a circuit of vehicles and prompt service, compensating for inability to maintain a number of ambulances at a forward post because of enemy airplane observation and direct fire. Animal-drawn transportation was not used in the American service in this sector. The use of wheeled litters and motor cycles for removal of the wounded in this rugged terrain is discussed in Chapter IV.

Small hospitals--practically posts for rest and emergency treatment--were installed at protected points, and here patients were retained until roads were passable or until, if seriously wounded, they had recuperated sufficiently to continue the journey. Regimental hospitals, where the less seriously sick and the slightly wounded were kept, were located at the base of the mountains. Back of these were the French evacuation hospitals where, under French command and instruction, our sanitary train personnel received training and rendered service. These units were the following: Fraize, French Evacuation Hospital, 2/28, 7 km. (4.2 miles) from the front, frequently shelled and later evacuated; Gerardmer, French Evacuation Hospital 2/8, 15 km. (9 miles) from the front by road. Well situated in a large hotel; St. Die. Hôpital St. Charles, well equipped and located in the city hospital building, 7 km. (4.2 miles) from the front and too near to be used in time of activity; Bruyeres, French Evacuation Hospital 2/14, 25 km. (15 miles) from the front and therefore too distant for emergency work, though well equipped; Le Rudlin, Alpin Ambulance No. 305. Though frequently shelled, this unit was used for the immediate treatment of serious cases.

All these sanitary formations, in rear of the battalion aid stations--and even these if necessary--received French and American disabled alike.

From July 15 the division occupied the front east of St. Die, in the Vosges. Here, on August 17, about 2,500 men, including Companies L, M, and C of the 6th Infantry, with troops from other organizations, carried out a local attack which resulted in the capture of Frapelle and Hill 451. Resulting casualties numbered 418, but most of those due to gas occurred among troops in dugouts in the vicinity of the attacking troops.

The system of evacuation in the St. Die sector was similar to that described above. Ambulance centers were located at St. Die and Raon l'Etape, where in times of stress the vehicles available were augmented by ambulances from Evacuation Hospital No. 2. Evacuations were made to Field Hospital No. 29 and to St. Charles Hospital (French), at St. Die, to Field Hospital No. 17 and Hôpital Mixte (French), at Raon-l'Etape, and for nontransportables to Evacuation Hospital No. 2, Baccarat, and to Field Hospital No. 25 with French Evacuation Hospital 2/14 (French), at Bruyeres. From the southern front of the sector disabled men passed through the hospitals at St. Die, where Field Hospital No. 29 received the sick and the gassed and Hôpital St. Charles operated; the seriously sick from the entire sector were sent to Bruyeres. Casualties from the northern part of the line were sent to Field Hospital No. 17, which transferred seriously wounded patients to the Hôpital Mixte, at Raon-l'Etape. All other battle casualties, including gassed, were sent to Evacuation Hospital No. 2, at Baccarat. At each of the French hospitals French and American teams alternated in service.

During the Frapelle attack the regimental aid station of the 6th Infantry was located at Dijon, with aid stations at Nayemont, Chapelle Ste. Claire, Charmont, and Neuvillers. Seven medical officers and seventy-four enlisted men from the sanitary train were attached to the 6th Infantry to reinforce its medical personnel. Six ambulances, with litter squads


982

from Ambulance Companies No. 25 and No. 29, were posted at the stations mentioned above, and the remainder were held at the "alert" at St. Die, where Field Hospital No. 29 operated the triage.

No arrangements had been made at this time for details of litter bearers from the line, and use of bandsmen proved unsatisfactory. As regimental personnel was fully engaged in rendering first aid, it was decided that it should not be employed for bearer service, yet during a general engagement the details to the regimental service, from ambulance companies which were already fully occupied, proved inadequate.

Of the 261 gas casualties in the Frapelle attack, more than 50 percent were so slightly affected that their removal to the rear was not necessary. The number mentioned included those suffering from gas fright, and also malingerers.

An information service was initiated at this time, which was utilized and developed in subsequent engagements. It is described as follows in the medical history of the 5th Division:

Information was furnished to the division staff every hour during times of activity, and less frequently--depending upon the character of action--as to the number and nature of casualties and the location from which they came. Such information was of value in confirming reports received from other sources and in forming an estimate of the relative gravity of the military situation at various points on the line, as well as the kind of shells and other means of warfare used by the enemy.

Information was required from regimental surgeons and others. Reports were sent to the division surgeon of the progress of the attack, the number and kind of casualties, the number of cases received at the hospitals, the need for supplies and anticipated casualties.

This information enabled the division surgeon in some instances to anticipate the needs of sanitary units at the front. Knowledge that gas shells were being used in quantity was an indication for obtaining a supply of blankets and additional uniforms. Before the request for these articles was received at headquarters the supplies were on their way to the front. Information regarding actual and anticipated casualties enabled officers at the triage and at other hospitals to plan work and distribute patients so that each case could receive attention at the earliest possible moment. * * *

Negative information was often of great value. Report that activity had subsided and that few or no cases were to be expected for a time was helpful in relieving the nervous strain of the hospital personnel and allowing at least a part of them to obtain much-needed rest. It was found of value not only for the hospitals but also for ambulance company troops.

Reports received from medical sources were of value to the operations section, G-3. These included statements concerning the character of wounds and injuries, estimates of number of wounded on the field, the presence of gas in certain areas, and general physical resistance of the men.

Information received through headquarters and transmitted to medical officers with the line included (a) prior to the engagement, plans for the action, routes for evacuation, number of ambulances available, and other preparations; (b) information relating to development in the military situation which required preparations on the part of the medical officers.

Prior to the engagement there was a conference of the medical officers of line troops, the commanding officers of ambulance and field hospital companies, and others concerned. A thorough reconnaissance was made of the terrain not then occupied by the enemy. Locations for ambulance stations were selected and plans made from study of maps for location of stations in the occupied area as soon as an advance was made. It is interesting to note that these plans were executed with practically no variation either as to location or as to time.

St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16.

From September 17-27 the division, minus the artillery, was stationed at Domevre-en-Haye, near Toul, for rest and training. The artillery remained in the St. Mihiel sector until after the signing of the armistice, and formed a part of the Second Army. On September 27-28 the division moved to Pagny-sur-Meuse, west of Toul, and there resumed training.

Meuse-Argonne operation, October 5 to November 11, 1918.
Army of Occupation.

The division was relieved, May 10, 1919, for return to this country, but its departure was delayed until July. Headquarters sailed from Brest July 13 and arrived at New York July 21.


983

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Robert H. Pierson, M. C., December 3, 1917, to January 1, 1919.
Col. Carey J. Vaux, M. C., January 2, 1919, to June 4, 1919.
Lieut. Col. George C. Kieffer, M. C., June 5, 1919, to September 11, 1919.
 

THE 6TH DIVISION1, 8

(Regular Army. Insignia: A six-pointed red star)

The 6th Division was organized at Camp McClellan, Ala., in November, 1917, from units of the Regular Army. These being at peace strength, the shortages were made up by assignment of National Army men. Especially was this true of the 318th Engineers. Which was composed almost exclusively of the latter. The following organizations composed the division:

11th Infantry Brigade:
     51st and 52d Infantry; 17th Machine Gun Battalion.
12th Infantry Brigade:
     53d and 54th Infantry; 18th Machine Gun Battalion. 16th Machine Gun Battalion.
6th Field Artillery Brigade:
     3d and 78th (light), 11th (heavy), Field Artillery; 6th Trench Mortar Battery.
318th Engineers:
     6th Field Signal Battalion.
     Trains (6th Sanitary Train; Field Hospitals Nos. 20, 37, 38, 40, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 20, 37, 38, 40).

The first unit of the division arrived in France July 10; the last July 26, 1918. Many units landed first in England and Scotland and then crossed the Channel. While at Le Havre the artillery came under fire from an enemy airplane and suffered the first casualties inflicted upon the division.

After training in the vicinity of Chateauvillain, the division, minus the artillery, departed August 27 for Gerardmer, in the Vosges, which sector it occupied, under French command, until relieved October 11. During this period the sector was quiet, although enlivened with frequent raids and patrol combats. The divisional artillery at this time was in training at Valdahon.

The sanitary train arrived in France July 22, 1918, and was sent to the training area of the division. Training was immediately taken up under a training schedule issued by General Headquarters. Instruction was very intensive, but was carried out under considerable difficulties due to lack of manuals and necessary equipment. Units were scattered over a wide area, and it was very difficult to collect the personnel of the various units, excepting that in the sanitary train, for collective instruction. The sanitary train had no transportation. It received four-mule ambulances shortly prior to departure from this area, but these could not be taken along owing to lack of animals. Evacuation service was performed by Camp Hospital No. 9, and the divisional specialists were also assigned to this hospital for duty. While in this training area the health of the command was exceptionally good, with the exception of the occurrence of diarrhea.

When the division moved to the Gerardmer sector, August 17, the sanitary train functioned for the first time, taking over the hospitals from the 35th Division; sites of two of these were changed almost immediately after arrival. These hospitals were located as follows: Field Hospital No. 20 was at Gerardmer, functioning as a surgical and a general medical hospital, the surgical portion being in Hotel de Lac in conjunction with a French hospital, and the general medical in Maternelle Hospital. Field Hospital No. 37 was located at Storkensohn, working in connection with a French hospital. This hospital was in Bessonneau tents, and functioned as a surgical hospital for the southern


984

portion of the sector. Field Hospital No. 38 was located in Kruth, in buildings formerly occupied by a French hospital, the buildings having been turned over to it by a factory. This hospital functioned as a general medical and gas hospital. Field Hospital No. 40 was located at the same place in temporary wooden buildings and functioned as a skin, contagious disease, and venereal hospital. These hospitals acted as evacuation hospitals also, there being no evacuation hospital in the area. Evacuations were made to Base Hospital No. 23, at Vittel, about 61 km. (36.6 miles) distant.

A surgical team was assigned to the division, September 11, 1918, and functioned with Field Hospital No. 37, at Storkensohn. X-ray outfits of the French were used at both surgical hospitals. The mobile laboratory was assigned to work with Field Hospital No. 38, and the divisional specialists were attached to the sanitary train and visited all the division hospitals.

Evacuations in a sector of this character were carried on under many difficulties. All forms of transport were used over the mountainous terrain, and included Sunbeam motorcycles, with side litters, mule litters, mule ambulances, G. M. C. ambulances, and Ford ambulances. Hand carry was in some places long and tedious, and in several localities as many as three or four relays had to be provided, necessitating sometimes 16 men to transport one wounded man before he could be placed on mechanical transport. As the division had no ambulances regularly assigned to it, these were provided by attaching United States Army Ambulance Service Section No. 524 and Ambulance Company No. 162, giving a total of 32 ambulances. These ambulances were distributed pursuant to a scheme of distribution made by the director of ambulance companies. There was considerable difficulty in the use of ambulances in this particular type of terrain, owing to the burning out of brake linings of both the Ford and the G. M. C.

The supply service, though also working under difficulties owing to lack of transportation, was, nevertheless, very efficient, medical department supplies being distributed through the dressing stations to the front-line organizations. The medical supply depot was located at Gerardmer, with a branch depot at Kruth. The American Red Cross rendered very valuable services, procuring and distributing their own supplies. They established five advance comfort stations where they supplied hot chocolate and doughnuts to the troops on the march. The American Red Cross supply depot was located at the railhead at Cornimont.

The Meuse-Argonne operation being under way, the division, on October 27, was sent north to take its place in the line. Detraining near St. Menehould, south of the Argonne, a long and trying march due north was begun. Lack of transportation facilities forced the troops to drag their machine guns and other equipment by hand through the forest and over roads which a retreating enemy had used every means at his command to make impassable. After a march of approximately 50 km. (31 miles), divisional headquarters was established, November 6, at Stonne. At this time the division was a unit of the First Corps and in reserve.

On November 6, the left of the First Corps rested in the vicinity of Stonne. They began the turning movement eastward to the Meuse. As the left flank of the corps swung to the northeast, liaison with the French on the left was temporarily lost. Into this gap units of the 6th Division were hurried, and what promised to be a dangerous situation was thus saved.

The enemy at this time was in full retreat; and the necessity for its services no longer existing, the 5th Division was moved to the area northeast of Verdun. Before it could enter the line in this sector the signing of the armistice ended the fighting. The 11th Field Artillery went into action with the 89th Division during the Meuse-Argonne operation.

Forty days were spent by the division in quiet sectors and none in active ones. Twelve prisoners were captured and casualties totaling 576 were suffered. When the division arrived in the Meuse-Argonne region, the sanitary train took station near Froidos. Due to shortage of ambulances in the corps, United States Army Ambulance Service Section No. 524 was detached from the division, leaving it only 12 G. M. C. ambulances.


985

Eight were assigned to the division organizations which evacuated their own patients to evacuation hospitals in the vicinity. The sanitary train was without other transportation with the exception of six mule ambulances, without animals, and two motor trucks for its own supplies.

The sanitary train, while the division was in the Meuse-Argonne operation, was moved from its first camp, near Froidos, to the site of a former German hospital about 2 km. (1.2 miles) north of Apremont, where it was immobilized until the division was withdrawn. One field hospital function, taking care of a number of sick of the 6th Division and of sick from other divisions. One dressing station was established. This was at Stonne, the farthest point north reached by the 6th Division. Here a number of refugees and wounded from other divisions were cared for.

Division headquarters was established at Aignay-le-Duc, November 30, 1918. On April 12, 1918, movement of the division to Germany was begun. Division headquarters was at Bad Bertrich on April 30. On May 6 the movement of the division was stopped, about 60 percent of the personnel having arrived in Germany. On May 20 movement to Brest was begun. Division headquarters embarked on June 3, 1919, and arrived at New York on June 10.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Paul L. Freeman, M. C., December 28, 1917, to May 12, 1919.
Col. James M. Phalen, M. C., May 13, 1919, to June 30, 1919.
Lieut. Col. Howard K. White, M. C., July 1, 1919, to August 31, 1919.
Lieut. Col. Fletcher O. McFarland, M. C., September 1-10, 1919.

THE 7TH DIVISION1, 9

(Regular Army. Insignia: Two black triangles with their apexes touching in center of a red circle)

The 7th Division was organized January 1, 1918, from troops of the Regular Army and by transfers from other units. For the purpose of training, organizations concentrated at Camp McArthur, Tex., in June, 1918, but the division was not completely assembled as a unit until arrival in France.

The organization was as follows:

135th Infantry Brigade:
     55th and 56th Infantry; 20th Machine Gun Battalion.
14th Infantry Brigade:
     34th and 64th Infantry; 21st Machine Gun Battalion.
7th Field Artillery Brigade:
     79th and 80th (light), and 8th (heavy) Field Artillery; 7th Trench Mortar Battery.
19th Machine Gun Battalion.
5th Engineers.
10th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (7th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 22, 34, 35, 36 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 22, 34, 35, 36).

The first unit of the division to go overseas arrived in France August 6, 1918; the last September 3, 1918.

For training purposes the division (less artillery) was sent to the fifteenth training area, with headquarters at Ancy-le-Franc (Yonne). For a similar purpose the artillery brigade was sent to Camp Meucon (Morbihan). It never joined the division during operations.

The division, less artillery, departed on September 27 for the front, detraining in the vicinity of Toni. It became reserve of the Fourth Corps, First Army. Headquarters was established successively at Gondreville, Villers-en-Haye, and Euvezin.


986

The sanitary train arrived at Brest, France, August 25, 1918, and four days later proceeded to the training area, arriving at Ancy-le-Franc September 1, 1918. The train arrived without any equipment, and as there were no hospital facilities in the area with the exception of a 10-bed French hospital, seriously sick were shipped by train to Base Hospital No. 17, at Dijon. Those unable to stand transportation were held at the overcrowded French hospital.

On September 20, 1918, Camp Hospital No. 49 opened at Laignes and relieved the situation. Field Hospital No. 22 assisted in the operation of this hospital while the division was in this area.

Puvenelle Sector, October 10 to November 11, 1918.

January 10, 1919, the division moved to the region north of Toul, with headquarters at Saizerais (Meurthe et Moselle), one regiment (34th Infantry) remaining in the devastated area for guard and police duty.

In April the division moved to the Colombey-les-Belles area, and then to the Le Mans Embarkation Center preparatory to returning to the United States.

Headquarters embarked on June 12, 1919, and arrived in New York on June 20, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEON 3

Col. A. W. Williams, M. C., May 26, 1918 to November 8, 1919
 

THE 26TH DIVISION 1, 10

(National Guard. Insignia: Dark-blue monogram YD on diamond-shaped field of olive drab)

The 26th Division was organized in August, 1917, at Boston, Mass., from National Guard troops of the New England States, supplemented by the small quota of National Army troops from Camp Devens, Mass.

The organization was as follows:

51st Infantry Brigade:
     101st and 102d Infantry; 102d Machine Gun Battalion.
52d Infantry Brigade:
     103d and 104th Infantry; 103d Machine Gun Battalion.
101st Machine Gun Battalion.
51st Field Artillery Brigade:
     101st and 102d (light), 103d (heavy) Field Artillery; 101st Trench Mortar Battery.
101st Engineers.
101st Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (101st Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 101, 102, 103, 104, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 101, 102, 103, 104).

The first unit to go overseas arrived at St. Nazaire, France, on September 20, 1917. The last element arrived on November 12, 1917.

The division (less artillery, engineers, and signal battalion) remained in a training area with headquarters at Neufchateau until February, 1918. For purposes of training, the artillery was sent to Coetquidan. It, as well as all other elements, rejoined the division early in February and remained with it during all activities in which it participated.

The division proceeded to the vicinity of Soissons on February 6, 1918, where attached to the French Eleventh Corps, its units went into line in the Chemin des Dames sector on February 10. It was withdrawn March 21, and moved to the La Reine and Boucq sector northwest of Toul, relieving the American 1st Division and the French 10th Colonial Division in line on April 3. From April 10-13 the division successfully repelled an attack by the enemy on the Bois Brule subsector at Apremont. This was the first engagement in which American troops took part in any number. On April 20-21 the


987

division was involved in a defensive operation known as the "Seicheprey raid." This was an enemy attack in force against the defenses of the town of Seicheprey. Although American losses were heavy, the enemy was repulsed, and all ground taken by him was recaptured by counterattack. Minor operations of both an offensive and a defensive character kept this sector active during the remainder of the division's stay therein.

The sanitary train arrived in France in September and October, 1917, and was sent to the Neufchateau training area. Here the sections of the sanitary train were located in widely separated towns, the ambulance section at Liffol-leGrand and the field hospital section at Bazoilles-sur-Meuse.

Field Hospital No. 101 assisted in the construction of the hospital center at Bazoilles and Field Hospital No. 104 opened at Neufchateau for division sick. On December 7, 1917, Field Hospital No. 101 established a hospital at Liffol-le-Grand for the sick and Field Hospital No. 104 cared for contagious diseases only. Field Hospital No. 103 was sent to Dijon, where it assisted in the construction of Base Hospital No. 17. Field Hospital No. 102 was sent in detachments to the operating division hospitals and to line organizations. In the last week of January, 1918, preparations were made for a move, and the hospitals being operated by the field hospitals were turned over to Base Hospital No. 66, at Neufchateau. The field hospital personnel was assembled and reorganized. On arrival in the Chemin-des-Dames sector, the sanitary train was subdivided among French medical personnel. Though line troops received valuable training here, the medical Department had no opportunity to train satisfactorily its units by actual experience in their field duties, and the French cared for almost all casualties. It made observations, however, in gas treatment, in operation of the triage, and in other details of field service. As our troops had no base hospitals in this region, the French permitted us to transfer patients to the American Ambulance (later American Red Cross Hospital No. 1), at Paris.

The field hospitals functioned as follows: Field Hospital No. 101 went to Bois Roger; No. 102 to Ambulance St. Paul at Soissons for seriously wounded; No. 103 operated in a chateau at Muret et Crouttes; No. 104 assisted in a French evacuation hospital at Vasseny. Detachments were also sent to various other French hospitals, including contagious, gas, venereal, skin, and psychoneurotic hospitals.

When the division entered the lines in the Toul sector, dressing stations were operated at Gironville and Liouville, on the left, and at Mandres-aux-Quatre-Tours and Bois de Rehanne, on the right. Ambulance companies were reinforced by United States Army Ambulance Service Section No. 647. Because of the long frontage of the Toul sector--18 km. (10.8 miles)--two triages were established. That for the left of the line, operated by Field Hospital No. 104, was located successively at Aulnois-sous-Vertuzey and at Abbaye Rongeval; while that on the right, operated by Field Hospital No. 102, was located first at Menil-la-Tour and later, after June 2, at a point near Minorville. Wounded and gassed from the left sector were evacuated to Mobile Hospital No. 39 near Aulnois-sous-Vertuzey, and from the right sector to Evacuation Hospital No. 1 at Sebastopol, while contagious, venereal, and skin cases were sent to Field Hospital No. 103, at Toul. Divisional sick and gassed who were fit for transportation were sent to Field Hospital No. 101, at Caserne-la-Marche, in Toul. Before the division left this sector this hospital had expanded to a capacity of 900 beds and was amply equipped.

Chateau-Thierry Sector, July 10-14.
Champagne-Marne operation, July 15-18.
Aisne-Marne operation, July 18 to August 3.

The division, on August 16, proceeded to the Chatillon training area. The 101st Engineers remained in line under the First Corps until August 3, and the artillery brigade until August 4 supporting the 4th and 42d Divisions.

The sanitary train also entrained for the 12th Rest Area, in the vicinity of Chatillon-sur-Seine, where field hospitals were located at Villotte for divisional sick, severe cases being sent to Base Hospital No. 15, at Chaumont. Mobile Surgical Unit No. 7, which now joined the division, was assigned to Field Hospital No. 3.

St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16.


988

On September 26, Field Hospital No. 102 was moved to Ambly, and on the 28th all field hospitals except No. 102 were set up at Chapelle and Ferme de les Palameix. This disposition of field hospitals continued until the division left this sector. When the division attacked, on September 26, 1918, Ambulance Company No. 101 followed the infantry and established a dressing station at Sauix, with litter bearers working well in advance. Ambulance Company No. 102 evacuated the wounded, running into Sauix and beyond, making connection with the litter-bearer section. That night the field was cleared of wounded and the dressing station was moved back to Hannonville.

Meuse-Argonne operation.

On November 14, 1918, the division proceeded to the 8th Training Area, with headquarters at Montigny-le-Roi. In January it moved to the Le Mans embarkation center, where it remained until its return to the United States.

Division headquarters sailed from Brest on March 27, 1919, and arrived at Boston April 4, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. James L. Bevans, M. C., August 22, 1917, to June 24, 1918.
Col. Ralph S. Porter, M. C., June 25 to November 23, 1918.
Maj. Fred. E. Jones, M. C., November 27 to December 9, 1918.
Lieut. Col. Thomas L. Jenkins, M. C., December 10, 1918, to February 4, 1919.
Col. John H. Allen, M. C., February 5 to April 29, 1919.
 

THE 27TH DIVISION 1, 11

(National Guard. Insignia: A red-bordered black circle with the letters NYD in monogram and surrounded by seven stars placed as in the constellation of Orion)

The 27th Division was organized in September, 1917, at Camp Wadsworth, S. C., from National Guard troops of New York.

The organization was as follows:

53d Infantry Brigade:
     105th and 106th Infantry; 105th Machine Gun Battalion.
54th Infantry Brigade:
     107th and 108th Infantry; 106th Machine Gun Battalion.
52d Artillery Brigade:
     104th and 106th (light), 106th (heavy) Field Artillery; 102d Trench Mortar Battery.
104th Machine Gun Battalion.
102d Engineers.
102d Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (102d Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 105, 106, 107, 108, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 105, 106, 107, 108).

The first unit of the division arrived in France May 7, 1918; the last, July 12, 1918.

For training purposes, the division (less artillery) was attached to British units in the Department of the Somme until July 3, 1918. For the same purpose the Artillery brigade went to Camp de Souge, where it remained until August 30, 1918. It never served again with the 27th Division, but participated in the Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to November 11, 1918.

The sanitary train did not rejoin the division until the latter part of July and August. While in the training area all casualties were cared for by British field ambulances and casualty clearing station.

Dickenbush Lake and Scharpenberg sectors, July 9 to August 30, 1918.
Ypres-Lys operation, August 31 to September 2, 1918.
Somme operation, September 24 to October 20, 1918.


989

The division was withdrawn from line October 21, and proceeded to the Corbie area, with headquarters at Corbie. On November 23 it moved to the Le Mans embarkation center preparatory to its return to the United States.

Division headquarters sailed from Brest on February 26, and arrived at New York on March 6, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Lieut. Col. Edward H. Maloney, M. C., July 16, 1917, to August 22, 1918.
Col. Walter C. Montgomery, M. C., August 23, 1918, to February 26, 1919.
 

THE 28TH DIVISION 1, 12

(National Guard. Insignia: Red keystone)

The 28th Division was organized in September, 1917, at Camp Hancock, Ga., from National Guard troops of the State of Pennsylvania.

The organization was as follows:

55th Infantry Brigade:
     109th and 110th Infantry; 108th Machine Gun Battalion.
56th Infantry Brigade:
     111th and 112th Infantry; 109th Machine Gun Battalion.
107th Machine Gun Battalion.
53d Field Artillery Brigade:
     107th and 109th (light); 108th (heavy) Field Artillery. 103d Trench Mortar Battery.
103d Engineers.
103d Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (103d Sanitary Train; Field Hospitals Nos. 109, 110, 111, 112 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 109, 110, 111, 112).

The first unit of the division to go overseas arrived in France May 14, 1918; the last, June 11, 1918.

For training purposes, the division (less artillery) was attached to the British 34th Division, south of St. Omer, where it remained until June 9. The division proceeded to the vicinity of Paris  June 13, where it was attached to French troops for further training. For the same purpose the Artillery brigade went to Camp Meucon. It rejoined the division in August, 1918, and remained with it until October, 1918, when it passed to the reserve of the First Army Artillery. It later participated with the 91st Division in the Ypres-Lys operation, October 29 to November 11, 1918.

The sanitary train arrived at Liverpool, England, on May 31, 1918, and was sent to Fays-Billot, in the vicinity of Langres, France, for training. Here it remained until July 6, 1918, when it rejoined the division in the vicinity of Chateau-Thierry.

Chateau-Thierry Sector, July 7-14, 1918.
Champagne-Marne operation, July 15-18, 1918.
Aisne-Marne operation, July 18 to August 6, 1918.
Fismes sector, August 7-17, 1918.
Oise-Aisne operation, August 18 to September 7, 1918.
Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to October 10, 1918.

Upon its relief from the Meuse-Argonne operation the division proceeded to the Thiaucourt sector, Toul, which it held from October 16 to November 11, 1918.

Field Hospital No. 109 operated at Bouillonville, but the number of patients admitted was very small. On October 30 it moved to Nonsard, where it opened a triage in a large barn, operating here until the armistice.

Field Hospital No. 110 on October 17 took over the tentage of Field Hospital No. 146 of the 37th Division at Bernecourt. Here it functioned for two days, moving to Essey-et-Maizerais, where it erected and operated a tent hospital until the armistice.


990

Field Hospital No. 111 established in a French hospital near Minorville on October 18, and on the 23d moved to Bernecourt. On the 30th it moved to Buxerulles.

Field Hospital No. 112 established at Essey-et-Maizerais on October 18, but as the work was very light it closed on November 1, 1918.

After the armistice the division remained in the Thiaucourt sector until January 9, 1919, when it moved south of Toni, with headquarters at Colombey-les-Belles, remaining there until the latter part of March, when it moved to the Le Mans embarkation center preparatory to returning to the United States.

Division headquarters sailed from St. Nazaire April 20, 1919, and arrived at Newport News May 1, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEON 3

Col. William J. Crookston, M. C., May 22, 1917, to April 18, 1919.
 

THE 29TH DIVISION 1, 13

(National Guard. Insignia: A circle bisected by two half circles, reversed and joined; one-half of circle blue, other half gray)

The 29th Division was organized at Camp McClellan, Ala., under authority of a War Department order dated July 26, 1917. It was originally composed of National Guard units from the District of Columbia and the States of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Later, however, the Delaware troops were withdrawn and organized into pioneer infantry units.

The following organizations composed the division:

57th Infantry Brigade:
     113th, 114th Infantry; 111th Machine Gun Battalion.
58th Infantry Brigade:
     115th, 116th Infantry; 112th Machine Gun Battalion.
54th Field Artillery Brigade:
     110th, 111th (light), and 112th (heavy) Field Artillery; 110th Trench Mortar Battery.
110th Machine Gun Battalion.
104th Engineers.
104th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (104th Sanitary Train Field Hospitals Nos. 113, 114, 115, 116, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 113, 114, 115, 116).

The first element of the division arrived in France June 8, 1918, and the last, July 22, 1918. Many of the units landed in England and then crossed the Channel.

Within a few days after its arrival in France the division proceeded to the 10th Training Area and established headquarters at Prauthoy (Haute Marne). After two weeks' training, orders were received to move to upper Alsace for the purpose of taking over a quiet sector of the front. From the 17th to 25th of July the division was stationed near Belfort under command of the French Fortieth Corps.

Occupation of the center sector, upper Alsace, began on the 25th of July and was completed on August 7, at which time command of the sector passed from the French to the Americans.

On September 23 the division was withdrawn to the vicinity of Belfort and ordered to the Robert Espagne training area. After leaving Belfort the division was assigned to the American First Army and ordered to the area in which the Meuse-Argonne operation was soon to be launched. Division headquarters was established at Conde, September 24. From this point the division moved north, with headquarters successively at St. Andre and Blercourt. On October 1 the division was placed in reserve of the French Seventeenth Corps, with headquarters at the citadel of Verdun.

The sanitary train did not join the division while in the training area, and all sick were cared for by Camp Hospital No. 10. The train rejoined the division in the center


991

sector on July 25, 1918, and functioned as follows: Field Hospital No. 113 at Romagny, for gassed cases, most of its equipment being furnished by the French; Field Hospital No. 114 at Reppe; Field Hospital No. 115 at Montreux Jeune, for medical, contagious, and venereal cases. This unit operated a small infirmary at Retzwiller for the treatment of skin cases and emergency gas. Field Hospital No. 116 was stationed at Chevannes-les-Grandes, for surgical cases. The medical supply dump was at Fontaine.

From the field hospitals, cases that required evacuation were sent to French hospitals, there being no American evacuation or base hospitals in the sector.

Ambulance Companies No. 113 and No. 114 took station at Traubach-la-Haute., where the former established a dressing station. While in this sector, the sanitary troops received their most important training. Each field hospital received and treated patients. Two medical officers and three enlisted men were sent from each field hospital to French hospitals for a course of instruction in the French methods of handling wounded. Details were also sent to the schools for gas defense at Chaumont and Langres and to the motor transport school.

Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to November 11, 1918.

After the signing of the armistice the division was removed to a rest area, with division headquarters at Bourbonne-les-Bains. The movement to the embarkation center for return to this country began April 11, and on the 14th, headquarters was established at Ballon, near Le Mans. Division headquarters sailed May 6 and arrived at Newport News May 19.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Craig R. Snyder, M. C., August 24, 1917, to January 30, 1918.
Col. John B. Huggins, M. C., January 31, 1918, to October 19, 1918.
Col. Arthur M. Allen, M. C., November 18, 1918, to December 28,1918.
Col. John B. Huggins, M. C., December 29, 1918, to May 31, 1919.

THE 30TH DIVISION 1, 14

(National Guard. Insignia: Monogram "OH" containing Roman numeral XXX, all in blue on maroon field)

The 30th Division was organized in October, 1917 at Camp Sevier, S. C., from National Guard troops of Tennessee and North and South Carolina.

The organization was as follows: 2

59th Infantry Brigade:
     117th and 118th Infantry; 114th Machine Gun Battalion.
60th Infantry Brigade:
     119th and 120th Infantry; 115th Machine Gun Battalion, 113th Machine Gun Battalion.
55th Artillery Brigade:
     113th, 114th (light), 115th (heavy) Field Artillery; 105th Trench Mortar Battery.
105th Engineers.
105th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (105th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 117, 118, 119, 120 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 117, 118, 119, 120).

The first unit of the division to go overseas arrived in France May 14, 1918; the last, June 24, 1918.

For training purposes, the division (less artillery) was attached to British units in the Eperlecques area (Pas-de-Calais), where it remained until July 4, 1918. For the same purpose the artillery brigade went to Coetquidan. It never served again with the 30th Division, but participated in the St. Mihiel operation, September 12 to 16, 1918, and in the Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to October 8, 1918. It was also in line


992

in the Toul sector August 23 to September 11, 1918, and in the Woevre sector October 11 to November 8, 1918.2

The 105th Sanitary Train upon arrival in France was detached from the division and did not rejoin it again until August 1, 1918, when Field Hospitals No. 118 and No. 119 and Ambulance Companies No. 118 and No. 119 reported. The remainder of the sanitary train did not join until after the armistice. While in the training area casualties were evacuated and cared for by British medical organizations.

Canal Sector, Belgium, July 16 to August 30, 1918.
Ypres-Lys operation, Belgium, August 31 to September 2, 1918.
Somme operation, September 24 to October 20, 1918.

The division was withdrawn October 20 and proceeded to the vicinity of Amiens, where it remained until November 24, when it was ordered to the Le Mans embarkation center preparatory to return to the United States.

Division headquarters sailed from St. Nazaire March 18, 1919, and arrived at Charleston, S. C., on April 2, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS

Col. Arthur M. Whaley, M. C., August 25, 1917, to November 25, 1918.
Maj. Philip Norris, M. C., November 26, 1918, to December 9, 1918.
Maj. Henry Norris, M. C., December 10, 1918, to February 15, 1919.
Lieut. Col. Jerome L. Morgan. M. C., February 22, 1919, to April 15, 1919.

THE 32D DIVISION 1, 15

(National Guard. Insignia: A red arrow piercing a line)

The 32d Division was organized at Camp McArthur, Tex., under authority of a War Department order dated July 18, 1917. It was composed of National Guard troops from the States of Michigan
and Wisconsin.

The following organizations composed the division:

63d Infantry Brigade:
     125th and 126th Infantry; 120th Machine Gun Battalion.
64th Infantry Brigade:
     127th and 128th Infantry; 121st Machine Gun Battalion.
57th Field Artillery Brigade:
     119th, 120th (light), 121st (heavy) Field Artillery; 107th Trench Mortar Battery.
119th Machine Gun Battalion.
107th Engineers.
107th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (107th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 125, 126, 127, 128, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 125, 126, 127, 128).

The 147th Field Artillery of the 41st Division was attached to the 57th Field Artillery Brigade and served with it throughout its activities.

The first unit of the division arrived in France February 6, 1918, and the last, March 14, 1918. The first casualties were suffered when the transport Tuscania, carrying the 107th Sanitary Train, was torpedoed and sunk February 5, 15 men of this organization being lost.

Division headquarters was established at Prauthoy, Haute Marne, on February 24. The 32d Division was originally designated as a replacement division and as such sent many of its members to other organizations. However, the German offensive of March 21 and the resulting necessity for additional American troops forced a change in these plans. Replacements were furnished it, and the division assembled in the 10th Training Area preparatory to taking the field as a combat unit. After four weeks spent in this area, the division was ordered to the quiet Haute-Alsace Sector. The movement to this sector


993

began May 15, and on the 16th, headquarters was established at La Chapelle. On the 18th, the French troops in the sector were relieved and the division for the first time took over front-line trenches, which were held until July 21.

The sanitary train arrived in France in the latter part of February and early part of March, 1918, and joined the division in the 10th Training Area. Casualties were cared for by Camp Hospital No. 10, which was operated by Field Hospital No. 127, assisted by details from other field hospitals. All serious cases were evacuated to Base Hospital No. 17, Dijon. On its arrival in the Haute-Alsace sector, the sanitary train was very intimately associated with the medical service of the French Army. Each field hospital was sent to operate in connection with a French ambulance. Field Hospital No. 125 went to Valdieu, and on June 27 opened a hospital at Chavannes-les-Grands. Field Hospital No. 126 operated with a French ambulance at Romagny, but after July 1, functioned alone for the care of gassed and sick.

Field Hospital No. 127 was sent to Lauw, Alsace, where it operated a hospital in conjunction with a French ambulance. On June 26, a part of this unit opened a hospital at Masseveaux, Alsace.

Field Hospital No.128 operated a hospital with a French ambulance at Bellemagny, Alsace, to June 11, and from June 26 assisted in a French evacuation hospital at La Chapelle. There being no American evacuation hospitals in the sector all evacuations from the division were made through French evacuation hospitals.

Aisne-Marne operation, July 30 to August 6, 1918.
Oise-Aisne operation, August 28 to September 2, 1918.
Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to November 11, 1918.
Army of Occupation.

Division headquarters sailed from Brest, April 27, 1919, and arrived at New York, May 5.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Perry L. Boyer, M. C., August 25, 1917, to November 4, 1917.
Col. Gilbert R. Seaman, M. C., November 5-21, 1917.
Col. Paul C. Hutton, M. C., November 22, 1917, to March 10, 1918.
Col. Gilbert R. Seaman, M. C., March 11, 1917, to October 21, 1918.
Lieut. Col. James R. Scott, M. C., October 22, 1918, to January 27, 1919.
Major Louis A. Moore, M. C., February 1, 1919, to March 15, 1919.
Lieut. Col. James R. Scott, M. C., March 16, 1919, to May, 1919.
 

THE 33D DIVISION 1, 16

(National Guard. Insignia: A yellow cross on a black circle)

The 33d Division was organized at Camp Logan, Tex., in July, 1917, from National Guard troops of Illinois. The organization was as follows:

65th Infantry Brigade:
     129th and 130th Infantry; 123d Machine Gun Battalion.
66th Infantry Brigade:
     131st and 132d Infantry; 124th Machine Gun Battalion.
58th Field Artillery Brigade:
     122d, 124th (light), and 123d (heavy) Field Artillery; 108th Trench Mortar Battery.
122d Machine Gun Battalion.
108th Engineers.
108th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (108th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 129, 130, 131, 132 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 129, 130, 131, 132).

The first unit of the division arrived in France May 18, 1918; the last, June 15, 1918.


994

For the purpose of training, the division (less artillery) was sent to the Huppy area near Abbeville, where it began instruction with the British. On June 8, it moved to the Eu area, and on June 20-21 advanced into the Amiens sector, where certain units participated in several active operations. On July 4, two companies of the 131st Infantry and two companies of the 132d Infantry took part in the attack of the Australians on Hamel. In the Somme offensive, the 131st Infantry played a prominent part in the attack on Chipilly Ridge and Grèssaire Wood.

On August 23, the division was transferred to the area of the First American Army in the Toul sector and was concentrated in the vicinity of Tronville-en-Barrois. On Sepember 5, it began its movement to the Verdun sector, where it relieved the French 120th Division and the right regiment of the French 57th Division on the nights of September 7, 8, and 9.

The sanitary train arrived in France June 20, 1918. One-half of the train (Field Hospitals No. 129 and No. 130 and Ambulance Companies No. 129 and No. 130 and four camp infirmaries) proceeded to Molliens-aux-Bois for training under the British, while Field Hospitals No. 131 and No. 132, and Ambulance Companies No. 131 and No. 132 were sent to a training area in southern France.

In order that the Medical Department of the division might employ British equipment, it was necessary so to organize the sanitary train that its elements would function in a manner similar to those of corresponding units in the British Army--the field ambulances. This was effected by combining two ambulance companies and two field hospitals. One ambulance company and one field hospital then constituted a provisional field ambulance. The two units thus formed were numbered 129 and 130, and both were equipped with British medical matériel.

Provisional Field Ambulance No. 129 went into training at Famehon, operating in conjunction with Field Ambulance No. 42 (British). On July 18 it moved to Allonville, with the 65th Brigade, where it was attached to the Australian Third Corps, and performed evacuation service from forward areas.

Provisional Field Ambulance No. 130 went into training at Pierregot, performing regular ambulance service for the 66th Brigade while in the British sector and also serving British troops located near it. Detachments were sent forward frequently to the main dressing stations, advance dressing stations, and bearer posts for the purpose of instruction. Provisional Ambulance Company No. 130 operated with the 66th Brigade and the British in front of Vadencourt, Henencourt, and Montigny. In the attack on Chipilly Ridge and Grèssaire Wood, eight casualties occurred in the Medical Department detachment of the 131st Infantry.

When the sanitary train arrived in the Toul sector British equipment was retained with the exception of the transport, which was returned to the British. Field Hospitals No. 131 and No. 132 rejoined the division on August 31, but the remaining two ambulance companies (No. 131 and No. 132) did not join until October, and United States Army Ambulance Service Section No. 600 was assigned to the division to replace them.

The sanitary train was located at Menil-sur-Sauix and Field Hospital No. 129 established a sick collecting point at Tronville. When the division moved to the Verdun sector, the sanitary train was disposed as follows: Field Hospital No. 131, at Glorieux, triage;  Field Hospital No. 130, gas cases, at Souhesmes; Ambulance company No. 129 established an advanced dressing station at La Claire. The remainder of the sanitary train took station at Sivry-la-Perche, where Field Hospital No. 132 opened a divisional sick collecting station.

From the field hospitals casualties were evacuated to Evacuation Hospitals No. 6 and No. 7, at Souilly.

On September 16 the sanitary train moved to Thierville and Glorieux and preparations were made for the coming operation.

Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to October 23
Troyon sector, October 26 to November 11, 1918.


995

On December 8, 1918 the division commenced an advance which carried its leading brigades across the Moselle into Rhenish Germany. During this movement it was attached to the army of occupation, but upon the revocation of this disposition, on December 15, it was withdrawn west of that river and established in the northern part of Luxemburg, with headquarters located at Diekirch. There it remained until the latter part of April, 1919, when the movement to Le Mans was begun preparatory to returning to the United States. Division headquarters sailed from Brest on May 9, and arrived at Hoboken on May 17, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. L. M. Hathaway, M. C., August 23, 1917, to January 6, 1919.
Col. Harry D. Orr, M. C., January 7, 1919, to May 18, 1919.
 

THE 35TH DIVISION 1, 17

(National Guard. Insignia: Santa Fe cross within two circles of varying colors, the outer one divided into four arcs)

The 35th Division was organized at Camp Doniphan, Fort Sill, Okla., in September, 1917, from National Guard units of Missouri and Kansas.

The organization was as follows:

69th Infantry Brigade:
     137th and 138th Infantry; 129th Machine Gun Battalion.
70th Infantry Brigade:
     139th and 140th Infantry; 130th Machine Gun Battalion.
60th Field Artillery Brigade:
     128th, 129th (light), 130th (heavy) Field Artillery; 110th Trench Mortar Battery.
128th Machine Gun Battalion.
110th Engineers.
110th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (110th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 137, 138, 139, 140 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 137, 138, 139, 140).

The first unit of the division arrived in France May 11, 1918; the last, June 8, 1918.

For training purposes, the division (less artillery) was sent to the vicinity of Eu (Somme), where it remained until June 8, 1918. It moved to the vicinity of Epinal on June 11, and on June 30 it moved to the Vosges, where it was brigaded with the French in line in the Gerardmer sector. Command of the sector passed to the commanding general, 35th Division, on July 27. The Artillery brigade trained at Camp Coetquidan. It rejoined the division in the Vosges, August 14.

On August 31, the division was relieved by units of the American 6th Division, and French 131st Division, and proceeded to the Foret de Haye, west of Nancy, for concentration preparatory to the St. Mihiel operation, in which it was in the reserve of the First Army.

On September 15, the division was placed under the tactical control of the French Second Army, and moved to the Naives-devant-Bar area, with headquarters established at Passavant-en-Argonne, on September 18. On September 19, it moved to the Vraincourt--Auzeville area, with headquarters at Autrecourt. On September 23, it relieved the French 73d Division, in the line in the Grange-la-Comte sector.

The sanitary train did not join the division until June 12. Practically no medical equipment had been brought from the United States except the personal equipment of officers and enlisted men. Battalions were supplied with British equipment and three British field ambulances. Nos. 96, 97, and 98, were assigned to the division as training units as well as to care for division casualties. When the division arrived in the vicinity, of Epinal, the sanitary train rejoined it and was billeted at Eloyes. The train arrived with but little equipment, and no transportation was available for the first 36 hours.


996

Ten large 3-ton trucks were assigned to the train, eight of which were used to collect and evacuate the sick and injured. Within a week after its arrival in this sector, 42 trucks and 12 motor ambulances were received.

Field Hospital No. 137 established in tents and buildings at Eloyes for sick and contagious cases.

Field Hospital No. 140 and Ambulance Company No. 140 were stationed at La Racine for the hospitalization and evacuation of the 69th Brigade and 110th Engineers. Field Hospital No. 136 and Ambulance Company No. 136 were at Le Menu, to cover the 70th Brigade and Machine Gun Battalion.

Field Hospital No. 139 and Ambulance Company No. 139 were held in reserve. Ambulance Company No. 137, with headquarters at Eloyes, operated as an evacuation ambulance company.

When the division began to filter in with French troops in the Vosges, Field Hospital No. 139 took over a section of a French hospital at Bussang and Ambulance Company No. 140 established in part at Ranspach. On June 20, United States Army Ambulance Section No. 606 reported for duty with the sanitary train and was assigned to Ranspach for evacuation from battalions in the line to the field hospital at Bussang.

On June 28 Field Hospital No. 138 relieved No. 139 at Bussang, the latter moving to Ninth, where it operated a hospital for contagious diseases. A section of Field Hospital No. 137 established a hospital for surgical and gas cases at Storkensohn. Field Hospital No. 140 operated at Urbes for medical and venereal cases. The medical supply depot was also at the latter place. A section of Field Hospital No. 137 remained at Eloyes to care for seriously sick at that point.

Ambulance Company No. 138 moved up to Bussang, and the remainder of the ambulance companies established their headquarters at Ranspach.

Motor ambulance stations were established at Larchey, Dreh, Kruth, Haag, Wagram, and Moosch. Ambulance Company No. 140 operated its animal-drawn ambulances from Thann and Mittlach. The dressing sections of Ambulance Companies No. 139 and No. 140 were operating in connection with Alpine ambulances at Larchey and Wagram. Dressing station sections were also operating at Haag and Wagram. On July 1 the section of Field Hospital No. 137, operating at Eloyes, was closed and consolidated at Storkensohn. Sections from Ambulance Companies Nos. 137, 139, and 140 also occupied parts of the Alpine ambulances at Mittlach, Larchey, and Nonette. These three principal dressing stations served the front line and were the farthest points to which ambulances could be sent. From the battalion aid stations to these dressing stations it was necessary to transport the patients by hand, pack mule, or wheeled litter.

The Alpine ambulances were permanent sector installations, with a small personnel from the French medical department. They were absolutely shell-proof and were practically entirely underground; each was equipped for the treatment of the gassed and had its wards, operating rooms, etc., as well as quarters for the personnel.

On July 20 the dressing station at Nonette was given up. Ambulance Company No. 137 established a dressing station at Ventron. At this time Ambulance Company No. 139 operated the station at Mittlach and Ambulance Company No. 138 at Larchey. The transport section of the latter operated as an evacuation ambulance company.

United States Army Ambulance Service Section No. 606 was relieved from duty with the division and a part of section No. 642 was assigned.

On August 10 units of the sanitary train were located as follows: Field Hospital No. 137, operating in three sections, at Storkensohn, with Surgical Unit No. 13, for surgical cases, at Kruth for surgical and gassed cases, and at Dreh for gas and nontransportable wounded.

Field Hospital No. 138, at Bussang, functioned as an evacuation hospital; No. 139, at Le Menil, for contagious; No. 140, at Ventron, for medical, venereal, and skin cases. Ambulance Company No. 137 operated dressing stations at Larchey and performed evacuation in that sector. Ambulance Company No. 138, at Bussang, evacuated to base hospitals. Ambulance Company No. 139, at Ventron, evacuated the reserve area. Ambulance Company No. 140 operated a dressing station at Mittlach, evacuating that sector.


997

The problem of evacuation of the wounded from the front in the mountains back to the field hospitals presented at all times almost every imaginable difficulty. The character of the terrain rendered any plan of uniform evacuation impossible. On account of the difference in the lateral elevation of most of the trenches, it was necessary for each of the battalions to establish from two to four aid stations, and, in addition, there were always one or two Medical Department men operating a small aid station with each company in line.

From the front-line trenches it was always necessary to carry the wounded back by hand; in most instances not even a litter could be used, the men being transported on the backs of the litter bearers. Litter bearers ordinarily worked in squads of four, the litter being carried on the shoulders of the four men. Occasionally it was possible to use a wheel litter, where the paths were not too rough and not too steep.

From battalion aid stations to the dressing station it was occasionally possible to send up narrow double-decked French litter ambulances carrying two patients recumbent. This ambulance, however, was unsatisfactory because of its weight and unwieldiness, and also because on the steep paths it always required two mules. The pack carrier, or cacolet, was tried out, but was soon abandoned because of the pain that transportation by it gave the wounded man. In spite of all the difficulties and the long distances, no patient was ever received at the surgical hospital later than 12 hours after his injury.

When, on August 31, the division was relieved in the Gerardmer sector, the relief of the Medical Department was carried out in conformity with the following orders:

D.S. 35TH DIVISION,
August 31st, 1918.
Secret.

FIELD MEDICAL ORDER No. 8

1.  In compliance with orders, headquarters, 35th Division and 33d French Corps, the sanitary units of the 6th Division will relieve the sanitary units of the 35th Division. This relief will be completed before midnight of September 1, 1918. The relief will be made, unit for unit, in the present location of the sanitary units of the 35th Division.

2.  The commanding officer, 110th Sanitary Train, will continue to clear the field hospitals of the 35th Division into the Base at Vittel, with all available transportation, until midnight September 1, 1918.

3.  As soon as the relief of units of the 35th Division is complete, each unit will move to its new billeting area. The billeting areas designated for the sanitary train, September 2, 1918, are Barrey Seroux and Arrents de Carcieux. Unit billeting officers should be sent 24 hours ahead of the movement of their unit. The relief and movement of the units of the sanitary train of the 35th Division must be completed before 6 p. m., September 2, 1918.

4.  The commanding officer, 110th Sanitary Train, will arrange to cover movement of troops with ambulances and to collect sick and injured from the new billeting areas. Evacuation to be made to the hospitals at Gerardmer or to the French Ambulance at Fraize.

5.  The surgical team, less the three female nurses and the X-ray unit with personnel, will accompany Field Hospital No. 137. The three female nurses will be sent to Vittel, to remain there until the division arrives in its new area.

6.  Intransportable cases of sick and injured will be taken over by the field hospitals of the 6th Division.

7.  Every field hospital, ambulance company, and regimental or battalion unit will be completely equipped with medical supplies. Shell dressings on the basis of 700 to each field hospital will be taken. Each field hospital will take its allotment of ward tents and other necessary tentage.

8.  The medical supply depot will cut its supplies down to two truck loads after supplying the units of the 35th Division. All surplus supplies from hospitals, ambulance companies, and medical supply depot will be turned over to the 6th Division. Red Cross and French beds, together with all French equipment and all surplus American equipment now held in the 35th Division, will be turned over to the corresponding units of the 6th Division on informal receipt.

9.  The bath at Kruth, with one Foden lorry, will be left with the 6th Division as sector equipment. One Foden lorry will accompany the division.

10.  In compliance with telegraphic orders, 7th American Army Corps, Ambulance Company No. 162 will report for duty to the 6th Division as soon as the 35th Division moves.


998

HDQRS., MACKTARY,
August 31, 1918.

Secret
Field Orders, No. 60.

1.  In accordance with secret orders, hdqrs. 35th Division, the sanitary train of the 6th Division will relieve the units of this command. Relief will be effected before midnight, September 1, 1918. The relief wi1l be made unit for unit in the present locations of units of this train.

    (a) In order to avoid unnecessary transportation, units will, when possible, make an exchange of equipment.

    (b) Red Cross beds and mattresses, French equipment, and all surplus American equipment will be turned over to the units of the 6th Sanitary Train, on informal memorandum receipt.

2.  Lieut. Charles L. Mosley, 140th Field Hospital, will have command of the truck train and will be responsible for the observance of the movement schedule of this organization.

     (a) Lieut. Vehrs, 137th Field Hospital, will report to Lieut. Mosley for temporary duty.

     (b) All trucks in possession of organizations of this train, with drivers (two days ration), wil1 report before 9 a.m., September 1, 1918, as follows: From organizations east of Ventron, to Lieut. Mosley at Kruth; from organizations west of Kruth, to Lieut. Vehrs at Ventron.

3.  (a) Ambulance Company 138 will continue to evacuate field hospitals until midnight Sept. 1, 1917, to the American base at Vittel. This company will cover movement of the troops of this division and the billeting areas (as per attached schedule), evacuating the sick and injured to the field hospital, 6th Division, at Gerardmer or to the Alpine ambulance station at Fraize. Location of  regimental and battalion infirmaries will be reported to these hdqrs. The four Ford ambulances now with A. C. 137, with personnel and one day's rations, will report to the C. O., A. C. 138, for duty, on relief from present stations. This company, less transportation section, will clear Ventron at 1 p.m., Sept. 2, 1918, for Barbey Seroux, movement to be made by trucks via Cornimont, Vagney, and Gerardmer. On completion of movement of the division, transportation will take station with company.

     (b) A. C. 137 will rendezvous at Hillside dressing station, on being relieved. They will proceed at 4 a.m., Sept. 2, 1918, for Barbey Seroux, marching to Kruth, and from this place to destination by trucks. The equipment of this company will be transported to Kruth by Ambulance Company 140 in time to be loaded on trucks at 5:30 a.m., Sept. 2, 1918.

     (c) A. C. 139 wi1l clear Le Collet at 1 p.m., Sept. 2, 1918, for Barbey Seroux, movement to be made on trucks via Gerardmer.

     (d) A. C. 140, less transportation section, will proceed to Barbey Seroux at 5 a.m., Sept. 2, 1918, movement to be made by trucks via Cornimont, Vagney, and Gerardmer road. The transportation section will transport its own and the equipment of A. C. 137 from dressing stations to Kruth. Upon completion of this duty it will proceed via Wildenstein, Le Collet, and Gerardmer to company hdqrs., at Barbey Seroux.

4.  (a) F. H. 139 will close at Le Menu at 10 a.m., Sept. 1, 1918, moving by truck to Arrents de Carcieux, via Cornimont, Vagney, and Gerardmer.

     (b) F. H. 140 will clear Ventron at 10 a.m., Sept. 1, 1918, moving by truck via Coralmont, Vagney, and Gerardmer to Arrents de Carcieux.

     (c) F. H. 137 will clear Kruth at 3 p.m., Sept. 1, 1918, proceeding to Arrents de Carcieux by trucks.

     (d) F. H. 138 will clear Gerardmer at 2 p.m., Sept. 1, 1918, proceeding to Arrents de Carcieux by trucks.

     (e) The 162d A. C. will maintain its present stations for the time being. Upon movement of this command it will stand relieved from duty with this division, and in compliance with telegraphic orders, 7th American Army Corps will report to the 6th Division for duty.

5. Trucks returning to Kruth for the 137th F. H. will travel via Gerardmer, Le Collet, and Wildenstein.

     (a) All patients in the hospital at the time of closing will be transferred to the relieving units.

6. By direction of the division surgeon, the surgical team, less three female nurses, will accompany F. H. 137.

     (a) The female nurses will proceed to Vittel, remaining there until the division arrives at its new area.

     (b)The C. O., A. C. 138, will arrange for the transportation necessary for compliance with (a).

7. The X-ray unit and personnel will accompany F. H. 137.

8. The division laboratory will move with F. H. 139.


999

9.  The medical supply depot will close at Gerardmer and Kruth at 1 p.m., Sept. 2,1918, and move to Barbey Seroux. Two truckloads of assorted supplies will be taken. Shell dressings, on the basis of 700 to each field hospital, will be taken. Field hospitals, ambulance companies, regimental and battalion infirmaries will be fully equipped with medical supplies. The remaining supplies will be turned over to the M. S. O. (medical supply officer) 6th division.

9½.  The train supply officer will make necessary arrangements for the supply of the units of this command in compliance with Orders No. 80, division hdqrs., August 30th, 1918.

10.  All unit commanders will make careful inspections of quarters and billets occupied by the personnel of their command, to see that they are properly policed and that no equipment is left. The billeting distribution lists will be properly closed.

11. Division orders relating to march discipline and aerial observation will be strictly complied with. The senior officer of the troops moving will be responsible for the proper discipline of his command. Men will not ride on top of trucks nor on the sides.

12. Field hospitals will not open at new locations.

13. The personnel officer will have charge of billeting arrangements of all units of this command.

14. Train headquarters will close at Gerardmer at 2 p.m., Sept. 2, and open at same hour and date at Barbey Seroux. Lieut. Mosley will furnish two trucks to train hdqrs. for this movement.

During the St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16, the division was in reserve, and Field Hospital No. 137 was established at Les Cinq Tranchees on the Nancy-Toul road. to act as a triage and to care for emergency cases; seriously sick and injured men were evacuated to the Justice Groupe at Toul.

Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to November 8, 1918.

The division proceeded to the St. Mihiel area, with headquarters at Commercy. On March 9, 1919, it moved to Montfort (Sarthe), remaining until April 5, when it proceeded to St. Nazaire preparatory to returning to the United States.

Division headquarters sailed from St. Nazaire on April 8, 1919, and arrived at Newport News, Va., April 20, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Wilson T. Davidson, M. C., September, 1917, to April 9, 1918.
Col. Raymond L. Turck, M. C., April 10, 1918, to January 8, 1919.
Lieut. Col. Carl Phillips, M. C., January 9, 1919, to April, 1919.
 

THE 36TH DIVISION1, 18

(National Guard. Insignia: An arrowhead with the letter "T" superimposed)

The 36th Division was organized at Camp Bowie, Fort Worth, Tex., under authority of a War Department order dated July 18, 1917. It was composed of National Guard troops from the States of Texas and Oklahoma. Just prior to embarking, the division was brought up to war strength by the addition of several thousand National Army men from the two States mentioned.

Its composition was as follows:

71st Infantry Brigade:
     141st and 142d Infantry; 132d Machine Gun Battalion.
72d Infantry Brigade:
     143d and 144th Infantry; 133d Machine Gun Battalion.
131st Machine Gun Battalion.
61st Field Artillery Brigade:
     131st, 132d (light), and 133d (heavy) Field Artillery; 111th Trench Mortar Battery.
111th Engineers.
111th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (111th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 141, 142, 143, 144 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 141, 142, 143, 144).

The first units of the division arrived in France May 31, 1918, and the last August 2, 1918.


1000

Immediately upon arrival all units, with the exception of the artillery, were sent to the Thirteenth training area in the vicinity of Bar-sur-Aube, where division headquarters was established on July 27. The 61st Field Artillery Brigade was detached and sent to Coetquidan, an Artillery training camp in Brittany, where it remained throughout the period of hostilities.

The division was stationed at Bar-sur-Aube until September 26, at which time it moved by rail to the area between Epernay and Chalons and established headquarters at Pocancy, Department of the Maine. Here it remained 10 days, as a reserve of the French group of armies of the center, attached to the French Fifth Army for purposes of supply.

To the north, only a short distance, the Meuse-Argonne operation was under way.  The American attack between the Argonne and the Meuse was being aided by the French Fourth Army in the Champagne just to the west. In the latter sector the enemy stubbornly resisted every attack, and on October 3 the 36th Division was transferred to the French Fourth Army, with which the American 2d Division was already serving.

On the night of October 4 units of the division began moving from the Pocancy area to the vicinity of Suippes and Somme-Suippes.

The sanitary train arrived in France July 31, 1918, and joined the division at Bar-sur-Aube on August 24. Here the train underwent training, and Field Hospital No. 141 established a temporary hospital for class C men and Field Hospital No. 143 opened for skin and venereal cases. All other casualties were cared for by Camp Hospital No. 42, at Bar-sur-Aube.

On September 27 the train proceeded to Plivot, Marne, where Field Hospital No. 143 established a skin and venereal hospital and Field Hospital No. 141 opened a convalescent hospital at Aulnay. Here the train received 29 additional G. M. C. ambulances, 24 large trucks, and 1 motor cycle. On October 4 United States Army Ambulance Service Section No. 586 reported for service with the division.

Meuse-Argonne operation, October 7-26, 1918.

The division was then assembled in the Suippes-Somme-Suippes area and from this point moved to the Triaucourt area and established headquarters at Conde-en-Barrois. Here it remained until the signing of the armistice as a unit of the American First Army.

Shortly after the conclusion of hostilities the division moved to the 16th Training Area, around Tonnerre, and established headquarters at Cheney. Here it remained until April 26, 1919, when the first element started for a port of embarkation for return to this country.

Division headquarters sailed from Brest May 23 and arrived at New York, June 4.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Raymond F. Metcalf, M. C., September 3, 1917, to December 6, 1918.
Lieut. Col. John J. O'Reilly, M. C., December 7, 1918, to May, 1919.
 

THE 37TH DIVISION 1, 19

(National Guard. Insignia: A red circle with a white border)

The 37th Division was organized at Camp Sheridan, Ala., under authority of a War Department order dated July 18, 1917. It was composed of National Guard troops from the State of Ohio, supplemented by National Army men.

Its composition was as follows:

73d Infantry Brigade:
     145th and 146th Infantry; 135th Machine Gun Battalion.
74th Infantry Brigade:
     147th and 148th Infantry; 136th Machine Gun Battalion.


1001

62d Field Artillery Brigade:
     134th and 135th (light), 136th (heavy) Field Artillery; 112th Trench Mortar Battery.
134th Machine Gun Battalion.
112th Engineers.
112th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (112th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 145, 146, 147, 148, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 145, 146, 147, 148).

The first unit of the division arrived in France June 18, 1918, and the last July 21, 1918. All elements, with the exception of the artillery, were immediately dispatched to the Bourmont (Haute-Marne) area for preliminary training. For the same purpose the artillery was sent to Camp de Souge, near Bordeaux. It never rejoined the division during the period of hostilities, but participated in the Meuse-Argonne operation, serving successively with the American Fourth Corps, American Second Army, French Second Colonial Army Corps, and the French Seventeenth Army Corps.

The division remained in the Bourmont area until the latter part of July, at which time it entrained for the quiet Baccarat sector, in the Vosges. On August 4 front-line trenches were occupied for the first time. The division was relieved in this sector September 16.

From Baccarat it moved to the area around the town of Robert-Espagne, and after a rest of four days proceeded to Recicourt, Department of the Meuse. Two days later the first elements of the division moved north to join in the Meuse-Argonne operation, soon to be launched; division headquarters was established at Verrieres-en-Hesse Farm, 4 km. (2.4 miles) south of Avocourt.

The sanitary train joined the division in the Bourmont training area and moved with it to the Baccarat sector. Here the ambulance triage was established at Merviller, with advance dressing stations at Vaxainville, Ste. Pole, and Pexonne, from which points "cab stands," or ambulance posts, were established in various towns, ambulances for these stands being sent out by the nearest ambulance company. These four ambulance dressing stations were maintained by each ambulance company in turn so each became familiar with the duties of a triage and dressing station.

The field hospitals did not receive battle casualties; these were sent direct from the triage to Evacuation Hospital No. 2, at Baccarat.

The field hospitals functioned as follows: Field Hospital No. 145 was established in the woods between Merviller and Brouville for skin and venereal diseases, except scabies; No. 146 on the Meurthe, near Baccarat. This hospital had excellent bathing facilities for the treatment of skin diseases; No. 147 was established in semipermanent barracks in the chateau grounds at Baccarat and cared for all minor and emergency surgical work. No. 148 occupied permanent barracks near Baccarat and cared for all cases not included in the foregoing classification.

Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to October 3, 1918.

On October 1 the division was relieved on a line just south of Cierges and retired to Pagny-sur-Meuse.

After a brief rest it was transported to the St. Mihiel region, and headquarters was established at Euvezin. In this area the division took over a line extending from the Bols de Hailbot, along the northern edge of the Bois de la Montagne and Bois de Charey, to the southern edge of the Etang de Lachaussee. Although the sector was normally quiet, the division was subjected to a heavy and continuous bombardment from the moment it entered. It was relieved in this sector on October 15, and again moved to Pagny-sur-Meuse.

In this sector the sanitary train took over the positions occupied by the 89th Division. Two field hospitals and a triage were established at Bernecourt; one field hospital at Bouillonville and the remaining hospital took care of the sick of the division in a French hospital near Noviant. The ambulance companies established dressing stations at Pagny,


1002

Thiaucourt, and Jaulny. The regimental stations were located near Jaulny, Beney, and Xammes. This sector was very active, with considerable artillery fire, a preponderance of gas shells, and many casualties.

Ypres-Lys operation, October 31, to November 11, 1918.

After the signing of the armistice the division started moving east; but just before reaching Brussels orders were received to turn back, and, on December 7, headquarters was located at Hondschoote, France. Detachments of the division, however, participated in the entry of King Albert into Brussels.

From Hondschoote the 37th Division moved to Wormhoudt and thence to Le Mans to embark for this country. Division headquarters sailed on March 15 and arrived at New York March 23, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Lieut. Col. James A. Hall, M. C., September, 1917, to August 28, 1918.
Col. John C. Darby, M. C., August 29, 1918, to September 6, 1918.
Col. Louis Brechemin, Jr., M. C., September 7, 1918, to February 8, 1919.
Col. John C. Darby, M. C., February 9, 1919, to March, 1919.
 

THE 42D DIVISION1, 20

(National Guard. Insignia: Particolored quadrant representing part of a rainbow)

The 42d Division was organized in August, 1917, at Camp Mills, N. Y. Its personnel was composed of National Guard troops from 26 States and the District of Columbia. Individual enlistments and later replacements brought into the organization representatives of practically every State in the Union, thus making this division a truly composite, all-American unit.

The organization was as follows:

83d Infantry Brigade:
     165th and 166th Infantry; 150th Machine Gun Battalion.
84th Infantry Brigade:
     167th and 168th Infantry; 151st Machine Gun Battalion.
149th Machine Gun Battalion.
67th Field Artillery Brigade:
     149th and 151st (light), 150th (heavy) Field Artillery; 117th Trench Mortar Battery.
117th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (Sanitary Train 117:  Field Hospitals Nos. 165, 166, 167, 168, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 165, 166, 167, 168).

The first unit of the division to go overseas arrived in France November 1, 1917;  the last December 3, 1917.

For training purposes, the division (less artillery) was sent to the Vauouleurs area and then to the Rimaucourt and Rolampont areas successively.  For the same purpose the Artillery brigade went to Coetquidan, rejoining the division in the Rolampont area the middle of February.  With the exception of three short periods, when it supported the 4th, 32d, and 2d Divisions, successively, the Artillery brigade served continuously with the 42d Division throughout operations.

To complete its training the division was attached to the French Seventh Army Corps in the Luneville Sector, February 21, 1918, and its units participated in raids of major and minor importance and in the routine of trench warfare.  On March 31 the division took over the Baccarat Sector, relieving the French 128th Division in line.

The sanitary train arrived with the division at the Vauouleurs area in the early part of November, 1917, with the exception of Field Hospital No. 166, which joined December 24, 1917.  Here the train underwent extensive training.  For the first two weeks the division had no ambulances, and infirmaries were established in every village where


1003

troops were billeted. On November 11 Field Hospital No. 168 opened for division sick at Mauvages. When the division moved to the Rolampont area, in December, 1917, Field Hospital No. 165 established a camp hospital at Langres.

In the Luneville sector the field hospitals were so disposed as to be of most assistance to the French medical service, under whom the train served coincident with the move to this sector. Motor equipment was issued for three field hospitals and animal-drawn transportation for Field Hospital No. 168.

Field Hospital No. 166 established, on February 25, 1918, at Luneville; Field Hospital No. 167 was held in reserve at the latter place, but furnished details to assist Field Hospital No. 166. The animal-drawn Ambulance Company No. 168, at Baccarat, was split up and details were assigned to various French hospitals. Field Hospital No. 165 remained at Langres. The ambulance companies received 36 new G. M. C. ambulances. Dressing stations were not established in this sector, but numerous ambulance posts were maintained. In addition to these posts, tours of the entire area were made each day by other ambulances for the purpose of collecting such sick and wounded as had accumulated during the preceding 24 hours. Ambulance posts were changed every two days, thus giving the entire personnel an opportunity to familiarize itself with the locations and roads as well as with conditions as they existed at the front.

When, on March 31, the division relieved the French 128th Division in the Baccarat sector, it took over the line as a tactical unit on a frontage of about 15 km. (9 miles). Ambulance posts were established at Migneville, Reherrey, Montigny, St. Maurice, Badonviller, Village Negre, Pexonne, Celles Wood, Vacqueville, Neufmaisons, and Merviller, with company reserves at Bertrichamps. Tactically the sector was divided into halves, with Neufmaisons and Merviller as the controlling centers or frontal points, each having access to the front by at least three roads. Dressing stations were established at Montigny, at a sawmill near St. Maurice, and at Pexonne. A relay and regulating station, which also performed some service as a dressing station, was located at Merviller. Animal-drawn ambulances were stationed at Azerailles, Glonville, Neufmaisons, Brouville, and Deneuvre, while to meet emergencies four motor ambulances were posted at Baccarat, two of them at French Evacuation Hospital 2 1/2 and two at Hospital No. 226. An emergency group was formed consisting of 1 officer, 24 men, and 3 ambulances. The group, whose personnel was changed daily, was posted at Bertrichamps and was available for immediate service in the event of any emergency at the front. When an emergency developed, the dressing station part of the area affected moved forward to reinforce the aid station involved, taking over the station and sending forward such of its personnel as were needed near or in the lines. As a result of this practice, seriously wounded reached the hospitals within three or four hours; frequently in less time.

The field hospital section was ordered to this sector shortly after April 23. Field Hospital No. 65  received seriously and nontransportable wounded at Baccarat until Evacuation Hospital No. 2 began to receive patients from the division. French Hospital No. 226 received the sick, Field Hospital No. 68 operated at the French hospitals "mixte" and "temporaire." and took entire charge of French Evacuation Hospital No. 2 ½.   All of these formations were at Baccarat. The personnel of Field Hospitals No. 165 and No. 168 was supplemented by 20 female nurses. A hospital for skin cases and a camp for venereal cases were operated by Field Hospitals No. 166 and No. 167, respectively.

Champagne Sector, Champagne-Marne defensive, June 21 to July 17.

On June 21, the division was withdrawn and proceeded to east of Reims, where it took part in the Champagne-Marne operation.

Champagne-Marne operation July 15-17, 1918.
Aisne-Marne operation, July 25 to August 3, 1918.
St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16, 1918.

After the St. Mihiel operation the division remained in front-line position in the Essey and Pannes sector until September 30, when it was withdrawn and moved to the region south of Verdun, and became part of the reserve of the First Army.


1004

Meuse-Argonne operation, October 1 to November 11, 1918.
Army of Occupation.

Division headquarters sailed from Brest on April 7, 1919, and arrived at New York on April 26, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Jay W. Grissinger, M. C., August 14, 1917, to June 30, 1918.
Col. David S. Fairchild, Jr., M. C., July 1, 1918, to May, 1919.

THE 77TH DIVISION 1, 21

(National Army. Insignia: Facsimile of Statue of Liberty in gold against a blue sky)

The 77th Division was organized in August, 1917, at Camp Upton, N. Y. It was composed of  National Army drafted men, the majority being from New York State, and from the metropolitan district in particular. The minority were drawn from all sections of the country. The organization was as follows:

153d Infantry Brigade:
     305th and 306th Infantry; 305th Machine Gun Battalion.
154th Infantry Brigade:
     307th and 308th Infantry; 306th Machine Gun Battalion.
152d Field Artillery Brigade:
     304th, 305th (light), 306th (heavy) Field Artillery; 302d Trench Mortar Battery.
304th Machine Gun Battalion.
302d Engineers.
302d Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (302 Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 305, 306, 307, 308 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 305, 306, 307, 308).

The first unit of the division arrived in France April 12, 1918; the last May 12, 1918.

For purposes of training, the division (less artillery) was attached to the 39th British Division in the vicinity of Eperlecques (Pas-de-Calais). For the same purposes the Artillery brigade was sent to Camp de Souge near Bordeaux. It rejoined the division in the Baccarat sector July 12, and remained with it throughout combat operations. On June 11 the division proceeded by train to the Vosges, and on June 21 entered the line in the Baccarat Sector, brigaded with the French. On August 4, it was relieved in line by the 37th Division, and marched to Le Charme, where it entrained August 6 for the Chateau-Thierry area.

In the Baccarat Sector, as in the British training area, regimental medical detachments received continual instruction, according to a very thorough schedule, in all duties incident to their service. The ambulance companies operated individually toward a central point designated as the triage, and the field hospitals were assigned to care for the several classes of cases received--Field Hospital, No. 305, skin and contagious cases; No. 306, general medical; No. 307, surgical; and No. 308, venereal. In more active sectors venereal cases were kept with their organizations. Special efforts were made to assign medical officers according to their qualifications. One of the most important developments in this sector was the organization of the triage, but this was not fully perfected until the division moved to its sector on the Vesle.

Vesle Sector, August 12-17, 1918.
Oise-Aisne operation, August 18 to September 16, 1918.
Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to November 11, 1918.

After the armistice the division was sent to the 9th Training Area, with headquarters established at Chateauvillain. Here it remained until it returned to the United States. Headquarters sailed from Brest on April 17 and arrived at New York April 25, 1919.


1005

DIVISION SURGEONS3

Col. Charles R. Reynolds, M. C., August 26, 1917, to August 5, 1918.
Col. Robert W. Kerr, M. C., August 7, 1918, to January 23, 1919.
Col. O. G. Brown, M. C., January 24, 1919, to March 3, 1919.
Lieut. Col. David B. Downing, M. C., March 4, 1919 to April, 1919.
 

THE 78TH DIVISION1, 22

(National Army. Insignia: A lightning flash in white diagonally across a red semicircle)

The 78th Division was organized in August, 1917, at Camp Dix, N. J., from National Army men of New York, New Jersey, and Delaware, later supplemented by men from the New England States and Illinois. The organization was as follows:

155th Infantry Brigade:
     309th and 310th Infantry; 308th Machine Gun Battalion.
156th Infantry Brigade:
     311th and 312th Infantry; 309th Machine Gun Battalion.
153d Field Artillery Brigade:
     307th, 308th (light), 309th (heavy) Field Artillery; 303d Trench Mortar Battery.
307th Machine Gun Battalion.
303d Engineers.
303d Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (303d Sanitary Train; Field Hospitals Nos. 309, 310, 311, 312, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 309, 310, 311, 312).

The first unit of the division arrived in France May 18, 1918; the last June 12, 1918. Upon arrival the division (less artillery) was assigned to the Second Army Corps, then operating with the British in Flanders. Training was begun in the area around Nielles-les-Blequin, near the Ypres front. For the same purpose the Artillery brigade was sent to Camp Meucon, in Brittany. It left Camp Meucon on August 17 and marched to the Toul sector, where it relieved the 1st Field Artillery Brigade, on August 28-29. It supported the 90th Division in the St. Mihiel operation, and rejoined the 78th Division October 4.

On July 18, the division moved to the Arms area, with headquarters established at Roellecourt. On August 20, it left the British sector and moved to the 11th Training Area, with headquarters at Bourbonne-les-Bains (Haute-Marne). While here the division was placed in the reserve of the First Army Corps, and a march north preparatory to the concentration for the St. Mihiel operation began.

The sanitary train arrived in France June 16, 1918, and while at Le Havre half of the train (Ambulance Companies No. 309 and No. 310 and Field Hospitals No. 309 and No. 310) were detached and sent to an American training sector. They rejoined the division in September and October, 1918. On arrival in the British training sector Ambulance Companies No. 311 and No. 312 and Field Hospitals No. 311 and No. 312 were combined, forming Field Ambulances No. 311 and No. 312. These were equipped and made to conform with the British field ambulance.

Field Ambulance No. 311 took station at Bournonville and Field Ambulance No. 312 at Vieil-Moutier, where they took care of the division sick. Serious cases were evacuated to a base hospital near Boulogne. July 19 the field ambulances were separated into field hospitals and ambulance companies, the former moving to Buneville, where they again cared for division sick, and the latter to Neuville-au-Cornet, where they served the division in collection of the sick. On August 20 the train left for Bourbonne-les-Bains, where it remained until the 28th. While at this station, Field Hospitals No. 309 and No. 310 rejoined the division and United States Army Ambulance Service section No. 560 was


1006

attached. The train left Bourbonne-les-Bains on August 28-29, 1918, for Bourmont, where it remained until September 3, when it proceeded to the Toul area.

St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16.

The sanitary train remained in the areas mentioned in the St. Mihiel operation until October 4.

On the nights of October 3-4 and 4-5  the division was relieved and moved to the Foret de la Reine, and thence to the Clermont-en-Argonne area. On October 10 it moved to the eastern border of the Argonne Forest, with headquarters at Varennes. It was at this time a unit of the First Army Corps, operating as the left flank corps of the First Army.

The sanitary train proceeded with the division to Clermont-en-Argonne, with the exception of Field Hospital No. 310, which remained at St. Jacques to care for the renaming sick.

Meuse-Argonne operation, October 15 to November 11, 1918.

In the latter part of November the division moved to an area in the Cote d'Or, with headquarters at Lemur-en-Auxois. It moved to ports of embarkation the latter part of April. Headquarters sailed from Bordeaux on May 24 and arrived at New York June 6, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEON 3

Col. George M. Eckwurzel, M. C., August 25, 1917 to June 10, 1919.
 

THE 79TH DIVISION1, 23

(National Army. Insignia: A gray lorraine cross on a blue shield outlined in gray)

The 79th Division was organized August 25, 1917, at Camp Meade, Md. It was originally composed of National Army men from the States of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. Later drafts brought men from New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, and West Virginia.

The organization of the division was as follows:

157th Infantry Brigade:
     313th and 314th Infantry; 311th Machine Gun Battalion.
158th Infantry Brigade:
     315th and 316th Infantry; 312th Machine Gun Battalion.
310th Machine Gun Battalion.
154th Field Artillery Brigade:
     310th, 311th (light), and 312th (heavy) Field Artillery.
304th Field Signal Battalion.
304th Trench Mortar Battery.
304th Engineers.
Trains (304th Sanitary Train; Field Hospitals Nos. 313, 314, 315, 316 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 313, 314, 315, 316).

The first unit of the division arrived in France July 12, 1918, and the last August 3, 1918.

The division, less the artillery, immediately went into training in the 10th training area, with headquarters at Prauthoy, Haute-Marne. The artillery, upon landing in France, was sent to La Courtine (Creuse), where it remained in training until after the armistice and rejoined the division in January, 1919, in the Souilly area, south of Verdun.

The work in the training area continued until September 8, when the movement to the front started. Moving by rail to an area around Robert Espagne and Bar-le-Duc, the division detrained and proceeded by trucks and marching; on September 16 it took over the Montfaucon, or 304th, sector (about 16 km. (9.6 miles) northwest of Verdun), relieving the French,157th Division. This sector was approximately 5 km. (3 miles) in width, but on September 22, in anticipation of the Meuse-Argonne operation, was contracted to about 2.5 km. (1.5 miles). While in this sector two enemy raids were repulsed.


1007

The sanitary train arrived with the division and underwent training at the Prauthoy training area. No ambulances were available until the latter part of August, when two sections (Nos. 502 and 506) of the United States Army Ambulance Service were attached to the sanitary train.

Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to October 3, 1918.
Troyon sector, October 5-25, 1918.
Meuse-Argonne operation, October 29 to November 11, 1918.

From November 11 to December 26 the division remained on the battle front, taking over a front extending from Damvillers, on the north, to Fresnes-en-Woevre, on the south, for patrol and police. On December 10, the headquarters, Headquarters Company, and 3d Battalion, 314th Infantry, proceeded to an area around Montmedy, Stenay, and Virton (Belgium) for the purpose of guarding property, listing material, and maintaining order. On February 1, 1919, this detachment rejoined the division in the Souilly area.

Moving to the Souilly area, south of Verdun, on December 27 the division found itself completely assembled for the first time in France, when it was joined in January by the Artillery brigade.

The division moved from the Souilly area during the last days of March to the fourth training area, northeast of Chaumont, around Andelot and Rimaucourt, where it was reviewed on April 12 by General Pershing. The movement from this area to Nantes and St. Nazaire began on April 19,  the artillery going to St. Nazaire and the infantry to the vicinity of Nantes and Cholet.

Division headquarters sailed from St. Nazaire on May 18, 1919, and arrived at New York City on May 27, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEON 3

Col. Philip W. Huntington, M. C., August 22, 1917 to June, 1919.
 

THE 80TH DIVISION 1, 24

(National Army. Insignia: Three blue peaks on a shield of khaki)

The 80th Division was organized August 27, 1917, at Camp Lee, Va. It was composed of National Army men from the States of Virginia, West Virginia, and western Pennsylvania.

The organization was as follows:

159th Infantry Brigade:
     317th and 318th Infantry; 313th Machine Gun Battalion.
160th Infantry Brigade:
     319th and 320th Infantry; 315th Machine Gun Battalion.
155th Field Artillery Brigade:
     313th, 314th (light), 315th (heavy) Field Artillery; 305th Trench Mortar Battery.
314th Machine Gun Battalion.
305th Engineers.
305th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (305th Sanitary Train; Field Hospitals Nos. 317, 318, 319, 320 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 317, 318, 319, 320).

The first unit of the division arrived in France May 23, 1918, and the last June 18.

The division, less the artillery, immediately went into training with the British in the Samer training area, a few kilometers east of Boulogne. The artillery was first sent to Redon near St. Nazaire, but completed its training at Camps de Coetquidan and Meucon. The Artillery brigade did not rejoin the division until September, 1918.


1008

After a short period of training at Samer, the division moved to the Third British Army sector, with headquarters at Beauval. Second line trenches between Albert and Arms were occupied. During this period front-line trenches were also occupied by battalion units. One battalion participated in an attack in conjunction with New Zealand troops, and one with the Welsh 38th Division.

The division was relieved in this sector on August 20 and moved south to the fourteenth training area, lying between Chaumont and Chatillon-sur-Seine. Here it remained until August 31. On September 1 the 80th Division moved by rail to the Stainville area, and later marched to the Tronville area. While in the latter the division composed the reserve of the First Army during the St. Mihiel operation. The 320th Infantry and 315th Machine Gun Battalion were attached to the French Second Colonial Corps and actively participated in the operation. The 155th Artillery Brigade rejoined the division while in this sector.

On September 14 the 80th Division was transported to the vicinity of Ippecourt and placed in the American Third Corps. On the night of the 20th it moved forward preparatory to entering the Meuse-Argonne operation.

The sanitary train arrived in France June 8-9, 1918. It did not join its division immediately, but was billeted and underwent training during June and July in three small villages in the Department Haute Saone--Chauvirey-le-Chatel, Chauvirey-le-Vieil, and Ouge. On July 28, Field Hospitals No. 319 and No. 320, and Ambulance Companies No. 319 and No. 320 were ordered to the British Third Army sector for further training and were furnished British equipment. Ambulance Companies No. 317 and No. 318 were detached from the train the latter part of July and were lost to the division until October.

When the division was relieved from the British training area, the sanitary train proceeded to the Tronville area, where it remained in reserve during the St. Mihiel operation.

Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to November 11, 1918.

On November 8 the division marched to the Cornay-Apremont area and on the 12th moved to the Les Islettes area. Here it rested until the 18th, then the division moved by marching to the fifteenth training area, southwest of Chatillon-sur-Seine.

The 155th Artillery Brigade rejoined December 5, after having served successively with the 80th, 4th, 5th, and 90th Divisions, without relief, for a period of 48 days.

On March 30, 1919, the 80th Division started for the Le Mans area, and upon arrival headquarters was established at Ecommoy. Here it remained until its return to the United States.

Headquarters sailed from Brest May 17, 1919, and arrived at Newport News May 26, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Thomas L. Rhoads, M. C., September 10, 1917, to November 13, 1918.
Col. Elliott B. Edie, M. C., November 14, 1918, to May, 1919.
 

THE 81ST DIVISION 1, 25

(National Guard. Insignia: Silhouette of wildcat in varying colors according to the different branches of the service)

The 81st Division was organized at Camp Jackson, S. C., in September, 1917, from National Army drafts from North and South Carolina, Tennessee, Florida, Illinois, and New York.

The organization was as follows:
161st Infantry Brigade:
     321st and 322d Infantry; 317th Machine Gun Battalion.
162d Infantry Brigade:
     323d and 324th Infantry; 318th Machine Gun Battalion.


1009

156th Field Artillery Brigade:
     316th, 317th (light), 318th (heavy) Field Artillery; 306th Trench Mortar Battery.
316th Machine Gun Battalion.
306th Engineers.
306th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (306th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 321, 322, 323, 324, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 321, 322, 323, 324).

The first unit of the division arrived in France August 15, 1918; the last August  25, 1918.

For training purposes, the division (less artillery) was sent to the sixteenth training area, with headquarters at Tonnerre (Yonne). For the same purpose the Artillery brigade was sent to Valdahon (Doubs). It did not participate in operations, but rejoined the division in November,  1918.

The division proceeded to the Vosges on September 14. Arriving September 20, it took over the St. Die Sector and remained in the front line from September 20 to October 10, 1918, as part of the French Thirty-Third Corps, and later as part of the French Tenth Corps. Command of the sector passed to the commanding general, 81st Division, on October 2. On October 19 the division moved to the vicinity of Rambervillers (Vosges), and from there to the Sommedieue sector, southeast of Verdun, where it was in the reserve of the French Seventy-Second Colonial Corps. On November 7 it passed to the French Second Colonial Corps, and relieved the American 35th Division in line.2

The sanitary train arrived in France the latter part of August, 1918, and joined the division in the sixteenth training area, September 4. Here the train underwent training until September 15, when it proceeded to the St. Die sector.

Owing to the fact that in the St. Die sector the front was 37 km. (22.2 miles) and the evacuating points were two, Baccarat and Bruyeres, respectively, it was necessary to establish all field hospitals with varying functions: Field Hospital No. 321 relieved Field Hospital No. 367, 92d Division, at Bruyeres. It moved on October 12 to La Salle, where it assisted Field Hospital No. 322. Field Hospital No. 223 relieved Field Hospital No. 365, 92d Division, at Raon l'Etape. Field Hospital No. 324 relieved Field Hospital No. 366, 92d Division, at St. Die.  Ambulance Company No. 324 established dressing stations at Celles, Veriges, and Pierre Percee.

Other ambulances were stationed at various points on the front and were accessible at all times for sick and wounded. During the stay of the division in this sector battle casualties were very light, only 62 being evacuated to divisional hospitals. It suffered greatly from influenza, and during the period from September 20 to October 23 field hospitals admitted 1,049 influenza cases and 165 cases of pneumonia.

Meuse-Argonne operations, November 1-11, 1918.

On November 17 the division was relieved from the Sommedieue sector, and moved to the Chatillon-sur-Seine training area, with headquarters at Mussy-sur-Seine, where it remained until  May 2, when it was sent to the Le Mans embarkation center preparatory to returning to the United States.

Division headquarters sailed from Brest June 1, 1919, and arrived at New York June 11, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEON 3

Col. Kent Nelson, M. C., August 25, 1917, to June, 1919.
 

THE 82D DIVISION 1, 26

(National Army. Insignia: Letters "AA" in gold on a blue circle, the whole superimposed on a red square)

The 82d Division was organized at Camp Gordon, Ga., in August, 1917, from National Army men from Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee. At a later date the majority of these


1010

men were transferred to other divisions, their places being filled by drafts from Camps Dodge, Travis, Devens, Upton, Dix, Meade, and Lee, so that the organizations became a truly composite "all-American" unit, as suggested by its insignia.

The organization was as follows:
163d Infantry Brigade:
     325th and 326th Infantry; 320th Machine Gun Battalion.
164th Infantry Brigade:
     327th and 32Sth Infantry; 321st Machine Gun Battalion.
137th Field Artillery Brigade:
     320th, 321st (light), 319th (heavy) Field Artillery; 307th Trench Mortar Battery.
319th Machine Gun Battalion.
307th Engineers.
307th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (307th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 325, 326, 327, 328, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 325, 326, 327, 328).

The first unit of the division arrived in France May 8, 1918; the last July 12, 1918.

For training purposes the division (less artillery) was sent to the Escarbotin area, west of Abbeville, where it was attached to the British 66th Division. For the same purpose the Artillery brigade went to La Courtine (Creuse). It rejoined the division in August, 1918.

The division left Escarbotin June 16, and on June 25 relieved the 26th Division in the Toul sector, where it was brigaded with the French until July 17, upon which date command passed to the commanding general, 82d Division. On August 9 it was relieved by the 89th Division and proceeded to the vicinity of Toul, with headquarters at Blenod-les-Toul.

The sanitary train arrived in France in June, 1918, and joined the division in the Toul sector. While the division was in the Escarbotin area, all casualties were cared for by the British.

In the Toul Sector the train took over corresponding units of the 26th Division, establishing at Toul two field hospitals, which functioned essentially as base hospitals, one near Royaumeix which served as a triage and one at Abbaye de Rangeval which received gassed patients. The ambulance company section, which had but 20 vehicles (8 G. M. C. and 12 animal drawn), was supplemented by United States Army Ambulance Service Section No. 647, with 30 Ford ambulances.

Marbache Sector August 17 to September 11, 1918.
St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16, 1918.
Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to November 7, 1918.

After its relief the division moved by successive stages to the tenth training area, with headquarters established at Prauthoy (Haute Marne), November 15, 1918. In March it moved to the vicinity of Bordeaux, with headquarters at Castres, preparatory to returning to the United States.

Division headquarters sailed from Bordeaux on May 9, 1919, and arrived at New York May 20,
1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Conrad E. Koerper, M. C., August 25, 1917, October 27, 1918.
Lieut. Col. Frederick G. Barfield, M. C., October 28, 1918.
 

THE 88TH DIVISION1, 27

(National Army. Insignia: Two solid figures "8" crossed at right angles, resembling a four-leaf clover)

The 88th Division was organized at Camp Dodge, Iowa, in September, 1917, from National Army drafted men of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and Illinois,


1011

later supplemented by drafted men from Missouri and Nebraska.  The organization was as follows:

175th Infantry Brigade:
     349th and 350th Infantry; 338th Machine Gun Battalion.
176th Infantry Brigade:
     351st and 352d Infantry; 339th Machine Gun Battalion.
163d Field Artillery Brigade:
     338th (light), 337th, and 339th (heavy) Field Artillery; 313th Trench Mortar Battery.
337th Machine Gun Battalion.
313th Engineers.
313th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (313th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 349, 330, 351, 352 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 349, 350, 351, 352).

The first units embarked for overseas on August 9, 1918; the last units arrived in France September 7, 1918.

Upon arrival the division (less artillery) was ordered to the twenty-first training area, with headquarters established at Lemur (Cote d'Or). The Artillery brigade was sent to the artillery training school at Clermont-Ferrand, in the south of France. It never served in the division again and returned to the United States in January, 1919.

On September 14 the division was placed under the command of the French Seventh Army and moved by rail to the Hericourt training area (Haute Saone) near Belfort. For administrative purposes alone the division was under the American Seventh Corps with headquarters at Remiremont.

On September 23, 1918, the division relieved the French 38th Division in the center sector, Haute Alsace, with headquarters established at Montreux Chateau, on October 7. It held this sector until November 2, 1918, when it became a part of the American Second Army. One brigade was placed in reserve of the Fourth Corps, the remainder of the division being in army reserve, with headquarters at Lagney.

The sanitary train arrived in England on September 1, 1918, and on the 8th proceeded to the training area at Lemur, France. While in this area all casualties needing hospital care were sent to French Auxiliary Hospital No. 35 at Lemur. The train had no ambulances and sick were evacuated in automobiles. Serious cases were evacuated to Base Hospital No. 17, at Dijon, by ambulances belonging to that hospital.

On October 10 the sanitary train established headquarters at Chavennes-sur-l'Etang, in the center sector, Haute Alsace. This sector was divided by the Rhine-Rhone canal into a northern segment, held by the 175th Brigade, and a southern segment, held by the 176th Brigade. One regiment of each brigade was in the line. In the northern segment two battalions were in line, with headquarters at Hecken and Buethwiller, respectively, the northern battalion operating two advance aid posts located in dugouts in the woods and a battalion aid station at Hecken. All of these stations were easily reached by ambulance. The southern battalion operated one advance aid post in the northern end of their line and a battalion aid station at Balschwiller, which was very close to the front line. It was necessary to carry by litter from the upper station to Balschwiller, which was easily accessible by ambulance. These two stations evacuated directly to the field hospital located at Bellemagny all except gassed patients, who were sent to the triage at Retzwiller.

The segment south of the canal was held by three battalions of one regiment, with headquarters at Hagenbach, Badricourt, and Fulleren, respectively. The northern battalion operated a battalion aid station at Hagenbach and three advance posts located in the woods behind companies in the front lines. All of these stations were so located that ambulances could go within a very short distance of them. The middle battalion operated a battalion aid station at Badricourt and three advance stations located along a road behind the companies in the line. All of these stations were reached by ambulance.


1012

The southern battalion operated a battalion aid station at Fulleren and two advance stations behind companies in the line. These stations also evacuated patients from the battalion aid stations by ambulance to the triage at Retzwiller.

The advance aid posts were equipped to do first-aid dressings and to hold a limited number of patients pending evacuation. The battalion aid stations had shock tables and were equipped to furnish hot drinks to patients needing them. Antitetanic serum was also administered here. Supplies and equipment were ample for the care of the wounded received. Regimental stations, which were used as supply depots, carrying reserve supplies, cared for only a few slightly sick men who needed care for a day or two.

After September 20, when motor ambulances were received, all transportation was pooled and ambulances were placed with each battalion and with regimental headquarters. When train headquarters was established at Chevannes-sur-L'Etang in the Alsace sector, training of the ambulance section personnel, less the transportation section, was continued. The litter-bearer section and dressing-station personnel of the ambulance companies were used as additional personnel at the field hospitals. On October 14, Ambulance Company No. 349 established, at Belfort, Rethenans Barracks Hospital, and operated there until November 8, when it was taken over by Field Hospital No. 352. A part of the personnel of Ambulance Company No. 351 established a convalescent camp at Bevilliers. Ambulance Company No. 352 established, on October 17, a triage at Retzwiller which it operated until November 6, 1918, when the train was reassembled at Vetrigne and entrained at Belfort on November 8. On the 9th, it detrained at Pagny-sur-Meuse and marched to Legney, where it remained until November 29, arriving at Hevilliers on December 1, 1918.

Field Hospital No. 350 assisted French evacuation hospital at Hericourt from September 22 to November 6, 1918. Field Hospital No. 352 established at Romagny from September 20 to November 2 for the care of gassed cases. It then took over Rethenans Barracks Hospital at Belfort, operating it until December 6, 1918. Field Hospital No. 349 established a hospital on September 20 at Bellemagny and operated it until November 5. Field Hospital No. 351 was established on September 29 at Checannes-les-Grands, where it operated until November 4.

The field hospital at Bellemagny cared for medical and surgical cases north of the canal, the triage evacuating medical and surgical cases to the field hospital located at Chevannes-les-Grands and gas cases to the gas hospital at Romagny. During the first part of the time spent in this sector, field hospitals evacuated to Hericourt, where Field Hospital No. 350 operated a portion of the French evacuation hospital, but later a hospital was opened at Rethenans Barracks to receive patients from the division. The hospital at Hericourt was then gradually cleared and closed, personnel and equipment being moved to the hospital at Rethenans Barracks to receive patients from the division. When the time came for the division to move, all sick patients were transferred to this hospital, which was operated until all had been discharged.

On November 10 the division arrived in the Toul sector, with headquarters at Legney, 9 km. (5.4 miles) north of Toul, where arrangements were made to complete equipment for more active fighting, but these were discontinued next day when the armistice was signed.

On November 29 the division moved by marching to the first training area, at Gondrecourt (Meuse). On April 15, 1919, the division was transferred to the First Army. On April 26 it passed to the command of the commanding general, S.O.S., preparatory to its return to the United States. Division headquarters sailed from St. Nazaire on May 21, 1919, and arrived at Newport News on June 1, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. J. R. Shook, M. C., August 20, 1917, to November 30, 1918.
Maj. H. Hansen, M. C., December 1, 1918, to February 27, 1919.
Maj. C. M. Dargan, M. C., February 28, 1919, June, 1919.


1013

THE 89TH DIVISION 1, 28

(National Army. Insignia: A black "XV" surrounded by a black circle)

The 89th Division was organized in August, 1917, at Camp Funston, Kans. Its personnel was composed of National Army men from the States of Kansas, Missouri, Colorado, Nebraska, South Dakota, Arizona, and New Mexico.

The organization was as follows:

177th Infantry Brigade:
      353d and 354th Infantry; 341st Machine Gun Battalion.
178th Infantry Brigade:
      355th and 356th Infantry; 342d Machine Gun Battalion.
340th Machine Gun Battalion.
164th Field Artillery Brigade:
      340th, 341st (light), 342d (heavy) Field Artillery; 314th Trench Mortar Battery.
314th Engineers.
314th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (314th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 353, 354, 355, 356 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 353, 354, 355, 356).

The first unit of the division to go overseas arrived in France June 11, 1918; the last July 10, 1918.

For training purposes the division (less artillery) was sent to the fourth training area, with division headquarters at Reynel. For the same purpose the Artillery brigade went to Camp de Souge, near Bordeaux. It rejoined the division immediately after the St. Mihiel operation, operating with it until the relief of the division in the Euvezin sector, on October 9, 1918, when it remained in support of the 37th and 28th Divisions, successively, until the armistice. It rejoined the 89th Division on the march into Germany.

On August 4, 1918, the division began the relief of the 82d Division in the quiet Lucey sector north of Toul, completing the relief August 10. The division operated under the Thirty-second Corps, French Eighth Army, until August 20, when it passed to the Fourth Army Corps of the newly organized American First Army.

Prior to the arrival of the sanitary train in the training area, July 15, 1918, all sick were sent to the neighboring hospitals. Field hospitals of the division were erected and went into operation July 17, 1918.

During the night of August 7-8, while the division was relieving the 82d Division, the enemy put over from 8,000 to 10,000 gas shells, causing many casualties. Most of these casualties occurred when men marching from advance positions through a deep ravine removed their masks.

Medical Department units in this sector were distributed as follows:

Ambulance Company No. 353, dressing station at Noviant, 5 km. (3 miles) behind the advanced trenches. Headquarters at Minorville, 2.5 km. (1.5 miles) behind the dressing station.

Ambulance Company No. 354, dressing station in Rehanne wood, 9 km. (5.4 miles) behind the front line; headquarters at Andilly, 4 km. (2.4 miles) in rear of the dressing station.

Ambulance Company No. 355 acted as an evacuation company, removing patients from triage to Toul.

Ambulance Company No. 356 (animal drawn) was in reserve at Andilly.

The field hospitals were located and functioned as follows: No. 353 and No. 354, in French barracks at Toul, supplemented by 16 nurses, operated in effect as evacuation hospitals. Field Hospital No. 355, near Royaumeix, 10 km. (6.2 miles) from the front, received gassed cases. Field Hospital No. 356, in Abbaye de Rangeval, on the extreme left of the divisional sector, received surgical cases. After the gas attack above mentioned there were relatively few casualties in this sector, for, except during occasional raids, it was quite inactive.


1014

St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16, 1918.
Meuse-Argonne operation, October 19 to November 11, 1918.
Army of Occupation.

Division headquarters sailed from Brest on May 10 and arrived at New York on May 31, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. John L. Shepard, M. C., August 25, 1917, to September 23, 1918.
Maj. F. W. O'Donnell, M. C., September 27, 1918, to November 30, 1918
Col. L. P. Williamson, M. C., December 1, 1918, to May 14, 1919.
Maj. F. W. O'Donnell, M. C., May 14, 1919, to June, 1919.
 

THE 90TH DIVISION 1, 29

(National Army. Insignia: Monogram of the letters "T" and "O" in red)

The 90th Division was organized in August, 1917, at Camp Travis, Tex. Its personnel was composed of drafted men from the States of Texas and Oklahoma.

The organization was as follows:
179th Infantry Brigade:
  357th and 358th Infantry; 344th Machine Gun Battalion.
180th Infantry Brigade:
  359th and 360th Infantry; 345th Machine Gun Battalion.
343d Machine Gun Battalion.
165th Field Artillery Brigade:
  343d and 344th (light), 345th (heavy) Field Artillery; 315th Trench Mortar Battery.
315th Engineers.
315th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (315th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 357, 358, 359, 360 and Ambulance Companies Nos. 357, 358, 359, 360).

The first unit of the division to go overseas arrived in France June 23, 1918; the last, July 17, 1918.

For training purposes the division (less artillery) was sent to the Department of Cote d'Or, with headquarters at Aignay-le-Duc. For the same purpose the Artillery brigade went to Camp Hunt, at Le Courneau (Gironde). It did not participate in operations, but rejoined the division after the armistice on the march into Germany.

On August 19, 1918, the division moved to the vicinity of Toul, with headquarters established at Gondreville. This move was scarcely completed when the division was ordered to relieve the 1st Division in the line in the Villers-en-Haye sector north of Toul, which was accomplished on August 24, 1918.

The sanitary train arrived in England July 10, 1918, and on the 16th joined the division in its training area in France. Headquarters of the sanitary train and field hospital section were established at Recey-sur-Ource; Ambulance Companies No. 357 and No. 353 were at Rocefort and Ambulance Companies No. 359 and No. 360 at Busseau. While in this area a program of intensive training was carried out by the entire organization. The ambulance section did not receive its vehicles until August 13, when 40 ambulances were received.

On August 23 the sanitary train relieved that of the 1st Division, headquarters being located at Rosieres-en-Haye. The 90th Division now held a section of the trenches west of Pont-a-Mousson, and the various ambulance companies and field hospitals carried out a methodical system of evacuation, with aid and dressing stations, triage and specialized field hospitals. Ambulances were assigned to the service of the several regiments, and units of the train were distributed as follows: Ambulance Company No. 357 to St. Georges, Ambulance Company No. 358 to Bois de Marbache, Ambulance Company No. 359 to Jezainville, where it established a dressing station, and Ambulance Company No. 360


1015

Foret d'Avrainville, in reserve. Field Hospital No. 357, at Griscourt, acted as the triage; Field Hospital No. 358, at Rogeville, received gassed and slightly sick patients; Field Hospital No. 359, at a point 2 km. (1.2 miles) south of Rosieres-en-Haye, the slightly wounded and the sick; and Field Hospital No. 360, at Bois le Pretre, the contagious and venereal cases. Seriously sick and wounded were sent to the hospitals at Toul. The division surgeon's office was established at Rosieres-en-Haye on August 22. Here a thorough course of training was given all the medical units, aid stations were established, provision was made for treatment of gassed patients, and equipment was completed for battle. Companies were filled to war strength and all preparations were made for the coming engagement. About September 2 Ambulance Companies No. 357 and No. 358 were ordered to Gezoncourt and Ambulance Company No. 360 to Joli wood, northeast of Villers-en-Haye.

St. Mihiel operation, September 12-16, 1918.

The division remained in line in the Puvenelle sector until October 10; during this period it engaged in raids of major and minor importance, and participated in demonstrations conducted against the enemy simultaneously with the initial attack in the Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26, 1918. On October 10 it was relieved by the 7th Division and proceeded to the Blercourt area west of Verdun, in the reserve of the First Army.

By September 17 the battle line had again become stationary, and operation of the medical detachments took on a more or less routine character. Ambulance Company No. 357 established an advance dressing station at Vilcey, on September 20, and a few days later Ambulance Company No. 358 opened one at Vieville, behind the left flank of the 179th Brigade.

Meuse-Argonne operations, October 13 to November 11, 1918.

Division headquarters sailed from St. Nazaire on May 28, 1919, and arrived at Boston on June 7, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col Paul S. Halloran, M. C., August 25, 1917, to December 31, 1918.
Lieut. Col. Earl L. Parmenter, M. C., January 1-16, 1919.
Col. Normal L. McDiarmid, M. C., January 17, 1919, to May, 1919.
 

THE 91ST DIVISION 1, 30

(National Army. Insignia: Green fir tree)

The 91st Division was organized in August, 1917, at Camp Lewis, Wash., from drafted men from the States of California, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming and from the Territory of Alaska.

The organization was as follows:

181st Infantry Brigade:
     361st and 362d Infantry; 347th Machine Gun Battalion.
182d Infantry Brigade:
     363d and 364th Infantry; 348th Machine Gun Battalion.
166th Field Artillery Brigade:
     346th, 347th (light), and 348th (heavy) Field Artillery; 316th Trench Mortar Battery.
346th Machine Gun Battalion.
316th Engineers.
316th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (316th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 361, 362, 363, 364, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 361, 362, 363, 364).

The first unit of the division arrived in France July 20, 1918; the last, July 29, 1918.

For training purposes the division (less artillery) was sent to the eighth training area, in the Department of Haute-Marne, with headquarters at Montigny-le-Roi. For the same purpose the Artillery brigade went to Camp de Souge (Gironde), and Clermont-Fer-


1016

rand (Puy-de-Dome). It never rejoined the division nor did it participate in combat operations.

On September 7 the division left the training area and moved to the vicinity of Gondrecourt, with headquarters at that place. It was assigned to the reserve of the American First Army during the St. Mihiel operation, and headquarters was established at Sorcy, September 11, 1918.

The sanitary train arrived in England on July 20, 1918, and then proceeded to St. Nazaire, where it remained in training until August 24, when it rejoined the division at Montigny-le-Roi. The train was without motor transportation, but on August 27 United States Army Ambulance Service Sections No. 593 and No. 640 were assigned to the division. Various specialists reported during September, as did a mobile field laboratory. The field hospitals did not function during the St. Mihiel operation; all sick were evacuated to Evacuation Hospital No. 9, at Vaubecourt.

By the end of September, the sanitary train had received sufficient motor trucks to carry all its equipment and six truck loads of supplies, but when the division entered the Meuse-Argonne operation the ambulance section of the train still had no ambulance transportation except seven animal-drawn ambulances, and the evacuations fell largely on the two ambulance sections mentioned above.

Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to October 16, 1918.
Ypres-Lys operation, October 31 to November 11, 1918.

After the armistice, November 11, 1918, the division remained in Belgium until January, when it moved to the Le Mans embarkation center preparatory to its return to the United States.

Division headquarters sailed from St. Nazaire on April 6, 1919, and arrived at New York April 16, 1919

DIVISION SURGEONS 3

Col. Peter C. Field, M. C., September 4, 1917, to October 28, 1918.
Lieut. Col. John G. Strohm, M. C., October 29, 1918, to November 16, 1918.
Col. O. G. Brown, M. C., November 17-24, 1918.
Lieut. Col. John G. Strohm, M. C., November 25, 1918, to May, 1919.
 

THE 92D DIVISION1,  31

(National Army, colored. Insignia: Buffalo in black circle on olive-drab field)

The 92d Division was organized in October, 1917, at Camps Funston, Grant, Dodge, Upton, Meade, and Dix from National Army drafts from all parts of the United States. The division was assembled at Camp Upton, N. Y., in June, 1918.

The organization was as follows:

183d Infantry Brigade:
     365th and 366th Infantry; 350th Machine Gun Battalion.
184th Infantry Brigade:
     367th and 368th Infantry; 351st Machine Gun Battalion.
167th Field Artillery Brigade:
     349th, 350th (light), 351st (heavy) Field Artillery; 317th Trench Mortar Battery.
349th Machine Gun Battalion.
317th Engineers.
317th Field Signal Battalion.
Trains (317th Sanitary Train: Field Hospitals Nos. 365, 366, 367, 368, and Ambulance Companies Nos. 365, 366, 367, 368).

The first unit of the division arrived in France June 19, 1918; the last July 18, 1919. For training purposes the division (less artillery) was sent to the eleventh training area, with headquarters at Bourbonne-les-Bains (Haute-Marne). For the same purpose


1017

the  Artillery brigade went to La Courtine (Creuse). It rejoined the division in the Marbache sector (Lorraine) October 31, 1918. On August 11, the division went to the Vosges, with headquarters at Bruyeres. On August 24 it commenced the relief of the 5th Division in the St. Die sector, completing the relief August 31. It remained in line until September 21, when it proceeded to the vicinity of Triaucourt (Meuse).

The sanitary train joined the division in the eleventh training area, where it underwent extensive training. When the division moved to the St. Die sector, Field Hospital No. 367 established at Bruyeres, in connection with a French hospital.  This unit functioned as an evacuation hospital for the division. In another French hospital in the same city an American operating team was also established.

Field Hospital No. 366 opened a triage at St. Die, from which the sick were transported to Field Hospital No. 367, at Bruyeres, the wounded to the French hospital where the American operating team was stationed, and the gassed to a gas hospital at St. Die.

Another triage was established at Raon l'Etape by Field Hospital No. 365. This evacuated its gassed to St. Die and its wounded to St. Die or Baccarat (Evacuation Hospital No. 2). The animal-drawn organizations, Field Hospital No. 368 and Ambulance Company No. 368, were in reserve at La Salle.

The ambulance section of the sanitary train did not function due to lack of transportation. Ambulance service was performed by an attached United States Army Ambulance Service section.

Battalion aid stations were in dugouts, well up to the front lines, or with the reserve, and patients were littered to ambulances in the rear. In some cases, however, it was possible for ambulances to reach the stations. Ambulance posts were established at Dijon, St. Jean d'Ormond, St. Michel, and Raon l'Etape. An ambulance dressing station was established at St. Jean d'Ormond, about 2 km. (1.2 miles) from the front line.

Meuse-Argonne operation, September 26 to October 4, 1918.
Marbache Sector (Second Army), October 9 to November 11, 1918.

After the armistice the division remained in the occupied area until the middle of December, when it proceeded to the Le Mans embarkation center, preparatory to its return to the United States.

Division headquarters sailed from Brest on February 7, 1919, and arrived at New York on February 17, 1919.

DIVISION SURGEONS3

Col. Perry L. Boyer, M. C., November 7, 1917, to October 5, 1918.
Lieut. Col. J. S. White, M. C., October 6, 1918, to February, 1919.

REFERENCES

(1)  Outlines of Histories of Divisions, U. S. Army, 1917-1919, prepared by the Historical Section, the Army War College. On file, Historical Section, the Army War College.
(2)  Report of Medical Department activities, 1st Division, prepared under the direction of division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(3)  Personal Reports. On file, Personnel Division, S. G. O.
(4)  Report of Medical Department activities, 2d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(5)  Report of Medical Department activities, 3d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(6)  Report of Medical Department activities, 4th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(7)  Report of Medical Department activities, 5th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(8)  Report of Medical Department activities, 6th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.


1018

(9)  Report of Medical Department activities, 7th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(10)  Report of Medical Department activities, 26th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(11)  Report of Medical Department activities, 27th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(12)  Report of Medical Department activities, 28th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(13)  Report of Medical Department activities, 29th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(14)  Report of Medical Department activities, 30th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(15)  Report of Medical Department activities, 32d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(16)  Report of Medical Department activities, 33d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(17)  Report of Medical Department activities, 35th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(18)  Report of Medical Department activities, 36th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(19)  Report of Medical Department activities, 37th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(20)  Report of Medical Department activities, 42d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(21)  Report of Medical Department activities, 77th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(22)  Report of Medical Department activities, 78th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G .O.
(23)  Report of Medical Department activities, 79th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(24)  Report of Medical Department activities, 80th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(25)  Report of Medical Department activities, 81st Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(26)  Report of Medical Department activities, 82d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(27)  Report of Medical Department activities, 88th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(28)  Report of Medical Department activities, 89th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(29)  Report of Medical Department activities, 90th Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(30)  Report of Medical Department activities, 91st Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S G. O.
(31)  Report of Medical Department activities, 92d Division, prepared under the direction of the division surgeon, undated. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

LIST OF DEPOT AND REPLACEMENT DIVISIONS

31st, National Guard of Georgia, Alabama, Florida.
34th, National Guard of Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska.
38th, National Guard of Kentucky, West Virginia, Indiana.
39th, National Guard of Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas.


1019

40th, National Guard of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico.
41st, National Guard of Washington, Oregon, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming.
76th, National Army, draft; New England States.
83d, National Army, draft; Ohio and West Virginia.
84th, National Army, draft; Indiana and Kentucky.
85th, National Army, draft; Michigan and Wisconsin.
86th, National Army, draft; Illinois.
87th, National Army, draft; Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi.


1020

CHIEF SURGEONS OF ARMIES3

First Army:
Col. A. N. Stark, M.C., June 6, 1918, to December 31, 1918.
Col. T. L. Rhoads, M.C., December 4, 1918, to April, 1919.

Second Army:
Col. Charles R. Reynolds, M.C., September 28, 1918, to May 31, 1919.

Third Army:
Col. J. W. Grissinger, M.C., November 15, 1918, to July 15, 1919.
 

CORPS SURGEONS3

First Corps:
Lieut. Col. William Reno, M .C., January 20 to February 13, 1918.
Col. Robert M. Culler, M. C., March 3, 1918, to June 15, 1918.
Col. J.W. Grissinger, M. C., June 30, 1918, to November 14, 1918.
Col. T. L. Rhoads, M. C., November 15, 1918, to December 2, 1918.

Second Corps:
Col. C. C. Collins, M. C., March 19, 1918, to January 18, 1919.

Third Corps:
Col. James L. Bevans, M. C., July 1, 1918, to March 16, 1919.

Fourth Corps:
Col. George H. R. Gosman, M. C., June 28, 1918, to September 22, 1918.
Col. John W. Hanner, M. C., September 23, 1918, to May 5, 1919.
Col. J. R. Shook, M. C., May 6, 1919, to May 27, 1919.

Fifth Corps:
Col. W. R. Eastman, M. C., August 19, 1918, to February 23, 1919.

Sixth Corps:
Col. Charles R. Reynolds, M. C., August 5, 1918, to September 27, 1918.

Seventh Corps:
Col. Wallace DeWitt, M. C., September 7, 1918, to April 24, 1919.
Lieut. Col. R. H. Pierson, M. C., April 25, 1919, to May 27, 1919.

Eighth Corps:
Col. J. R. Shook, M. C., December 1, 1918, to March 31, 1919.

Ninth Corps:
Col. Paul C. Hutton, M. C., November 25, 1918, to December 21, 1918.