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Volume II Administration American Expeditionary Forces

Books and Documents

The
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY
IN THE WORLD WAR




VOLUME II

ADMINISTRATION
AMERICAN
EXPEDITIONARY
FORCES





PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF
MAJ. GEN. M. W. IRELAND
The Surgeon General

By

COLONEL JOSEPH H. FORD, M. C.





UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE :  1927


ADDITIONAL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT
$3.40 PER COPY


LETTER OF TRANSMISSION


I have the honor to submit herewith a portion of the history of the
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE
WORLD WAR. The portion submitted is Volume II, and is entitled "ADMINISTRATION, AMERICAN
EXPEDITIONARY FORCES."

               M. W. IRELAND,
     Major General, the Surgeon General.

The SECRETARY OF WAR.


MAJ. GEN. MERRITTE W. IRELAND, M. C., CHIEF SURGEON, A. E. F., MAY 1, 1918, TO OCTOBER 9, 1918


     Lieut. Col. FRANK W. WEED, M. C., Editor in Chief

LOY MCAFEE, A. M., M. D., Assistant Editor in Chief

             EDITORIAL BOARD a

Col. BAILEY K. ASHFORD, M. C.
Col. FRANK BILLINGS, M. C.
Col. THOMAS R. BOGGS, M. C.
Col. GEORGE E. BREWER, M. C.
Col. W. P. CHAMBERLAIN, M. C.
Col. C. F. CRAIG, M. C.
Col. HAVEN EMERSON, M. C.
Brig. Gen. JOHN M. T. FINNEY, M. D.
Col. JOSEPH H. FORD, M. D.
Lieut. Col. FIELDING H. GARRISON, M. D.
Col. H. L. GILCHRIST, M. C.
Brig. Gen. JEFFERSON R. KEAN, M. D.
Lieut. Col. A. G. LOVE, M. C.
Col. CHARLES LYNCH, M. C.
Col. JAMES F. MCKERNON, M. C.
Col. R. T. OLIVER, D. C.
Col. CHARLES R. REYNOLDS, M. C.
Col. THOMAS W. SALMON, M. C.
Lieut. Col. G. E. DE SCHWEINITZ, M. C.
Col. J. F. SILER, M. C.
Brig. Gen. W. S. THAYER, M. D.
Col. A. D. TUTTLE, M. C.
Col. WILLIAM H. WELCH, M. C.
Col. E. P. WOLFE, M. C.
Lieut. Col. CASEY A. WOOD, M. C.
Col. HANS ZINSSER, M. C.



         aThe highest rank held during the World War has been used in the case of each officer.



Preface
Introduction

SECTION I. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE CHIEF SURGEON'S OFFICE

CHAPTER
I. General organization and development of the chief surgeon's office
II. Representation of the Medical Department on the general staff, A. E. F.
III. Liaison of the Medical Department, United States Army, with the medical services of the Allies
IV. The administration division
V. The personnel division
VI. The dental section
VII. The nursing section; reconstruction aides
VIII. The division of sanitation and inspection
IX. The division of laboratories and infectious diseases
X. The division of laboratories and infectious diseases continued-Central Medical Department laboratory
XI. The division of laboratories and infectious diseases continued-The section of laboratories; technical work of laboratories
XII. The division of laboratories and infectious diseases continued-Section of infectious diseases; section of wound bacteriology
XIII. The division of laboratories and infectious diseases continued-Section of water supplies; section of food and nutrition; museum and art section; laboratory of surgical research
XIV. The division of hospitalization
XV. The division of hospitalization continued-Hospital construction; procurement
XVI. The division of hospitalization continued-Hospitalization of sick and wounded
XVII. The division of hospitalization continued-Medical Department transportation
XVIII. The division of hospitalization continued-The professional services
XIX. The finance and supply division
XX. The veterinary service
 

SECTION II. MEDICAL ACTIVITIES OF TERRITORIAL SECTIONS

SECTION III. HOSPITALS

CHAPTER
XXI. Hospital centers
XXII. A typical hospital center
XXIII. Other hospital centers
XXIV. Base hospitals
XXV. Camp hospitals

                   SECTION IV. EVACUATION OF PATIENTS TO THE UNITED STATES; DISCONTINUANCE OF HOSPITALS

CHAPTER
XXVI. Evacuation of patients to the United States
XXVII. Discontinuance of hospitals

SECTION V. THE ARMY OF OCCUPATION IN GERMANY

CHAPTER
XXVIII. The American forces in Germany
XXIX. Department of sanitation and public health, German occupied territory

SECTION VI. MEDICAL DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES, AMERICAN FORCES IN FRANCE

Appendix:
    Report on organization, equipment, and functions of the Medical Department
    Circulars promulgated by the chief surgeon, A. E. F.
    The more important memoranda promulgated by the division of laboratories and infectious diseases, A. E. F.
    The more important forms used in the laboratory service, A. E. F.

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE
1. Personnel, Medical Department, A. E. F., January 11, 1919
2. Personnel, Medical Department, A. E. F., July 12, 1919
3. Consolidated daily field report of Medical Department personnel, S. O. S., August 31, 1919
4. Types and numbers of laboratories in operation in the American Expeditionary Forces, May, 1917, to April, 1919

LIST OF PLATES

FRONTISPIECE. Maj. Gen. M. W. Ireland, M. C., chief surgeon, A. E. F., May 1, 1918, to October 9, 1918
PLATE
1. Brig. Gen. Alfred E. Bradley, M. C., chief surgeon, A. E. F., to April 30, 1918
2. Brig. Gen. Walter D. McCaw, M. C., chief surgeon, A. E. F., October 10, 1918, to July 15, 1919

LIST OF CHARTS

CHART
I. Showing organization of chief surgeon's office, A. E. F., March 6, 1918
II. Scheme for organization of Medical Department, A. E. F., corrected to November 11, 1918
III. Scheme for organization of division of sanitation and inspection, chief surgeon's office, A. E. F.

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE
Maj. Gen. Merritte W. Ireland, M.C., Chief Surgeon, A. E. F., May 1, 1918, to October 9, 1918
1. Lines of communication, A. E. F., showing also the sections comprising the Services of Supply - Facing
2. Wing B, of group of three main buildings, general headquarters, A. E. F., in which the office of the chief surgeon, A. E. F., was located prior to its removal to Tours. This wing also was the location, subsequently, of the medical group, G-4, general staff, A. E. F.
3. Headquarters, Services of Supply, A. E. F., at Tours. The chief surgeon's office occupied practically the entire first floor of the wing on the right
4. Building in Tours in which the finance and accounting division of the chief surgeon's office was located
5. Ground plan, headquarters, division of laboratories, A. E. F., and Central Medical Department Laboratory, Dijon
6. Floor plan of the office of the director, division of laboratories, A. E. F.
7. Central Medical Department Laboratory, Dijon. The main building is in the center of the background
8. Diagram showing types of laboratories in the American Expeditionary Forces
9. Pathological room in the laboratory, Vichy hospital center
10. Bacteriological laboratory, Vichy hospital center
11. Field laboratory car
12. Front of interior of field laboratory car
13. Rear of interior of field laboratory car
14. Interior of field laboratory car, showing water still, autoclave, and sterilizers
15. Transportable laboratory in eight chests
16. Chests of transportable laboratory opened to show contents
17. Chests of transportable laboratory opened to show contents
18. Chests of transportable laboratory opened to show contents
19. Chests of transportable laboratory opened to show contents
20. Showing preparations for shipping portable laboratories from the Central Medical Department Laboratory, Dijon
21. General layout of hospital unit, type A (base hospital) with wards 20 feet wide. Demountable buildings
22. General layout of hospital unit, type A, with wards 20 feet wide. Permanent buildings
23. General layout of hospital unit, type A, with wards 36 feet wide
24. Ward building (20 feet wide), hospital unit, type A. Demountable
25. Ward building (36 feet wide), hospital unit, type A
26. Administration building, hospital unit, type A
27. Nurses' quarters, hospital unit, type A
28. Nurses' dining room and kitchen, hospital unit, type A; for use with demountable buildings
29. Officers' quarters and dining room, hospital unit, type A; for use with demountable buildings
30. Officers' quarters, hospital unit, type A; for use with permanent type of buildings
31. Receiving and evacuating hall, hospital unit, type A; for use with demountable buildings
32. Receiving and evacuating hall and patients' bath, hospital unit, type A. Permanent type
33. Patients' bath, hospital unit, type A, for use with demountable buildings
34. Recreation hall, hospital unit, type A; permanent building type
35. Nurses recreation club, hospital unit, type A; demountable
36. Laboratory and morgue, hospital unit, type A; demountable
37. Operating and X-ray building, hospital unit, type A; demountable
38. Operating, X-ray, and clinic building, hospital unit, type A
39. Dispensary and clinic building, hospital unit, type A; demountable
40. Clinic and surgical dressings building, hospital unit, type A
41. Patients' kitchen, hospital unit, type A; temporary type
42. Patients' kitchen and dining halls, hospital unit, type A; permanent type
43. Patients' dining hall, hospital unit, type A, for use only when demountable buildings were furnished
44. Quartermaster's storehouse, hospital unit, type A; demountable
45. Quartermaster's and medical storehouse, hospital unit, type A; permanent
46. Barrack building, hospital unit, type A; demountable
47. Personnel dining hall, hospital unit, type A; demountable
48. Medical storehouse, hospital unit, type A; demountable
49. Disinfector building, hospital unit, type A; demountable
50. Ablution building, hospital unit, type A; demountable
51. General layout, hospital center, Bazoilles
52. General layout, hospital center, Mars
53. General layout, hospital unit, type B (camp hospital)
54. Ward, hospital unit, type B
55. Administration building and officers' quarters, hospital unit, type B
56. Patients' mess, hospital unit, type B
57. Bath and disinfector, hospital unit, type B
58. Operating and clinic building, hospital unit, type B
59. General layout, hospital unit, type C (convalescent camp), 2,000 beds
60. Administration and clinic building, hospital unit, type C
61. Officers' quarters and mess hall, hospital unit, type C
62. Standard barrack, hospital unit, type C
63. Kitchen, hospital unit, type C
64. Quartermaster building, hospital unit, type C
65. Shops and disinfector building, hospital unit, type C
66. Laundry building, hospital unit, type C
67. Dining hall, hospital unit, type C
68. Bathhouse, hospital unit, type C
69. Venereal and skin clinic, hospital unit, type C
70. Perspective of a Bessonneau tent in a two-tent unit
71. Perspective of a Bessonneau tent, showing framing and double walls
72. Plan of a two-tent (Bessonneau) ward
73. Showing heating arrangements in a Bessonneau tent
74. Perspective of a marquee tent ward, showing a unit of three tents
75. Plan of a marquee tent ward of three tents
76. Showing heating arrangements in a marquee tent ward
77. Perspective of closet in a marquee tent, showing construction
78. Plan of a two-tent ward, United States hospital ward tent
79. Outline map of France showing the location of the various fixed hospitals of the American Expeditionary Forces 
80. American Red Cross Military Hospital No. 21, Paignton, Devon, England
81. American Red Cross Convalescent Hospital No. 101, Lingfield, Surrey, England (for officers)
82. Hospital train obtained from the French, at Base Hospital No. 9, Chateauroux
83. French hospital train, with continental type of carriage
84. Interior of one of our hospital trains (British built)
85. Hospital train at Base Hospital No. 27, Angers
86. Entraining class D patients at Base Hospital No. 30, Royat
87. Map of Allerey hospital center and vicinity
88. Reservoir, Allerey hospital center
89. Exterior view of warehouse, Allerey hospital center
90. Interior of receiving ward, Allerey hospital center
91. Delousing apparatus, Allerey hospital center
92. Clothing preparatory to delousing process, Allerey hospital center
93. Interior of one of the quarters for enlisted men, Allerey hospital center
94. Heating apparatus for patients' baths, Allerey hospital center
95. An operating room, Allerey hospital center
96. Sterilization room, Allerey hospital center
97. A surgical ward, Allerey hospital center
98. A psychiatric ward, Allerey hospital center
99. Eye and ear clinic in one of the hospitals, Allerey hospital center
100. Center medical laboratory, Allerey hospital center
101. View of Bazoilles hospital center
102. Covered walk connecting the wards at Base Hospital No. 18, Bazoilles hospital center
103. Airplane view, Beau Desert hospital center
104. Beau Desert hospital center, showing railway facilities
105. An operating room, Beaune hospital center
106. A view of part of Kerhuon hospital center
107. A view of part of Limoges hospital center
108. General view of Mars hospital center, looking northeast from tower at west end of center
109. One of the operating rooms, Mars hospital center
110. View of convalescent camp (east end) looking north from water tower, Mars hospital center
111. A view of part of Mesves hospital center, during the construction period
112. A row of wards, Mesves hospital center, during construction period
113. Rock quarry, used in construction of Mesves hospital center
114. Base hospital, No. 99, Hyeres, Riviera hospital center
115. Base hospital No. 93, Cannes, Riviera hospital center
116. Evacuation Hospital No. 49, Menton, Riviera hospital center
117. Airplane view, Savenay hospital center
118. Hotel des Bains, part of Vichy hospital center
119. Hotel Lilas, part of Vichy hospital center
120. A ward, Base Hospital No. 1, Vichy hospital center
121. Officers' mess at the Hotel Sevigne, Vichy hospital center
122. Casino, used as the officers' club, Vichy hospital center
123. Building used as the noncommissioned officers' club, Vichy hospital center
124. Two small hotels used for the enlisted men, Vichy hospital center
125. Base Hospital No. 3, Vauclaire
126. Airplane view of Base Hospital No. 7, Joue-les-Tours
127. Base Hospital No. 9, Chateauroux
128. A general medical ward, exterior, Base Hospital No. 12, operating British General Hospital No. 18
129. Exterior, surgical ward, Base Hospital No. 12
130. Base Hospital No. 15, Chaumont
131. Base Hospital No. 17, Dijon
132. A view of part of Base Hospital No. 21, operating British General Hospital No. 12, Rouen
133. A view of part of the temporary buildings, Base Hospital No. 27, Angers
134. Base Hospital No. 28, part of Limoges hospital center
135. Surgical building, Base Hospital No. 29
136. Airplane view, Base Hospital No. 30, Royat
137. Base Hospital No. 33, Portsmouth, England
138. Contagious disease ward, Base Hospital No. 40, Sarisbury Court, Hants, England
139. A view of the grounds, Base Hospital No. 41, St. Denis, Paris
140. View of part of Base Hospital No. 43, Blois
141. Base Hospital No. 57, Paris
142. Base Hospital No. 85, Paris
143. Part of Base Hospital No. 94, Pruniers
144. Main building, Base Hospital No. 103, Dijon
145. Main kitchen, Base Hospital No. 106, Beau Desert hospital center
146. Interior, detachment mess, Base Hospital No. 106
147. Base Hospital No. 236, Carnac
148. Camp Hospital No. 2, Bassens
149. Camp Hospital No. 4, Joinville
150. A ward interior, Camp Hospital No. 7, Humes
151. Camp Hospital No. 22, Langres
152. Camp Hospital No. 24, Langres
153. Interior, officers' ward, Camp Hospital No. 28, Nevers
154. A group of wards, Camp Hospital No. 29, Le Courneau
155. Camp Hospital No. 33, Camp Pontanezen
156. Camp Hospital No. 41, Is-sur-Tille
157. Camp Hospital No. 42, Bar-sur-Aube
158. Camp Hospital No. 45, Aix-les-Baines
159. Camp Hospital No. 46, Landerneau
160. Camp Hospital No. 48, Recey-sur-Ource
161. One of the buildings, Camp Hospital No. 56, Avoine
162. Camp Hospital No. 59, Issoudun
163. Camp Hospital No. 64, Chatillon-sur-Seine
164. Camp Hospital No. 68, Bourges
165. Camp Hospital No. 72, Chateau-du-Loir