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Introduction

Contents

INTRODUCTION

MILITARY ATTACHÉS AND OBSERVERS, MEDICAL OFFICERS WITH
SPECIAL DUTIES, HOSPITAL UNITS AND CASUAL PERSONNEL ON DUTY WITH ALLIES

MILITARY ATTACHÉS AND MILITARY OBSERVERS

When war was declared by Germany on July 30, 1914, there were on duty with the principal American embassies and ministries accredited to European governments military attachés who were charged with the duty of procuring and forwarding military information to the chief of the War College division of the Army General Staff.1 In some countries their efforts were supplemented later by those of military observers-officers who occupied a status somewhat different from that of attachés but who, like them, were assigned to duty with the respective embassies and accredited to the governments concerned.2 Generally speaking, the observers enjoyed greater opportunities for investigations at the front than did the attachés, for they were assigned, as their designation would indicate, with that end in view, though in some instances the opportunities afforded them were strictly limited by the government to which they were accredited.3 Though the military attachés were the military advisers of the ambassadors under whom they served, and were charged more definitely with reporting to the Army War College current military events and military policies in so far as these were divulged,4 they also submitted many reports covering a wide range of other subjects.

On August 12, 1914, the Secretary of War requested the Secretary of State to learn whether or not England, France, Germany, and Austria would accept as observers six officers of the line and two of the Medical Department.5 The Secretary of War was notified, on August 17, that the Austro-Hungarian Government was willing to accept two line officers and two medical officers.6 Later this authorization was so modified as to replace one medical officer by another officer from a different branch of the service.7 On August 19 the military attaché in London notified the War College division of the General Staff that two military observers, in addition to the military attachés, would be permitted to accompany the British Army in the field.8

The Chief of Staff informed the Surgeon General, on August 12, 1914, that medical officers who might be detailed as observers should be governed by General Orders, No. 60, War Department, August 8, 1914, which requested and advised all officers to refrain from public comment upon the military or political situation where other nations were involved.9

On September 1, 1914, an officer of the Medical Corps, then in Europe, together with three officers from other branches of the Army, was directed to report to the American ambassador in Vienna for duty as military observer with the Austro-Hungarian Army.10 He served in this capacity at various places along the Russian and Serbian fronts until October 27, 1915.11


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On September 9, 1914, another officer of the Medical Corps, then in London, was assigned as military observer with the French Army,12 and served in that capacity until November 23 of that year.13

On January 30, 1916, Sir William Osler, regius professor of medicine, Oxford University, England, recommended that three medical officers of our Army and an equal number of our Navy be detailed to study professional procedures in British base hospitals.14 The recommendation, having been referred to him, the Surgeon General, on March 6, 1916,15 selected three members of the Medical Corps, who were then assigned and accredited as military observers.16 After reporting in London in May, these officers made extensive observations in matters pertaining to the British medical service both in England and on the continent.

No officer of the Medical Corps was a member of the group assigned as military observers with the German Army.17

The medical officers assigned as military observers with the British Army remained in this status until the arrival of General Pershing in June, 1917,18 when they vacated their assignments and joined the American Expeditionary Forces,19 except one, who retained his status as observer and his consequent affiliation with the American Embassy,20 on June 9, 1917, in addition to his other duties, being made liaison officer for our Medical Department with the British forces, with office in London.21 Shortly thereafter he was assigned as chief surgeon of the American forces serving with the British, his status in this matter being analogous to that of a department surgeon in the United States.22

Another of these medical officers, after joining the American Expeditionary Forces,23 was assigned, on July 4, to duty at Base Section No. 1 (St. Nazaire), where he had been conducting an inspection when headquarters, A. E. F., arrived;24 the third or senior medical officer become chief surgeon, A. E. F., on May 26, 1917, by General Orders, No. 1, headquarters, A. E. F., Washington, D.C.

Meanwhile, on February 23, 1917, the British had recommended that a veterinary officer of the United States Army be detailed to observe the operations of his branch of the service in their army.25 Accordingly, a veterinarian attached to the 6th Field Artillery, who had been assigned as a military observer with the French Army, December 27, 1915,26 was relieved from further duty in France on March 10, 1917, and directed to report to the American ambassador at London for the purpose of carrying out instructions of the War Department.27 On June 14, 1917, this officer was relieved from further duty in London ordered to Paris, and assigned to duty in the American Expeditionary Forces.28

These several observers with the British Army submitted numerous reports, many of which were very thorough and elaborate, and all of which were technical, concerning organization, administration, equipment, and tactics of the British Army medical service, sanitation, preventive and curative medicine, surgical and orthopedic technique, offensive and defensive measures in gas warfare, transportation of wounded, care of animals, and many other subjects. A few of their reports pertained to the British Navy; e. g., hospital ships.

On June 5, 1915, the chief of the War College division of the General Staff approved and forwarded to the Surgeon General a letter from the Amer-


15

ican military attaché, Paris, requesting detail of a medical officer as an observer with the French Army.29 On June 12, the Surgeon General, concurring in this proposal, recommended a medical officer,30 who was assigned on November 15, 1915, as military observer with the French armies in the field.31

In conformity with a request from the German Government dated September 1, 1916, that two medical officers of the United States Army be detailed to inspect depots for prisoners of war in France,32 the Surgeon General, on September 12, recommended that a medical officer be assigned to that duty to supplement the activities of the one who already was available for that service.33 On September 25, 1916, the newly assigned medical officer was detailed as a military observer.34 This was not in order that he might perform the functions of an officer regularly so accredited, but in order that his status might be fixed while on detached duty, and that he might receive an allotment from the appropriation for military observers abroad.35 The primary purpose in sending him to France was that he might assist in the inspection of depots for military prisoners, but in point of fact he not only did this but also made a number of such observations as were regularly incumbent upon a military observer.35

In addition to the two medical officers referred to above other officers belonging to different branches of our Army were serving as military observers accredited to the French Government.36 On July 19, 1916, six of these officers joined in signing a letter addressed to the chief of the War College division, General Staff, recommending that they be organized into a mission.36 This letter noted the advantages that would accrue from the recognition of an American military mission by the French War Department and stated that they were all recognized as being members of such a group but that they had no designated head who could represent them in their transactions with the French Government.36

The mission was organized by authority of the following letter of November 21, 1916, from the acting chief of the War College division, General Staff:37

By authority of the Secretary of War, the officers now on duty in Paris as military observers have been organized into a mission of which you are hereby appointed chief.

The Secretary of War directs that in the performance of your duties as chief of this mission you be guided by the following instructions:

(a) You will cooperate in the fullest possible manner with the military attaché at Paris in the work of procuring military information, to the end that there be no duplication of work.

(b) You will show to the military attaché all reports of the military observers prepared for transmittal to the War College division. Such reports will be numbered serially in the office of the military observers in such a manner that they will not be confused with the numbered reports of the military attaché. Reports of the military observers will be acknowledged by the War College division directly to the chief of the military
mission once a month.

(c) All requests from the War College division for information to be compiled by the military observers will be directed to you, and it will be your duty to inform the other military observers of the information that is desired.

(d) All the arrangements between the office of military observers covering all questions or requests will be carried on directly between you as chief of the mission and the military attaché.

(e) The retained reports of the individual military observers will be accessible at all times to the military attaché, and conversely all reports of the military attaché covering matters of routine military interest will be open to the military observers.


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(f) As chief of this mission you are authorized to communicate directly with the French War Department to such an extent as may be permitted by the latter department. You will, however, keep the military attaché informed of such matters as are taken up directly by you with the French War Department.

(g) In order that the greatest possible advantage may be taken of all possible channels to procure military information, you are directed to cooperate to the fullest extent with the military attaché.

(h) Instructions have been issued to the military attaché at Paris to officially present you to the chief of the second bureau of the French General Staff as chief of the American military mission upon the receipt of the acknowledgment by the French authorities of your assignment as such, which is being communicated to them through the Department of State.

(i) The Secretary of War authorizes you as chief of this mission to issue such instructions to the members thereof as may be necessary for the proper performance of their duties.

Before the severance of the diplomatic relations between the United States and Germany, February 3, 1917, members of the mission were not given such opportunities as they later enjoyed,38 for prior to that event the French were not certain where the sympathies of our Government lay, and naturally hesitated to permit American officers to make thorough inspections.3 During that period, nevertheless, members of the mission did enjoy certain facilities and submitted a number of reports on many subjects.3 After February 3, 1917, the mission's facilities for study of military methods and activities were greatly extended and it forwarded to the War College a great quantity of information, much of it highly technical in character.3 Revised instructions for the guidance of Medical Department military observers were sent to the chief of the mission and to the medical observers in England on February 10, 1917.39

On February 14, 1917, the chief of the mission reported that at his request General Lyauty had given directions so greatly amplifying the privileges heretofore granted the American mission that it enjoyed practically "blanket" permission for obtaining any information it might seek.38 It was arranged that the two medical members would visit the French Army school of asphyxiating gases and all medical depots, and would study on the ground the whole system of evacuation of wounded from the trenches to the base hospitals.38 Accordingly, these medical officers took the full course of instruction at the French gas school and submitted a voluminous report covering confidential matters concerning the chemistry of gases employed, their manufacture, tactical employment, defenses against them, and the organization of the gas services of the French and German Armies. A study of the evacuation service was prosecuted, but as indicated below was not completed until after the United States entered the war. On February 9, one of the medical officers in question reported at length, among other subjects, on the organization of the French sanitary service and the operation of that service in campaign. He also compiled additional data concerning French and British defensive gas service which he later submitted to the chief of the Gas Service, A. E. F., when headquarters arrived in France.

A report submitted by the two medical members of the American military mission April 25 gave the results of a study of Medical Department organization required for any expeditionary force that might be sent to France. This document included statistics of wounded and a detailed description of


17

the radical reorganization of our service that would be required, and was accompanied by inclosures which discussed the general organization and administration of French medical service, with particular reference to their depots for the slightly sick and wounded and convalescent camps. Another report considered the utilization of volunteer American sanitary units in France.

Following the declaration of war, on April 6, 1917, the War Department called upon the mission through the military attaché for specific information on many subjects, and the facilities afforded members of the mission by the French, in order that they might furnish promptly and thoroughly any data required, were further extended by the detail to service with it of several officers of the French General Staff.3 They assisted in preparing surveys of ports, reports on condition and capacity of railways, location of training camps, depots, and other installations.

The mission reported to the War Department, on June 1, that for various reasons St. Nazaire and Nantes appeared to offer the best facilities for debarkation for the first American forces, and recommended on that date that such troops should be disembarked at St. Nazaire.40 Accordingly, the French were requested to construct at this place a cantonment adequate to shelter a division of 20,000 men.3 It was also reported that because of the great congestion of this port it was advisable that our main central supply stations be located at Nevers where the French were prepared to transfer the station warehouses to the United States forces.3 It was recommended that training camps be located in the vicinity of Nancy and Toul. The following day two officers of the mission left for St. Nazaire to lay out the camp site and establish water supply services.3 The explicit applied problems of the Medical Department in France now began, for the water supply at St. Nazaire was not sufficient for the number of troops to be encamped here, and provision had to be made to overcome the deficiency.3 This was accomplished temporarily by placing water boats in service on the Loire to carry water from points some miles inland.3 One of the medical members of the mission had been charged with initiating necessary measures for rendering potable the water supply for our forces in France, and on May 19 had reported on the service of water in the French Army. As soon as the provision of a suitable water supply at St. Nazaire was settled the French harvested such of the crops on the prospective camp site as were sufficiently matured and began to erect the huts required and to install the camp water system.3 It was arranged that the sick would be cared for in a double-walled barrack hospital accommodating 300 beds, but after construction was well advanced word was received that the strength of a division had been increased to some 28,000 men, and it became evident that the buildings intended for hospital purposes would have to be utilized as barracks by the incoming troops.3 In this emergency the French were appealed to and at once turned over in St. Nazaire a military hospital with a capacity of 250 beds, the only military hospital in that community, and another of 500 beds at Savenay, a few miles inland.3

Arrangements were also made for the transfer of a hospital of 500 beds at Nantes and for the eventual transfer of several others, notably one of 1,100 beds at Bordeaux, but, as no personnel had yet arrived, definite arrangements concerning the latter institutions were held in abeyance until after the arrival of the commander in chief.3


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Meanwhile, other activities also engaged members of the mission. A medical member of the mission, continuing investigations begun several months previously, visited the front, where he made an exhaustive study of the organization of the French Medical Department, its system of field hospitalization, classification of nonevacuable sick, evacuation of wounded by hospital train, medical supply, use of motorized sanitary organizations of various kinds (e. g. ambulance companies, surgical hospitals, radiologic, laundry, and other units) and related subjects. On May 31, he reported his observations, but the most valuable result of this study accrued from the fact that when our troops began their offensives, in May of the following year, he was able, because of his then assignment with G-4, G. H. Q., to give direct application to the results of these observations, and thus secure to the medical service at the front better cooperation than might have been possible from others not personally acquainted with the study made at this time.41 With a view of avoiding delay when our troops would begin to arrive, studies by the members of the American military mission, accompanied by officers of the French General Staff, were continued and new ones undertaken. These included further inspections of the railway systems and selection of locations for temporary supply depots.3 It was also decided, tentatively, that the first division that arrived should go into the training area around Gondrecourt. Here a small barrack hospital was taken over from the French who evacuated their patients.3 Construction to expand this unit to 300 beds was begun immediately and the French reequipped it with new material throughout, for it was realized that our own supplies would not at once be available.3

The members of the mission continued their activities in their assigned capacities until the arrival of General Pershing in Paris on June 13. In conformity with instructions received by the chief of the mission on June 5,42 that officer reported at the time in question to General Pershing with a view of informing him as fully as possible concerning existing conditions.3 At this time all members of the mission joined the staff of the commander in chief,42 and began the performance of new duties, continuing, however, a number of investigations which they had commenced prior to his arrival.

MEDICAL OFFICERS CHARGED WITH SPECIAL DUTIES IN FRANCE

On October 18, 1916, the Surgeon General requested that he be authorized to detail one of our medical officers for duty as superintendent, or officer in charge of a hospital at Passy, France, which was under the direction of the French Benevolent Society of New York, and requested that this officer be granted leave of absence for four months for that purpose.43 The leave was granted,44 and the officer in question was informed that he would go to France in a personal capacity, would have no connection with the United States Service and could not wear the uniform while in that country.45 On May 7, 1917, the United States having declared war, he was formally assigned to duty at the hospital mentioned,46 but on May 22, the Surgeon General notified the French Benevolent Society that this officer had been placed on a duty status, the United States having entered the war, and that all officers were needed.47 He also requested information as to when he might be replaced. This officer


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retained this assignment until October 3, 1917.48 A few days later he was transferred to Blois and assigned as sanitary inspector of the line of communications, A. E. F.49

Previous, but unsuccessful, efforts had been made by the Surgeon General to have another medical officer assigned to duty at the above-mentioned hospital at Passy, but at that time (June, 1916) this assignment was disapproved by the President on the ground of neutrality.50 The officer, however, was selected later to serve as chief medical officer of a hospital at Ris Orangis, France. This officer was instructed to apply for leave and was assigned in the same status as the one referred to in the preceding paragraph, but while en route his orders were changed because of the entry of the United States into the war,50 and he was definitely assigned to duty at this hospital May 7, 1917.51 Here he served as chief medical officer and conducted a large surgical clinic until assigned to duty at general headquarters, A. E. F., on March 7, 1918,52 meanwhile discharging a number of other duties pertaining to the standardization and procurement of splints, manufacture of nitrous oxide, and instruction of newly arrived medical officers in surgical technique.50

On April 9, two additional medical officers53.54 were granted leave for service in the hospital at Ris Orangis.55 On May 7, they were definitely assigned thereto,56 but on July 6, one was made one of the assistants to the chief surgeon, A. E. F.,57 and on August 15, the other was detailed as commanding officer of United States Army Hospital No. 2.58

BASE HOSPITAL PERSONNEL AND CASUAL MEDICAL OFFICERS, UNITED STATES ARMY, WHO SERVED WITH THE BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE BEFORE THE ARRIVAL OF HEADQUARTERS, A. E. F.

Prior to the entrance of the United States into the war a number of American citizens served individually in various capacities in the allied armies.59 A number of others were members of organizations, composed largely, if not entirely, of Americans, which were under the military control of some European government.41 Several of these formations were later absorbed or taken over by the American Expeditionary Forces (e. g., the Ambulance Américaine, later American Red Cross Hospital No. 1, the ambulance field service, and American Red Cross Ambulance, later incorporated in the United States Army Ambulance Service), but until that time were not a part of our forces.60

The elements of the American Army, other than the military attachés, military observers, and the military mission to France (discussed above), which first served in Europe after the declaration of war, were six base hospitals which had been organized by the American Red Cross, and inducted into service soon after the United States entered the war,61 and were now assigned to duty with the British Expeditionary Force in France.62 Also certain casual medical officers were assigned to duty with the British or French armies.63

The circumstances which led up to the rendition of such prompt service and the composition and equipment of these units are discussed in Volume I, Chapter II, of this history.

Then the British and French missions arrived in Washington in April, 1917, Col. Thomas H. Goodwin, of the Royal Army Medical Corps, requested


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that six base hospitals and 116 casual medical officers be assigned to the British Expeditionary Forces.64 The War Department called on the American Red Cross to furnish the hospital units for immediate transportation to France.65 On May 1, 1917, the Surgeon General wrote The Adjutant General that it was the former's expectation that in the next three or four months, his department would send about 1,000 medical officers to Europe for service with the British Army and that they would begin to go over as rapidly as the Quartermaster Department could furnish transportation.66 The hospitals selected sailed in the following order, between the 8th and 25th of May:

    Base Hospital No. 4, organized at the Lakeside Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio.
    Base Hospital No. 5, organized at Harvard University, Boston, Mass.
    Base Hospital No. 2, organized at the Presbyterian Hospital, New York City.
    Base Hospital No. 10, organized at the Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia.
    Base Hospital No. 21, organized at the Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.
    Base Hospital No. 12, organized at the Northwestern University, Chicago.

To some of these units additional personnel was attached; e. g., a group of orthopedic surgeons was attached to Base Hospital No. 21.67

After arrival in France the hospitals operated until after the signing of the armistice as general hospitals, British Expeditionary Force in France. They were located as follows:65

    No. 4, Rouen-operating British General Hospital No. 9.
    No. 21, Rouen-operating British General Hospital No. 12.
    No. 2, Etretat-operating British General Hospital No. 1.
    No. 10, Treport-operating British General Hospital No. 16.
    No. 12, Dannes Camiers-operating British General Hospital No. 18.
    No. 5, Dannes Camiers-operating British General Hospital No. 11.

On November 1, 1917, Base Hospital No. 5 was transferred to Boulogne where it operated as British General Hospital No. 13.65

On May 21, 1917, the American attaché at London recommended that our senior medico-military observer there be designated as chief surgeon for all American medical units and personnel serving with British medical service, such assignment being urgently indicated in order to coordinate and systematize the relations which must exist between the two services.68

Some weeks prior to the arrival of General Pershing, the medical officer referred to in the preceding paragraph reported to the Surgeon General that he had assumed an unauthorized supervisory control over the American Medical Department personnel which had arrived in England before the commander in chief, for service with the British forces.63 He stated that his position under these circumstances was such that he could neither act nor advise in any authoritative manner, and that his relation with British authorities had been purely advisory.63 No instructions of any kind concerning this personnel had been received from Washington, though by June 11, 1917, 6 base hospitals and 52 casual medical officers had reported.69


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On May 26, 1917, by General Orders No. 1, headquarters, A. E. F., Washington, D. C., he was designated as chief surgeon of the United States forces in Europe,76 to exercise over the forces under his control the same authority as the Surgeon General holds over the entire Medical Department.70

Control of the Medical Department personnel serving with the British was taken up by the chief surgeon, A. E. F., with General Pershing after the latter's arrival, and this responsibility, on June 25, was vested in the liaison officer for the Medical Department with the British.22

 GENERAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE

The provision of a suitable organization for the American Expeditionary Forces by the creation of a staff which could give it intelligent direction was one of the first subjects that, from the outset, had engaged the attention of the commander in chief.71 He had formulated a tentative plan for this essential even before he embarked, and his headquarters had continued to study this subject while on shipboard and after arrival in Paris.72 Our Field Service Regulations provided certain guiding principles, but the experience and theory upon which they were based antedated the beginning of the war in Europe, and it was necessary that they be revised in the light of its developments.72 It was essential not only that the necessary staff services, as determined by developments of the war, be created, but also that the general scope of their individual and collective activities be defined, that the responsibilities of each staff service be fixed specifically, that overlapping or conflict of jurisdiction be eliminated, and that work be decentralized and individualized in designated offices.72

In several important respects our position was different from that of any of the allied nations, and this fact had its influence in the application of the results of the comprehensive study, begun on the S. S. Baltic and now intensively continued, of British and French staff organizations.71 The French Army was fighting on its own soil, had immediate access to its War Department and to its civil government, and was close to the territory from which it procured most of its supplies.71 The British Army, though organized on an overseas basis, was also in close contact with its home Government and base.71 But the American Army was based on a continent 3,000 miles distant, with which communication was much more difficult; its organization, administration, and supply, therefore, offered peculiar problems.

It was foreseen that the uncertainties incident to ocean transport in the face of the growing submarine menace, the limited, though yet unknown, quantity of ship tonnage that would be available, and a line of land communications some 400 miles in length through a foreign country already strained by protracted war, would give rise to problems of organization, administration, and supply that would be almost insuperably difficult.71 At the outset the commander in chief had made the announcement that the expedition was to be under control of its general staff, which was charged with its orderly, symmetrical, and balanced development.73 No one arm, bureau, or department was to be developed in advance of its needs or at the expense of others, but, as shown below, this ideal had to be modified because of military necessities.73


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Study of present and prospective problems in their intrinsic and extrinsic aspects led to the promulgation, on July 5, 1917, of General Orders, No. 8, G. H. Q., A. E. F., which provided for the creation of a general staff and technical administrative bureaus of the American Expeditionary Forces. This order, which was to form the basis of coordinated activities, directed that the general staff be divided into three major sections, intelligence, operations, and administration, each under an assistant chief of staff; apportioned various duties among them; provided for an administrative and technical staff, consisting of the chiefs of nine staff departments-adjutant general, inspector general, chief surgeon, and others-created the line of communications, and specified the duties of the American Red Cross. The organization of the American Expeditionary Forces was yet in a formative state, however, and a corrected copy of General Orders, No. 8, G. H. Q., A. E. F., published August 14, 1917 (but as of July 5), provided for a chief of staff, a secretary to the general staff, a general staff divided into 5 sections, an administrative and technical staff consisting of 15 departments, and a headquarter's command.

Both editions of this order provided that the distribution of staff duties at the headquarters of subordinate commands should conform in principle to the distribution of duties prescribed for headquarters. It is sufficient here to state that duties assigned to the several sections of the general staff at this time were as follows: First section, administration; second, intelligence; third, operations; fourth, training; fifth, coordination. The duties of the several sections, as they applied especially to the Medical Department are discussed more fully below.

The administrative and technical staff designated by this order consisted of the following: Adjutant general, inspector general, judge advocate, chief quartermaster, chief surgeon, chief engineer officer, chief ordnance officer, chief signal officer, chief of Air Service, general purchasing agent, chief of Gas Service, director general of transportation, commanding general line of communications, chief of Red Cross, provost marshal general.

The chiefs of the administrative and technical staffs were the local representatives of those bureaus of the War Department who were entitled to membership in the headquarters of our forces in the field or the chiefs of several newly created staff organizations, viz, the general purchasing board, the department of transportation, the line of communications, the American Red Cross.72 These services were given staff representation in order that new situations might be met. Like the heads of other bureaus composing the technical staff, their chiefs were equivalent in rank, and were coordinated with one another, and with the chiefs of previously existing staff departments whom they divested of some of their duties.72 Activities of all these administrative staff bureaus were directed and coordinated by the general staff, whose members as representatives of the commander in chief, communicated his plans with a view to their execution to the chiefs of the bureau concerned.72 By analogy to bureau chiefs in the War Department, their similars in the American Expeditionary Forces were charged with duties incident to administration, statistics, records, inspection, construction and operation in their respective jurisdictions, including the procurement of the necessary supplies and material


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and forwarding these as required to the forces in the field.72 They were the advisers and executives of the commander in chief and his general staff in all matters, including those of a technical character incident to the operation of their respective departments.72

In the early period of the American Expeditionary Forces the Medical Department was concerned chiefly with the first and fifth sections of the general staff.74 The first, among its other duties pertaining to general matters of administration, was then charged with replacements, evacuation of sick and wounded, the ratio of combat troops to those serving on the line of communications, the respective ratios of staff and combat troops, supplies and transportation.74 The fifth was charged at this time with coordination and application of administrative staff policies.74 The importance to the Medical Department of the first section was incident especially to its control of allowances of ocean transport for personnel and supplies, and that of the fifth to its control of all hospitalization and depot projects-determining their need, size, location, installation, and other attributes.74 Not infrequently several staff departments sought the same facilities and the fifth section coordinated these conflicting demands.74

The duties of the several sections of the general staff and of the technical staff departments varied somewhat in accordance with successive reorganizations, especially those prescribed by Memorandum 129, published November 19, 1917; General Orders, No. 31, published February 16, 1918; General Orders, No. 114, published July 11, 1918; and General Orders, No. 130, published August 6, 1918.

Coincident with the organization of the general staff of the American Expeditionary Forces reorganization of the Army units was effected. As such units provided by our Tables of Organization when we entered the war were so small that they were quite inadequate for the service now required, an entirely new organization was prescribed.71 This provided that an Infantry combat division should consist of 28, 172 officers and men, and should be composed of 2 infantry brigades, 1 field artillery brigade, 1 machine-gun battalion, 1 regiment of engineers, 1 field signal battalion, military police, train headquarters, and ammunition, supply, and sanitary trains.75 The sanitary train originally consisted of train headquarters, 4 field hospitals, 4 ambulance companies, and 8 infirmaries,76 but from time to time other organizations and equipment were added, e. g., a medical supply depot, a mobile laboratory, and as occasion required and resources permitted a mobile surgical unit and professional teams were attached to it.77 Similarly there later developed great expansion in corps and armies and in organizations which served in the line of communications.77 For example, the depot division at Aignan (the 41st Division) attained a strength of over 50,000 officers and men,78 and the capacity of base hospitals was increased from 500 to 1,000 beds, or to 2,000 beds in emergencies-the so-called "crisis" expansion. In point of fact many of these hospitals exceeded 3,000 beds during the Meuse-Argonne operation.79 New agencies in practically all services were developed and some reached a degree of importance which caused them to be made autonomous staff departments, their chiefs becoming members of the administrative staff of the Ameri-


24

can Expeditionary Forces, e. g., the Motor Transport Corps. Throughout its history there was a progressive development of the administrative services of the American Expeditionary Forces, the direction of this evolution being, with but one exception and that transient, toward decentralization.80

The prospective disembarkation of several million men, their movement to training areas, provision for their shelter and the handling, storage, and distribution of the supplies and equipment required, called for an extraordinary and immediate effort in construction.81

To provide the organization for this purpose, a project for engineer services of the rear, including railways, docks, depots, hospitals, etc., was cabled to Washington, August 5, 1917, followed on September 18, 1917, by a complete project for the rear, which listed by item the troops considered necessary for the Services of Supply.81 Under this project the strength of the rearward services, from the firing line to base ports, would constitute about 35.5 per cent of the entire expeditionary force, for it included divisional, corps, and army trains and similar noncombatant organizations at the front, as well as the personnel operating ports, depots, transportation, and other facilities.82 Despite our longer line of communications this percentage was less than that of the British whose rearward services absorbed 37.5 per cent of their total expeditionary strength, while steps were being taken to increase this to 40 per cent.82 To the strength called for by the organization project (1,000,000 men), this project added 329,653 men, bringing the total for a balanced force, conforming to the organization project, to 1,328,448 men.82 The line of communications projects called for approximately 25 per cent of this total, but because of military exigencies that command never received the full quota of troops required for its installations and activities.82

Beginning on July 6, 1917, a series of cables was sent to the War Department fixing the order in which troops should arrive, but it was evident that these cables were of but transient value and that the War Department should be furnished a comprehensive statement of the personnel and supplies needed, in order that there might be built up a balanced and symmetrical force, appropriately supplied and equipped.81 Therefore, a schedule of priority shipment of personnel was prepared covering the order in which the troops should be sent to Europe.81 This schedule, approved by General Pershing and forwarded to the War Department on October 7, divided the initial force called for into six phases, corresponding in general to combatant corps of six divisions each.83

The French minister of war assigned to duty with headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces, than at Chaumont, a special liaison officer who was the channel of communication between his office and the commander in chief, A. E. F.84 The French high command also established at Chaumont a French military mission which was organized with the same divisions or bureaus as the French General Staff.84 One of its sections was charged with Medical Department matters. This mission had full authority to act for the French Ministry of War and the French commander in chief in all matters concerning the relations of the various American services and those of the French armies, both in the French zone of the armies and the zone of the interior.84 The chiefs of the administrative and technical services of the Ameri-


25

can Expeditionary Forces were authorized to communicate directly with this French mission in all matters that concerned the operation of their particular services, except such as involved questions of policy. Communications on subjects in that category were prepared for the signature of the chief of staff and submitted to him.84 All questions of whatever nature affecting the medical services in the zone of the army were handled through the office of the medical member of this mission.85

The commanding general, Services of Supply, A. E. F., the general purchasing agent and the director general of transportation were authorized to communicate directly with the various services in the French zone of the interior in all matters coming under their own particular control providing such correspondence did not involve questions of policy.84 If it did, they prepared, initialed, and submitted letters for the signature of the chief of staff, A. E. F., but when the question at issue required the action of any French service in the French zone of the armies, the letter was prepared for the signature of the commander in chief.84

Both before and after the provision of our liaison service, conferences concerning problems of importance, were held from time to time between high officers of our service and those of our allies. Among these were the conferences held by General Pershing with the commander in chief of other forces and those conducted by members of the general staff or the chiefs of administrative staff departments.86

The American forces were also represented on a number of interallied councils which were chiefly concerned with procurement. The Allied Maritime Transport Council was engaged primarily in provision of tonnage in relation to the four main requirements, viz, food, munitions, raw materials, and fuel supply of the American Expeditionary Forces during 1918-19.87

The resources of our allies in men and material had been taxed to very grave limits, but they always stood ready to furnish us with needed supplies, equipment, and transportation when these were at all available. The development of our program for construction, transportation, hospitalization, and other essential activities predicated the highest degree of cooperation between the American and allied services.88

With the growth of the American Expeditionary Forces the activities of the several sections of the general staff not only became greatly intensified but also widely extended in scope.81 The first section engaged in development of policies, and the fifth (which, as is explained below, later became the fourth charged with supply and coordination) continued to be of special interest to the Medical Department.81 The fifth section necessarily supervised more and more closely the activities of the various supply bureaus with a view of balancing effort and keeping all establishments on a corresponding footing.81 As problems increased in number and complexity it developed that the division of duties and responsibilities between the coordination and administration sections were not fully understood outside of the sections themselves.89 These were redistributed to a degree, by Memorandum No. 129, H. A. E. F., November 19, 1917, in which the duties of each of these sections were carefully defined.89 The same order which decentralized and simplified staff methods of adminis-


26

tration, also indicated the direction in which the fifth, or coordination section, was developing by specifying its duties as follows:90

All questions concerning supply and transportation in France. Operations of the technical services except the Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., and other similar agencies, the General Pershing Board, War Risk Bureau, auditors, and Field Ambulance Service. Operations of the line of communications and the transportation department. Statistics concerning supply, construction, and transportation. Supply and transportation
arrangement for combat. Assignments of labor and labor troops. Location of railway and supply establishments. Hospitalization and evacuation of sick and wounded. Orders for assignment of new units.

In the meantime, studies of the British and French systems of staff organization as well as our own were continued with the result that a system giving more thorough staff coordination and control of the important services of construction, transportation, and supply was evolved.90 Among other changes, the evolved system restricted the jurisdiction of the coordination section in the supply of the American Expeditionary Forces to matters intrinsic to that command and delegated to the first (administrative) section the supervision of procurement from the United States, the allotment of tonnage, and the arrangements for transportation to France, while the coordination section continued to deal with questions of supply and transportation in France.90 Matters arising under these two latter subjects included operations of the technical and supply services, operations on the line of communications, and activities of the transportation department. Studies and recommendations for the location and character of railway and other establishments required for the transportation and service of our troops continued to come to this section for approval.90 The same was true with regard to all depot and hospitalization projects, including not only the location of these installations, but also the storage capacity of depots and the bed capacity of hospitals. Arrangements for the evacuation of sick and wounded and orders for the original assignment of troops arriving in France were also made in this section. In the course of time, however, as the armies began to take shape, the procedure involved in such assignment became practically automatic.90

By the middle of January, 1918, it became evident that some important, if not radical, reorganization of general headquarters was necessary.91 Accordingly, on January 22, 1918, the following letter was sent by direction of the commander in chief to the heads of all staff departments:92

1. General Orders No. 8, G. H. Q., A. E. F., 1917 (corrected), prescribing the distribution of staff duties at these headquarters has been in operation long enough to give the system a fair trial. While it is believed that the fundamental principles of the order are generally sound, cases have arisen where there is an overlapping of functions. In some cases experience may have shown that certain subjects have been
incorrectly assigned or not distinctly defined.

2. The principles of the order seem to be well understood by those primarily concerned with its operation, but, on the other hand, it does not seem to be so drafted as to give a clear presentation of the system to the outsider.

3. With a view of taking advantage of the experience thus far gained in the operation of this order, it is desired that you submit, not later than February 5, a report with your recommendations embodying the following:

(a) What changes, if any, do you recommend for your own section or department?


27

 (b) What changes, if any, do you recommend in any section or department, other than your own, which would facilitate the work of your section or department?

 (c) Any suggestions which would make the order more clear to an outsider who has to deal with the system.

 (d) Any other suggestions or recommendations on the subject of organization of these headquarters and the line of communications.

To the questions raised in the foregoing, the chief surgeon, A. E. F., under date of February 4, 1918, replied as follows:93

1. It is believed that the assignment of duties in this order so far as it concerns the Medical Department are substantially correct, and so far as can be ascertained there is no overlapping of functions. Some of the duties which were not exactly clear when the orders were issued have been settled completely, and it is believed that the assignments are satisfactory to the Medical Department at present. Since the order was
issued much of the technical work of the Medical Department has been assigned to the coordinating section of the general staff instead of the administrative section. This is perfectly satisfactory to the Medical Department. Frankly, it is believed to be a step in advance.

2. The chief surgeon is pleased to present certain recommendations in regard to the work of his office:

(A) 1. Since headquarters have come to Chaumont, we have been handicapped in the hospitalization section of this office by reason of the fact that our hospital construction is done by the chief engineer, line of communications, and the running repairs and certain materials for these hospitals are furnished by the chief quartermaster, line of communications, and by further fact that we must correspond with those officers through their chiefs at these headquarters. There has also been a delay in the transaction of business by reason of the fact that investigation from this office of contemplated hospital sites and of construction, the making of leases, etc., is difficult by reason of the great distance to many of our hospitalization sites. For this reason it is believed to be good administration to remove a part of the hospitalization section from this office to the line of communications, and to request authority to transact business with the chief engineer, line of communications, and the chief quartermaster, line of communications, through this branch of the hospitalization service. This, it is believed, will facilitate business and lessen to a great extent the necessary official correspondence. This part of the hospitalization section can make a great many of the inspections of contemplated hospital sites, inspections of construction, leases, etc., without taking an officer from this office-a saving of time and mileage.

2. It is believed that the statistical section of the sanitary and statistical division (the sick and wounded) of this office can be detached from this office without loss of efficiency. In my opinion this section should be in Paris where it will be in close touch with the French bureau of statistics where necessary data for American patients in French hospitals must be obtained. If for any good and sufficient reason this location can not be approved it should be separated from general headquarters and attached to chief surgeon's office, headquarters, line of communications.

3. The time has come when the question of general sanitary inspectors for the American Expeditionary Forces must be taken up. This subject has not been presented before, because suitable officers were not available for this very important work. As officers with the required qualifications will soon arrive in France this question will be presented in a very short time.

(B) 1. The coordinating section of the general staff is modeled after the fourth bureau of the French War Department, but in accepting this organization, a very important part of the fourth bureau, as far as the Medical Department is concerned, was omitted, namely, Medical Department representation. The fourth bureau of the French War Department works in a most satisfactory manner to its medical department for several medical officers are constantly on duty at general headquarters with that bureau. I strongly urge that the Medical Department be given representation on the general staff. It seems so clear that this should be done that it is believed specific failures of coordination under the present organization need not be presented. Moreover the time is rapidly approaching when the demand for this representation will become more urgent.


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2. It is believed a part of the hospitalization section should be sent to the line of communication and that this office should be authorized to transact business direct through this section with the chief engineer, line of communications, and chief quartermaster, line of communications, in regard to all questions of approved hospitalization.

3. It is believed that the activities of the American Red Cross so far as they relate to the Medical Department should be transacted through the coordinating section instead of the administrative section of the general staff.

(C) 1. No suggestions to make under this heading.

(D) The following recommendations are made:

1. It is strongly urged that the Medical Department be given representation on the general staff.

2. That an officer of the Medical Department be appointed liaison officer with the French service de santé. Practically all the hospitals that we possess to-day in France have been transferred to us by this service and we have been greatly handicapped by not having a liaison officer in the office of the sous-secretaire du service de santé. They consider this of such great importance that they have repeatedly asked for this representation from the Medical Department.

3. That the supervision of the activities of the American Red Cross so far as they relate to the Medical Department be transferred from the administrative section to the coordinating section, general staff.

4. That authority be given for the transfer of a unit of the hospitalization office to the line of communications and that this office be authorized to conduct its correspondence with the chief engineer, line of communications, and chief quartermaster, line of communications, on all approved projects through this unit.

5. That the statistical section of the sanitary and statistical division of this office be transferred elsewhere.

6. That a statistical unit be stationed in Paris in close liaison with the statistical division of the French War Department for the collection and transmission to Washington of the sick and wounded data required by the Pension Bureau. This is believed to be necessary by reason of the great number of sick we will have in French hospitals for many months to come and by the further fact that we will also have in our hospitals many French patients.

A board appointed to meet and consider the replies of the various staff chiefs met on February 8 and heard the chiefs of staff departments and other interested officers. It reduced all views and suggestions to the following questions:94

(1) What changes, if any, should be made in the administration of supply in order to relieve the commander in chief from the immediate direction thereof, and place direct and complete responsibility therefore upon some competent authority?

(2) What changes, if any, should be made in the organization of the General Staff, in order to insure greater efficiency and more harmonious relations?

(3) What further changes, if any, should be made as a result of the disposition of the foregoing questions?

An analysis of the situation as developed by these inquiries was made with a view of effecting necessary improvements. It was found that diversity of opinion and practice existed among the different chiefs of the administrative services with respect to the degree of personal responsibility assumed and methods employed in details of supply; also, in decentralizing to secure a distribution of the heavy burdens of administration and the execution of the tasks incident thereto, there had been an undesirable division of responsibility and authority which at times led to uncertainty and hesitancy which might prove disastrous in an emergency.91 The analysis also indicated the immediate necessity for providing a single and direct line of responsibility for all matters


29

of supply with coincident full utilization of the services of the experienced chiefs of the various administrative and supply departments. The board made a number of important findings and recommendations, which were approved by the commander in chief and given practical application by the publication of General Orders, No. 31, G. H. Q., A. E. F., February 16, 1918.91 Other important recommendations having been submitted later, a corrected copy of this order was published March 13, 1918, but as of the date of the original.91 Some of its most important provisions may be mentioned here; e. g., control of combatant troops was separated from that of all supply departments and of miscellaneous organizations in rear of them, the whole American Expeditionary Forces being divided into the zone of the armies and the Services of Supply (designated in the first copy of this order as the Service of the Rear). Over the former, comprising the organizations at the front (armies, corps, divisions, etc.) the general staff exercised direct control while over the latter its control was indirect, through the commanding general, Services of Supply. The general staff remained at headquarters, A. E. F., at Chaumont, but headquarters of the Services of Supply was located at Tours where it absorbed headquarters of the preexisting line of communications.

The general staff was reconstructed as follows: A chief of staff, secretary of the general staff, and five sections of the general staff, each under an assistant chief of staff, were provided for, and among these specific duties were allocated. The numerical designation of each section now corresponded closely to that of the section of the French General Staff which was charged with similar duties. Though this correspondence was incidental to the reorganization, it facilitated the transaction of business between the two armies.

The administration section became the first section, the intelligence section became the second, and the operations, coordination, and training sections became, respectively, the third, fourth, and fifth sections of the general staff. For convenience the names of the sections were abbreviated to G-1, G-2, and so forth.

As to the duties assigned to these several sections it is sufficient here to state that G-1 was charged, among other duties, with ocean tonnage, priority of overseas shipments, replacements, organization, and equipment (in consultation with G-3) and with control of the American Red Cross, Young Men's Christian Association, and similar agencies; G-2 was charged with procurement of information, secret service, topography, and censorship; G-3 with operations, liaison, general organization, and equipment; G-4 with supply, construction, and transportation in France, statistics concerning the above, supply and transportation for combat, hospitalization, and evacuation of the sick and wounded, all operations of the Services of Supply not assigned to other sections of the general staff and assignment of all new units arriving in France; G-5 was charged with all activities pertaining to training, and it cooperated with the third section in matters affecting organization and equipment.

As the first, fourth, and fifth sections of the general staff were now of especial interest to the Medical Department, some further discussion concerning them is deemed necessary.

It was not intended that the administrative section of the general staff should directly control any of the supply bureaus, nor supplant the executive


30

heads of these important services, nor limit them in the exercise of their authority in the internal administration of their own departments.94 The sole function of this section of the general staff was to supervise the general policies of the American Expeditionary Forces, in so far as this section was concerned, to coordinate the activities of those departments and troops which were engaged in the services of administration, supply, and evacuation, to preserve a just balance between them, and to insure that their operations as a whole harmonized with one another and with the plans of campaign.43

The fourth section of the general staff was the connecting link between the general staff on the one hand and the Services of Supply on the other in all matters affecting the Services of Supply which were not assigned to other sections of the general staff. Its functions in maintaining intimate relations between the office of the chief of staff, G. H. Q., and these various agencies in the Services of Supply were both executive and advisory.90 It kept available the latest information regarding supplies, state of construction, and efficiency of rail transportation, studying and frequently reporting upon the practical working of all technical staff and supply departments. Projects of any importance, especially those involving location of facilities, were examined by this section to assure their harmony with the general scheme.90 This section, which had become of especial interest to the Medical Department after the publication of Memorandum No. 129, H. A. E. F., 1917, which charged it, among other duties, with, the provision of hospital facilities and the evacuation of sick and wounded, continued to exercise jurisdiction over a larger number of the interests of the Medical Department than did any other section of the general staff.90 Its greatest importance to the Medical Department arose from its control of policies and programs for hospitalization, storage, transportation and supply, evacuation of wounded, assignment of units newly arriving in France, and staff control of labor.90

 Also, the fact that it was charged with supervision of all operations of the Services of Supply, not assigned to other sections of the general staff, brought under its control a number of other matters, in which the Medical Department was interested.90 Because of the importance to the Medical Department of the American National Red Cross, particularly in matters pertaining to hospitalization and supply, an effort was made to have control of this society transferred to this section, but this was unsuccessful.90

The fifth section, general staff, was charged with instruction and training throughout the American Expeditionary Forces.95 These included technical training, preparation of manuals on that subject, promulgation of training bulletins and courses of instruction, supervision of centers of instruction, and staff schools. After the armistice was signed it was vested with control of education, athletics, and entertainment.95 This section was of especial interest to the Medical Department through the supervision it exercised over the Army sanitary school at Langres, the Joinville training area, where medical units awaiting assignment were concentrated, and over the training of medical units and detachments in divisional training areas.95

After the reorganization prescribed by General Orders, No. 31, the general staff continued to concern itself with the broader phases of control. Under the


31

supervision of the commander in chief and pursuant to clearly determined policies, the assistant chiefs of staff at the head of their respective sections, severally coordinated by the chief of staff, issued instructions and gave general direction to the great combat units and to the Services of Supply, keeping always in close touch with the manner and promptness of compliance.96 Thus a system of direct responsibility was put into operation which contemplated secrecy in preparation, prompt decision in emergency, and coordinate action in execution.96 This supervision by the general staff included matters relating to new troops and new equipment, excepting only such details as pertained to the troops in the Services of Supply.91 General headquarters, A. E. F., also retained immediate control of military transportation and supply in the zone of the armies and control of war material required in the conduct of military operations.91

The plans for operations of the Allies were communicated only to the commander in chief and by him to a small number of higher staff officers under his immediate command.91 Arrangements for the employment of American troops in conformity therewith were necessarily made at general headquarters, and G-4 being responsible for supply and transportation arrangements for combat, was obliged to keep in close touch with the Services of Supply in order that the activities of that command might be fully coordinated with the prosecution of the plans of the commander in chief.91

The chiefs of the three purely administrative staff services were retained with the general staff at general headquarters, which remained at Chaumont, but the chiefs of the other staff departments were transferred to headquarters of the Services of Supply at Tours.95 The departments whose chiefs were retained at general headquarters were those of the adjutant general, the inspector general, and the judge advocate.

Figure 1.  Lines of communication, A. E. F., showing also the sections comprising the Services of Supply

As previously stated, the jurisdiction known as the line of communications was replaced by the Services of Supply.95 The commanding officer of this jurisdiction, whose headquarters remained at Tours and whose official status remained unchanged, was charged with transportation, construction, territorial command, and control of supply, sanitary, and telegraph service throughout the territorial area of the Services of Supply. The Services of Supply was divided for administrative purposes into an advance section, an intermediate section, eight base sections in France, England, and Italy, the district of Paris, and the Arrondissement of Tours.95 After the armistice was signed a ninth base section was established with headquarters at Antwerp for the service of the Third Army.97

While the chiefs of the purely administrative services (the adjutant general, the inspector general and the judge advocate general) were retained with the general staff at headquarters, A. E. F., at Chaumont, the chiefs of what were now designated the "technical and administrative" staff departments, were transferred to the headquarters of the Services of Supply at Tours.65 The department whose chiefs were thus transferred were the following: The Quartermaster Corps, Medical Corps, Corps of Engineers, Ordnance Department, Signal Corps, Air Service, general purchasing board, Gas Service, service of utilities (newly created by this order) and the provost marshal service. The


32

chiefs of these staff departments retained their former duties and authority as members of the staff of the commander in chief but exercised their duties in matters of procurement, transportation, and construction and supply under the direction of the commanding officer, Services of Supply, who coordinated their activities in these matters. They were directed so to organize their offices that the efficiency of their service would not be impaired by necessary absences for conferences with the commander in chief or for other duty assigned them by him.

Each was authorized and expected to travel throughout the American Expeditionary Forces to supervise and direct the activities of his department in all its elements, including combat units. The duties of these chiefs of staff departments were therefore of a dual character. Thus the chief surgeon, A. E. F., was, on the one hand, the chief surgeon of the Services of Supply, supervising Medical Department activities throughout its area, and, on the other, was the chief surgeon of all the American troops in Europe from the Murman coast to Italy.

In so far as the Services of Supply is concerned, it is sufficient to state here that the staff organization of that jurisdiction consisted of a general staff, divided into four sections (later reduced to three), and of an administrative staff whose departments rapidly increased in number.98

Besides effecting the changes already mentioned, General Orders, No. 31, G. H. Q., A. E. F., February 16, 1918, further directed that the distribution of staff duties in army, corps, divisions, and other commands subordinate to general headquarters, correspond in principle to that prescribed for general headquarters. General Orders, No. 9, G. H. Q., A. E. F., January 15, 1918, which had created the First Army had provided for that organization a chief of staff, a general staff of 4 sections and 12 administrative and technical services, but by General Orders, No. 120, G. H. Q., A. E. F., July 24, 1918, its staff was made to consist of a chief of staff, 5 general staff sections, a chief of artillery, and 13 administrative and technical services. The same organization was prescribed for the Second Army, created by General Orders, No. 175, G. H. Q., A. E. F., October 10, 1918, and for the Third Army, created by General Orders, No. 198, G. H. Q., A. E. F., November 7, 1918, except that for the last mentioned no tank service was provided.

The headquarters staff of the First Corps as organized by General Orders, No. 9, G. H. Q., A. E. F., January 15, 1918, consisted of a chief of staff, a general staff of 4 sections (administrative, intelligence, operations, and training, and coordination), and 12 administrative and technical services. The same organization was prescribed for the Second, Third, and Fourth Corps by General Orders, No. 102, G. H. Q., A. E. F., June 25, 1918, but by General Orders, No. 136, August 19, 1918, the organization of a corps was made to conform to Tables of Organization 102, series B, War Department, corrected to April 20, 1918. Thereafter the headquarters staff of each corps consisted of a chief of staff, 3 general staff sections (1, operations; 2, administration and coordination; and 3, intelligence), and 12 administrative and technical services until a thirteenth staff service (the motor transport) was added, by General Orders, No. 219, G. H. Q., A. E. F., November 29, 1918. Similarly, the headquarters


33

of an Infantry division as prescribed by Table 2, series A, Tables of Organization, dated October 1, 1918, provided for a general staff with the same sections as those authorized for the corps and for nine administrative and technical staff departments.

The system of general staff control and subdivision prescribed for headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces thus was applied to lower echelons of the field forces, except that in corps and divisions, the fourth section was merged with the first and the fifth section with the third.96 Control of the field activities of the Medical Department which were vested in the fourth section of the general staff at headquarters, A. E. F., was thus assigned to the control of G-1 in corps and divisions-a circumstance which proved to be undesirable and confusing.99

REFERENCES

(1) List of military attachés. On file, Army War College (2279).

(2) Personnel cards of officers assigned as military observers, filed under the individual's name. Card index, Army War College.

(3) Wadhams, Sanford H., Col., M. C., and Tuttle, Arnold D., Col., M. C.: Some of the Early Problems of the Medical Department, American Expeditionary Forces. The Military Surgeon, Washington, D. C., December, 1919, xlv, No. 6, 636.

(4) Instructions to military attachés, as of various dates. On file, Army War College (2279 and 8679).

(5) Memorandum from the Secretary of War, to the Secretary of State, August 12, 1914. Subject: Military Observers. On file, Army War College (8679).

(6) Cablegram from the Military Attaché, London, to the Secretary of War, August 17, 1914. On file, Army War College (8679).

(7) Based on card index, showing details to the Austrian Army. On file, Army War College.

(8) Cablegram from the Military Attaché, London, to Chief of the War College Division, General Staff, August 19, 1914. On file, Army War College (8679).

(9) Memorandum from the Chief of Staff, to the Surgeon General, August 12, 1914, Subject Medical Officers as Observers. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 150021 (Old Files).

(10) Letter from The Adjutant General, to Maj. J. H. Ford, M. C., September 1, 1914. Subject: Detail as military observer. On file, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.

(11) Special Orders No. 250, War Department, October 27, 1915. Paragraph 15.

(12) Telegram from Assistant Secretary of War, to American Ambassador, Paris, September 9, 1914. On file, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.

(13) Letter from the chief of the War College Division, General Staff, to the Surgeon General. January 15, 1915. Subject: Report of Maj. P. L. Boyer, M. C., from September 12, 1914, to November 23, 1914. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. 150021 (Old Files).

(14) Letter from Sir William Osler, to the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, January 30, 1916. Subject: Detail Medical Officers. On file, Army War College (8679).

(15) Memorandum from the Surgeon General, to the Chief of Staff, March 6, 1916. Subject: Submitting names of officers. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. (150021).

(16) Letter order from The Adjutant General, to the Surgeon General, April 10, 1916. Subject: Assignment of Lieut. Col. A. E. Bradley, M. C., Maj. Clyde S. Ford, M. C., and Maj. W. J. L. Lyster, M. C. On file, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.

(17) Based on card index, showing details to the German Army. On file, Army War College.

(18) Letter from Col. A. E. Bradley, M. C., to the Surgeon General, June 11, 1917. Subject: Medical personnel serving with British Forces. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 9795 (Old Files).


34

(19) Letter orders from The Adjutant General, to Col. A. E. Bradley, M. C., and Maj. Clyde S. Ford, M. C., May 29, 1917. Subject: Assignments. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 9795 (Old Files).

(20) Personal report of Maj. W. J. L. Lyster, M. C., to the Surgeon General, June 30, 1917. On file, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.

(21) Telegram from chief of staff, A. E. F., to Maj. W. J. L. Lyster, M. C., Paris, June 9, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 9795 (Old Files).

(22) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to Maj. W. J. L. Lyster, M. C., liaison officer, London, June 25, 1917. Subject: Instructions. The administration of American medical personnel with the British in relation to the A. E. F. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 76278 (Old Files).

(23) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the commander in chief, A. E. F., June 21, 1917. Subject: Report of personnel of chief surgeon's office. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files, 321.6.

(24) Special Orders No. 26, Headquarters, A. E. F., July 4, 1917. Paragraph 2. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, A. E. F. Records, Special Orders.

(25) Letter from the British War Office, to the American Ambassador, London, February 23, 1917. Subject: Veterinary observer. On file, Army War College, 6467.

(26) Letter from The Adjutant General, to Veterinarian William P. Hill, 6th Field Artillery, December 27, 1915. Subject: Detail. On file, Army War College, 9244.

(27) Letter from The Adjutant General to Veterinarian William P. Hill, March 10, 1917. Subject: Orders. On file, A. G. O., 2547294 (Old Files).

(28) Special Orders, No. 7, Headquarters, A. E. F., Paris, June 14, 1917. Paragraph 1. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, A. E. F. Records, Special Orders.

(29) Letter from Chief of War College Division, General Staff, to the Surgeon General, June 5, 1915. Subject: Detail of medical observer with French armies. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 150021 (Old Files).

(30) Second indorsement from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, June 12, 1915, on letter from Chief of War College Division, General Staff, to the Surgeon General, June 5, 1915. Subject: Detail medical observer with French armies. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 150021 (Old Files).

(31) Letter Order from The Adjutant General to Maj. James R. Church, M. C., November 15, 1915. Subject: Detail. On file, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.

(32) Letter from the Secretary of State to the Secretary of War, September 1, 1916. Subject: Request medical officer visit prisoners of war in France. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 150021 (Old Files).

(33) Second indorsement from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, September 12, 1916, on letter from the Secretary of State to Secretary of War, September 1, 1916. Subject: Request medical officer visit prisoners of war in France. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 150021 (Old Files).

(34) Letter from The Adjutant General to Maj. S. H. Wadhams, M. C., September 25, 1916. Subject: Detail as military observer. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 76283 (Old Files).

(35) Letter from Acting Chief, War College Division, General Staff, to Maj. S. H. Wadhams, M. C., January 10, 1917. Subject: Detail. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 76283 (Old Files).

(36) Letter from Maj. James Robb Church, M. C., Maj. James A. Logan, Jr., Q. M. C., Capt. J. M. Barker, 3d Inf., Capt. Frank Parker, 11th Cav., Capt. M. Churchill, Field Art., Veterinarian Wm. P. Hill, 6th Field Art., to Chief, War College Division, General Staff, July 19, 1916. Subject: Recommendation as to organization of military observers. On file, Army War College (8679).

(37) Letter from Acting Chief of War College Division, General Staff, to Maj. James A. Logan, jr., Q. M. C., Paris, November 21, 1916. Subject: Organization of military mission. On file, Army War College (8679).

(38) Letter from the chief of the American military mission, Paris, to the Chief of the War College, General Staff, February 14, 1917. Subject: Increased opportunities for military observers. On file, Army War College (8719).


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(39) Letter from officer in charge of military intelligence to Col. A. E. Bradley, M. C., Maj. Clyde S. Ford, M. C., Maj. W. J. L. Lyster, M. C., Maj. Sanford H. Wadhams, M. C., and Maj. James A. Logan, jr., Q. M. C., February 10, 1917. Subject: Medico-military information. On file, Army War College (8679).

(40) Memorandum from Chief of the War College Division, General Staff, to the Chief of Staff, June 9, 1917. Subject: Ports of debarkation. On file, Army War College, 10132.

(41) Report from chief of medical group to assistant chief of staff, 4th section of general staff, December 31, 1918. Subject: Activities of medical group, 4th section, general staff, General Headquarters, A. E. F. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(42) Cablegram from the Chief of Staff to Maj. James A. Logan, jr., Q. M. C., June 5, 1917. Subject: Reporting to General Pershing. On file, Army War College (10050)

(43) Letter from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, October 18, 1916. Subject: Detail. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. 104882 (Old Files).

(44) Special Orders No. 244, War Department, October 18, 1916. Paragraph 21. On file, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.

(45) Telegram from the Surgeon General to Maj. Robert M. Culler, M. C., October 27, 1916. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 104882 (Old Files).

(46) Special Orders No. 105, War Department, May 7, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 104882 (Old Files).

(47) Letter from the Surgeon General to Mr. L. Jouvard, president of French Benevolent Society, French Hospital, New York City, May 22, 1917. Subject: Major Culler's status. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 104882 (Old Files).

(48) Special Orders, No. 115, Headquarters, A. E. F., October 3, 1917. Paragraph 6.

(49) Special Orders, No. 60, Headquarters, Line of Communications, A. E. F., October 7, 1917.

(50) Personal report from Maj. William L. Keller, M. C., to the Surgeon General, April 3, 1923. On file, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.

(51) Special Orders, No. 105, War Department, May 7, 1917. Paragraph 28.

(52) Special Orders, No. 66, Headquarters, A. E. F., March 7, 1918. Paragraph 48.

(53) Special Orders, No. 81, War Department, April 9, 1917. Paragraph 17.

(54) Special Orders, No. 81, War Department, April 9, 1917. Paragraph 18.

(55) Telegram from The Adjutant General, to Superintendent, U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y., April 7, 1917. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 128346 (Old Files).

(56) Special Orders, No. 105, War Department, May 7, 1917. Paragraph 28.

(57) Special Orders, No. 28, Headquarters, A. E. F., July 6, 1917. Paragraph 9.

(58) Special Orders, No. 68, Headquarters, A. E. F., August 15, 1917. Paragraph 11.

(59) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 1916, 18-19; 1917, 22.

(60) Report from Col. Percy L. Jones, M. C., Chief of the U. S. Army Ambulance Service with the French Army, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 15, 1919. Subject: U. S. Army Ambulance Service with the French Army. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(61) Memorandum from Col. Jefferson R. Kean, M. C., to the Surgeon General, April 4, 1917. Subject: Organization of base hospitals. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 15542 (Old Files).

(62) Report on origin and organization of base hospitals and other sanitary units (undated) by Col. Jefferson R. Kean, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(63) Letter from Col. A. E. Bradley, M. C., A. E. F., to the Surgeon General, June 11, 1917. Subject: Medical personnel serving with British forces. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 9795 (Old Files); also, telegram from the Surgeon General to Maj. Robert M. Culler, M. C., October 27, 1916. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 104882 (Old Files); also, personal report from Maj. William L. Keller, to the Surgeon General, April 3, 1923. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.; also, Special Orders No. 81, War Department, April 9, 1917.


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(64) Letter from the Surgeon General to the Chief of Staff, May 1, 1917. Subject: Memorandum from Col. T. H. Goodwin, R. A. M. C. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 172158 (Old Files).

(65) Report from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to secretary, general staff, A. E. F., May 31, 1918. Subject: The Medical Department in the A. E. F. to May 31, 1918. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(66) Letter from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, May 1, 1917. Subject: Medical officer for duty in Europe. Copy on file, Record Room, S. G. O., 172158 (Old Files).

(67) Report of Base Hospital No. 21 (not dated) by Maj. Walter Fischel, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(68) Cablegram from the military attaché at London, to the Surgeon General, May 21, 1917. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files, 201 (Bradley, A. E.).

(69) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to Maj. W. J. L. Lyster, M. C., American Embassy, London, June 11, 1917. Subject: Administration of American medical personnel serving with British Forces. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. 9795 (Old Files).

(70) Letter from The Adjutant General to Col. A. E. Bradley, M. C., May 28, 1918. Subject: Designation as chief surgeon,  U. S. Forces in Europe. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's files, 201 (Bradley, A. E.).

(71) Final report of Gen. John J. Pershing, September 1, 1919, 11.

(72) Report from the assistant chief of staff, fourth section, general staff, General Headquarters, A. E. F., to the chief of staff, A. E. F., June 1, 1919, 12. On file, General Headquarters, A. E. F. Records.

(73) Report from the assistant chief of staff, Fourth Section, G. H. Q., A. E. F., 11.

(74) General Orders, No. 8, General Headquarters, A. E. F., July 5, 1917 (corrected copy).

(75) Tables of Organization No. 1, Series "A," W. D., August 27, 1918.

(76) Tables of Organization No. 28, Series "A," W. D., April 17, 1918.

(77) Report from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, May 1, 1919. Subject: Activities of the chief surgeon's office, to May 1, 1919. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(78) Medical History of the 41st Division (undated). On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(79) Report from Col. S. H. Wadhams, M. C., chief of medical group, fourth section, general staff, General Headquarters, A. E. F., to chief of fourth section, general staff, Headquarters, A. E. F., December 31, 1918, 17. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(80) Organization of the Services of Supply, A. E. F., Monograph No. 7, prepared by Historical Branch, War Plans Division, General Staff, June, 1921, Washington, Government Printing Office. War Department, Document No. 1009, 17.

(81) Final report of Gen. John J. Pershing, September 1, 1919, 8.

(82) Memorandum from Gen. John J. Pershing, to The Adjutant General, U. S. Army, September 18, 1917. Subject: Service of the Rear and Line of Communications. On file, General Headquarters, A. E. F. Records.

(83) Memorandum from the commander in chief to The Adjutant General, U. S. Army, October 7, 1917. Subject: Priority of shipment (personnel). On file, General Headquarters, A. E. F. Records.

(84) General Orders, No. 40, G. H. Q., A. E. F., September 20, 1917.

(85) Organization of the Services of Supply, A. E. F., Monograph No. 7, 19.

(86) Statement based on the final report of General Pershing, September 1, 1919, and report of the assistant chief of staff, fourth section, general staff, General Headquarters, A. E. F., to the chief of staff, June 1, 1919. On file, General Headquarters, A. E. F. Records.

(87) Minutes of the Allied Maritime Transport Council, September 27, 1918. On file, Historical Branch, War Plans Division, General Staff.

(88) Final report of Gen. John J. Pershing, 90.


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(89) Report from the assistant chief of staff, fourth section, G. H. Q., A. E. F., appendix "J."

(90) Ibid., 15.

(91) Ibid., 16.

(92) Letter from commander in chief, to chiefs of staff departments, A. E. F., January 22, 1918. Subject: Reorganization. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's file, A. E. F. (321.6).

(93) Letter from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the commander in chief, A. E. F., February 4, 1918. Subject: Reorganization. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, chief surgeon's file, A. E. F. (321.6).

(94) Report from the chief surgeon, A. E. F., to the commanding general, S. O. S., A. E. F., July 1, 1918. Subject: The medical department in the A. E. F., to May 31, 1918. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

(95) General Orders No. 31, General Headquarters, A. E. F., February 16, 1918.

(96) Final report of Gen. John J. Pershing, September 1, 1919, 12.

(97) Ibid., 68.

(98) Organization of the Services of Supply, A. E. F., Monograph No. 7, 25.

(99) Reports from the assistant chief of staff, fourth section, General Headquarters, A. E. F., 22.