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Appendix

Contents

APPENDIX

804

GAS DEFENSIVE ORGANIZATION OF THE BRITISH ARMIES IN FRANCE a

The general organization of the gas services as a directorate under general staff is shown in the attached diagram (A) [lacking].

Both the offensive and defensive services are under the director of gas services and occupy the same headquarters at G. H. Q.

General organization of defensive service.- The principle of the organization is to have one or more officers of the gas services attached to the general staff at each headquarters in the chain of command down to divisions, who are responsible for advising the various branches of the staff on all questions connected with gas defense, and also for the necessary departmental administration.

By this means a uniform policy with regard to gas defense is maintained throughout the armies and no fresh instructions are required by units when they are transferred from one formation to another.

The full establishment at each headquarters is given in Appendix 1, and it is summarized in the following diagram (B) [lacking].

Under the new establishment all officers are transferred to the Royal Engineers in order to unify the service and to facilitate transfers to and from special brigade, R. E., so that all officers on the defensive side may have a thorough acquaintance with offensive methods.

In choosing officers for the service the three main qualifications sought for are:
(1) Experience in the line.
(2) Special knowledge of chemistry.
(3) Teaching experience.

Of these, (2) is not essential for a divisional gas officer, but it is a great advantage, and without it he can not be promoted to be a corps or army chemical adviser, for whom a university training in chemistry is essential. Officers selected are transferred to the special brigade, R. E., and after three months' work in the line with a special company engaged in gas offensive operations are considered as vacancies on the defensive side as they occur.

The general scope of the work of chemical advisers and gas officers is:
(1) Advisory.
(2) Administrative.
(3) Instructional.
  (4) Inspectional.

Their duties will be considered in detail at each headquarters.
 
  At General Headquarters.- The director of gas services acts as adviser to the general staff and to other branches of the staff on all questions connected with gas defense. In addition he is responsible for the administration of the gas services, appointments being made on his recommendation.

He is assisted by the A. D. G. S. (B) and the D. A. D. G. S. The A. G. D. S. (B) is responsible for correspondence with the various branches of the staff, and with the chair man of the antigas committee and chemical adviser, G. H. A., home forces. The D. A. D. G. S. is responsible for personnel and for keeping records of:
(1) Information about chemical substances in gas warfare.
(2) Information about antigas appliances.
(3) Hostile gas and gas shell attacks.

Relations with war office with regard to antigas appliances.- At the war office the D. G. A. M. S. is responsible for the protection of the troops against gas. The antigas committee, consisting of chemists, physiologists, and members of the A. M. S., advises him on technical points connected with antigas appliances. The chairman of the antigas committee controls the factories engaged in making antigas appliances, also the antigas laboratory at Millbank, where the necessary experimental work is carried out. Questions relating to the protection

a Appendix No. 6, History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. 1, 100, Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.


805

of the troops in France are referred by the D. G. S. to the D. G. A. M. S., or his deputy, the chairman of the antigas committee. Questions of policy are settled by agreement. between the D. G. A. M. S. and D. G. S.
 
  Relations with war office with regard to training of drafts and reinforcements.- From time to time recommendations are made by the commander in chief to the war office as to the home training necessary for drafts and reinforcements.

The chemical adviser, G. H. Q., home forces, advises the general staff on questions of gas defense. He is in constant touch with the D. G. S. in order to make the home training coincide as closely as possible with the training in France.
Physiological adviser.- A physiologist with military experience is attached to the H. Q. of the gas directorate to act as liaison officer between the D. G. M. S. and the D. G. S. and the physiologists working in England.

This officer will:
(a) Advise the D. G. S. on physiological points.
(b) Collect all medical reports and observations both from workers in the B. E. F., at home, and in allied countries, bearing on the physiology and pathology of gas cases for the D. G. M. S.
(c) Report to D. G. M. S. all developments of gas warfare as they bear on medical work and report to D. G. S. all development of medical work on gas cases that have a bearing on gas warfare.
(d) As far as possible, cooperate with consultants and be available at the request of the D. G. M. S. for any special research or investigation in treatment, or as an adviser if required.

Meetings of chemical advisers at G. H. Q.- Meetings of chemical advisers of armies, L. of C., cavalry corps, and the director and assistant director of the central laboratory are held fortnightly at G. H. Q. to discuss questions that arise with regard to the organization of gas defense and the protective appliances. A copy of the minutes of one of these meetings is given in Appendix I [not attached].