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Section I, Chapter I

Contents

SECTION I

ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF GAS DEFENSE

CHAPTER I

ORGANIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES

EARLY HISTORY

The earliest activities of the Medical Department of the United States Army with respect to gas warfare were concerned with furnishing gas masks and other prophylactic apparatus for the Army,1 rather than with preparations for the care and treatment of gas casualties. The placing of this responsibility upon the Medical Department was the outcome of a meeting of the Board of Ordnance and Fortifications of the War Department, November 5, 1915, when the following was made a matter of record: 1
  
Certain practices in the present European war have indicated the necessity for providing some equipment of this kind, which, being an entirely new development, does not at present devolve upon any of the supply departments, but, in the opinion of the board, the design and supply should not be left unassigned and should be assigned to the Medical Department.
  
The Adjutant General of the Army forwarded an extract of the records of this meeting, including the paragraph quoted above, to the Surgeon General, who concurred in the recommendations contained therein 2 The Adjutant General then informed the Surgeon General that the Secretary of War approved the recommendations of the Board of Ordnance and Fortification and the Surgeon General as to the development and design of respirators, but reserved decision as to the department which should supply them until further report from the Surgeon General.3
  
Following the receipt of this communication the Surgeon General assigned certain medical officers to duty with the British and French armies as observers. Reports from these officers which were received from time to time during 1916 included observations on gas defense,4 but no actual steps were taken in the matter of furnishing prophylactic apparatus.
  
The question of responsibility for the supply of gas masks and other gas-defense equipment was brought forward again on February 14, 1917, when the Quartermaster General asked The Adjutant General for information as to which bureau of the War Department would be called upon to furnish gas masks and goggles to the Army should the issue of the same become necessary.5
  
After further correspondence, in which the Chief of Ordnance, The Adjutant General, the Surgeon General, and the Quartermaster General took part,6 the matter of responsibility was definitely placed upon the Medical Department on May 4, 1917, when the Surgeon General was informed that the Secretary of War had directed that the Medical Department be charged with furnishing gas masks and other prophylactic apparatus for the Army.7


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Twelve days later the following memorandum from the Acting Chief of Staff to The Adjutant General was transmitted to the Surgeon General: 8
  
The Secretary of War directs that instructions be given for the supply of gas masks, steel helmets, chemical sprayers for cleaning trenches, and oxygen apparatus for resuscitating the wounded as follows:
 
To the Surgeon General for the supply during the period ending June 30, 1918, of the following articles:
Gas masks ....................................1,000,000
Chemical sprayers for cleaning trenches...................8,500
Oxygen apparatus for resuscitating wounded...............1,000
  
The responsibility was thus clearly placed upon the Medical Department.
  
At this time no administrative unit in the Surgeon General's Office was charged with matters having to do with execution of this new duty of the Medical Department. Pending the organization of such an activity, a medical officer 9 represented the Medical Department in all matters concerned with gas defense, on the committee on noxious gases in warfare, formed in the National Research Council in conjunction with the Bureau of Mines of the Department of the Interior.10
  
On June 9, 1917, the Surgeon General, in a memorandum to the Secretary of War, outlining the prosecution of the work connected with gas defense, attached the following summary: 11
  
On July 2, 1917, the National Research Council forwarded to the Secretary of War a memorandum stating that at a meeting of the French scientific mission, representatives of the Army and Navy, and members of the General Munitions Board, to discuss the gas question, certain signal points were developed. Among these was the following: "Organization plans for the gas service have already been partially worked out and it remains to draw the units of the organization together. The offensive branch of the gas service is handled by the Ordnance Department, the defensive by the Medical Department, the questions of research by the Bureau of Mines, and the Engineers will probably be charged with the actual handling of the material on the battle field." This memorandum was forwarded by The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General with the information that this action of the meeting, as reported in the memorandum, was approved. In further prosecution of the work in hand it was arranged that the officer in charge of the manufacture and production of gas masks, Ordnance Office, be commissioned in the Sanitary Corps and assigned to active duty at the medical supply depot, New York City, for the purpose of superintending the manufacture, purchase, and inspection of gas masks and other defensive apparatus.
  
With the apportionment of duties and responsibilities thus definitely settled, the Surgeon General proceeded with the organization, within his office, of the necessary administrative unit for the coordinated management of all matters related to the duties imposed upon the Medical Department, and, on August 31, 1917, by the following office order the Gas Defense Service, subsequently known as the Gas Defense Division, of the Surgeon General's Office, was formally organized:12
  
Under date of May 16 last the Secretary of War directed the Surgeon General to provide for the supply of gas masks, chemical sprayers for cleaning trenches, and oxygen apparatus for resuscitating wounded during the period ending June 30, 1918.
 
The duty of providing for the supply of these appliances, of repairing them, and of giving instructions in their use is performed by a special field service of the Medical Department, known as the gas defense, the principal office of which is located in this city. It comprises three branches, to wit: (1) Field supply section; (2) overseas repair sections; (3) training section.
  
The field supply section will purchase or manufacture the appliances nalned, inspect them, store them, and issue them as needed.


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The overseas repair sections will receive issues made in bulk from home country, test them, store them, and issue them to troops, as required; they will also be charged with the disinfecting and repair of used or injured masks abroad, including all necessary inspections and tests incident thereto.
 
The training section will provide instructions regarding the use of these appliances, the handling of gases used for training purposes, the training of officers and men in the use of gas-sampling apparatus, gas detectors, and other means of defense against gases, and will communicate the same to all concerned.
 
Col. Weston P. Chamberlain, M. C., until further orders, will be in charge of the Gas Defense Service, with such commissioned and enlisted assistance as may from time to time be assigned thereto.
 
Until further orders there will be allotted to the Gas Defense Service the following personnel of the Sanitary Corps: 1 major, 28 captains, 115 first lieutenants, 10 hospital sergeants, 64 sergeants first class, 118 sergeants, 71 corporals, 90 privates first class, 334 privates.

PERSONNEL

When the responsibility for the development and production of defensive materiel was placed upon the Medical Department it soon became necessary to supplement the initial personnel allotted to this new activity and to provide trained personnel for the technical and administrative phases of the work, for the supervision of production, for the inspection of the output, for the repair of supplies actually used, for the training of other personnel for these duties, and for the training of the Army as a whole in matters of gas defense, and of Medical Department officers and men for the handling of gas casualties. The trained commissioned personnel was developed chiefly as part of the Sanitary Corps.
  
From the beginning, however, the Surgeon General experienced difficulty in securing satisfactory personnel for this service.13 In an effort to overcome this and to expedite the augmenting of gas defense personnel, the following communication was sent by the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General,14 in December, 1917:
  
A large number of men must be commissioned to care for the operation of the new plant authorized in the memorandum of the Secretary of War on November 20. This plant will employ a force of approximately 3,000 people, and all of the inspection work and much of the administrative details must be handled by commissioned officers. It is felt that eventually the whole plant may have to be put on a military basis with no civilian employees as adininistrative officers.
 
The Gas Defense Service should have absolute authority to obtain commissions and with such dispatch that men can be assigned within a week after the commission is requested. The Gas Defense Service should also have authority to obtain promotions in the grades of the Sanitary Corps in accordance with the allowances authorized by the Surgeon General.
  
Acceptance of the plan suggested in the second paragraph of the above communication was denied,15 and the personnel continued to be obtained in the usual manner.

PRODUCTION

FIELD SUPPLY SECTION
  
Pursuant to the order creating the Gas Defense Service 12 the field supply section was charged with the purchase or manufacture of gas defense appliances, with inspecting and storing the same, and with issuing them as needed. Included in the list of articles which it thus devolved upon the Medical Department to supply were gas masks for men and animals, trench fans, chemical-testing tubes, vacuum bottles, glass jars for making analyses of gas, weather


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vanes, special overalls and suits for protection against certain gases, special gloves for handling articles which might come in contact with dangerous chemicals, and a specially prepared paste for rubbing on the body to protect it against various gases. It also provided supplies for use by the training section in the training camps, such as gas masks, gas bombs, smoke boxes. and various articles for carrying on mimic gas warfare.
  
The articles enumerated were not procurable in commercial markets, but, at first, were designed by the technical experts of the service or by the Bureau of Mines, working in cooperation with the field supply section,16 and were made by private manufacturers, under contract from specifications furnished.17 It was soon found impossible, with this arrangement, to obtain sufficiently rigid inspection to secure a high quality of production, and the establishment of a Government-operated plant was suggested by the officer in charge of the field supply section, Gas Defense Service, New York City.18 Such a plant was authorized by the Secretary of War, November 20, 1917, at Long Island City, N. Y.19 At the time of the peak of production this plant had 4,691 civilian employees.
  
The magnitude of the task imposed upon the field supply section may be gauged by the amount of business transacted in the central office in Washington, as shown in the following report dated March 9, 1918: 20
  
The volume of business done by this organization is growing heavier as progress is made in our manufacturing program. An index to the amount of work done in the office is found in the number of letters coming in and going out daily. One day last week there were 691 letters received and 438 letters sent out from the office, whereas several months ago the daily average was 300 letters received and 200 sent. The largest number of letters received any day so far has been 754 and the largest number sent 684.
  
The actual output of gas defense material, together with quantities delivered to the Quartermaster Department for shipment overseas, may be found in the Appendix, pages 775, 776.
  
Of the total number of gas masks, 1,432,224 were delivered to the quartermaster at the port of embarkation for shipment overseas; the remaining 286,408 were used for experiment and training purposes in the United States.

OVERSEAS REPAIR SECTION

As noted heretofore, the order 12 which created the Gas Defense Service provided for the overseas repair section. Accordingly, on October 25, 1917, Overseas Repair Section No. 1 left for France with 4 officers and 110 men of the Medical Department.21 The duties, overseas, of this section were to receive issues made in bulk from the United States, to test them, to store them, to issue them to troops as required, to disinfect and repair used or injured masks, and to make the necessary inspections and tests incident thereto.12

TRAINING

TRAINING SECTION
  
On July 24, 1917, The Adjutant General directed the Surgeon General to submit the names of nine officers of the Medical Department for the selection therefrom of three officers for duty as instructors in gas defense in the gas defense school, which was then being organized in connection with the school of musketry of the Infantry school at Fort Sill, Okla.23 This was promptly


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complied with,24 and from time to time Medical Department officers reported for duty as instructors or for training in gas defense at this school. This was the beginning, so far as the Medical Department was concerned, of training in gas defense. It led to the incorporation, by the Surgeon General, of the training section in the plans for the Gas Defense Service,12 the duties of which were to provide instruction regarding the use of gas defense appliances and the handling of gases used for training purposes; to train officers and men in the use of gas-sampling apparatus, gas detectors, and other means of defense against. gases, and to communicate the same to all concerned.
  
In accordance with the following authorization the field training section proceeded with the organization of division gas schools.25

OCTOBER 3, 1917.
Memorandum for The Adjutant General of the Army:
 
Subject: Personnel and material for instruction in gas defense.
 
The Secretary of War directs that the following action be taken:

1. Inform the commanding general of each organized division in the United States to the following effect:
In the establishment of the school of gas defense in your division (see pamphlet on "Infantry Training," August 27, 1917, War Department Document No. 666, page 7, paragraph 4(a)4) the following will govern:
(a) The director of the school will be a qualified medical officer who will he assisted by a chemist and noncommissioned officer of the Medical Corps, Orders will issue from this office directing qualified instructors to report to you for this duty or else you will be informed as to any qualified instructors already on duty with your division.
(b) The Quartermaster General will be directed to construct the necessary gas house for this school. These will be located under your direction.
(c) You will cause the necessary trenches and dugouts to be constructed for the use of this school.
(d) The Surgeon General will be directed to supply the necessary gas masks, chemicals, and other apparatus requisite for the course.
(e) You will continue the courses in this school until every officer and enlisted man in your division has taken the course.
 
2. Inform the Quartermaster General that the Secretary of War authorizes the creation of a deficit in the sum of not to exceed $40,000 for the construction of suitable gas houses, for instruction in gas defense, and direct him to undertake this construction, according to plans on file in the office of the Surgeon General, at each divisional training camp in the United States, under the direction of division commanders. The completion of this construction at the earliest practicable date is to he desired.

  3. Inform the Surgeon General that a school of gas defense is to be established in each divisional camp or cantonment in the United States and that the Quartermaster General will be directed to construct the necessary gas houses for each of these schools, and that all officers and enlisted men in each division are eventually to take the course in these schools.
Direct him to furnish each of these schools with the necessary gas masks, chemicals, and other apparatus requisite for the course of instruction in gas defense, and to furnish the Quartermaster General with the necessary plans for the construction of gas houses.
 
4. After consultation with the Surgeon General, you will issue such orders as are necessary to place on duty with each organized division in the United States at least one medical officer, one chemist, and one noncommissioned officer of the Medical Corps, all of whom shall be designated by the Surgeon General as being qualified to act as instructors in the schools of gas defense.
 
5. You will inform the commanding general of each organized division in the United States of the names of the officers, chemists, and noncommissioned officers of the Medical Corps who are qualified to act as instructors in gas defense and who are now on duty with their respective divisions or who have been ordered to join.
 
In October and November, 1917, details of British officers experienced in gas defense warfare arrived in Washington. These officers were sent to the


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various cantonments to assist in the organization of gas defense schools.a (See Appendix, p. 777).
  
Schools for instruction in gas defense were organized in the various divisions in accordance with orders.26 The director of the school in each division was a medical officer, assisted by a chemist and a noncommissioned officer of the Medical Corps. An illustration of what was done in the way of instruction in the division may be found in the Appendix (p.778.)

TRANSFER TO ENGINEERS
  
On February 27, 1918, the commissioned personnel of the field training section, with the exception of four officers, was transferred to the Engineers, National Army.27 In April the remainder of the personnel was placed in charge of the Chief of Engineers, pursuant to a memorandum from the Chief of Staff, which assigned the reasons for the transfer:28
  
1. When instruction in gas defense was first undertaken and a gas school established at Fort Sill, Okla., it was the intention to detail line officers to take the course there with a view to their subsequent assignment to divisions as divisional gas officers, and in charge of the divisional gas schools.  
It was, however, not practicable to secure the necessary line officers, so recourse was had to medical officers then available. These medical officers were given a course of instruction at this gas school and then assigned to the various National Army and National Guard divisions.
A number of chemists were given a course of training at the American University in Washington, D. C., and assigned to divisions as chemical advisors to the medical officers charge of the gas schools. This was in accordance with the provisions of W. P. D. 9967-11, dated October 3, 1917. There were 33 medical officers and 32 chemical advisers so assigned. In addition 12 chemical advisers were, by request of General Pershing, sent to France.
  
2. Soon after the arrival here of the British officers, advisers in training in gas warfare, the question came tip as to whether or not it would be more advisable that gas officers should belong to the line rather than to the Medical Corps, as their duties abroad would be distinctly combatant and inasmuch as medical officers were classed as noncombatants.
From the training standpoint it appeared much more desirable to have a line officer rather than a medical officer in direct charge of the division gas school and gas instruction.
   These chemical advisers were accordingly recommissioned in the Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps (W. P. D. 9967-34, Jan. 21, 1918), with the intention of designating them as chief gas officers of divisions, thus relieving medical officers.
  
The transfer having been made complete, the field training section of the Gas Defense Service ceased to be a Medical Department activity.
  
More complete details of training for gas defense will be found in Volume VII, on education and training.

SANITARY SUPERVISION OF GAS FACTORIES b
  
When the manufacture of war gases in this country was decided upon, the necessity of protecting the operatives in factories and filling stations became apparent. Foreseeing the dangers of large-scale, high-speed production of the war gases, the director of the experimental physiological laboratory of the Bureau of Mines, who was in charge of the physiological problems connected

aMaj. S. J. M. Auld, chemical adviser, British military mission, who was of great service in developing methods of training and furnishing information and suggestions, prepared, for use by the training section and in the gas defense schools, the following pamphlets: Gas Warfare: Part I. German Methods of Offensive. Part II. Methods of Defense Against Gas Attacks. Part 111. Methods of Training in Defensive Measures.
b The discussion of this subject is based on a final report by Capt. 11. C. Bradley, S. C. (later major, C. W. S.), who organized the section at the suggestion and under the direction of Dr. Yandell Henderson, Director of the experimental physiological laboratory of the Bureau of Mines, and who was in charge throughout its existence.


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with war gases, suggested adding this activity to the Medical Division of the Bureau of Mines. This recommendation was approved by the Director of the Bureau of Mines of the Department of the Interior and an officer was detailed to the work.29
  
At first it was thought that the cost of protection of operatives in gas manufacturing and filling plants was an essential part of the cost of production and could be so charged off; but in attempting to secure the services of a local physician as a regular inspector of a plant, it was discovered that the Ordnance Department could not arrange for his remuneration or for the payment of hospital fees. At the same time contracts had been made with the manufacturing agents relieving them of all responsibility for protection, and making the Government liable.30 The whole question, therefore, was placed before the Surgeon General of the Army, with a request that protection in these factories be undertaken by the Medical Department. In view of the fact that part of the personnel operating these plants and inspecting the products were soldiers, the Surgeon General undertook to furnish the required protection.
  
The plan for this service provided for the appointment of local physicians as contract surgeons, whose duty it was to hold sick call, give physical examinations at regular intervals, examine applicants for work in the gas plant, and to be available for emergency calls at all hours. Both Army and civilian personnel were treated by these contract surgeons. Arrangements were made with local hospitals to handle cases, and emergency rooms, wards, and offices were provided at the ordnance plants, and equipped by the Supply Division of the Surgeon General's Office.
  
When the field problem of gas-plant protection was undertaken by the Surgeon General, the existing organization in the Bureau of Mines having to do with this work was taken over in full. The factory protection section of the Gas Defense Service thus came into being as an activity of the Surgeon General's Office. and from February to June, 1918, the organization was about as shown in Chart I.
  
The work undertaken by the section fell into the following categories:

1. Research service: (a) On the chronic effects of low-concentration war gases; (b) protective devices; detectors, especial garments. etc.: (c) therapy.
2. Field service: (a) Selection, appointment, and training of contract surgeons and medical officers; (b) installation of emergency ward, dispensary and first-aid equipment; (c) inspection.
3. Educational service: (a) Collection of reports, case histories, and information; (b) preparation of bulletins of information for medical officers and contract surgeons; (c) assignment of problems for solution in laboratories; (d) development of special course of instruction at American University for medical officers, to be used later in factory instruction and assigned to the large plants for duty.
  
This plan involved the building up of a central office in charge of factory protection, whose function it would be to collect and disseminate information, serve in liaison capacity between laboratory and factory, and compile and interpret the case histories from the various medical officers connected with the gas plants.


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The functions of this office rapidly expanded during the spring of 1918 and it became the clearing house for information of a medical character developed in the various collaborating organizations. A medical advisory board,

CHART I.- Factory protection section, gas defense service, Surgeon General's Office

CHART II.- Medical Division, Chemical Warfare Service, July, 1918

consisting of representatives of these laboratories, met in Washington each month to report progress of research and to assign new problems. The organization at the time of transfer to the Chemical Warfare Service and from then to the close of the war was about as indicated in Chart II.


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TRANSFER TO CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE
  
With the transfer of the Gas Defense Service as a whole to the Chemical Warfare Service the work of factory inspection ceased to be a Medical Department activity, although carried on by Medical Corps officers detailed to service with the Chemical Warfare Service.

RESEARCH c

ORGANIZATION IN THE BUREAU OF MINES
  
In February, 1917, the Director of the Bureau of Mines called the attention of the War Department to the already existing technical organization in the bureau for the study of poisonous gases in mines and offered these facilities to the War Department for work on noxious gases in warfare. A meeting was arranged between representatives of the Bureau of Mines and the War College. The War Department accepted the offer of the Bureau of Mines and agreed to support the work in every way possible.
  
The research work thus inaugurated was carried on with the funds of the Bureau of Mines until July 1, 1917, after which funds were supplied by the War Department and the Navy Department.
  
On April 6, 1917, the committee on noxious gases in warfare of the Council of National Defense, in cooperation with the Bureau of Mines, was organized, under the chairmanship of the Director of the Bureau of Mines, and with an officer from each of the following: Ordnance Department, United States Army; Medical Department, United States Army; Bureau of Ordnance, United States Navy; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, United States Navy: department of organic chemistry, Columbia University. New York City: Bureau of Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture. The committee was subsequently reorganized with representatives of the following: Bureau of Mines (director as chairman of committee); science and research division, National Research Council (three members, ex officio); Bureau of Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture; Corps of Engineers, United States Army; Gas Defense Service, Surgeon General's Office: Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, United States Navy (two members); Ordnance Department, United States Army; Bureau of Ordnance, United States Navy.
  
After the literature on gas warfare received from France and England had been digested, definite lines of research were mapped out.
  
It was felt by the committee that the most important work had to do with the development of gas masks for the Army. This meant studying charcoal, soda lime, and the various mechanical parts of the mask. such as the facepiece, elastics, eyepieces, mouthpieces, nose clips, hose, cans, valves. etc.
  
Work was started at the Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, Pa. It was soon deemed advisable to separate the manufacturing from the research end, and this was accomplished with the organization of the Gas Defense Service in the Office of the Surgeon General.
  
The research staff grew so rapidly that sufficient laboratories were not available in Washington or in any other one place. Before long. research work was being carried out at the Bureau of Mines. Pittsburgh. Pa.: the National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio; the Forest Products Laboratory. Madison. Wis.;

c The discussion of this subject is based on the History of the chemical Warfare Service in the United States, by Lieut. Col. W. S. Bancroft, C. W. S., Part I, May 31,1919. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College


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the University of Chicago; the research laboratory of the American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; the Bureau of Chemistry laboratory, Washington, D. C.; the Yale Medical School laboratory, New Haven, Conn.; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.; the Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., and elsewhere. In the summer of 1917 the American Methodist University offered its buildings and grounds, rent free, for research purposes. After the necessary reconstruction, these laboratories became available in September, 1917, and the institution then became known as the American University Experiment Station of the Bureau of Mines. The organization at that time included divisions from the following activities: Gas investigations; defense problems; medical science problems; chemical research; gas mask research; pyrotechnic research; small-scale manufacturing; mechanical research; pharmacological research; administration. Branch laboratories were organized from time to time at the Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; Princeton University, Princeton, N. J.; National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio; Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio; Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn.; Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Bryn Mawr, Pa.; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.; Cornell University, Ithaca and New York City, N. Y.; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Clark University, Worcester, Mass.; Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., Sprague Institute, Chicago, Ill.; and Ordnance Proving Ground, Lakehurst, N, J.

TRANSFER TO CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE

Work was prosecuted in the various laboratories along the lines undertaken by each, under the immediate supervision of the Bureau of Mines and its central laboratory at American University, until July, 1918, when the Chemical Warfare Service was organized. All research activities, personnel, and equipment were then transferred to the new service, along with the Gas Defense Service of the Medical Department.
  
Medical Department commissioned personnel was detailed to the work as requested, and at all times the Surgeon General was in touch with the experiments being conducted. With the organization of the Chemical Warfare Service, as noted, the Medical Department personnel, consisting chiefly of Sanitary Corps officers, was detailed to the new service or recommissioned in the Chemical Warfare Service. The Medical Division of the new service was placed under direction of an officer of the Medical Corps.
  
The maximum research staff was about 1,900, consisting of 1,200 technical men and 700 service assistants. The latter included stenographers, clerks, accountants, purchasing agents, machinists, instrument makers, and others.
  
Certain phases of the research work conducted along the lines indicated, which was of particular interest to the Medical Department, are discussed in Section III.

TRANSFER TO CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE
  
With the organization of the Chemical Warfare Service 22 all personnel, property, obligations, and funds were transferred to the new service, and gas defense ceased to be a function of the Medical Department.


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REFERENCES

(1) Memorandum from The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, November 18, 1915.  On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 153462 (old files).
(2) Second indorsement, the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, November 22, 1915. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 153462 (old files).
(3) Fifth indorsement, The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, December 7, 1915.  On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 153462 (old files).
(4) Reports from observers on gas defense. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 150021 (old files).
(5) Letter from the Quartermaster General to The Adjutant General, February 14, 1917.   On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 156296 (old files).
(6) Second indorsement, February 19, 1917, the Surgeon General to the Chief of Ordnance; third indorsement, Ordnance Office to The Adjutant General, April 7, 1917; first indorsement, the Quartermaster General to the Surgeon General, April 9, 1917; second indorsement, the Surgeon General to the Quartermaster General, April 12, 1917; third indorsement, the Quartermaster General to The Adjutant General, April 14, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 156296 (old files).
(7) Third indorsement, The Adjutant General to the Quartermaster General, the Chief of Ordnance, and the Surgeon General, May 4, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 156296 (old files).
(8) Memorandum from the Acting Chief of Staff to The Adjutant General, May 16, 1917; first indorsement, The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, May 16, 1917. On file, Mail and Record Division, A. G. O., 2598068 (old files).
(9) Orders (S. G. O.), April 7, 1917. Subject: Maj. Llewellyn P. Williamson, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 50163 (old files).
(10) Summary of the work of the Bureau of Mines on Noxious Gases, June 9, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 156296 (old files).
(11) Memorandum from the Surgeon General to the Secretary of War, June 9, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 156296 (old files).
(12) Orders (S. G. O.), August 31, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 201948 (o1d files).
(13) Correspondence, Subject: Personnel for Gas Defense Service. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 201948 (old files). Also: Weekly Reports Field Supply Section, Gas Defense Service, Surgeon General's Office. On file, Weekly Report File, S. G. O.
(14) Letter from the Surgeon General to The Adjutant General, December 20, 1917, pars. 4 and 6. On file, A. G. O., 426.4.
(15) Third indorsement, The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, January 11, 1918 On file, Mail and Record Division, A. G. O., 426.4.
(16) Weekly Reports, Field Supply Section, Gas Defense Service, Surgeon General's Office. On file, Weekly Report File, S. G. O.
(17) Weekly Reports, Field Service Section, Gas Defense Service. On file, Weekly Report File, S. G. O.
(I8) Letter from officer in charge, Field Service Supply Section, Gas Defense, to the Surgeon General, November 17, 1917. On file, Mail and Record Division, A. G. O., 426.4  (E. E.).
(19) Memorandum, War Department, to the Secretary of War, Novemiber 20, 1917; approval by the Secretary of War, November 20, 1917. On file, A. G. 0. 426.4 (E. E.).
(20) Weekly Report, Field Supply Section, Gas Defense Service, March 9, 1918. On file, Weekly Report File, S. G. O.
(21) Letter, from officer in charge, Gas Defense Service, to Surgeon General, October 5, 1917. Subject: Overseas Repair Section. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 210189 (old files). Confidential Order No. 92, War Department, pars. 7 and 14, October 11, 1917. On file, Confidential Orders, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.
(22) G. O. No. 62, W. D.. June 28, 1918.
(23) Letter from The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, July 24, 1917. Subject: Instructors at the School of Musketry. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 193166 (old files).
(24) First indorsement, from the Surgeon General, United States Army, to The Adjutant General, August 2, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 193166 (old files).
(25) Memorandum for The Adjutant General of the Army from the Chief of Staff, October 3, 1917. Subject: Personnel and material for instruction in gas defense. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(26) Memorandum for the Chief of Staff from Col. J. J. Bradley, General Staff, Acting Director of Training, January 21, 1918. On file, Chemical Warfare Service, File No. 353.5.
(27) S. O. No. 48, W. D., pars. 258 and 259, February 27, 1918.
(28) Memorandum for the Chief of Staff from Col. D. W. Ketcham, War Plans Division, Acting Assistant Chief of Service, General Staff, from Acting Director, W. P. D.,  A. A. C. of  S., April 6, 1918. Subject: Gas Training. On file, Chemical Warfare
Service, 353.9. A. G. S. O. 3, C. W. S. 353.5
276.
(29) Order, Bureau of Mines, November 27, 1917, creating the Medical Division, and placing Dr. H. C. Bradley in charge of sanitary supervision of gas factories. Copy incorporated in final report (Factory Protection in the War Gas Plants) of Major Bradley. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(30) Indemnity clause in contract for construction and operation of gas plant on cost-plus basis. Copy included in Major Bradley's report on Factory Protection in the War Gas Plants. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.