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The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War, Volume XIII

Books and Documents

THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE WORLD WAR

VOLUME XIII

PART ONE

PHYSICAL RECONSTRUCTION AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

By

MAJ. A. G. CRANE, S. C.

PART TWO

THE ARMY NURSE CORPS

By

JULIA C. STIMSON

Superintendent, Army Nurse Corps

PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF

MAJ. GEN. M. W. IRELAND

The Surgeon General

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1927


LETTER OF TRANSMISSION

I have the honor to submit herewith Volume XIII of the history of the MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE WORLD WAR. The volume submitted comprises two parts, the first being entitled "PHYSICAL RECONSTRUCTION AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION"; the second, "THE ARMY NURSE CORPS."


MERRITTE W. IRELAND,

Major General, the Surgeon General.

The SECRETARY OF WAR.



Lieut. Col. FRANK W. WEED, M. C., Editor in Chief.

Loy MCAFEE, A. M., M. D., Assistant Editor in Chief.


EDITORIAL BOARD a

Col. BAILEY K. ASHFORD, M. C.

Col. FRANK BILLINGS, M. C.

Col. THOMAS R. BOGGS, M. C.

Col. GEORGE E. BREWER, M. C.

Col. W. P. CHAMBERLAIN, M. C.

Col. C. F. CRAIG, M. C.

Col. HAVEN EMERSON, M. C.

Brig. Gen. JOHN M. T. FINNEY, M. D.

Col. J. H. FORD, M. C.

Lieut. Col. FIELDING H. GARRISON, M. C.

Col. H. L. GILCHRIST, M. C.

Brig. Gen. JEFFERSON R. KEAN, M. D.

Lieut. Col. A. G. LOVE, M. C.

Col. CHARLES LYNCH, M. C.

Col. JAMES F. McKERNON, M. C.

Col. S. J. MORRIS, M. C.

Col. R. T. OLIVER, D. C.

Col. CHARLES R. REYNOLDS, M. C.

Lieut. Col. G. E. DE SCHWEINITZ, M. C.

Col. J. F. SILER, M. C.

Brig. Gen. W. S. THAYER, M. D.

Col. A. D. TUTTLE, M. C.

Col. WILLIAM H. WELCH, M. C.

Col. E. P. WOLFE, M. C.

Lieut. Col. CASEY A. WOOD, M. C.

Col. HANS ZINSSER, M. C.

a The highest rank held in the World War has been used in the case of each officer.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

PART ONE

PHYSICAL RECONSTRUCTION AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

SECTION I.-CENTRAL ORGANIZATION; PERSONNEL

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I. Organization in the Office of the Surgeon General

II. Personnel

SECTION II.- IN THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES

SECTION III.- IN MILITARY HOSPITALS IN THE UNITED STATES
III. In general and base hospitals
IV. In hospitals caring for orthopedic and neurosurgical cases
V. In hospitals caring for the mentally disabled
VI. In hospitals caring for the blind
VII. In hospitals caring for defects of hearing and speech
VIII. In hospitals caring for the tuberculous

SECTION IV.- DEVELOPMENT BATTALIONS; CONVALESCENT CENTERS

SECTION V.- MORALE WORK; WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS
IX. Morale work as an aid to reconstruction
X. Welfare organizations, their relationship to reconstruction
SECTION VI.- NONMILITARY GOVERNMENTAL DEPARTMENTS CONCERNED WITH CONTINUING THE REHABILITATION OF DISABLED SOLDIERS

SECTION VII.- ACHIEVEMENT

LIST OF TABLES

1. Physiotherapeutic equipment for 500, 1,000, and 1,500 bed reconstruction hospitals.
2. Educational work in special hospitals for the care of the tuberculous, as of the end of the month
3. Numerical changes in development battalions during the month of October, 1918
4. Classification of men enrolled in development battalions
5. Disposition of men from development battalions
6. Numbers of new individuals enrolled in the educational service, by months, from July, 1918, to December, 1919
7. Population in United States Army hospitals functioning in physical reconstruction; men in educational service, by months, 1919
8. Enrollments in Army hospital schools, by months, from August, 1918, to December, 1919
9. Types of cases registered for educational work
10. Approximate mental ages of recruits, World War Army
11. Intelligence grades of 1,020 patients, United States Army General Hospital, No.29, Fort Snelling, Minn
12. Schooling of 12,067 patients enrolled in the educational service
13. Occupations of 1,270 returned overseas patients, United States Army General Hospital, No. 28, Fort Sheridan, Ill
14. Summary of enrollments in the educational service in reconstruction hospitals
15. Detailed enrollment in the educational service, January to June, 1919
15. Detailed enrollment in the education service, January to June, 1919 cont
15. Detailed enrollment in the education service, January to June, 1919 cont
16. Report of physiotherapeutic activities, General Hospital, No. 6, Fort McPherson,Ga., for the year 1919

LIST OF CHARTS

I. Early organization for physical reconstruction in the Office of the Surgeon General
II. Organization of educational service in United States Army hospitals functioning in physical reconstruction
III. Organization of the department of physiotherapy in a reconstruction hospital.
IV. Enrollments in the educational service in reconstruction hospitals, by months, August, 1918, to December, 1919
V. Days spent in hospital schools, and percentage, by day groups, of 13,158 patients enrolled in the educational service
VI. Progress curve in mechanical drawing, average speed and accuracy, 23 students
VII. Progress curve in telegraphy, average speed, 12 students
VIII. Progress curve in radiotelegraphy, average speed, 16 students
IX. Progress curve in typewriting, average speed and accuracy, 45 students
X. United States Army hospitals functioning in reconstruction, and the periods of operation of physical reconstruction departments, 1918 and 1919
XI. Improvement curve during 37 days of typewriting and woodworking after bone graft of ulna and radius for gunshot wound, lower third, right forearm
XII. Improvement curve during 61 days of typewriting, manipulation of adding machine, and automechanics prescribed for musculospiral paralysis due to fracture of right ulna
XIII. Improvement curve (a) during 55 days of work in wood shop for ankylosis of left knee; (b) during 45 days of work in wood shop for gunshot wound of left foot
XIV. Improvement curve during 65 days of work in typewriting for musculospiral paralysis and ankylosis, right elbow

LIST OF FIGURES

1. Occupational therapy in the early stages of its use in the Army
2. Handicrafts for patients confined to bed
3. Handicrafts for patients confined to bed
4. Handicrafts for patients confined to bed
5. Handicrafts for patients confined to bed
6. Handicraft-toy making
7. Occupational therapy-ward work
8. Group of physiotherapy aides, General Hospital No. 2, Baltimore
9. Group of occupational therapy aides, General Hospital No. 2, Baltimore
10. Occupational therapy when fully organized-weaving room
11. Occupational therapy-handicraft room
12. Handicrafts for convalescents
13. Instruction in automobile mechanics
14. Patients' class in wireless telegraphy
15. Patients' art class
16. Patients learning to use left hand in writing
17. Patients working in jewelry class
18. Instruction in automobile repairing
19. An invalid instructor in oxyacetylene welding
20. Oxyacetylene welding as a vocation for men with arm amputations
21. Instruction in electrical work
22. Linotype operating
23. Motion-picture operating
24. Work in the greenhouse
25. A woodworking shop
26. A shop for instruction in shoe repairing
27. Commercial course typewriting for hand amputation
28. Measuring abduction and adduction of the wrist, psychological and statistical division
29. Measuring flexion and extension of the wrist, psychological and statistical division
30. Measuring abduction and adduction of the ankle, psychological and statistical division
31. Corrective exercises in the gymnasium
32. Contest in drill, manual of arms, field-day exercises
33. Wheel-chair race, field-day exercises
34. Plane fitted with special handle to develop grasping ability
35. Rug weaving for mobilizing stiffened joints and adherent tendons of the hands
36. Carpentry for mobilized elbow joints
37. Gobelin tapestry making for mobilizing stiffened joints and adherent tendons of the left hand
38. A hand-power drill press with long crank for producing motion in all joints of the upper extremity
39. A foot-power machine for active exercise of the calf muscles
40. Treadle saw for mobilizing stiffened ankle joint
41. Treadle machines for mobilizing the knee joint in below-the-knee amputations
42. In the woodworking shop-grasping exercise for stiffened joints of the hand
43. Special plane for musculospiral paralysis
44. Typewriting for mobilizing stiffened joints resulting from ulnar nerve paralysis and for exercising the intrinsic muscles of the hands
45. Commercial course, typewriting
46. Commercial course, class in penmanship
47. Commercial course, posters by practical art class
48. Truck gardening
49. Practical agriculture
50. A simple milk-testing outfit in the agricultural course
51. Testing milk in a completely equipped dairying plant
52. Exercises teaching the use of artificial legs
53. Ischemic atrophy, common after nerve injuries and one of the most resistant conditions to physiotherapy
54. Whirlpool bath
55. Control table for Scotch douche
56. Radiant heat and light treatment of the extremities
57. Radiant heat and light treatment of the entire body
58. Alpine lamp
59. Massage of thigh muscles
60. Massage of calf muscles
61. Massage about a recently healed wound
62. Massage to retain mobility in finger joints after nerve injury
63. Massage to release adherent scar in amputation stump
64. "Stretching" a fibrosed ankle
65. Resistive exercise for strengthening thigh muscles in preparation for use of artificial leg
66. Testing muscle reactions with galvanic current
67. Interrupted galvanic current to muscles in case of injury to the external popliteal nerve, with foot-drop
68. Muscle treatment with sinusoidal current
69. Static treatments
70. Bergonie chair for giving general electric treatments for the psychological effect
71. Thermalite
72. Apparatus for applying radiant light and heat to limbs
73. Vibrator, with flexible shaft (Victor)
74. Galvanic apparatus, with meter and rheostat (Victor)
75. Faradic and galvanic apparatus, with meter and rheostat (Wappler)
76. Interrupted galvanic apparatus, with meter and rheostat (Victor)
77. Galvanic and slow sinusoidal apparatus, with meter and rheostat (Wappler)
78. High-frequency apparatus (Victor)
79. Electrodes
80. Galvanic and sinusoidal apparatus, mounted, with motor generator (Victor)
81. Apparatus, polysine, for galvanic and sinusoidal currents (McIntosh)
82. Interior of an American Red Cross convalescent house
83. Hospital library, American Library Association
84. Ward library service, American Library Association
85. This and Figures 86 to 89 illustrate Ease I, Private S. H. H.--Osteomyelitis, left shoulder, following gunshot wound, lateral view
86. Posterior view, left shoulder
87. Contracture of uninjured right knee after 18 months' confinement to bed
88. Result of five months' treatment with physiotherapy
89. Final result-left shoulder ankylosed, right knee normal
90. Case 9: Nerve readings made (A) before and (B) 13 months after suture of median musculospiral, and musculocutaneous nerves
91. Case 10: Nerve readings made (A) before and (B) 12 months after suture of the ulnar nerve
92. Case 11: Nerve readings made (A) before and (B) four months after suture of the musculospiral nerve
93. Case 12: Nerve readings made before suture of sciatic nerve; deep pressure sensation absent in shaded area
94. Case 12: Nerve reading made six months after suture of sciatic nerve; deep pressure sensation absent in shaded area

Editor's Note: The Appendix, pages 353-985, which covers courses of instruction, lessons, and course materials used in the physical rehabilitation program, have not been included here due to their length.

PART TWO

THE ARMY NURSE CORPS

CHAPTER I. In the United States
II. American nurses with the British Expeditionary Force, France
III. Relationship of American Red Cross headquarters in Paris and Army Nurse Corps
IV. In the American Expeditionary Forces

LIST OF FIGURES

1. Nurses' outdoor uniform
2. The American Red Cross cape of dark blue
3. The gray indoor uniform
4. Nurses' rest house, Sunset Hill, Redbank, N. J
5. "Butcher's apron" to protect the uniform
6. Nurses' quarters of the semipermament barracks type
7. Nurses' quarters, Camp Hospital No. 91, La Baule, France
8. Nurses' quarters, Base Hospital No. 29, Tottenham, England
9. Interior of nurses' quarters, semipermament barracks type
10. Nurses' mess hall, Base Hospital No. 17, Dijon, France
11. Nurses laundering their wearing apparel
12. Interior of nurses' recreation hut, Base Hospital No. 27, Angers, France
13. Embarkation center for nurses, Vannes, France