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Chapter II

Contents

CHAPTER II

ORGANIZATION IN THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES

EARLY HISTORY

Early in 1917, prior to declaration by this country of war with Germany, arrangements were made with the French Government for two medical officers, who had been on duty as military observers with the allied forces since 1915 and 1916, respectively,1 to attend the French Army school of asphyxiating gases, then in session at Paris. After taking the full course of instruction at the school, one of these officers submitted a full and comprehensive report to the War College, in Washington.2 This was the first complete report relative to gas warfare received by the War Department.2

On the completion of this work one of these officers decided to go as far as possible in informing himself on the subject of gas warfare.2 Through the influence of officers in the French gas school he was appointed an unofficial liaison officer with the French gas service. In this capacity he had ready access to the offices of this service, to the experimental proving grounds at Fontainbleau and near Versailles, and to the various factories, and was furnished with many statistical reports of great value.

Following the arrival in France of General Pershing, in June, 1917, and the merging of our military mission to France into his staff, 3 this medical observer was directed to report to the commanding general, American Expeditionary Forces, for instructions.4 He was then (June, 1917) assigned to duty with the chief surgeon; 5 a little later he was ordered to assist the officer temporarily in charge of the Gas Service,6 and, on the return of this officer to the United States, was verbally delegated to act as chief of the Gas Service, pending the arrival of the Engineer officer to be designated to organize the Gas Service.2, 7

In the meantime another of our medical officers had been detailed to study the physiological aspects of gas warfare with the British. 8 He carried with him to Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces, a large number of valuable and instructive reports and documents, which, together with those already in the hands of the acting chief of the Gas Service, furnished a skeleton of practically the entire system of gas attack and defense as employed by the British and the French. Other medical officers detailed for special duties with respect to studying gas warfare submitted additional reports.9

The preliminary study thus made by our medical officers of the work of our allies laid the foundation for the comprehensive suggestion for an organization, together with a chart of the same, prepared for the chief of staff, American Expeditionary Forces, July 26, 1917, by an officer of the Medical Corps. (See Appendix, p.797).a

This plan was finally approved, on August 13, 191,. as a basis of organization, and its author was authorized to put such features of the plan into effect

a The "Gas defensive organization of the British armies in France" and an " Abstract of plan for organization of gas service in U. S. Army," submitted by Maj. Charles Flandin, of the French gas services, dated July 30, 1917, are given in the Appendix (pp. 804 and p.p. 806, respectively).


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as were necessary under existing conditions.10 Final approval of the whole plan was held in abeyance until the chief of the Chemical Warfare Service was designated and assigned to the duty.10

ORGANIZATION OF GAS SERVICE

When, on July 5, 1917, the Gas and Flame Service, as the Gas Service was then called, was designated as one of the staff corps of the American Expeditionary Forces, its duties included the following: 3 Supply and control of personnel; procurement of supplies and material; conduct of entire Gas and Flame Service, both offensive and defensive; supervision of instruction of gas troops and officers; inventions and experiments of gas apparatus; experiments on gases of all kinds; experiments on gas protection; control of gas laboratories.

The relationship of the Gas Service to other departments is shown in the following: 3 From the Corps of Engineers it obtained the supply of personnel and material for gas and liquid fire offensive, except those furnished by other services; from the Medical Corps, the supply of personnel and material for gas defensive under supervision of Director of Gas Service; from the Ordnance Department, the supply of gas bombs, gas shells, and other similar material for gas service.

On August, 17, 1917, an officer of the Corps of Engineers was appointed as "Engineer in charge of gas. " The medical officer attached to the chief surgeon's office who had been acting chief of this service was assigned to the chief of the service as medical director on August 22, 1917.12 At that time little progress had been made toward effecting a definite organization. (See Appendix p. 810.) On September 3, 1917, a definite step in that direction was taken:13

* * * * **

IV. 1. There is established a department of the American Expeditionary Forces to be known as the Gas Service.
2. The head of this department will be designated as chief of the Gas Service and will be charged with the organization cf the personnel, the supply of material, and the conduct of the entire Gas Service, both offensive and defensive, including instruction.
3. The organization of the service will be as indicated in the table attached hereto.
4. All material and appliances that may be needed by the Gas Service will be supplied by those departments of the Army usually furnishing such supplies and appliances.
5. The supply of material for the Gas Service will be made directly to the supply and depot services of that organization by the departments concerned.

By command of Major General Pershing:
(Signed)
JAMES G. HARBORB,
Lieut. Col., General Staff,
Chief of Staff.

Official:
BENJ. ALVORD;
Adjutant General.

RELATIONSHIPS OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT TO GAS WARFARE

While, as is shown in Chart III, a special service, the Gas Service, afterwards renamed the Chemical Warfare Service, was made responsible early for both offensive and defensive gas warfare in the American Expeditionary Forces, the Medical Department was largely concerned with the many problems incident to the use of this new military weapon which, from its technical knowl-


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edge, it alone was competent to solve. Its relationships in this connection can best be shown graphically (Chart IV). This chart indicates its activities and points of contact in this direction from beginning to end.

CHART III.- Gas Service organization, American Expeditionary Forces

CHART IV.- The Medical Department in the organization for gas defense, training, research, and treatment, American Expeditionary Forces

Through the medical director of the Gas Service, the director of professional services, chief medical consultant, and chief gas consultant, the chief surgeon was in close touch at all times with such matters pertaining to the treatment and care of the gassed as came within the purview of the medical consultants, gas poisoning being considered a medical rather than a surgical question.


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Direct contact was maintained between the division of laboratories and infectious diseases and the pathological and physiological sections of the Gas Service experimental field, generally known as Hanlon Field (q. v.). Through this division of the chief surgeon's office, American Expeditionary Forces, the Gas Service (Chemical Warfare Service) was supplied with the necessary personnel, either medical officers or officers of the Sanitary Corps, for the highly technical work along medical and allied lines, to which reference is made later, and for which the Gas Service had not the qualified personnel.

CHIEF GAS CONSULTANT

The full report of the consultant in general medicine for gas is given in Appendix, pages 826-829. Attention here need be directed only to the fact that, under his direction, the activities of the section of gas poisoning of the Office of the chief medical consultant, were conducted along the lines of instruction of Medical Department personnel, treatment and hospitalization, and the actual supervision of the care of the gassed.

THE MEDICAL DIRECTOR, CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE

When the first medical director left the Gas Service in December, 1917, the work of the defense section was assumed by an officer of the Corps of Engineers (later of the Chemical Warfare Service).14 The second medical director, who assumed the duties of this office on December 14, 1917,15 acting in this capacity during the remainder of the war period (and longer), was not responsible for the defensive aspect of gas warfare.

At first his duties were largely concerned with the instruction of medical officers which it was deemed advisable to inaugurate as these officers arrived in constantly increasing numbers.16 (See "Instruction and training," infra., p.43.) As our participation in the actual military operations was inaugurated and our divisions began to take over sectors independently of allied control, the duties of the medical director came to be more largely concerned with inspection than with instruction. (See inspection reports of the medical director, Gas Service, Chapter IV, pp. 67-73.) In this capacity he inspected from time to time troops along the front area, hospitals, hospital trains, etc., As to methods and facilities for the care of gassed cases.

Because of the close relationship existing between the Medical Department and the Gas Service the medical director was at all times the liaison officer between these two services. He was the medical adviser to the chief of the Gas Service, and the adviser of the chief surgeon, American Expeditionary Forces, on matters relating to gas warfare. In addition to these general duties he collected for the chief of the Gas Service all physiological and medical information having any bearing on the problems of gas warfare; he supplied the chief surgeon such information as came into the hands of the chief of the Gas Service having any bearing on the medical aspects of gas warfare, especially concerning new treatment of gas casualties, combatting the effects of the enemy gases not only from a therapeutic but also from a prophylactic point of view. When the chief of the service or the chief surgeon deemed it necessary to obtain fuller information in regard to a gas attack he proceeded to the gassed sector for the purpose of investigating and obtaining all possible information concerning the attack.


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When conditions warranted he called upon the director of laboratories for pathologists for special investigations, in accordance with an arrangement made by the director of the division of laboratories and infectious diseases, chief surgeon's office, with the chief of the Chemical Warfare Service.17

INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING

In Chapter I (p.32) it has been noted that as medical officers finished the course of instruction given at the Fort Sill school for instruction in gas defense in the United States they were assigned to the various National Army and National Guard divisions, and that chemists who had been trained in gas defense at American University in Washington were detailed to these medical officers as chemical advisers.18 There were 33 medical officers and 32 chemists so trained.18 There was thus formed a nucleus for divisional medical personnel in the American Expeditionary Forces with some specialized knowledge with respect to gas warfare. How much this personnel was utilized in the American Expeditionary Forces is problematical. It will be remembered that the Engineer Corps took up this instruction in the United States in April, 1918; thereupon the medical officers who had previously been assigned as instructors were regarded as available for other duties and were so assigned. At all events, the average medical officer upon arrival in France possessed very meager knowledge of the subject of gas warfare, of the effects of gas poisoning, and of the treatment therefor. From the beginning of the arrival of our troops in France it was recognized by the Medical Department, then charged with defensive gas warfare, that steps must be taken toward furnishing the needed instruction and training of Medical Department personnel and troops to supplement such as had been given in the United States, and as might be given by the trained medical officers assigned to divisions, as noted above. Numerous reports embodying suggestions along this line were formulated by medical officers.

While throughout the Medical Department personnel received gas training through their own officers, it was only at the beginning that the Medical Department did anything in this direction, so far as the American Expeditionary Forces generally were concerned. The duty devolved on the Gas Service, later the Chemical Warfare Service.

The sources of Medical Department gas instruction in the American Expeditionary Forces were several, and it is deemed best to summarize the more important ones:

(1) From Allies: (a) Facilities furnished our medical officers even preceding our entrance into the war. (b) To our divisions with Allies as a part of instruction in general. (c) Information furnished formally to Chemical Warfare Service from time to time. (d) Information furnished more or less informally to chief surgeon, to medical director, Gas Service, and to other medical officers. (e) Through interallied conferences (Appendix, p. 812)--at the early conferences we were in the position of learners and not confre res. (f) Publications. These were freely supplied us.
(2) From our own higher authorities: (a) Numerous circulars and bulletins emanated from the offices of the chief of the Chemical Warfare Service, the chief surgeon and the medical director, Chemical Warfare Service: also some from division surgeons. The material for a part of these came from our Allies; other similar material was compiled by our medical officers.


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(3) From American Red Cross: it special book containing, material from our allies was distributed to our Army by the Red Cross.
(4) Personal teaching: This was given as deemed appropriate by the medical director, Chemical Warfare Service, by division surgeons, by division gas officers, and by gas consultants.

FIRST CORPS GAS SCHOOL

On October 15, 1917, the First Corps center of instruction was established at Gondrecourt.19 The gas school, b which was part of the center, was under the direction of a medical officer, who started instruction on that date.20 The program of instruction is given in the Appendix (p. 838).

INSTRUCTION OF MEDICAL PERSONNEL

By the time the second medical director assumed his duties, on December14, 1917, 15 large numbers of our medical officers were arriving in France, the majority of them with inadequate knowledge of the methods employed in the treatment of gas casualties. As previously stated, his first efforts were directed toward overcoming this state of affairs.15 Pamphlets on the medical aspects of gas warfare were distributed, and lectures were delivered to the medical officers and other personnel at hospitals and in divisions. The instruction included: 15 (1) A general explanation of the methods of chemical warfare employed by the enemy. (2) Symptomatology of gas poisoning, including a description of the lesions. (3) The diagnosis of gas poisoning. (4) Treatment. Medical officers were furnished with the latest information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of gas casualties. Some of the pamphlets of instruction which were given the widest circulation among the medical personnel may be found in the Appendix (pp. 833, 838).

COURSE OF INSTRUCTION FOR DIVISION MEDICAL GAS OFFICERS

As division medical gas officers were appointed, in accordance with authorization of August 29, 1918, 21 each was sent to the school of pharmacy of the University of Paris (Ecole de Gaz) for a four-day course of instruction before being assigned to his respective division for duty. (See Appendix, p. 838).

SPECIAL GAS UNITS FURNISHED BY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT

OVERSEAS REPAIR UNIT

In complying with instructions 3 with respect to supplying personnel for the Gas Service, the Medical Department delegated Sanitary Corps officers and men to report to the chief of the service as required. In Chapter I reference is made to the fact that a group of specially trained men, constituting Overseas Repair Unit No. 1,22 was sent to France to repair and otherwise keep in order the gas masks and other gas-defense appliances supplied by the Medical Department. This unit was composed of 3 officers and 113 men of the Sanitary Corps, who, upon arrival in France, December 13, 1917, reported to the chief of the Gas Service and were distributed by him as he saw fit.23

b This gas school, referred to as the first gas school (History of chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. 1, 8. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College) was the only one of the gas schools in which the Medical Department participated.


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GAS TEAMS

In May, 1918, there was transmitted to the chief surgeon a plan, formulated in the office of the chief consultant, Medical Services, providing for the establishment of two emergency gas teams in each base hospital of the American Expeditionary Forces, to be called on short notice to relieve the strain in evacuation and field hospitals in the event of sudden gas attacks.24 The plan was approved by the chief surgeon, American Expeditionary Forces, on June 2, 1918, and several teams were organized accordingly, each consisting of one medical officer, especially trained, two nurses, Army Nurse Corps, and two orderlies, Hospital Corps.24 On July 19, 1918, however, strenuous objection was made to the plan by the chief surgeon, First Army, in the following communication:

[3d Ind.]

CHIEF SURGEON'S OFFICE, 1ST ARMY,
July 19, 1918.

To Chief Surgeon, A. E. F., S. O. S.
Attention Col. Glennan and Col. Reynolds.

Returned.
1. On July 18th two communications re same subject, originating in office of chief consultant, Medical Services, were referred back to your office with my views on this subject.
2. It is out of the question for base hospitals to furnish gas teams unless the divisions are near the base hospitals, as is the case with the Toul and Baccarat sectors, both relatively unimportant, the proximity being accidental and not likely to occur on any other front.
3. When these installations were made, we were forced to accept the locations granted; we take what we want, and the base hospitals will be far from the scene of battle.
4. By my verbal authority the commanding officer of the hospital group sent forward to Baccarat or Toul assistance in his ambulances, but a glance at the map will show the impracticability of this procedure on the really active front where our activities in the future will be.
5. Reference to inclosed orders to division surgeons with the two communications cited will show that one field hospital in each division has been set apart for gassed cases and addi- tional equipment, based upon the adequacy of motor transportation, added.
6. This hospital must be as far forward as safety from direct gunfire admits, and is no place for female nurses, as there will be no accommodations.
7. Personal experience with a large number of gassed cases in the 2d Division shows conclusively that men can be trained for this particular service, and their work was so admirable I was able to evacuate over 600 cases promptly.
8. Evacuation hospitals are for battle casualties, and it is purely accidental that Evacua- tion No. 2 has accommodations for gassed cases, and this arrangement was dictated by the nearness of Baccarat to the trenches, an incongruity the French have recognized, as is shown by their abandonment of their own H. O. E. at that point.
9. This office has under consideration the adivsabilitv of moving Evacuation No. 2 back to Badonviller, as the drawing back of the line has placed the unit in the zone of direct fire, and only a shortage in ambulances and the relative unimportance of this sector has postponed the move.
10. The divisional consultant in medicine could perform most valuable service in train- img the personnel of the hospital set aside for gassed cases, and in emergency could appeal to the corps chief surgeon for assistance from a division in reserve.
11. Attention must again be invited to the propensity for basing all modifications of the sanitary service upon position warfare, which will not obtain again except in the impassable Vosges sector; and while this office welcomes the valuable suggestions of the consult service, it is unquestionably a fact that much effort and time would be saved were inquiry made as to what was being done and how any recommendation could be coordinated to meet the constantly shifting warfare with its new problems before communications were started upon the devious channels of correspondence.

(Signed) A. N. STARK, Colonel, 1. C.

Following this objection, no further action was taken in the matter of organizing or using gas teams.


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DIVISION, CORPS, AND ARMY MEDICAL GAS OFFICERS

In the brief discussion of the medical gas officers of division, corps, and army, the division is considered first, for the reason that the corps and army were not organized until after certain divisions had had gas experience, and had inaugurated medical arrangements which served later as the basis of organization for all.

Moreover, while our corps and armies had medical gas officers, they were not prescribed as was the case with divisions (Par. VIII, G. O. No. 144, G. H. Q., A. E. F., August 29, 1918) being apportioned by army and corps surgeons, respectively, and only as the need arose.

DIVISION MEDICAL GAS OFFICER c

The necessity for having division medical gas officers was apparent from the beginning, but the appointment of these officers was not accomplished until late in June, 1918. Our gas casualties were constantly increasing, and large numbers of men claiming to be gassed were being evacuated to the rear, where, upon examination, it was found they were not gassed. This condition resulted in much undue labor, and greatly weakened the strength of front area organizations. Inspector officers of our army reported that the rank and file were not properly instructed in medical gas matters. Reports were also made that no one in the front areas assumed charge of this important work. After these facts were clearly understood, authorization for division medical gas officers was made, on August 29,1918. 21 As soon as the orler was published, the matter of the appointment of these officers was taken up by the chief surgeon, American Expeditionary Forces, and after the subject had been discussed with the chief medical consultant, American Expeditionary Forces, it was decided to allow each division surgeon to select the medical officer he desired as division medical gas officer. To this end, on July 8, 1918, letters were sent by the chief surgeon, American Expeditionary Forces, to all division surgeons. The following letter is one of those sent.

AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES,
HEADQUARTERS SERVICES OF SUPPLY,
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF SURGEON,

July 8, 1918.


From: The chief surgeon, American Expeditionary Forces.
To: The division surgeon, 35th Division.
Subject: Appointment of division gas medical officers.

1. It is to be the policy in the near future to appoint division gas medical officers with each division; these officers will be assistants to the division surgeon and attached to the staff of the commanding general of the division, and their duties will be as follows:
(a) They will be the special gas medical representative in the division.
(b) They will instruct all officers and men in the symptoms and early treatment of gas poisoning.
(c) They will assume charge of the training of sanitary troops in the methods of gas treatment; instruct line officers and others in practical medical matters connected with gas warfare.
(d) They will inspect and supervise the methods of gas protection throughout the aid stations, dressing stations, and hospitals of the division and train the attached personnel in the principles and duties of handling gassed cases.

c The data for this discussion are taken largely from the History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. II, Part VI, Medical Director, 131 et seq. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.


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2. Officers detailed for this responsible work must be live, wide-awake, energetic men and must show keen appreciation of the work. Prior to assuming their duties as gas officers they will be assigned temporarily to the office of the medical director of Gas Service for special training and instruction.
3. In order to expedite this work, it is suggested that you submit to the office of the chief surgeon, as soon as possible, the name of a medical officer in your division whom you recommend for this responsible position. If possible, the officer selected should hold the grade of major, but there is no objection to a captain being selected for this position.
By direction:

(Signed) H. L. GILCHRIST,
Colonel, Medical Corps, N. A.

Owing to delays in mail, constant movement of troops, and other factors, many of these communications were not delivered, and replies in some instances were lost in transit. As a result, much delay was occasioned in the selection of these officers, but by the first week of October, 1918, a gas medical officer had been appointed in each division.25

The following rules governing division medical gas officers were promulgated by the chief surgeon, American Expeditionary Forces: 26

1. For each division, a medical officer of the grade of major or captain will be assigned as a division medical gas officer and director of mobile degassing stations, and there will be assigned under him one sergeant and one private first class, or private, Medical Department, to be selected by the division surgeon. The medical gas officer will bear the same relation to the division surgeon as does the director of field hospitals and ambulance companies.
2. The division medical gas officer is charged especially with supervision over all gas matters in the division to which he is assigned. In this connection he will institute measures to prevent the depletion in strength in the fighting forces from avoidable errors in connection with the management of gas casualties.
He will also institute measures for -
(a) The instruction and training of sanitary troops in the best methods of handling gas cases and of the rank and file in first aid to the gassed.
(b) The establishment at advance aid stations, dressing stations, and other relief stations of an efficient system and proper equipment for the administration of first aid for the gassed.
(c) The supervision of the evacuation of all gas casualties.
(d) The supervision of the methods of gas protection throughout the aid stations, dressing stations, and hospitals of the division.
3. He will act as medical adviser to the division gas officer and will cooperate with him in every way possible
4. He will collect and transmit to the designated Army laboratory interesting post-mortem specimens resulting from the actions of poisonous gases.
5. He will constantly be on the alert for suspicious symptoms in gassed patients which indicate the use by the enemy of new gases or new mixtures, and any signs of such will be communicated immediately through the division surgeon to the medical director of Chemical Warfare Service. The division gas officer will also be notified of such information.
6. As director of mobile degassing stations he will direct and supervise the operation of the mobile degassing units attached to his division; and to that end he will, under the direction of the division surgeon, designate the location of these units as may be necessary during or after a gas bombardment, and the closing and reassembling of them as soon as practicable.
7. He will keep the division surgeon, division gas officer, and organization commanders thoroughly informed as to the location of the degassing units and the shortest possible route leading to them.
8. His duties during the active operation of the units comprise the supervision of the bathing of those exposed to the fumes of poisonous gases; the careful examination of the men before being stripped and during the bathing period; and the immediate removal to hospitals of those showing signs of poisoning from the effects of gases.
9. His activities, therefore, cover the entire period from the time the gas attacks commence until the men participating therein have been degassed and disposed of. In order to perform these duties properly he must be thoroughly familiar with the terrain of the country occupied by the division, as well as the location of the different organizations.


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10. The division medical gas officer will also inspect and report upon the administration of the degassing units; the efficiency, instruction, and adequacy of the medical personnel in gas matters; the condition of the hospitals and relief stations, in so far as they relate to the care of cases suffering from the effects of poisonous warfare gases, together with the facilities for handling them; and in general all matters affecting the care, well-being, and comfort of gas casualties.
11. At the end of every month each division medical gas officer will forward to the medical director of Chemical Warfare Service, for transmittal to the chief surgeon, American Expeditionary Forces, a report of the conditions noted by him during the month, indicating the principal medical gas defects, if any; the number of gas attacks; number of actual gas casualties reported; number returned to duty as not gassed; measures taken for the prevention of gas casualties, and other recommendations deemed necessary.
12. All literature, reports, records, etc., received by the division medical gas officer will be carefully preserved and filed and will form part of the records of that office.

Report of the course of instruction given division medical gas officers may be found in the Appendix (pp.833, 838).

CORPS MEDICAL GAS OFFICERS

In the organization of the medical staff of the First Corps provision was made for a corps medical gas officer, whose duty it was to supervise the work of the Medical Department of the divisions of the corps in connection with the prevention and treatment of gas injuries, and to perform the same service for the corps troops.27 The situation in corps generally is described under "Division, corps. and army gas officers."

ARMY MEDICAL GAS OFFICERS

In the organization of the office of the chief surgeon of the Second Army provision was made for a "medical gas treatment officer," with duties, with respect to gas, analogous to those of medical and surgical consultants. He exercised supervision over instruction of all medical personnel in the treatment and management of cases of gas poisoning. In the First Army, from September, 1918, until the cessation of hostilities, a medical officer was designated as "director of gas hospitals." (See Appendix, p.827, Report of the Consultant in General Medicine for Gas Poisoning, par.6.)

GAS HOSPITALS FOR DIVISION, CORPS, AND ARMY

DIVISION GAS HOSPITALS

The use of one of the four field hospitals of the division as a gas hospital was almost universal, though it was not deemed wise to designate a particular field hospital as a gas hospital by higher authority, as this might have hampered the division surgeon concerned under some circumstances in the Second Army.

The normal distribution in a divisional area was as follows:29 (1) A division in line in active offense had one field hospital as a triage for gassed. (2) In line, holding but an active offensive, one field hospital for slightly gassed and convalescents. (3) In line in a quiet sector or in training, one field hospital to meet the needs, among other circumstances, of a gas attack.

CORPS GAS HOSPITALS

A plan was proposed for allotting three mobile gas hospitals to each corps, each to have a capacity of 1,500 beds, and to be operated under the plan of an evacuation hospital. 30 d

d This plan was not carried ouit: no corps gas hospitals were used at any time.- Ed.


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ARMY GAS HOSPITALS

A provisional hospital for the treatment of gassed cases was established August 29, 1918. (For the full history, see Appendix, p. 840; see also Appendix, pp. 826, 827, Report of the Consultant in General Medicine for Gas Poisoning, par. 5.)

In the St. Mihiel action one gas hospital was established at the Justice hospital center at Toul and one in the French gas hospital at Rambluzin. The personnel of these hospitals was composed of casuals or of officers and men loaned from base or evacuation hospitals, ambulance companies, etc. In each hospital one officer thoroughly conversant with the principles of the care of the gassed was stationed.

CHART V. - Organization chart of Hanlon Field (Experimental Gas Field), American Expeditionary Forces, November 23, 1918

During the Meuse-Argonne operation, five hospitals were designated by the chief surgeon to receive gassed cases. These were Rambluzin, capacity 250 beds; La Morlette, capacity 550 beds; Julvecourt, capacity 400 beds; Rarecourt, capacity 250 beds; Villers Daucourt, capacity 200 beds. The officers and personnel of these hospitals, as in the previous action, were largely casual officers and men from ambulance companies, evacuation hospitals, etc.

On October 9, 1918, the property and personnel assigned to the gas hospital was taken over by Base Hospital No. 87.31

RESEARCH

HANLON FIELD e (EXPERIMENTAL FIELD, CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE)

It was decided, in January, 1918, to establish an experimental field for the Chemical Warfare Service (then the Gas Service). Accordingly, after an

e The major portion of this report is included in Chapter XXI of the present volume.


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investigation of sites in the vicinity of Chaumont and Langres, one was selected within 3 miles of General Headquarters, to the east of Chaumont. It was known as the Biesles range. Authorization for the requisition of an amount of ground including about 20 square miles was given by the French on March 6, 1918.32 The whole area, as finally occupied, was requisitioned by April 20, 1918. The entire organization, including the sections with which the Medical Department was directly concerned, is shown in Chart V. The commissioned personnel supplied by the Medical Department included 4 officers of the Medical Corps, 1 of the Sanitary Corps, and 4 officers of the Medical Department who were transferred to the Chemical Warfare Service.

It has been noted (p. 42) that the Medical Department supplied the personnel for the physiological and pathological sections, which, at first, operated as one section, and which rendered a combined report. f

The name of the field was changed in August, 1918, from the experimental gas field to Hanlon Field. in honor of Second Lieut. J. T. Hanlon, of the First Gas Regiment, who was the first officer of the Chemical Warfare Service killed in action.33

REFERENCES

(1) Memorandum to The Adjutant General from the Surgeon General, February 17, 1915, recommending that Maj. James Robb Church, M. C., be ordered to report to the American Embassy, Paris, France, for duty as a military observer. See, 150021-N, From The Adjutant General of the Army to Maj. James Robb Church, Ml. C., November 15, 1915. Subject: Detail as military observer. Second indorsement from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, June 12, 1915, on letter from Chief of War College Division, General Staff, to the Surgeon General, June 5, 1915. Subject: Detail medical observer with French Armies. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 150021 (old files). Letter order from The Adjutant General, to Maj. James R. Church, M. C., November 15, 1915. Subject: Detail. On file, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O. Letter from The Adjutant General to Maj. S. H. Wadhams, M. C., September 25, 1916. Subject: Detail as military observer. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 76283 (old files).
(2) Report: “Some Notes on the Establishment of the Gas Service in the A. E. F.," by Maj. James Robb Church, M. C. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(3) G. O. No. 8, G. H. Q., A. E. F., July 5, 1917.
(4) Memorandum from the Surgeon General, H. S. Army, May 25, 1917, re Maj. James R. Church, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 49838 (old files).
(5) Personal Record of Maj. James R. Church, M. C. On file, Personnel Division, S. G. O.
(6) Cablegram No. 16, par. 6, June 25, 1917, re authority to retain Dr. G. A. Hulett for gas work and that either Lieut. Col. James A. Woodruff or Col. Henry Jervey, Engineer Corps, be sent to France to organize gas service tinder the Chief Engineer Officer. See Appendix No. 2, p. 81, History of Chemical Warfare Service, Vol. I. Copy on file, Historical Section, Army War College. Also: Extract of cablegram No. 34, par. 4, July 9, 1917, forwarded by The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, July 12, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 49838 (old files).
(7) Cablegram No. 34, par. 4, July 9, 1917. Also: Extract of cablegram No. 34, par. 4, forwarded by The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, July 12, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 49838 (old files). Also: Memorandum for the Chief of Staff, A. E. F., July 17, 1917, from Maj. James R. Church, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.

f Autopsies on gas cases were not made at the experimental field, but at base hospitals, and by pathologists of the division of laboratories and infections diseases. It was found impracticable to secure pathologists for gas work exclusively and the arrangement mentioned was made in April, 1918, by the chief, Chemical Warfare Service, and the division of laboratories and infectious diseases.

(8) Cablegram from The Adjutant General to Maj. Robert U. Patterson, M. C., C. O. Base Hospital No. 5, June 4, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 158213 (old files). Also: S. O., No. 36, G. H. Q., A. E. F., July 14, 1917, par. 1 (detailing Capt. Walter M. Boothby, M. C., to G. H. Q., as assistant to the Chief of the Gas Service). On file, A. G. O., A. E. F. Records, Special Orders.
(9) Personal reports of and correspondence concerning: Capt. W. B. Cannon, M. C., Capt. Reginald Fitz, M. C., and Maj. George W. Crile, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., Personnel Division, S. G. O., and Historical Division, S. G. O.
(10) Letter from Adjutant General, G. H. Q., A. E. F., August 13, 1917, to Maj. James R. Church, M. C. Subject: Organization of the defensive side of chemical organization. See: History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. II, Part II, 60. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.
(11) Cablegram (Pershing), No. 111-S, Paris, France, August 18, 1917, Par. 19, appointing Lieut. Col. Amos A. Fries, C. E., in charge of Gas and Flame Service.
(12) Personal record of Maj. James R. Church. On file, Personnel Division, S. G. O. Also: History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Services, Vol. I, 6. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.
(13) G. O. No. 31, G. H. Q., A. E. F., September 3, 1917. Sect. IV, pars. 4 and 5.
(14) History of Chemical Warfare Service, Vol. II, Part II, 26, Defense Division. Copy On file, Historical Division, Army War College.
(15) Personal Records of Col. H. L. Gilchrist, M. C. On file, Personnel Division, S. G. O. Also: History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Services, Vol. I, 24. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.
(16) History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. I, 24. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.
(17) Correspondence between Division of Laboratories and Infectious Diseases, Chief Surgeon's Office, A. E. F., and Technical Division, Gas Service, A. E. F., re Pathologists for Gas Service. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(18) Memorandum for the Chief of Staff from D. W. Ketcham, Colonel, General Staff, Acting Assistant Chief of Staff, April 6, 1918. Subject: Gas Training. On file, Chemical Warfare Service, 353.9. A. G. S. O. 3. C. W. S. 3. 253 .5
276
(19) G. O. No. 45, G. H. Q., A. E. F., October 8, 1917.
(20) History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. I, S. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College. Also: Personal Record, Maj. Walter M. Boothby, M. C. On file, Personnel Division, S. G. O.
(21) G. O. No. 144, G. H. Q., A. E. F., August 29, 1918, See. VIII.
(22) Letter from officer in charge, Gas Defense Service, to the Surgeon General, October 5, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 210189 (old files). Confidential Order No. 92, War Department, pars. 7 and 14, October 11, 1917. On file, Confidential Orders, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.
(23) History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. I, 25. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.
(24) Plan for Gas Teams. On file, A. G. O., World War Division, Medical Records Section (Chief Surgeon's files, 322.3284, Emergency Medical Teams).
(25) List of Division Medical Gas Officers. History of Chemical Warfare Service, Vol. II, Part VI, Appendix 4, 157. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.
(26) Letter from Chief Surgeon, A. E. F., to Division Surgeons, October 12, 1918. Subject: Rules Governing Division Medical Gas Officers (with copy of rules attached). Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(27) Report of Medical Department Activities, First Army Corps, by Col. J. W. Grissinger, M. C., Corps Surgeon, undated, 11. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(28) Report of the Chief Surgeon, Second Army, undated, 2. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(29) Evacuation System of a Field Army, by Col. Charles R. Revnolds, M. C. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(30) History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. II, Part VI, 147. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.
(31) Medical History of the Justice Hospital Group, Toul, France, undated, compiled under the direction of Col. Robert M. Thornburg, M. C., commanding.
(32) History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Services, Vol. III, Part II, Hanlon Field, 18. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.
(33) G. O. No. 60, G. H. Q., A. E. F., August 30, 1918.