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Contents

APPENDIX

797


A SUGGESTED ORGANIZATION OF THE GAS SERVICE OF THE AMERICAN ARMY

[Prepared for the chief of staff, American Expeditionary Forces, a by James Robb Church, major, M. C.)

1. Pursuant to verbal orders, I submit the following scheme for the general organization of a gas service for our Army.
2. Of necessity, the report does not deal with final details under many of the sublseads. It is not believed that this would be practical, and the appointment of suitable heads of subordinate sections should carry with it the responsibility of the organization, both as to personnel and material, for the competent execution of the duties falling to that section.
3. In outlining this organization, both French and British methods have been taken into consideration and, where deemed applicable, adopted for our own use.
4. It seems to me of first importance to realize that with us the service will be under different conditions from either French or British. The former are operating mainly on their own territory, and the British separated by only a short distance from their central seat of government. For either of them, therefore, the correlation of the field force and that of the interior is a relatively simple matter. In our own case the service will lie on both sides of the Atlantic, and it seems important to determine where the active, dominant authority should lie.
5. Inasmuch as all orders or plans emanating from the United States must be based on reports from this side, it is believed that final decision and authority should lie in France; that is, with the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces. The section of the service operating in the United States should not only cooperate with the section here, but go further and subordinate its views to actual experience gained at the front.
6. I doubt if even now the majority of people understand the importance of chemical warfare by poisonous gases and allied special methods of destruction in modern warfare, or the infinity of detail which is requisite to use them in offense or to protect against attacks with them. It is certain that these methods must be counted as established weapons in modern warfare and a knowledge of them acquired not only for the present conflict but for wars which may yet come.Without this precise knowledge and intelligent preparation, no modern army is an effective offensive force nor can it withstand attack by these methods.
7. We have now the advantage of two years' experience of our Allies, and if we profit by this our casualties from this source should be limited and our offensive strength equal to theirs plus what we can add by our own ingenuity.
8. Due to the highly technical character of this form of warfare, a special organization is as essential, perhaps more so, as that required for the existing special services-the Ordnance, Artillery, Signal Corps, or Medical Corps. It is a service apart from others and yet drawing into its completed unity elements from many of the others; so the French have built it up and so the British.
While the service must be made up of personnel drawn from the different arms and corps of the service, it is not believed that the best results will eventuate from assigning definitely this special work in whole or part to any particular arm or corps.
It is logical that this work should be directed by a head drawn from the arm or corps most interested, but this arm or corps should not be directly charged with the carrying out of it nor assume the responsibility. The general responsibility should focus in the director of gas service.
9. The diagram appended shows the general outline of the service as proposed and the relation as to orders and reports.
It is not practicable or necessary to indicate the more subordinate personnel; this is a matter to be decided by the section heads, subject to the approval of the director of gas service.
The following discusses, in more detail, the elements shown in the scheme:

a Appendix No. 5, History of Chemical Warfare Service, American Expeditionary Forces, Vol. 1, 87. Copy on file, Historical Division, Army War College.


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10. The service shall consist of a director of gas service at the head of an operative and advisory personnel as hereinafter described.
(a) For the offensive use of modern chemical methods of warfare, there shall be a number of specially trained companies under the command of the director of gas service, and known as the "gas brigade" and officered in the usual manner.
(b) For advisory purposes there shall be a chain of officers of the gas service, under the command of the director of gas service, attached to the staff at each headquarters from that of the commander in chief down to divisional headquarters. By this means an efficient and uniform policy with regard to gas questions can be maintained throughout the entire expeditionary force, and therefore no fresh instructions are required by units when they are transferred from one formation to another. Below the divisional unit there shall be specially designated officers and noncommissioned officers of the regular formations, whose additional duty will be to assist the commanding officer of that unit in carrying out gas defensive measures.
11. While the final responsibility of all acts rests with the commanding officer of each formation, yet it shall be incumbent on him to request and consider the advice of his accredited gas officer; that advice should only be disregarded with due consideration, and the grounds for this disregard immediately reported to the commanding officer of the next higher formation.
12. The commanding officer of a unit to which a gas officer is assigned shall report any inefficiency of the gas officer to the superior officer of the gas service and to his own superior officer, who will take appropriate steps to bring the same to the attention of the director of gas service.
13. All gas officers shall be furnished with and wear an appropriate brassard designated by the director of gas service.
14. Duties of the director of gas service.-
(a) There shall be a director of gas service (D. G. S.), with the rank of a general officer.
(b) The director of gas service shall be in command of all officers and other ranks assigned to the gas service, whether for offensive, protective, or investigation purposes.
(c) The director of gas service shall sit on the general staff of the commander in chief of the expeditionary force and there give advice on all questions connected with chemical warfare, both offensive and defensive.
(d) The director of gas service shall request the assignment of such officers and enlisted men as he needs for the administration of his department. He shall have authority to decide the fitness of any officer for the duties to be performed in his organizations. Promotions or changes within his department shall be made on his recommendation.
(e) After the adoption of any general plan or policy in regard to chemical warfare by the commander in chief and general staff in consultation with the director of gas service, the latter shall be responsible for the carrying out of such plans and policies by the means of the gas service organization.
(f) The director of gas service, with the advice and consent of the commander in chief and general staff, shall transmit to the home director of gas service (H. D. G. S.) the final decision on all questions concerning chemical warfare, both offensive and defensive. The closest harmony and cooperation between the director of gas service and the home director of gas service should exist, but if differences of opinion arise the final decision must perforce be in the hands of the commander in chief of the expeditionary force through the director of gas service.
(g) Such investigation of problems as the director of gas service desires carried out at home shall be promptly done by and through the home director of gas service.
(h) All supplies requested by the director of gas service shall be furnished as soon as possible by the home director of gas service.
(i) All suggestions of whatever nature received by the director of gas service from the home director of gas service shall receive his immediate attention and, if concurred in, be adopted.
15. Duties of the deputy director of gas service (D. D. G. S.).- (a) There shall be a deputy director of gas service with the rank of a field officer.
(b) The deputy director of gas service will be second in command to the director of gas service in the gas service and shall aid and assist the director of gas service in carrying out his duties.


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(c) In the absence of the director of gas service, the deputy director of gas service will perform all the duties assigned to the director of gas service.
(d) The deputy director of gas service shall sit on the general staff but, when his superior officer is present, will have no decisive voice, although his opinion should be requested and freely given.
16. Duties of the assistant director of gas service (A. D. G. S. (D)) defensive.-
(a) There shall be an assistant director of gas service for the defensive and protective side of chemical warfare, of the rank of a field officer.
(b) The assistant director of gas service (defensive) will rank next to the deputy director of gas service in the gas service. In the prolonged absence of the deputy director of gas service, or the prolonged adoption of the duties of the director of gas service by the deputy director of gas service, the assistant director of gas service (defensive) will fulfill the duties of the deputy director of gas service.
(c) The assistant director of gas service (defensive) will sit on the general staff in case of prolonged absence of the director of gas service or deputy director of gas service on the invitation of the commander in chief.
(d) The assistant director of gas service (defensive) shall be stationed at the headquarters of the gas service and assist the director of gas service in formulating all defensive measures and policies and shall be in direct charge of the work of the chemical advisers situated at the headquarters of the various formations of the expeditionary forces. He shall supervise the training in gas defensive and see that the orders of the director of gas service given therefor are uniformly carried out in all formations of the expeditionary forces.
(e) The assistant director of gas service (defensive) will establish and have direct charge of a base school for the teaching of officers and noncommissioned officers who will be assigned to the gas service, as well as such other officers as it may from time to time appear advisable to instruct. For this purpose he shall be provided with appropriate personnel and equipment.
17. Duties of chemical adviser of the army (C. A. of A.).- (a)There shall be a chemical adviser of the army (C. A. of A.), attached to each army headquarters, with the rank of major. He must be a man technically conversant with chemistry.
(b) The chemical adviser of the army shall sit on the army staff and give advice on all questions connected with chemical warfare.
(c) As an officer of the gas service he shall be departmentally under the assistant director of gas service (defensive) at general headquarters and will deal with all technical matters with the chemical advisers of the corps and division as the ranking officer of the gas service within the army.
(d) Under the general staff at army headquarters the duties of the chemical adviser of the army shall be:
(aa) To exercise general supervision over the training in antigas measures of all troops included in the strength of the army or serving in the army area.
(bb) To advise the staff on all questions connected with defensive measures against gas and on all technical matters concerned with the characteristics of the materials used in chemical warfare.
(cc) To advise on technical points connected with the offensive use of gas and smoke, except in ragard to operations conducted by the special brigade. He may suggest the practicability of using the special brigade, but the commanding officer of the special brigade attached to the army should give his own advice on this subject; there should be the closest cooperation between the chemical adviser of the army and the commanding officer of the special brigade in those matters where their respective functions approach each other; neither, however, has authority over the other.
(dd) Close cooperation should exist between the chemical adviser of the army and the commanding officer of the artillery, and the chemical adviser of the army should be consulted as to the best chemical means of attaining an object; i. e., the gas to be used, the number of shells to be required, and the effects of terrain and weather. Therefore he should be invited to be present at the time of preparation of programs for the artillery whenever the use of gas shell is to be considered.
(ee) To advise and cooperate with the supply officer of the gas service in the reserve stock issue and distribution of all gas appliances needed by the army; to draw such supplies as he shall need to meet the requirements adopted by the gas service, requests for additional supplies to be forwarded through the proper channels to the director of gas service.


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(ff) To collect and transmit to the laboratory, for examination, all kinds of enemy chemical appliances and projectiles. To insure that this latter duty is properly and efficiently executed, he shall have authority to inspect all captured appliances, etc., at dumps and elsewhere, and to forward what is, in his opinion, worthy of examination.
(gg) To investigate and report both to his staff and to the director of gas service (through the assistant director of gas service (defensive) ), on all cloud gas and important gas shell attacks by the enemy.
(hh) To cooperate with the intelligence department in collecting from prisoners and other sources information relating to enemy gas warfare and to the effects of our own gas attacks.
18. Should an antigas training school be required in the army organization, it shall be the duty of the chemical adviser of the army to direct the school, for which purpose the necessary personnel and equipment shall be furnished him.
19. Dutties of chemical adviser of the corps (C. A. of C.).- (a) There shall be a chemical adviser of the corps (C. A. of C.) attached to each corps headquarters, with the rank of captain.
(b) The chemical adviser of the corps shall sit on the corps staff and give advice on all questions pertaining to chemical warfare.
(c) As an officer of the gas service, he will be departmentally under the chemical adviser of the army, and finally the director of gas service at headquarters. He shall deal with all technical matters with the chemical advisers of the divisions as the ranking officer of the gas service within the corps.
(d) The further duties of the chemical adviser of the corps shall be analogous to those described in sections (aa) to (hh), paragiaph No. 17, of this document, applicable to the chemical adviser of the army.
20. Duties of the chemical adviser of the division (C. A. of D.).- (a) There shall be a chemical adviser of the division (C. A. of D.) attached to each divisional headquarters, with the rank of captain. He shall be a man technically conversant with chemistry.
(b) The chemical adviser of the division shall sit on the divisional staff and give advice on questions pertaining to chemical warefare.
(c) As an officer of the gas service he shall be departmentally under the chemical adviser of corps and, finally, the director of gas service at headquarters.
(d) Under the staff at divisional headquarters he shall-
(aa) Exercise general supervision, over the training in antigas measures of all troops included in the strength of the division.
(bb) Be in executive command of the divisional antigas school and personnel attached to the school for duty and be responsible for the special antigas training carried out there, for which purpose he shall be furnished adequate personnel and equipment.
(cc) Advise the divisional staff on all questions affecting the protection of the troops against hostile chemical warfare, the location of alarm devices, and the ordering and counter-ordering of gas alert, etc.
(dd) Advise and cooperate with all commanders of units within the division on all protective measures against hostile chemical warfare and in their utilization of battalion gas officers and company gas noncommissioned officers, according to the manner adopted by the gas service.
(ee) Direct and assist the battalion gas officers and the company gas noncommissioned officers in the establishment and execution of the gas training and gas protective measures adopted by the gas service.
(ff) Cooperate with and advise the appropriate supply officer of the gas service of the probable needs of the division as to reserve and distribution of gas appliances. On his order such stores shall be issued by the supply officer as will meet the requirements adopted by the gas service. Requests for additional material shall be forwarded by the chemical adviser of the division, through the proper channels, to the director of gas service.
(gg) The chemical adviser of the division shall be advised daily by the Medical Corps of the number and location of all gassed cases. This information shall be reported through the intermediate channels of the gas service to the director of gas service.
(hh) The chemical adviser of the division shall be immediately notified of any gas attack so that he may arrive on the spot as soon as possible for the purpose of investigation and to give advice. This information shall be reported through the intermediate channels of the gas service to the director of gas service.


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(ii) He shall investigate and report to the divisional staff and to the chemical adviser of corps all enemy attacks made with the aid of chemical methods.
(e) The position of the chemical adviser of the division is one of great importance, as he forms the direct line between the gas service and the units, and the gas defense of the division depends greatly on the energy and ability of its chemical adviser.
(f) It is imperative that the chemical adviser of the division shall inspect units both in and out of line as soon after an attack as possible. On these inspections he should be accompanied whenever possible by the battalion gas officer and gas noncommissioned officer of the unit visited. He should investigate the state of gas training and inspect antigas appliances.
(g) He shall be assisted in his duties by the necessary personnel and equipment. This would probably consist of a lieutenant and three noncommissioned officers, aside from the personnel necessary to conduct the divisional school, which would require a lieutenant in charge and six noncommissioned officers and four fatigue men; the equipment would consist of an office and office appliances, a lecture tent, a store tent, and a system of training trenches.
21. Battalion gas officer (B. G. O.).- (a) An officer in each battalion, or corresponding unit of the special service, shall be designated as the battalion gas officer (B. G. O.) by the commanding officer of the regiment, on recommendation of the battalion commander.
(b) The battalion gas officer should, if possible, be a senior lieutenant; he must have taken a course of instruction at an antigas training school.
(c) The battalion commanding officer shall be responsible for the proper fulfillment of the duties of the battalion gas officer and, therefore, for the protection of his men; the commanding officer will see that the necessary orders are issued so that the requirements of the gas service can be efficiently met by the battalion gas officer. The fact that there is a specially designated battalion gas officer does not absolve the commanding officer of the battalion for failure or neglect in the carrying out of the required antigas measures. (d) The battalion gas officer will receive directions as to the proper methods of training the troops and the use of protection and of antigas appliances from the chemical adviser of the division. He will, whenever practicable, accompany the chemical adviser of the division on rounds of inspection.
(e) The battalion gas officer will advise with the battalion commanding officer and the chemical adviser of the division as to the required amount of time to be devoted to antigas drill and see that the company noncommissioned officers efficiently discharge their duties.
(f) The battalion gas officer will, in conjunction with the company noncommissioned officers, inspect the training and drill of the men and the antigas appliances issued, and report any faults or deficiencies to both the battalion commanding officer and to the chemical adviser of the division.
(g) The battalion gas officer shall requisition of the chemical adviser of the division any antigas stores required; immediately on the approval of the chemical adviser of the division, the supplies so requisitioned shall be issued by the supply officer of the gas service.
(h) The battalion gas officer shall collect as much information as possible during and immediately after an attack by the enemy, in which chemical methods of warfare were used against his unit. He should make and send a report of such information, as soon as possible, to the chemical adviser of the division, together with the written notes of the company non-commissioned officers, as well as to the battalion commander.
22. Company gas noncommissioned officers.- (a) In each company there should be several noncommissioned officers who have attended a course in the antigas training school. The best fitted of these men shall be designated as company gas noncommissioned officers by the battalion commanding officer on the advice of the battalion gas officer. They shall perform special duties in regard to training the men in the use of their protective and other antigas appliances and in the store and care of the same, as may be delegated to them by the battalion gas officer.
23. Chemical adviser, lines of communication. (C. A. of L. C.).- (a) There shall be a chemical adviser of the lines of communication of the rank of major, attached to headquarters, lines of communication; in the gas service he shall rank equal to the chemical adviser of the Army. He shall sit on the staff of the lines of communication.
(b) The chemical adviser, lines of communication, shall:


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(aa) Supervise any antigas school established at base depot or in the lines of communication area at which all drafts and reinforcements are issued and equipped with respirators and given a short course of instruction in their use before proceeding to army areas.
(bb) Supervise and control the work carried out in connection with the repair of antigas appliances at the bases.
(cc) Advise the director of ordnance service and tie supply officer of the gas service and the base along the lines of communication in all technical matters concerned with the storage and turnover of gas-service supplies.
(dd) Direct the protection of the personnel handling lethal and lacrymatory shell, gas cylinders, etc., on lines of communication.
(ee) Satisfy himself with the efficiency of the antigas equipment of units arriving in France.
24. The director of gas service may establish a chain of chemical advisers in the lines of communication corresponding to the chain proceeding down through the armies to the divisions, provided, in his opinion, the need for the same should arise.
25. Assistant director of gas service (offensive) (A. D. G. S.).- (a) There shall be an assistant director of gas service (offensive) for the offensive side of chemical warfare of the rank of field officer.
(b) The assistant director of gas service (offensive) will be stationed at the headquarters of the gas service and assist the director of gas service in formulating all offensive measures and policies and will be in administrative charge of the special gas brigade.
(c) He will make himself thoroughly conversant with all the special offensive methods of the Allies and the enemy and shall be in constant consultation with the research department in an attempt to improve the effectiveness and scope of the chemical methods of warfare.
(d) The assistant director of gas service (offensive) will detail companies of the special gas brigade, under the command of a major, to the various armies, there to give advice on and to specially carry out such offensive measures as the army staff desire. The major in charge of special companies shall work in close cooperation with the chemical adviser of the army, but neither shall be subordinate to the other. It is advisable, whenever practicable, that their respective departments be in close proximity. Furthermore, there must always be the closest cooperation between the commanding officer of the special companies and the artillery commander and frequent consultation one with the other should occur. When infantry operations are to form a part of the program, consultation with the infantrv com- mander should always take place. Only by such consultation will it be possible to make the fullest use of these new methods of warfare.
26. Director of the laboratory (D. L.).- (a) There shall be a director of the laboratory, with the rank of field officer.
(b) The director of the laboratory shall be in complete charge of all laboratories established in France under the control of the director of gas service.
(c) He shall be given complete authority and means, both personnel and material, to establish and maintain research laboratories of the highest efficiency for studying all appliances used in chemical warfare and attempt to increase their scope and efficiency. He will also test the protective apparatus and pass on its good and satisfactory character and condition.
(d) There shall be a physiologist conversant with the theories and mechanics of respiration attached to the laboratory.
(e) There shall at all times be the closet cooperation between the director of the laboratory and other members of the staff of the gas service. The laboratories shall be available for the immediate investigatiol of any new problems that may develop.
27. Intelligence officer.- (a) There shall be attached to the staff of the director of gas service an intelligence officer, whose duties shall be to collect from the general intelligence service the information specially pertinent to chemical warfare. He shall correlate all such information and from time to time make reports to the director of gas service. He shall, when occasion arises, aid in special investigation of prisoners. He must be thoroughly conversant with the German language.
28. Liaison officer.- There shall be attached to the staff of the director of gas service one or more liaison officers in order that full information concerning the methods of our Allies in chemical warfare can be obtained. The director of gas service shall be free to appoint liaison officers to he permanently assigned to various gas departments of our Allies; in return he shall welcome the assignment of such officers to our department.


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29. Supply officer.- (a) There shall be a supply officer, with such personnel as may be deemed necessary.
(b) The supply officer shall have station at the base, or one of the bases, and shall draw, as far as possible, all supplies needed for the gas service of the expeditionary force from a similar officer with the home gas service or from an appropriate officer with the American Expeditionary Forces.
(c) There shall be a gas supply officer with each army and with each division of an army, and supplies shall be drawn by each unit from the one above it, thus providing a supply by "echelon." This to be effective provided it does not conflict with existing methods of supply.
30. Adjutant, duties of.- (a) The duties of the adjutant shall be the general supervision of records and such other duties as may be assigned to him by the director of gas service.
31. Meteorological service.- (a) The meteorological service should not be a part of the gas service, but it should work in the closest harmony and cooperation with it. The closest affiliation should exist with the meteorological services of the English and French.

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(b) The use of gas is absolutely dependent on the direction and strength of the wind and on its probable duration. Expert advice on meteorological conditions should be immediately available to all officers of the gas service. Therefore, this service should have its headquarters at the general headquarters, ani forecasts should be issued three times a day to the gas headquarters, to armies, to corps, and to divisions.
(c) A meteorological officer should be established at each army headquarters, and a series of meteorological stations at situated points along the line.
(d) Warning should be sent to each formation when the wind enters a dangerous quarter as regards gas attacks by the enemy. The forecasts should contain special reference tol surface winds.

JAMES ROBB CHURCH, Major, M. C.
HEADQUARTFRS AMERICAN- EXPEDITIONARY FORCES,
July 26, 1917.