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Chapter III

Contents

The Medical Department Of The United States Army in The World War

CHAPTER III

         LIAISON OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY, WITH THE MEDICAL SERVICES OF THE ALLIES

LIAISON WITH THE BRITISH MEDICAL SERVICE

On June 9, 1917, the chief of staff, A. E. F., notified one of our medical officers, who had been serving as military observer, of his assignment as liaison officer with the Director General, British Medical Service, in connection with the administration of American medical units serving with the British.1 The necessity for such an assignment is indicated by the chief surgeon, A. E. F., who, on June 11, 1917, wrote the Surgeon General in part as follows, concerning his relationships with the above-mentioned units and with casual American personnel assigned to the British forces:2

* * * * * * *

As already reported to your office, I assumed some weeks ago an unauthorized supervisory control over American medical personnel arriving in England, for service with British forces.

My position was such I could neither act nor advise in any authoritative manner and my relations with the personnel and the British medical officials has been purely advisory.

Many points had arisen which required decisive action or opinion, and I laid the whole matter before General Pershing with my recommendations and suggestions. These he approved and a memorandum has been issued as the result * * *.

It is General Pershing's understanding that this medical personnel with the British is not at this time under his control. If this understanding is erroneous, information is requested by cable, for I will sever my connection with this personnel, and the British medical service on my departure for France, and as chief surgeon, A. E. F., will exercise no supervision unless it is explicitly directed by the War Department. * * *

Before headquarters moved to Paris the chief surgeon wrote the liaison officer with the British as follows:3

Inclosed herewith is a copy of a memorandum prepared this date. Copies have been supplied to the following officers:

    Commanding officer, United States Army, Base Hospitals Nos. 2, 4, 5, 10, 12, 21.
    Director general, British medical service.
    Surgeon General, United States Army, Washington, D. C.
    Liaison officer, Adastral House, Victoria Embankment.

* * * * * * *

    Adjutant general, American Expeditionary Forces.
    The Adjutant General, United States Army, Washington, D. C.
    Judge advocate, American Expeditionary Forces.
    Quartermaster, American Expeditionary Forces.

This memorandum covers in a general way the results of all that has been done in connection with this personnel.

In so far as the British War Office is concerned it is the result of conferences with the director general and his assistant, General Babtie, and it has the approval of the commanding general.

There has been no word of instruction of any kind received at this embassy from Washington regarding this personnel. They have been ordered to report to Lieut. Col. A. E. Bradley, M. C., for instructions and have all been reported by him to the War Office for duty.


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Lacking instructions and information, no office has been organized nor established for administrative purposes. The matter was placed before General Pershing on his arrival and recommendations made which are embodied in the accompanying memorandum.

It is suggested that you look to the base hospitals for such office enlisted personnel as may be needed for the administration of the American necessities. No doubt some British assistance will be forthcoming on your proper representation of the necessity therefore.

Fifty-two medical officers, unattached to organized units, have reported up to date. Many of these have gone to France and some have been assigned here in England. Others are awaiting assignments. * * *

The Surgeon General has written me a personal letter that besides the six base hospitals already here, he proposes to send, in June, 200 medical officers and 200 nurses, and similar numbers in July and August.

The commanding officer of Base Hospital No. 2 has made inquiries as to promotion of men of his enlisted force, and steps should be taken promptly to obtain the necessary authority from the Surgeon General to promote privates, and to conduct examinations for the making of noncommissioned officers.

Personal reports have been forwarded, but some personnel returns, etc., have been held until some check could me made by an authorized central office which is established by this action of the commanding general. These held papers and some little correspondence have been left for you in the embassy office.

 * * * * * * *

After the chief surgeon had received from The Adjutant General, United States Army, the letter quoted in Chapter II, which prescribed the scope of his authority,4 he wrote our liaison officer in London on June 25, as follows:5

Inclosed herewith is a copy of order making the assignment of "Chief surgeon, United States forces in Europe," which has been received since the preparation of memorandum and letter of instruction to you dated June 11, 1917.

It will be noted that authority in all matters in Europe pertaining to the Medical Department is vested in the chief surgeon, A. E. F., and you will be guided accordingly.

The instructions contained in the letter referred to above are therefore modified as follows:

(a) You will in future, in general, in your relations with this office and the American medical units and personnel with the British medical service, act as would a surgeon of a department in the United States.

(b) All reports, requisitions, returns, etc., of whatever nature will be forwarded to this office. The number of copies in each case will be that fixed by regulations governing under war conditions.

(c) It is directed that for all commissioned personnel and all unattached enlisted and civilian personnel, you make, in your office, nominal monthly check lists showing the address and duty of each individual. After making these lists you may transmit direct to the Surgeon General the personal reports received by you instead of forwarding them to this office, sending only to the chief surgeon the check lists above referred to.

(d) It is desired that all United States Army hospital units make reports each month, through United States medical channels, of the work being done by them-a numerical report of all cases treated by the organization in the hospital served by them.

All instructions contained in the memorandum and letter of June 11 conflicting with these instructions of this date are revoked.

The liaison officer with the British medical service, with office in Adastral House, kept the records, reports, and pay accounts, and cared for the mail of all American officers, nurses, and enlisted men of the American Expeditionary Forces on duty with the British.6 He was later assisted by two commissioned officers and four clerks. In discharging these duties he kept trace of the assignment of those members of our medical department who were assigned to duty


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with the British, assisted them in obtaining pay and allowances, procuring leaves of absence or sick leave, and promoted their interests in other matters.6 For example, when any were taken prisoner, he reported that fact to the American Red Cross, which undertook to send them packages of food and to communicate with them and their families in the United States.6 He also reported to the chief surgeon, A. E. F., those officers under his jurisdiction who were recommended for promotion and assembled the records on which these recommendations were based. This was an important subject in which the personnel concerned so interested themselves that there was almost constant agitation in connection with it. For this reason this subject engaged a large proportion of the efforts of the liaison officer and of those of his office force.6 Another of his duties was to arrange when necessary for the transfer, to the direct control by the headquarters, A. E. F., of those members of the Medical Department under his supervision, who required discipline.6 He investigated such cases, procured witnesses, and reported them to the chief surgeon, American Expeditionary Forces.6

Through the liaison officer for the Medical Department in London, the medical officers serving with the base hospitals assigned to the British were in much closer contact with the chief surgeon's office than were the casual American medical officers assigned to British units. As mentioned in the chapter on "Personnel," there was great difficulty at first in reaching these casual officers, and because of their ignorance of regulations, general orders, etc., they seldom reported changes of status. In many cases officers served with the British for months before they became of record in the chief surgeon's office, A. E. F.

The liaison officer procured the records, statement of cause of disability, whether in line of duty or not, and other data required for our sick and wounded report in the case of each individual of the American Expeditionary Forces, who became incapacitated while assigned to the British, whether in France or Great Britain.6 A great amount of this work was carried on in cooperation with the chief surgeon of base section No. 3 (the British Isles), and after March, 1918, most of these data were returned to him;6 but prior to January 14, 1918, the liaison officer discharged the duties of chief surgeon of this base section, in addition to the others more properly pertaining to his office.7

The liaison officer cooperated in securing buildings and sites for hospitals, especially before July 1, 1918.6 He investigated and reported upon properties which were offered to the American Expeditionary Forces for hospitalization purposes. It is of interest to note that in the course of these activities he found it necessary to decline Windsor Castle, which was offered for our hospital purposes by the King of England; without extensive alteration, that historic structure could not be adapted to our needs.6 The King, therefore, offered to build a hospital in the castle grounds, and this offer was accepted.6 The liaison officer inspected other residences and estates offered us for hospitalization purposes, and his reports led to the acceptance of a number of these.6 Sites for the location of our base hospitals were thus selected throughout England, and to these American casualties were sent6 until in the spring of 1918, when it became necessary to send a number of them to British hospitals.7


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Another duty of the liaison officer was the selection of those ports where American casualties from the continent would be received, the creation of machinery for their reception, and the determination of their destination when placed on British hospital trains.6 The ports selected included some of those in the Channel, on the Thames, in Scotland, and in Ireland.6

The liaison officer supervised the assignment in Great Britain of American officers of the Medical, Dental, and Sanitary Corps for the study and treatment of gassed cases, and of cardiac conditions, the study of the methods and standards used in examinations of fliers of the Royal Air Force, of food and nutrition, and of general, orthopedic and maxillofacial surgery.6 He investigated the treatment and care during convalescence of injuries caused by mustard gas, and the findings made in cases that came to autopsy.6 He was liaison officer with the Royal Air Force.6 The chief surgeon, A. E. F., frequently asked that certain specialists who were on duty in our hospitals which were under British control, be transferred to the service of our troops in France, and the liaison officer was charged with transactions with the British authorities which would effect the release of the specialists.6 The needs thus created in British hospitals he then sought to meet by assignment of untrained personnel.6 Our six base hospitals serving with the British were constantly in need of specialists and replacements, and these needs were handled by the liaison officer.6

The liaison officer not only cooperated in effecting the transfer to the American Expeditionary Forces of those American physicians who were serving in the British Army and now sought transfer to ours, but he also advised the director general of the British Army medical service, concerning the many quacks, alleged physicians, and practitioners of various pathies who went to England from the United States to enter the British Army.6

In addition to cooperating with the American Red Cross in its efforts to assist personnel under his jurisdiction who had been captured, the liaison officer cooperated with the representatives of that body in London.6 He assigned medical officers to hospitals established by that society, and was designated by the commander in chief as personal adviser and aide to the director general of the American Red Cross, when that officer conducted an inspection tour through Great Britain.6

One of the duties of the liaison officer was the procurement in Great Britain of supplies for our Medical Department, both before and after a purchasing agent for this department was assigned to service in Great Britain.6 In this duty he not only promoted procurement from civil firms but also obtained large quantities of supplies from the British Government.6 The liaison officer served as a member of the purchasing board for the Medical Department in Great Britain, from October, 1917, until the middle of December of that year.6

The British brought up for his consideration and action many questions which pertained to the British Expeditionary Force in France, and to the American Expeditionary Forces as entities.6 The liaison officer was the channel of communication between the chief surgeon, A. E. F., and the chief surgeon, base section No. 3, on the one hand, and the Royal Army Medical Corps on the other.6 The chief surgeon's office, A. E. F., also transacted business with the British through the British mission established at Tours, and through the liaison


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officer pertaining to G-l, who represented the American Expeditionary Forces at headquarters of the British Expeditionary Forces.6

Deaths occurring among American units or detached personnel serving with the British were reported direct to the headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces.8

After the base section No. 3 was organized and a chief surgeon was assigned to it, the liaison officer continued to be charged with supervision of the six base hospitals and casual American medical personnel assigned to the British, but his activities did not extend to the medical organizations of our Second Corps.6 That command which consisted of American troops serving under British control was provided with a corps surgeon who was directly responsible to the chief surgeon, A. E. F., or in some matters to the latter's deputy at general headquarters.6

The average personnel of the Medical Department, A. E. F., constantly on duty with the British Army approximated 800 officers, 600 nurses, and 1,100 enlisted men.6 On November 23, 1918, there were serving with the British, 888 officers, 1,311 enlisted men, 676 nurses, and 24 civilian employees.6

American Medical Department organizations which participated in the North Russian expedition were under British command, but occupied, in reference to the liaison officer with the British, a position comparable to that of the base hospitals assigned to the British Expeditionary Force in France.6 The official methods of the Medical Department organizations of the North Russia expedition were made to conform, therefore, to British requirements in so far as they were relevant to British control, but other reports and returns conformed to American requirements.6

LIAISON WITH THE FRENCH MEDICAL SERVICE

The increasing number of American troops which entered the lines, mingled with the French, brought the two armies into very close relationship, until March, 1918, when under military exigencies the two services operated as one.9 The chief surgeon's office had to have a clear knowledge of the organization of the French Army and especially that of its medical department, from the Ministry of War to the field sanitary units, for French methods required that business be transacted only through definitely authorized agents.9 Therefore, it was necessary that the Medical Department, A. E. F., maintain the closest contact possible with the French authorities, for their cooperation was essential in a number of matters including the development of our program for hospital procurement.9

The French realized more clearly than had the Americans, this necessity for close cooperation and provided liaison officers for every branch of endeavor.9 Very shortly after the arrival of the first American troops the French Government established at the Ministry of War the special Franco-American bureau with subbureaus, known as sections, wherever needed.9 It thus provided an agency through which all matters affecting the two services could be studied and handled. In the subsecretariat of state, French medical service, a subsection of this Franco-American service was established.9 Also, in this subsecretariat a special technical division charged with American hospitalization.


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was organized. The object of this latter division was to assist in every way possible the procurement of hospitals, hospital sites, and medical supplies for the American Expeditionary Forces, and to facilitate the transfer to our medical service of those existing French hospital installations and buildings which our service needed.9

Owing to the shortage of medical officers, the chief surgeon, A. E. F., was unable to comply with the request of the French that he place one of his subordinates as liaison officer in this Franco-American section but he did direct the chief of the hospitalization division in his office to effect close liaison service therewith, in addition to his other duties.9 At this time when the great problems of the Medical Department were those pertaining to the hospitalization and supply and were concerned almost exclusively with the Services of Supply, this plan worked very satisfactorily.9

On August 25, 1917, in anticipation of the movement of General Headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces to Chaumont, the chief surgeon designated the purchasing officer for the Medical Department, in Paris, as liaison officer for the French medical service,10 and on the same date requested that a French officer be attached for liaison purposes to his own office after this had been established at Chaumont.11

Therefore, after the chief surgeon's office arrived at Chaumont an experienced French medical officer was assigned to liaison service with it, but after this officer had reported the French commander in chief required that he be placed under his jurisdiction.12 This the undersecretary refused to permit; and as the French commander in chief would allow no French officer to remain in the zone of the armies who was not entirely under his control, this liaison officer was relieved.12 The result was that the chief surgeon, A. E. F., lost a valuable adviser, and the close and direct relations between his office and the subsecretary of state, medical department, in Paris, were severed.12

On September 15, 1917, the chief surgeon and the chief of the hospitalization division of his office visited the French headquarters at Compeigne, for the purpose of making arrangements concerning the transaction of business relating to our Medical Department in the zone of the armies, and on the 17th they held a conference in Paris to determine the manner in which the Medical Department should transact business with the secretariat, now that our headquarters had moved into the zone of the armies.12

After headquarters, A. E. F., were established at Chaumont, the French high command established there a military mission which was organized with the same bureaus as the French General Staff.9 This organization provided a medical section under a French medical officer, who was charged with transaction of all business of whatever nature affecting the Medical Department in the zone of the armies.9 The chief of the hospitalization division in the chief surgeon's office was designated liaison officer between that office and the French mission.9

As questions pertaining to procurement of hospitals and other facilities were of immediate concern to the Services of Supply, in whose jurisdiction base hospitals and supply depots were being located in great numbers, it was expedient that the chief surgeon of that command also be in close touch with the


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French subsecretary of state, medical service.13 The chief surgeon, A. E. F., therefore, notified the chief of the French mission at Chaumont, on October 19, 1917, that he had designated the chief surgeon, Services of Supply, as his representative for all matters of Medical Department interest outside the zone of the armies.13 He also asked that a French liaison officer be attached to the latter's office, which was then in Paris.14 This was done, and after headquarters of the Services of Supply moved to Tours in January, 1918, a French liaison officer was attached to the office of its chief surgeon there.15

On February 9, 1918,16 in compliance with a request of the subsecretary of state, medical service,17 a senior medical officer of the American Expeditionary Forces was assigned to liaison duties with his office, and other officers to each of the 11 regions in which Americans were then conducting their most important activities.16

The officer selected for this assignment as liaison officer with the subsecretary of state, medical service, was the chief of the hospitalization division of the chief surgeon's office, who was performing liaison duty with the French mission at general headquarters.9 The cumulation of such duties upon one individual was necessitated by the shortage of officers and, in fact, worked out well, for the great majority of questions which required negotiations with the French continued to pertain to procurement of hospitals and medical supplies.9

After the chief surgeon's office, A. E. F., moved to Tours, in March, 1918,18 it transacted some business direct with the French mission established in that city,19 but contact was maintained chiefly through the officer referred to above, who remained with general headquarters at Chaumont as representative of the chief surgeon.20 Relieved from duty in the hospitalization division, he now in addition to his other duties, maintained liaison between the Medical Department, A. E. F., on the one hand, and, on the other, with the subsecretary of state, medical service, in Paris, and the French mission at Chaumont.9 Part of this duty was his supervision of the liaison effected by other medical officers assigned to that duty, whether for armies, corps, or divisions in the field, or for regional subsections in the Services of Supply.9

In compliance with a circular letter from the Minister of War, dated December 30, 1917, Franco-American sections had been instituted in connection with the large French services.21 These sections were charged with the study of all Franco-American affairs transmitted to them and the solution of problems incident thereto.21

Eventually, sections of the Franco-American service were established at each headquarters of the military regions (approximately 20) into which France was divided, and a local medical officer of the A. E. F. was assigned to each, in addition to his other duties, as liaison officer for the chief surgeon.9 All matters of policy were determined between the Franco-American section in Paris, and the chief surgeon's office, but, when policies had been declared the execution of details conforming thereto was made a duty of the regional subsections.9 The activities of these regional officers are discussed at greater length below.

The matters which the liaison officer for the Medical Department conducted with the office of the subsecretary of state, medical service, may be classified as follows:22 (a) Procurement of French hospitals for the American Expeditionary


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Forces; (b) procurement of existing buildings, such as hotels and schoolhouses, for hospital purposes; (c) all questions of standard medical supplies obtained from the French medical service; (d) the execution of contracts for the purchase of sanitary formations from the French medical service, such as mobile hospitals and mobile surgical units, etc.; (e) formulation of policies regarding the exchange of the necessary data covering American patients in French hospitals and French patients in American hospitals; (f) formulation of policies regarding control of communicable diseases, particularly with a view of protecting the French civil population; (g) miscellaneous matters.

The above classification practically outlines the scope of duties which devolved upon the American liaison officer with the French medical service.22 The matters which required the greatest amount of work were those connected with procurement of hospitals of the American Expeditionary Forces, and the hospital supplies which could be secured better in Europe than in the United States.22 From the very beginning of our effort it was necessary that the American Expeditionary Forces take over from the French certain hospitals and their equipment, in order to meet the needs of arriving American troops, and this need continued until our barrack hospitals could be constructed.22 At first the procedure for taking over these hospitals was by direct request upon the office of the subsecretary of state, through the liaison officer attached to his office.22 Later this duty was performed through the regional liaison officers for the Medical Department.9 Each of these officers acted on all routine matters as an intermediary between the local American authorities and the director of the French medical service for the region concerned.9 Matters of policy continued to be determined between the representative of the chief surgeon, A. E. F., and the office of the subsecretary of state, medical service, in the Ministry of War, but the details conforming thereto were carried out by the regional liaison officers.9

As noted above, Franco-American sections were established as need arose at headquarters of each of the 20 military administrative regions into which France was divided.9 A medical officer of the American Expeditionary Forces in each of these regions was accredited to the respective Franco-American section established at headquarters of each, and, in his liaison duties, which he discharged in addition to others, was under the control of the liaison officer for the Medical Department.9

These officers were given definite rules concerning acquisition of hospital sites and of buildings suitable for hospital purposes, the taking over of existing French hospitals, and the coordination of the medical services of the two countries in many other respects, but the greater part of their duties was concerned with hospitalization.23 They were directed to maintain contact and cordial relations with the regional medical director of the French Army, with whom they conducted initial negotiations for the transfer of projects and installations; to exert every effort to avoid friction; and to arrange with the medical director the local policies which would guide them in future liaison activities.23 In their instructions these officers were informed that the French had manifested a desire to cooperate in every way possible and already had given us many of their best hospitals.23 They familiarized themselves with all hospitalization


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prospects in their regions in order that in emergencies appropriate request could be made for their procurement.23 From time to time they were directed to inspect and report upon hospital properties made available by the French, to conduct such investigations, as were prescribed, of certain projects or installations, and were given instructions concerning further development of the liaison service.23 Also, they were guided by general orders concerning liaison.23 They not only notified the chief surgeon, A. E. F., of their liaison activities but also the chief surgeon, Services of Supply, until the office of the former absorbed that of the latter in March, 1918, promptly furnishing the latter any hospitalization data he desired and assisting him in the acquisition of buildings.23 The liaison officer for the district of Paris was concerned with the proper distribution of American patients in that jurisdiction, for certain hospitals had been designated for the reception of American wounded, and close cooperation with the French was necessary in order that this distribution might be made to best advantage.24

Liaison in matters pertaining to sanitation and epidemiology of both civil communities and military organizations was maintained, through the medical officers of the French military mission at general headquarters, A. E. F., and at headquarters, Services of Supply, and through the Franco-American sections in each of the regions wherever American troops were stationed or through which they passed.25 The French mission at headquarters, Services of Supply, included a medical officer in direct liaison with the chief surgeon, A. E. F., and suitable French liaison officers were assigned to duty with the chief surgeons of sections of the Services of Supply, and with the commanding officers of a few of the larger hospital centers.26 The chief of the French skin and venereal service of each region was directly accredited to the American medical service as liaison officer in all matters affecting his specialty.26 The technical chiefs at the French headquarters of the several regions, were directed to cooperate with the local liaison officers of the American Expeditionary Forces in matters affecting the hygiene, epidemiology, and prophylaxis of American troops.26 They were ordered to effect technical cooperation in the following matters especially:26 (1) Study and survey of water supplies; (2) employment of all bacteriological laboratories by American medical officers in their efforts to confirm the diagnosis of communicable diseases, detect carriers, perform water analyses, etc.; (3) regular and constant receipt of information concerning incidence of infectious diseases among American troops and measures taken to control their spread; reciprocal notification to the American authorities of all epidemics of any importance among French civil or military populations with note of preventive measures taken;26 (4) notification to the Medical Department of the American Expeditionary Forces of localities quarantined and released from quarantine. Study in collaboration with the chief medical officers of hospital centers and of dermatovenereological subcenters, of all questions concerning the treatment and prevention of venereal disease and information of the Medical Department of all regulations, circular letters, and notices concerning sanitation, epidemiology, and preventive measures.26

In order to comply with these instructions the following reports were made by the regional Franco-American sections:26 Report every 10 days of all con-


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tagious diseases among American troops stationed in the region, including all necessary precautions. Prompt notice to civil authorities of contagious diseases occurring among American troops.26 Monthly report by chiefs of dermatovenereological centers and subcenters, including in a special chapter all questions concerning venereal diseases occurring among American troops.26 Monthly report by the assistant chief medical officer of the region or the technical adviser. This was addressed to the medical officer of the French military mission at headquarters, Services of Supply, to be transmitted to the office of
the chief surgeon, A. E. F.26

The Franco-American liaison was of considerable benefit and importance in certain other technical professional matters; e. g., delivery of sera to American medical officers by French laboratories, sterilization, and analysis of drinking water in railroad stations.26

A French ministerial circular letter of October 18, 1919, provided for collaboration of the American and French medical authorities in reports relative to the bacteriological and chemical tests of water supplies along the railroad lines traversed by troop convoys.26

Just as liaison was established between the American and French Medical Departments at American headquarters at Chaumont, at Tours, and at headquarters of the several French military regions, it was similarly maintained in the field between the medical service of smaller organizations of American troops and that of the medical service of the command with which they were serving. Medical officers of American corps or divisions operating under the control of one of the allied nations were designated, in addition to their other duties, as liaison officers for the chief surgeon, A. E. F., between the medical services of the troops concerned.22 Thus, on May 21, 1918, an American medical officer was assigned as liaison officer for the medical service of the 1st Division with whatever French force to which that division would be assigned,27 and the chief surgeon, American First Corps, on July 13, was made liaison officer for the American Medical Department with the French Sixth Army under whose tactical control that corps was then serving.28 Similarly, when French divisions later served under American command, French medical officers of those commands maintained liaison with the chief surgeons of the American corps and armies to which such divisions were assigned.9 This liaison effected by our medical service with that of our allies in the field, the chief surgeon supervised through his deputy at general headquarters.22
 

VETERINARY LIAISON WITH THE FRENCH

On April 11, 1918, the chief surgeon, A. E. F., was directed to designate two veterinary officers who would form, with two French veterinary officers, a Franco-American veterinary mission which would be charged with investigating and recommending measures to prevent or combat epidemics among animals in France.29 A French veterinary inspector designated by the undersecretary of state was charged by the latter with keeping this mission informed of all epidemics that might occur in the vicinity of American troops.30 The mission was to visit the organizations in which contagious diseases were reported and suggest all prophylactic measures indicated by insanitary conditions.30


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The mission also was at the disposal of the veterinary inspector who was to seek its advice and assign it to services in connection with any matters pertaining to the French veterinary general inspectorate.30 The undersecretary suggested that the following duties of the French mission would be especially useful:30 (1) Visiting American remount depots, both to ascertain the condition of animals bought and the state of those places from a sanitary standpoint. (2) Enforcing glanders prophylaxis by systematic use of malleinization, as carried on in the French Army. (3) Furnishing the United States Army with every information as to how to deal with diseases due to acclimatization of young horses, notably strangles and its complications. (4) Carrying on antimange defense on a methodical basis through the use of chemical products (sulphur and baths) and promptly initiating the construction of all installations needed. (5) Providing for defense against the various sorts of lymphangitis, in order to prevent spread of same, both in the United States and the French Army. (6) Suggesting all measures to be taken in connection with any other contagious disease that might be reported in the United States Army. (7) In regard to the animal's food, the composition of rations, the use of substitute foodstuffs, the making of summer and winter horseshoes, and giving advice with a view to facilitating the proper maintenance of horse strength.

It was understood the mission should report every week on the work it had done to the high American and French veterinary authorities to which it was attached and should point out in special reports the improvements that could be made in the organization and functioning of the veterinary service in each army.30

It was later proposed by the French that the instructions for the mission be made more definite, that it be made mandatory that this mission be consulted in case of epidemics, and that when ordered to do so, or when it thought such action necessary, it visit the organizations where contagious diseases were reported and propose appropriate prophylactic measures.31

On September 30, 1918, the chief surgeon, A. E. F., notified the chief of the Franco-American veterinary mission that the value of the mission, operating on the above lines, had ceased, but that it could be of great value if its activities were directed into other channels.32 He therefore requested that a French veterinary officer be assigned as liaison officer in the chief surgeon's office, A. E. F., and that one be assigned as liaison officer with the assistant chief veterinarian of the advance, intermediate and each base section, respectively, and to each army.32 The services of these officers were to be purely liaison between the assistant chief veterinarian concerned and the local French veterinary and civil authorities.32 In conformity with this recommendation one French veterinary officer was attached for liaison purposes to the chief of the veterinary service, A. E. F., at Tours and another to the assistant chief of the veterinary service in the advance section, at Nogent en Bassigny.33 Others were also assigned to the First, Second, and Third Armies,34 but the Franco-American veterinary liaison mission with headquarters in Paris continued to operate until several months after the beginning of the armistice.35

The last French liaison officer on duty with the Medical Department, A. E. F., was relieved on June 30, 1919.36


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LIAISON WITH THE ITALIAN MEDICAL SERVICE

Liaison with the Italian medical service was maintained through our chief surgeon base section, No. 8.37 On November 23, 1918, 57 officers and 1,010 enlisted men of the American Expeditionary Forces were serving under the control of the Italian Army.37

PERSONNEL

(July 28, 1917, to July 15, 1919)

LIAISON OFFICERS

WITH THE BRITISH ARMY

Col. Matthew A. De Laney, M. C.
Col. William J. L. Lyster, M. C.

WITH THE FRENCH ARMY

Col. Sanford A. Wadhams, M. C.

WITH THE ITALIAN ARMY

Col. Elbert E. Persons, M. C.

REFERENCES

(1) Telegram from the chief of staff, A. E. F., to Maj. W. J. L. Lyster, M. C., June 9, 1917. Subject: Liaison officer. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. (9795).

(2) Letter and memorandum from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 11, 1917. Subject: American medical personnel serving with British forces. On file, Record Room,  S. G. O. (9795).

(3) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to Maj. W. J. L. Lyster, M. C., June 11, 1917, Subject: Administration of American medical personnel serving with British service. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. (9795).

(4) Letter from The Adjutant General of the Army, to Col. A. E. Bradley, M. C., American Embassy, London, May 28, 1917. Subject: Designation as chief surgeon of the United States forces in Europe. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. (9795).

(5) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to Maj. W. J. L. Lyster, M. C., June 25, 1917. Subject: Instructions. The administration of American medical personnel with British in relation to A. E. F. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (201, Lyster, W. J. L.).

(6) Report from Col. M. A. Delaney, M. C., liaison officer with the Director General, British Medical Service, to the Surgeon General, U. S. A., February 18, 1924. Subject: Liaison activities with the British Medical Service. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(7) Report from Capt. Arthur Morehouse, San. Corps, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 12, 1924. Subject: Summarized history of Army activities in base section No. 3, England. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(8) Report from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 1, 1919. Subject: Activities of the chief surgeon's office, A. E. F., to May 1, 1919. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(9) Wadhams, S. H., Col., M. C., and Tuttle, A. D., Col., M. C.: Some of the early problems of the Medical Department, A. E. F. The Military Surgeon, Washington, D. C., 1919, xlv, No. 6, 636.

(10) Memorandum from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the chief of staff, A. E. F., August 25, 1917. Subject: Liaison officer, with the French Service de Santé. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).


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(11) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to Sous-Secrétariat d'Etat du Service de Santé, Première Division Technique, Hôpital Américaine, Minister of War, France, August 25, 1917. Subject: Officer of liaison. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(12) Memorandum from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the chief of staff, A. E. F., September 23, 1917. Subject: War diary for the week of September 23, 1917. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(13) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., by direction of the commander in chief, A. E. F., to the chief, French mission, headquarters, A. E. F., October 19, 1917. Subject: Liaison officer for the American Sanitary Service in Paris. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(14) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the chief, French military mission, October 21, 1917. Subject: Appointment of liaison officer. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(15) Letter from the Assistant Secretary of State of the Military Sanitary Service, to Col. F. A. Winter, chief surgeon, line of communications, A. E. F., Tours, January 25, 1918. Subject: Detail of officer for service with chief surgeon, line of communications, Tours. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(16) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., by direction of the commander in chief, A. E. F., to the chief French Military mission, February 9, 1918. Subject: Appointment of officers of the United States Army Medical Corps to act in liaison with French authorities. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(17) Letter from the Sous-Secrétariat d'Etat du Service de Santé, to the Sous-Secrétariat d'Etat, Présidence du Conseil, January (no date given). Subject: American officers to be attached to French American services on sections. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(18) War Diary, chief surgeon's office, A. E. F., March 24, 1918. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(19) Memorandum from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the French mission, headquarters, S. O. S., June 28, 1919. Subject: Veterinary liaison officer. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(20) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to Sous-Secrétaire d'Etat du Service de Santé, Section Franco-Américaine, French mission, G. H. Q., A. E. F., March 8, 1919. Subject: Epidemic diseases in the A. E. F. On file, A. G. O., World War Division chief surgeon's files (710).

(21) Report on the general survey of communicable diseases, A. E. F., October 7, 1921, by Col. Haven Emerson, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(22) Report from the commander in chief, A. E. F., to The Adjutant General of the Army, March 26, 1919. Activities of G-1, Appendix 8, Report of liaison service (pages not numbered). On file, General Headquarters, A. E. F. Records.

(23) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to Maj. A. E. Schlanser, M. C., February 12, 1918. Subject: Appointment as liaison officer with French Medical Service; and letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to First Lieut. F. E. May, Interpreter Corps, N. A., February 25, 1918. Subject: Liaison with French Medical Service. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(24) Memorandum from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to Col. James A. Logan, jr., Q. M. C., February 24, 1918. Subject: Liaison officer. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(25) Report from Col. Haven Emerson, M. C., to the chief surgeon, A. E. F., May 31, 1919. Subject: Report of Division of Sanitation and  Inspection, Medical Department, A. E. F., on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(26) Reports and records of communicable diseases, October 7, 1921, by Col. Haven Emerson, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(27) Letter from commander in chief, A. E. F., to Lieut. Col. Paul C. Hutton, M. C., May 21, 1918. Subject: Liaison. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).


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(28) Letter from the chief of the French military mission with the A. E. F. to the commander in chief, A. E. F., Medical Department, July 13, 1918. Subject: Liaison officer. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(29) Telegram from Col. James A. Logan, jr., Q. M. C., to the commanding general, A. E. F., April 11, 1918. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(30) Letter from the Undersecretary of State with Prime Minister to the commander in chief, A. E. F., May 11, 1918. Subject: Liaison Franco-American veterinary mission. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(31) Letter from the chief of the directorate of the rear to the chief of G-4, general headquarters, September (no date), 1918. Subject: Franco-American veterinary mission. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(32) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to chief of Franco-American veterinary liaison mission, Paris, September 30, 1918. Subject: Franco-American liaison mission. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(33) Letter from chief of French mission at headquarters, S. O. S., to the commanding general, S. O. S., October 8, 1918. Subject: French veterinarians appointed to the A. E. F. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(34) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the Franco-American veterinary liaison mission, Paris, January 24, 1919. Subject: Assignment of French veterinarians to Second American Army; and letter from the chief veterinarian, A. E. F., March 15, 1919. Subject: Liaison officers, first and third Armies. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(35) Letter from the chief of the Franco-American veterinary liaison mission to the chief surgeon, A. E. F., January 14, 1919. Subject: American liaison officer. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(36) Memorandum from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the assistant chief of staff, G-1, S. O. S., July 1, 1919. Subject: French liaison officer relieved from duty. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files (211.01).

(37) Report of the activities of the Ambulance Service with the Italian Army (not dated), by Col. E. E. Persons, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

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