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Appendix

Contents

APPENDIX

812

INTER-ALLIED GAS CONFERENCES a

PROGRAM OF INTER-ALLIED GAS CONFERENCE, PARIS, SEPTEMBER 17-19, 1917 PHYSIOLOGY

1. Discussion of the methods used for the determination of the offensive value of various substances and their adaptability to military use.
(a) Estimation of toxicity in general.
(b) Estimation of intensity of suffocating gases.
(c) Estimation of intensity and penetration of poisonous gases.
2. Discussion of the measures which should in the future serve as a guide in the physiological study of the offensive material.
(a) Discussion of the characteristics of the most importance which each new substance of this character ought to possess and of the relative importance of them.
(b) The permeability of the enemy mask, either through the tissue of the mask or through the box.
(c) Lessening of protection by the lowering of the absorbing power of the charcoal.
(d) Insidiousness of gas as a factor.
(e) Persistence of gas as a factor.
(f) Action of substances either on the protective apparatus or on tissue which is not protected.
3. Discussion on the various results produced by the new gas used by the enemy (dichlorethylsulphide).
(a) General toxicity.
(b) Effect on the lungs.
(c) Cutaneous lesions.
(d) Relation of the different symptoms.
(e) Respective intensity of the different actions.

INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION

1. Protection of the parts of the body not covered by the mask against the action of dichlorethylsulphide.
(a) Protection by special clothing of an impermeable nature; different agents which can be used to make
 clothing impermeable to this gas.
(b) Disinfection of the clothing and other objects affected by the gas.
(c) Cleansing of the skin after affection by the gas.
2. The methods of determining the absorbent value of charcoal.
(a) The different systems and their advantages and disadvantages.
3. The question of the protection of the horse.
(a) What must be the protective power of the apparatus:
1. During rest.
 2. During work.
(b) Demonstration of the method of studying the question of horse protection.

COLLECTIVE PROTECTION

1. Collective protection against dichlorethylsulphide.
(a) The problem of its detection.
(b) The problem of the protection of dugouts.
(c) The problem of neutralizing the liquid on or in the ground.
2. Protection of large dugouts.
(a) Supply of pure filtered air for large dugouts.

a Appendices Nos. II, 35, 64, History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. I, 113, l9, 307, respectively. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.


813

THERAPEUTIC AND CLINICAL

1. The clinical phenomena observed in those poisoned by dichlorethylsulphide.
(a) Relative importance of various symptoms.
(b) Variation of the importance of different symptoms in accordance with atmospheric conditions.
(c) Nature, cause, and frequency of delayed symptoms.
(d) Existence of heart symptoms and their significance as to prognosis.
(e) Determinination as to the cause of the symptoms, whether due to the liquid or the vapor.
(f) Nature and seriousness of symptoms in horses.
2. Remedies employed in the treatment of those gassed with dichlorethylsulphide.
3. The employment of oxygen inhalations.
(a) Its value in poisoning by suffocating gases.
(b) Its value in poisoning by CO.
(c) The different methods of administering oxygen, with reference to place (first-aid posts, ambulances, etc.).

The method which was followed was to have the subject under consideration presented by one of the delegates, after which there was a general discussion by those present.

(Signed)
JAMES ROBB CHURCH,
Lieutenant Colonel, M. C.

PROGRAM OF THE SECOND INTEHALLIED CONFERENCE ON GAS WARFARE, PARIS, MARCH 1-5, 1918

PHYSIOLOGY

First session (9.30 a. m. March 1)
The physiological properties of substances employed by the enemy.
I. Substances formerly used.
II. New mixtures.
III. New fillings.
IV. New substances.
Physiological action observed in the field and in the laboratory.
The condition of the blood during gas poisoning.

Second session (2.30 p. m. March 1)
Methods of measuring the physiological activity of various products.
The use of volatile anesthetics for the respiratory membrane in the event of penetration of the mask.

Third session (9.15 a. m. March 2)

The physiological properties of the principal series of substances studied in France since the last conference.

CHEMISTRY

The permeability of the German mask.
The use of chemicals in shell and bombs.

Fourth session (2.30 p. m. March 2)
The manufacture and the properties of various aggressive substances.
The preparation and properties of various arsenic compounds, especially of monophenyldichlorarsine.
The preparation and stabilization of acrolein.

Fifth session (9.30 a. m. March 3)
The preparation and stabilization of acrolein (continued).
The use of toxic or irritant smokes.
The preparation of bromacetone.
The preparation and properties of phenylbromacetonitrite.
The preparation and properties of cyanogen chloride.


814

PROTECTION

Sixth session (2.30 p. m. March 3)
A new protective apparatus in use in the French Army: The A. R. S. mask.
On the degree of protection made necessary by the enemy use of phosgene in projectors.
Protection against particulate clouds.
The protection of the hands and body against dichlorethylsulphide by means of special clothing.
The removal of dichlorethylsulphide from clothing.

Seventh session (9.30 a. m. March 4)
Feeding tubes for masks.
A respirator for individual protection against carbon monoxide.
The protection of dugouts against gas; ventilation.
On the possibility of employing a single neutralizing solution.

THERAPEUTICS

Eighth session (2.30 p. m. March 4)
Chronic symptoms of gas poisoning.
Diphenylchlorarsine poisoning.
The after effects of gas poisoning.
The efficacy of oxygen treatment in cases of gas poisoning.
The medical treatment of gas poisoning.

Ninth session (9.30 a. m. March 5)
The therapeutic value of atropine, digitalin, calcium chloride, etc.
Personal observations on the symptomatology and therapeutics of dichlorethylsulphide cases.
The application, at the front, of Professor Wolf's method for the treatment of gassed cases.

PROGRAM OF THE THIRD INTERALLIED CONFERENCE ON GAS WARFARE, PARIS, OCTOBER 25-30, 1918

THE ORGANIZATION OF ALLIED GAS SERVICES

First session (3.30 p. m. October 25)
Speech by General Ozil.
Interallied relations since March 1, 1918, and the work of the permanent interallied secretariats.
The collection and classification of documents.
The present status of chemical services in America.

PRODUCTS EMPLOYED BY THE ENEMY

Second session (9.30 a. m., October 26)
Enemy use of gas on the British front since March, 1918.
Products employed by the enemy since March 1, 1918; a variation in yellow cross shell fillings.
The physiological properties of substances used by the enemy.
Toxicological examination of the viscera of gas casualties.

Third session (2.30 p. m., October 26)
The general nature of cases of yperite poisoning in the British forces.
Blood pressure in yperite poisoning.
Modifications in the blood during yperite poisoning.


815

Histological observations made in fatal cases of yperite poisoning.
On the effects produced in the field by chlorarsine compounds contained in blue and yellow cross I. shell.
The pathology of phosgene poisoning.
Lesions occurring on horses exposed to gas-particularly yperite.

PROTECTION

Fourth session (9 a. m., October 27)
The detection of yperite in the air, on the ground, and in water.
A method for the detection of yperite on the ground and in the air; the use of yperite detectors.
The value of the protection given by the A. R. S. mask.
The military value of the A. R. S. mask; the length of time that it can be worn.
The production and properties of better charcoals for respirators.
A comparison of the activity equations of the new German charcoal and the allied charcoals.
The French charcoal.
The protection of horses.

Fifth session (2.30 p. m., October 27)
Defense against yperite.
Protection against yperite.
Means for protecting the skin against yperite; the possibility of their use in the field.
Disinfection of objects contaminated by yperite.
Ventilators and filtering apparatus for dugouts.
Protection against carbon monoxide during firing.
The protection of tank crews.

PHYSIOLOGY

Sixth session (9 a. m., October 28)
The action of lacrymators and vesicants on the eye.
Specific sensibility to vesicants.
The measurements of vesicant power.
The transformation of yperite within the organism; the physiological action of its disintegration products.
A study of new substances prepared for offensive use.
The secretion of arsenic by animals gassed with ethyldichlorarsine.

CHEMISTRY

Seventh session (2.30 p. m., October 28)
Physical constants of certain gases used in chemical warfare.
Gas camouflage from the laboratory point of view.
The production of particulate clouds by bombs or shell.
The pulverization of special liquids.
Experimental work.
The motion of a liquid-filled projectile.
Recent work on yperite.
The quantitative determination of yperite.
The action of different oxidizing agents on yperite.

Eighth session (9 a. m., October 29)
The physicochemical properties of solutions of yperite in various solvents.
The physiological properties of solutions of yperite in various solvents.
Progress achieved in France in the manufacture of yperite.
The use of phenyldichlorarsine as an offensive substance.
The preparation of phenyldichlorarsine.
Researches on the arsine series.
Progress achieved in France in the manufacture of arsines.


816

Ninth session (2.30 p. m., October 29)
The quantitative determination of diphenvyililorarsine and of diphenylamine-chlorarsine in particulate and vapor form, and its relation to penetration of the German mask.
The alcoholization of arsines.
On cyanogen compounds, the use of cyanogen chloride and bromide
Orthonitrobenzylbromide.
Homomartonite and semimartonite.
Details on the manufacture of comite.
Carbon monoxide as an offensive substance in chemical warfare.
The permeability of the German mask; protection given by the new German respirator.

THERAPEUTICS

Tenth session (9 a. m., October 30)

Demonstration of a portable apparatus for the administration of oxygen.
Demonstration of apparatus used for the administration of oxygen in the French army.
The administration of oxygen in cases of gas poisoning.
The physiology of oxygen treatment and blood letting in cases of gas poisoning.
The therapeutic effect of blood letting, and of the injection of an isotonic, saline solution in animals gassed with lethal concentrations of cholrine, chlorpicrin, and phosgene.
The treatment of phosgene poisoning.
The dangers of general anesthesia in gassed men.
Respiratory exercises as treatment for the pulmonary after-effects of gas poisoning.
The treatment of yperite burns.
Therapeutic materials in use in the French army.