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Chapter II, Part II cont.

Contents

The letter from the Surgeon General which ordered the establishment of the school gave a clear outline of the instruction to be given it.227

DECEMBER 7, 1917.

From: The Surgeon General, United States Army.
To: Commandant, Medical Officers - Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans.

Subject: School in military orthopedics.

  1. A school in military orthopedic surgery will be established, as a special course for selected student officers, as part of the genera! scheme of instruction carried out in your medical officers' training camp.
  2. The purpose of this school is to conduct training in orthopedic surgery along military lines, from the military viewpoint, and in the military environment; and coincidently to develop its officers physically and train them in subjects which they should know under the conditions in which they would practice their specialty, including regulations, paper work, handling of men, and functions of medical officers other than those with fighting troops. By operating it as part of the training plan, much mileage can be saved, and the presence of a large number of officers from whom to select will improve personnel.


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  3. About 40 orthopedic surgeons will be required monthly. Classes should be arranged for on the following basis: At Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, 25; at Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, 15.
  4. The instructor in orthopedic surgery detailed by this office on the staff of instructors of the training camp will, under the supervision of the commandant thereof, be in direct charge of the course.
  In addition to his educational duties, he will continuously investigate the qualifications and availability of medical officers under general instructions relative to detail for training as orthopedic surgeons.
  5. The orthopedic surgeon on duty at the hospital will serve as assistant instructor, and his routine work at the hospital will as far as possible he arranged to that end. It is important that such routine duties be demonstrated and utilized as part of the subjects of instruction.
  6. To prevent duplication of apparatus and to take full advantage of existing facilities and the many opportunities for clinical work, the course in military orthopedic surgery will be conducted in connection with the orthopedic work of the base hospital at Fort Riley, Kans.
  7. The commanding officer of the above base hospital will take measures to provide the necessary apparatus and equipment, and will facilitate the work of training in every way.
  8. The general instruction to be given will relate to the principles of orthopedic surgery, the mechanics and fitting of apparatus, and the diagnosis and treatment of foot conditions.
  Detailed information as to the general nature and scope of the work to be done will be furnished by the orthopedic division of this office.
  The course of instruction in orthopedic surgery, based thereon, will be presented by the commandant of the training camp, after conference with the instructor in orthopedic surgery.
  9. The course in general training and orthopedic surgery will cover a minimum of two months. In addition to instruction in other subjects, the course in orthopedics will comprise a total of 80 hours, covering 4 hours daily for 5 days each week of the second month.
10. No officer will he detailed for special training in orthopedic surgery until he shall have completed one month's course of general instruction in the training camp as prescribed in this letter.
Officers who qualify in this course, and are otherwise satisfactory, will be recommended for detail for the final course in New York City or elsewhere.
11. Student officers who, after one week's instruction, do not give evidence of the proper aptitude for the work, will be returned to general instruction in the training camps and other officers assigned in their places.
12. Officers under training as specialists in military orthopedics will be quartered and subsisted in the medical officers' training camp and subject to its discipline at all times.
13. Hours of instruction in orthopedic surgery will be arranged by agreement between the commandant of the training camp and the commanding officer, base hospital.
14. The schedule for the first month is as follows: b

  * * * *  *   *

  15. The schedule for the second month is as follows: b

  * * * *  *   *

16. Receipt of this letter to be acknowledged.

By direction of the Surgeon General:
E. L. MUNSON, Colonel, Medical Corps.

  The practical orthopedic work was taught at the base hospital, Fort Riley, where quarters were furnished this school.231 A ward for 32 patients was set aside for orthopedic cases. One-half of one of the temporary two-ward buildings was assigned for the out-patient clinics and for classrooms for the school. A small room for cobblers was also provided. In addition to the patients in the hospital itself, an out-patient clinic, with an attendance of from 30 to 90 patients daily, was conducted. Several dissected upper and lower extremities were procured from the University of Nebraska for the use of the school.232

bSee pp. 78, 79.


215

The subject of orthopedic surgery was tabulated by the senior instructor, and from this tabulation the instruction was conducted, available clinical material being used to illustrate the different pathological lesions studied.233 The students were required, as far as possible, to make the necessary examinations, prepare and adjust splints, etc. After the course was completed student officers who were not immediately ordered away were used as assistants in the orthopedic department of the hospital.

  In addition to the intensive course for the orthopedic specialists, the instructors attached to this school gave a short course in military orthopedics in the general basic course of the camp.27

  The following is an outline of the instruction :27

  Lecture 1 (one hour) : The human foot--its anatomy, physiology, examination, and the significance of its abnormalities; symptoms and signs; limitations of flexion; abduction and pronation; eversion, inversion, low arches. Flat feet. Prominent scaphoid arthritis.
Quiz and recitations, Munson (one hour).
  Lecture 2: The soldier's foot and the military shoe.
  Lecture 3 (one hour): The disabilities of the soldier's foot and their treatment; acute foot strain; treatment, acute foot strain; purpose, application; further treatment; ordinary foot strain; flaccid feet; rigid feet; spastic feet; flat feet; treatment; osseous flat foot. Affections of the anterior arch. Callouses on sole over the metatarsal heads; metatarsalgia, treatment. Affections of the region of the heel involving the tendo achilles; involving the os calcis, treatment. Hallux rigidus, hammer toe, treatment. Deformities of little toe. Quiz and recitations from Munson (one hour).
  Clinic (one hour).
  Shoe fitting (one hour).
  Shoe alterations (one hour).
  Lecture 4: Acute sprains, treatment; sequelae of acute sprains; chronic sprains; peripheral nerve injuries; fractures and dislocations.
  Lecture 5: Fractures and dislocations; their treatment; malunited and ununited; fractures and their treatment; transplantation of the bone and some uses of the bone graft.
  Lecture 6: Disabilities of the knee joint. The mechanical treatment of fractures under war conditions.
  Lecture 7: Orthopedic surgery in general: Necessity for the early application of the principles of orthopedic surgery to conserve function; preventing of deformities and obtaining best final result.
  Lecture 8: War orthopedic surgery: Reconstruction, braces, prosthesis; positions of election ankylosis following gunshot injuries of joints.
  Lecture 9: Suture of nerves and alternative methods of treatment by transplantation of tendons.
  Lecture 10: The rehabilitation of the soldier mentally, physically, and occupationally.

SANITARY SCHOOL

  In addition to the regular instruction in hygiene and sanitation given the training companies, a special course was conducted in order to train officers for the duty of sanitary inspectors, commanders of sanitary squads, etc.208 After two months' instruction in the basic course, officers were detailed to this school and given six weeks' instruction in practical sanitation. These officers were detailed as assistant sanitary inspectors in this camp and Camp Funston. They were required to make both general and special inspections and to turn in carefully written reports. All of their work was under the thorough super-


216

vision of well-qualified instructors, and after the reports of inspections were made the student was required to go over his own report and defend its recommendations.

  Special demonstrations in practical sanitation, including inspections of dumps, water chlorination plant, excreta disposal systems, sanitary appliances, etc., were also given.234 Officers found qualified were reported to the Surgeon General's Office for assignment.

  Early in August, 1917, the need of a sanitary laboratory for teaching and experimental purposes was clearly realized. Every known field sanitary appliance was constructed on a level area in the center of the camp.235 All officers were required to study these appliances and make drawings of the approved types, so that they would be thoroughly familiar with them when assigned to duty with troops.236 In addition to this, scientific experiments were carried out to determine the relative value of all such appliances. Interesting data were obtained and embodied in reports to the Surgeon General's Office. Every appliance which was built was constructed according to the plans given and, after construction, was given a thorough scientific trial under field conditions. In these experiments not only was the result obtained thoroughly analyzed, but every factor entering into the operation of the appliance was studied.

  The fuel consumption of the different types of incinerators was studied with a view of determining which was the most economical under different conditions.236Several new incinerators were invented and given practical trials. Among these was a multiple shelf incinerator which, on account of the great economy in fuel, was a great advance on the incinerators now in use. This incinerator was tested as to its capacity under varying conditions of temperature and wetness or dryness of the garbage.237 Careful experimentation was also conducted to determine what degree of heat could be developed with safety to the shelves and shelf supports. In April an exhaustive test of this incinerator was made. The entire daily output of garbage from Camp Funston (18,023 pounds) was completely incinerated with a total amount of 200 pounds of wood.238

  Carefully drawn working plans were made of all appliances which were found satisfactory in any way and these plans were furnished the Surgeon General's Office.233Models of all approved appliances were constructed and exhibited at the American Medical Association in Chicago in June, 1918.220 These models were afterwards sent to the Army Medical Museum, Washington.

  Plates and descriptions of the sanitary appliances which were found to be most satisfactory were afterwards published by the War Department.238

  During the winter of 1917-18 the severity of the weather prevented much outside work, so a complete workshop was fitted up indoors where experiments were made with models to determine whether modification of existing appliances would tend to greater efficiency or economy of time and material.220

  Special instruction was given by this school to a large number of selected enlisted men.

  The Sanitary School was closed July 1, 1918.220


217

FIG. 1. - This and Figure 2 show general views of the sanitary field appliances constructed at Medical Officers' Traning Camp, Fort Riley, Kans.


218

FIG. 2


219

SCHOOL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

  On October 13, 1917, the School of Epidemiology was started with the idea, formed from early experience at the camp, that few civilian physicians, especially those coming from the small towns and rural districts, were familiar with the study and control of communicable diseases.208Selected officers were detailed to this school from the basic course, and after varying lengths of time those found qualified were given details in this work at other camps and other stations. The course consisted of a thorough study of communicable diseases, combined with inspections of organizations to teach the early detection of such cases.

FIG. 3

  As cases of measles and other communicable diseases developed the camp was divided into districts and students were put in charge of the divisions to make the proper inspections and to supervise the steps taken to control the diseases. The grading of the student was attained by considering the degree of success he had in this work.233 In addition to this important practical work of inspection, each student officer was required to make studies of the various communicable diseases encountered in the military service, and weekly meetings were held at which these studies were discussed and instruction was given the student officers. An isolation camp was maintained to which were sent all suspects, and this camp was conducted by the officers attached to this school. In addition, the regular detention camp was supervised by this department.


220

FIG. 4


221

FIG. 5

FIG. 6


222

FIG. 7

FIG. 8.-Ober flytraps


223

FIG. 9

FIG. 10


224

  By special arrangement with the authorities at Camp Funston, and under their supervision, the epidemiological work at that camp was handled by the School of Epidemiology, as there was a much larger field for instruction work at the larger camp.208

FIG. 11

  The epidemic of meningitis at Camp Funston, which started on October 16, 1917, was handled and later controlled by this school, though they did not start on the work until November, 1917.240

  An isolation camp was established at Camp Funston, and by special arrangement was put under the direction of this school, and one of the instructors was placed in charge of it.239 All contacts were sent to this camp and were carefully inspected twice daily by students of the School of Epidemiology. From 900 to 1,200 men were constantly interned in this camp.239


225

FIG. 12


226

FIG.13. - Deep trench fly-proof latrine, cross section showing fly-proofing with oiled soaking urine deflectors. Fly-proof self-closing seats.


227

FIG. 14

FIG. 15


228

FIG. 16

FIG. 17


229

SCHOOL FOR TUBERCULOSIS AND CARDIOVASCULAR EXAMINERS

  In order to meet the need of trained men for cardiovascular and tuberculosis examinations, qualified instructors were sent to the training camp and officers with some experience in this work were given a thorough course of indefinite length along practical lines. When an officer was found qualified by the instructors he was reported by name to the Surgeon General and held for special detail from his office. If, after one or two weeks of instruction, an officer was found inapt in this particular line he was returned to the general course to be used otherwise.219

FIG. 18

TUBERCULOSIS EXAMINERS

  The following is a syllabus of instruction given tuberculosis examiners: 241

EXAMINATION OF LUNGS FOR TUBERCULOSIS

  I. History:
Family.
Intercurrent disease.
Repeated colds, pneumonia, pleurisy.
Story of frequent pains in shoulder tips, abdomen, and backache.
Social condition.
  II. Present history:
Coughs.
Night sweats.
Chills and fever.
Loss in weight.


230

FIG. 19


231

FIG. 20

FIG. 21


232

  III. Inspection of chest:
Shape of chest.
Developmental defects of body.
Lung excursion; how to obtain, value.
Retractions; supraclavicular or apical; intercostal.
Heart, apex impulse, rate, relation to tuberculosis examination.
  IV. Methods of percussion; direct; indirect; location; proper stroke; relation to respiration.
Tuning of individual chest and procedure of percussion.

FIG.  22

  Land marks:
Liver dullness; mobility of lower border of lung
Heart area.
Traube space, liver; spleen; stomach; heart.
Kernig isthmus.
Relation to lungs.
  Difference in pitch over right and left apex normally.
  Value of percussion in lung examination:
Cavities.
Areas of dullness.
Areas of higher pitched percussion note.


233

FIG. 23


234

  V. Auscultation:
Methods of auscultation-- Proper stethoscope.
Position of the patient.
Explanation to the patient how to breathe during examination and when to cough.
Obstacles interfering with proper breathing.
Starting point for examination.
  Breath tones:
Bronchial.
Bronchovesicular.

FIG. 24. - Drying platform for horse-manure, before incineration.

  Vesicular.
Amphoric.
  Râles:
  Subcrepitant.
  Crepitant.
  Large crepitant.
  Mucus.
  Fine shower of crepitant râles.
  Constancy.
  Diagnostic value of rales.
  False râles:
Marginal, sternal, sterno-clavicular.
Muscular sound simulating rifles.


235

FIG. 25


236

  V. Auscultation - Continued.
Vocal resonance and fremitus:
Demonstration by bony contacts.
How produced.
Normal differences.
Value in diagnosis.
  VI. Sputum examination:
How specimen should be obtained.
Findings.
Value of findings; positive; negative.
  VII. X-ray examination:
Methods -
  Single plate.
  Stereoscopic.
  Fluoroscopic.
What X ray will show -
  Massive consolidations.
  Calcified glands.
  Shadows of the hilus or helix.
  Radiations (thickening along bronchial trunks).
  Cavities.
  Acute inflammations; hazy outline of acute inflammatory processes as contrasted with sharper outline of older processes.
  Chest deformity; drooping of ribs on side of old tuberculosis lesion.
  Diagnostic value.
  VIII. Resume:
Pathology of lung tuberculosis; usual point of beginning of tuberculosis process and its dissemination.
Border-line cases.
Observation for a time may be necessary or advisable.
Degree of immunity to the tuberculosis process--differing in various patients and in the same patient at various times.
Tuberculin test.
Viewpoint of the Army surgeon or examiner -
1. Nonadvancing chronic tuberculous focus.
2. Advancing chronic tuberculous focus.
3. Deep active peribronchial focus.
4. Chronic healed peribronchial focus.
5. Tuberculous pneumomic process.

CARDIOVASCULAR EXAMINERS

  The intensive course in physical diagnosis as applied to cardiovascular disease was conducted along the lines suggested in the following synopsis of lectures :242

  LECTURE I

  Diseases producing highest rates of mortality and discharge among soldiers; causes, prevention.

  The heart: Heart sounds; effect of exercise; blood pressure; hypertrophy dilatation. Effect on heart and body of strenuous campaign; proneness to infectious diseases and complications. Valvular disease: Variation from the older stated symptoms on young healthy soldiers; recognition; murmurs (using graphic charts of lesions from Greene's Medical Diagnosis); functional; systolic; diastolic; weight of rheumatic and infectious history. Valvular disease and its importance in recruiting service.


  Examination of candidates: Methods; necessity of a personal stethoscope; scant pressure with bell; quiet room essential; couch; candidate stripped to waist, standing in front, general observation rapidly as to general condition, color, cyanosis pulsation at cardiac region,


237

veins of neck; note hands as to venous stasis, clubbed fingers. Capillary pulse; count pulse; observe condition of arteries; quality and tension of pulse. Location of apex; proper method of percussion; outline outer border at fifth interspace and right border third interspace, right edge of sternum, noting, in centimeters, distance in or out from nipple line and right border of sternum. Auscultation: Heart sounds as observed (1) over apex; (2) third interspace, left sternum; (3) second interspace, right sternum; (4) lower left sternum; also transmission of sounds from these areas, then place in heft lateral position and observe same; the difference from dorsal position; the accentuations and murmurs; count pulse in dorsal position. Exercise test: Hopping 100 times on one foot; count pulse immediately over apex with stethoscope; note accentuations and murmurs; "1 to 4"  in two minutes recount pulse; then observe, in dorsal position, areas "1 to 4"; again in left lateral position. Systolic murmurs at apex are common (letter, Surgeon General, October 25, 1917 "Accept without hypertrophy); the most difficult murmur to diagnose early and causing the greatest trouble in service; the mitral stenosis, early increase of dullness to right of sternum; accentuation of P2becomes split sound after exercise; accentuation or drumming of systolic sound at apex; a presystolic thrill is found at times, a presystolic murmur; crescendo obliterating the sharp beginning of the systole, blending with the systole; then an early diminuendo diastolic, this increasing gradually, then comes fibrillation; subjective symptoms; resultant hypertrophy.

  Aortic insufficiency next in importance, the only pure diastolic murmur that may be transmitted over the cardiac area heard best in the aortic area (3), transmitted to vessels of neck, difference in symptoms from young men and old hospital cases, blood pressure generally low in these cases. Corrigan pulse only marked with high blood pressure; capillary pulse evident; pistol shot femorals, resulting hypertrophy. Tricuspid insufficency not common, symptoms; systolic murmur at (3) right hypertrophy. Tricuspid insufficiency not common, symptoms; systolic murmur at (3) right hypertrophy. Tricuspid stenosis rare; symptoms, diastolic murmur, venous statis. Pulmonary insuffficiency and stenosis rare, usually congeniral; murmurs transmitted to left shoulder hypertrophy. One or more valsves may be involved at the same time; results. Questions.

LECTURE II

  Compensation, fatigue, tachycardia; causes; types, hyperthyroidism, localities of exophthalmic goiter; tuberculosis; fevers. Arrhythmia, premature heats, sinus arrhythmia, fibrillation, rare in recruits. Bradycardia, block, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, aneurism and dilated arch.

  Duties of examiner: To hold in service; to exclude the afflicted or undesirables; to determine fitness for special service of those otherwise to be rejected. Men desiring to serve will conceal lesions, men feign symptoms to obtain exemption; use drugs, as digitalis and glonoin, or chew cordite.

  Examining boards, unless properly prepared, may overlook important cases; they are certain to turn up again, as a loss to the Government; the importance of previous history in questionable cases; nomenclature of disabilities (Manual of the Medical Department, 1916, p. 455) standard for acceptance, rejections, or discharge, waiver of disability for special service.

  Report of examinations: Forward to Surgeon General, through division surgeon, report required. Lists form: (1) Name; (2) abnormal signs case was referred; (3) diagnosis; (4) recommendation, accept, reject, or waiver of disability for restricted service.

  When organization examination completed; totaled officers and men; strength obtained from regimental adjutant; those examined; percentage constitutes regiment totals; the disposition percentage constitutes total examined; sheets signed. Entire camps totaled same manner, final totals summarizing work of examiner, sent to Surgeon General through camp surgeon. Special significant factors are entered under remarks; other examinations on special request of commanding officers. Special boards and their functions. Questions.

  Clinical demonstration of method of cardiovascular examinations.


238

SCHOOL FOR LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE k

  This school was organized in accordance with instructions from the Surgeon General. The first course commenced January 1, 1918. Officers who were especially assigned to this duty by the Surgeon General's Office, and all others who for various reasons were not considered suitable for first-line work, were required to take this course instead of the regular basic course of instruction. Six courses were given, extending to the last of June, 1918. The schedule prepared for this course was identical in character with that used for the basic course, with the difference that the hours given to certain subjects were fewer in number, and also some of the subjects treated in the longer course were omitted.

SCHOOL FOR ADJUTANTS

  A special course for the instruction of officers for duty as adjutants of evacuation and base hospitals was begun November 20, 1917 212 Specially qualified men were selected and given thorough instruction in the details of an adjutant's work. They were then sent to the base hospital at Fort Riley to serve as assistants to the adjutant. After one month's duty in this capacity they were returned to camp and a special report on their efficiency was made by the hospital authorities. If found qualified they were assigned to such duty, but if not they were returned to a training company and assigned as considered best. This instruction was discontinued in the Spring of 1918 on account of the detailing of Sanitary Corps officers to this duty.

GENERAL COURSE OF INSTRUCTION FOR ENLISTED MEN

  The recruits arriving at camp were met at the train by officers and noncommissioned officers and brought immediately to camp.243 After they were checked at headquarters they were issued blankets and cots and divided into sections of from 48 to 68 men each, depending on whether they were to be quartered in pyramidal or hospital ward tents (for some months all recruits received at camp were quartered in tents). They were therm instructed in several of the most important Articles of War.
 
  They were next carded.243 Each card showed the man's name, age, occupation, how long employed, pay received, education, and previous service, if any. The section number was entered on each card. These cards were then checked against the list at headquarters. The cards were then examined carefully and from them a list of men who appeared to be good material for noncommissioned officers was made. In such selection preference was shown to those who had received at least one year in college work, who had been foremen or who had occupied positions in civil life which entailed responsibility. The men selected were then given a personal examination and finally those considered favorable material were detailed as lance corporals in the proportion of 1 lance corporal to each 8 privates. If the number of men who were well educated and well qualified was great, the proportion was increased. This rapid selection of lance corporals of course eliminated from consideration for the time being a large number of steady, worthy, reliable men who, in time, would make excellent non-

k For substance of instructions, see Camp Greenleaf School for Line of Communications Service, p. 78.


239

commissioned officers, but a standard for rapid selection had to be formulated, and if those selected did not make good, they were reduced and others who were showing rapid advance in discipline, leadership, etc., were detailed in their places.
 
  All sections were sent out to drill at 7.30 a. m., and were drilled from that time to 9.30 a. m. by a detail of medical officers selected from those in the training companies who had shown most ability in the work.243 For the first half hour they received physical instruction from Koehler's Manual and for the remaining time squad drill, school of the soldier, and school of the squad. The rule laid down was 10 minutes drill followed by 5 minutes rest. During the drill period the work of the officers was supervised by an assistant instructor who checked carefully the character of the drill given by the various instructors and made notes of officers who were satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Those found unsatisfactory were immediately relieved and others detailed in their places. The number that had to be relieved was fortunately very small. In addition to the assistant instructor, four inspectors were detailed from the best qualified officers and these assisted the instructors in the minor points and technicalities of the work. From 9.30 to 10 a. m. the recruits were drilled as sections by their section leaders, and from 10 to 10.30 a. in. there was customarily a competitive drill by sections.

  Throughout this instruction in foot drill the aim was to inculcate alertness, soldierly hearing, and prompt response to the word of command.243 Great stress was laid upon the point that all movements must be carried out strictly in accordance with cadence. It was intended that this drill should serve fully as much to inculcate obedience and respect to superiors as it did to teach smartness in formation.

  At 10.30 a. m. a medical officer lectured to the lance corporals on anatomy, physiology, or some allied subject.243 This lecture was short, and at 11.15 the corporals returned to their squads and imparted to them the instruction just received. This increased the standing of the lance corporal with his squad by stamping him as a man who knew a little more than his comrades an made the enforcement of obedience to his commands somewhat easier. It was recognized that the instruction that these lance corporals gave might be in some particulars incorrect. Experience showed, however, that the practical knowledge the men got of the elements of anatomy and physiology was very real and served as a useful foundation for the more detailed instruction which they received upon being assigned to permanent organizations.

  At 1 .30 p. m. the lance corporals received a lecture on the customs of the service, the salute, how to recognize an officer, the proper respect enlisted must show to officers and noncommissioned officers, their duties, and their privileges.243 This instruction they likewise transmitted to their squads. At 3.30 p. m. the lance corporals received instruction in giving commands at drill, etc.

  This instruction was varied and advanced after two weeks by the substitution of first-aid instruction in the morning period and in the afternoon first aid and the care of animals were taken up at 1 p. m. in the lecture periods.243


240

  The following is the list of calls prescribed: 243

  5.30 a. m............................................................................................Reveille.
  5.50 a. m............................................................................................Mess.
  6.20 a. m............................................................................................Sick call.
  6.30 to 7.25 a. m...............................................................................Stables--police of camp.
  7.30to 8.25 a. m................................................................................Drill.
  8.30 to 9.25 a. m...............................................................................Drill.
  9.30 to 10.30 a. m.............................................................................Drill.
  10.30 to 11.30 a. m. Lecture and quiz (first two weeks). First aid (second two weeks).
  11.30 to 1.20 p. m.............................................................................Dinner.
  1.20 to 2.45 p. m...............................................................................First aid.
  2.50 to 3.40 p. m...............................................................................Care of horses and corrals for student officers (before daily equitation).
  3.45 to 4.50 p. m...............................................................................Rest period.
  4.50 to 5.30 p. m...............................................................................Stables.
  5.45 p.m.............................................................................................Retreat.
  5.50 p. m............................................................................................Supper.

  Physical instruction of the recruit was begun shortly after his arrival in camp and was carried out in a most thorough manner.208 An officer who was an expert physical instructor was detailed in charge of this work. A well-laid-out athletic field was provided, and each organization in camp spent at least two hours a week on this field in addition to the special exercises prescribed in their section and company drills.244 During the winter months a large barrack building was converted into a gymnasium, and special gymnastic instruction was conducted there throughout the winter.

  In the gymnasium the work consisted of playing handball and basket ball, bag punching, boxing, calisthenics, apparatus and bar work, and resistance exercises. Special instruction in boxing was given to a number of men from the companies who had received previous training.245 This was given by an expert boxing instructor.246 As soon as they were found qualified they were required to instruct their companies during the physical instruction period. On the athletic field the exercises consisted of athletic games, running, jumping, wall scaling, bank climbing, hand grenade throwing, etc.246

  To facilitate control, the sections were combined into groups of from 150 to 500 men each. Each morning at mess call the sections were marched to the mess halls.243After breakfast the sick were taken to the infirmary by a lance corporal, with their names entered upon a separate sick book for each section. The sick of the various sections were further supervised by a noncommissioned officer from each group. After the sick had left for sick call and during the interval between breakfast and the first drill hour each section was carefully examined by a medical officer for the detection of any infectious diseases. During the day section leaders were required to send to the infirmary every man who stated that he was unable to drill or who appeared ill.

  Fatigue was furnished by sections; that is to say, if the casual detachment was called on for 30 men for fatigue the section designated would furnish the entire number and would send them out in charge of their own lance corporals.243

 Section leaders were constantly on the alert for good substantial men in their sections. These men, when recommended by the section leaders, were


241

assigned as assistant section leaders to some other section where the men did not know them and where they were given the opportunity to make good. If they made a favorable impression, they were given a section of their own and a further tryout. If one of these men did not make good, he was put back into the ranks of a section, care being taken to place him in neither the one he originally came from nor the one in which he served as section leader.243

  The time spent in the recruit sections varied according to the demand for men and the stock on hand. It was desired, in so far as was possible, to hold a substantial number of recruits in training in the casual detachment. An arbitrary limit of 10 days was taken as the briefest time prescribed that a man should remain under observation in the detachment before being assigned to a company. No man was assigned out of the detachment who was a mental defective, insane, had criminal tendencies, or who would later become a subject for disability discharge.243

  When a call came for recruits to be assigned to some organization, they were selected carefully according to their progress in general soldierly deportment and according to the special duty they would have to perform.243 The section was formed, each man's name was called from his card, and when he stepped forward a rapid survey was made of him as to his carriage, general appearance, physique, and alertness. If his previous occupation suited the particular assignment, his card was laid aside; but if neither the man nor his occupation came up to what was required, his card was placed again in the files. For example: If men were being selected for a motorized ambulance company, men were selected who had had previous training as chaffeurs, machinists, etc. If the call was for animal-drawn company, the farmer class was selected. In both instances men of robust physique were only considered. If the call was for a base hospital, a search was made for chemists, clerks, hospital orderlies, etc. After the cards were selected in this manner they were rechecked and examined to he sure that the number of lance corporals corresponding to the noncommissioned officers to which the organization was entitled were assigned, and also that the unit was furnished with an artificer and, in case of an animal-drawn company, with a blacksmith and, if possible, a farrier, should these men be available. The cards were then gone over to see if any man had a brother or cousin in the detachment, as a great effort was made to keep relatives together wherever that could be done without injury to the service.

  After an organization had been formed, particularly if the period of observation had been brief, if t was found that a few unfit men had been assigned, these men were returned to the casual detachment for further study.243 Many times these men, after a stay of from a month to six weeks longer in the casual detachment, were sent out again to other companies, where they made good.

  From 75 to 100 men who were selected from those who had previously received training in the handling of animals were placed together in two sections.243 These sections did little drilling and no fatigue. They took care of the quartermaster stables and the horses used by the student officers. In this detachment if a man was not satisfactory he was immediately transferred out and replaced by another. From these selections detachments for service with Cavalry regiments were formed, amid they also furnished the mounted orderlies


242

required with every regimental detachment. Owing to the impossibility of adequately training more than 100 men at a time, the number of mounted orderlies supplied did not exceed 2 to each detachment.

  There were constantly about 25 to 30 men in the detachment who could not speak, read, or write English. An effort was made to have these transferred to the line, but this was disapproved, and a separate section to provide for their proper instruction in English was formed.243 The section leader had been a college professor and all of the lance corporals had been school-teachers. Books on elementary English were bought by the camp exchange and sold to each man in the section. Instruction in English was given intensively and the men were excused from all other duties except drill.

  Every department in camp was encouraged to use as many men as possible in clerical work in order to train a large number of men in Army paper work. When clerks were required in a company or detachment being formed, they were taken from the best qualified among these men.243

  An observation section was established for the study of the insubordinates, the training of the awkward and unfit, and the teaching of discipline to the unruly.243All individuals who were hard to handle, habitually committed minor offenses, or set bad examples in lack of discipline and soldierly qualities were removed from the regular recruit sections and assigned to the observation section. The men were selected for this section in two ways: 243 First, the assistant instructors, at drill, observed all recruits closely and recommended for transfer to the section those men who were awkward, and especially those who showed retarded mental development. These cases were selected especially during physical drill, as that drill required an average standard of coordination. Second, the section leaders observed their men in the intervals between drills and recommended for transfer the insubordinate, surly, quarrelsome, and excessively profane men in their sections.

  The section was in charge of a sergeant, first class, of long service, especially selected on account of his proficiency in handling and controlling men.243Assigned to him as assistants were noncommissioned officers who had shown exceptional ability in the handling of recruits, who were quiet and self-reliant, and above all highly intelligent. These were all under the command of a carefully selected officer. This officer observed the progress of each individual day by day and examined them personally at frequent intervals and made a careful estimate of their mentality. If this officer considered a man mentally defective in any way, he was carefully examined by a psychiatrist, who recommended his disposition.

  During their stay in this section the men received every day three hours of foot drill, one hour's physical drill, and lectures on anatomy and physiology.243Company punishment in the nature of extra fatigue for those who needed it was carried out more rigidly and with better observation than was possible in the average company. It was rarely found necessary to try any of these men by court-martial.

  After a man had demonstrated that he had overcome his awkwardness and had learned his drill or that he had learned military discipline and would not again be guilty of insubordination, he was transferred to one of the regular


243

sections.243 The more difficult cases were always under careful observation, particularly in reference to their mental condition. There were instances where men became good soldiers after a period of from one to two months in this section, and some apparently hopeless individuals made excellent progress.

  The number constantly under observation averaged 60. It occasionally went up to 80 and sometimes fell as low as 40. The number of men going in and coming out remained fairly constant. Many men who ordinarily might have remained in a company for a year or more, giving constant trouble, were found to be insane or mentally defective.243

  As an indication of the time required to bring the men up to standard the following is a table prepared for the three-month period ending September 1, 1917: 243

Transferred after a period of -
One week...........................................................11
Two weeks..........................................................12
Three weeks........................................................29
Four weeks.........................................................21
Five weeks..........................................................9
Six weeks...........................................................2
Seven weeks.........................................................4
Eight weeks.........................................................3
Nine weeks..........................................................2
Two have remained for more than 10 weeks.

  From this table it can be seen that the average stay was less than three weeks.

  The advantages of the system were as follows: 243 (1) It provided facility for the careful study of border-line insanity cases. (2) It eliminated from the other units of the command the men who habitually committed military offenses and acted as a detriment to the instruction of the average recruit. (3) It acted as a support and relief to the untrained noncommissioned officer. (4) It afforded an opportunity for the training of men who had not had the advantages of education or who, for various reasons, were backward in their development, and saved for the service an appreciable number of men who otherwise would have been worthless.

  After the men were assigned to ambulance companies, field hospital companies or other units, the primary instruction in the school of the soldier was continued until each individual was trained to such a degree that he could proceed with the more specialized instruction. This instruction will be outlined under the heading of Special instruction for enlisted men (p. 244).

  This system of handling recruits was not changed materially when inductants from the draft were received at camp.246 In the latter case their physical examination preceded everything else, and no mental examination or carding of individuals was started until they had been definitely accepted into the service. The physical examination methods were similar to those used in the larger camps.


244

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION OF ENLISTED MEN

  As it was necessary to train a large number of enlisted men of the Medical Department to be specialists, courses for the training for these men were started very early in the history of the camp and every effort was made to include in each unit formed at the camp its proper quota of well-trained specialists.

COOKS

  Men who stated that their occupation was cooking, or who had previously received training in cooking, or who desired to learn to be cooks, were assigned to a school for cooks and bakers conducted in conjunction with the general messes of the camp.243 After a thorough course, those qualified as cooks were assigned to all units organized at this camp. In the early part of 1918 a complete bakery was established at the camp, and each student in this school was given a definite period of training in baking.

WARD ATTENDANTS

  A course of training for ward attendants was given to all male nurses and also to a large number of other men who were well qualified for this work. By a special arrangement with the commanding officer of the base hospital, Fort Riley, these men were placed on duty in the wards of the hospital and acted as assistants to the ward masters.243 In addition to their work at the hospital they received one hour's lecture daily. The course was continued for four weeks and on its completion men who were found qualified were assigned to evacuation and base hospitals with a recommendation for the rating of ward attendant. The following is a syllabus of the instruction received in this course: 243

NURSES

  Assigned to wards at post hospital. Lecture at camp one hour daily.
First week:

  Admission of patient.
  Care of patient's personal property, money, and clothing.
  Sweeping and cleaning ward without raising dust.
  Temperature, pulse, respiration.
  Baths.

  Second week:

Review, especially in temperature, pulse, and respiration.
Bed making, simple, surgical, fracture.
Changing linen on occupied bed.
Enemata.
Continuous drips--soaks.

  Third week:

  Lifting and handling patients.
  Fowler's position, Murphy drip.
  Use of catheter.
  Hypodermic.
  Signs of collapse, impending death, death.

  Fourth week:

Care of property--property check, drawing property, exchange of property.
Linen--care, exchange, credit slips.
Ward morning reports. Report of death. Chart.


245

SURGICAL ASSISTANTS

  The same arrangement was made with the commanding officer of the base hospital, Fort Riley, for the instruction of ward attendants.243

  First week: The course consisted for the first week of lectures and recitations on bacteria, pyogenic bacteria, wounds (clean and infected), asepsis, antisepsis, sterilizing, chemical antisepsis, bandaging.

  After the first week they were assigned to duty in the various operating rooms of the base hospital, but were also given instruction, mostly practical.

  Second week:

Preparation of aseptic dressings--sponges, wipers, pads, strip drains of all kinds, threaded needles. -
Preparation of T bandages, swathes, laparotomy sheets, splints.
Care of instruments and rubber goods.

  Third week:

  Sterilizing, practical; reasons for different methods.
  Sharpening knives and other instruments.

  Fourth week:

  Preparation of patient for different operations.
  Care of anesthetized patient on table.
  Lifting patient from table.
  Arranging anesthetist's table.
  Laying out instruments.
  Opening sterile packages.

  Throughout the course students were given opportunity to watch actual operations when practicable.

DISPENSARY ASSISTANTS

  A limited number of men were given training for work as dispensary assistants, but men selected for this training were taken from those who had previous knowledge, for it was well understood that a short course could not prepare even a very intelligent man to carry out the duties of the position unless he had had previous experience.243 The course was so arranged that students were on duty at the post hospital dispensary during the morning, and had lectures and recitations on pharmacy and materia medica during the afternoon. Candidates were required to have absolute familiarity with doses of drugs and their antidotes. Morning instruction was by practical demonstration and actual work done by candidates.

  First week: Compounding and dispensing simple formulae.
Second week: Preparation of ointments and percentage formulae.
Third week: Infusions and tinctures.
Fourth week: Suspensions; incompatibility.

SANITARY SQUADS

  Men assigned to the sanitary squads organized at the camp were attached to the sanitary laboratory.247 They were given extensive instruction in the practical application and construction of the various forms of apparatus provided there. They were also required to conduct the fly-prevention campaign during the spring of 1918. This campaign resulted in an almost complete absence of flies during the following summer.


246

X-RAY TECHNICIANS

  The course for X-ray technicians was conducted in conjunction with the School of Military Roentgenology and provided instruction for a limited number of specially qualified enlisted men, most of whom were from the evacuation hospitals.248 The course covered the following subjects: Dark-room technique; physics of the X ray; handling of apparatus, and a limited amount of anatomy. A small manual for the instruction of enlisted technicians was prepared by the instructors in this school and was printed and distributed to the students.249 A complete portable field X-ray outfit was provided for the practical instruction of the class.

ORTHOPEDIC ASSISTANTS

  A short course to prepare enlisted men as orthopedic assistants was conducted during the winter and spring of 1918.243 This instruction was given to provide each regimental detachment with a man having practical knowledge of the common ailments of the foot and sufficient ability to treat corns, etc., and to fit shoes properly to somewhat deformed feet. The following is an outline of the course taught: 243

  Lecture 1 (one hour): The human foot--Its anatomy, physiology, examination, and the significance of its abnormalities; symptoms and signs; limitations of flexion; abduction and pronation; eversion, inversion, low arches; flat feet; prominent scaphoid arthritis.
  Quiz and recitation, Munson.
  Lecture 2 (one hour): The soldier's foot and the military shoe.
  Lecture 3 (one hour): The disabilities of the soldier's foot and their treatment. Acute foot strain; treatment; purpose, application; further treatment; ordinary foot strain; flaccid feet; rigid feet; spastic feet; flat feet; treatment; osseous flat feet; affections of the anterior arch; calluses on sole over the metatarsal heads; metatarsalgia, treatment; affections of the regions of the heel involving the tendo Achillis; involving the os calcis, treatment; hallux rigidus, hammertoe, treatment; deformities of little toe.
  Quiz and recitation from Munson (one hour).
  Clinic (one hour)
  Shoe fitting (one hour).
  Shoe alterations (one hour).

  Special instructions in basic orthopedics was also given to 4 percent of the enlisted men of the entire command. 243

AMBULANCE COMPANIES AND FIELD HOSPITAL COMPANIES

  When ambulance and field hospital companies were organized men were assigned to them from the casual detachment, and their training then came under the supervision of the officers in charge of these sections.250 The training was continued along the general lines laid down for the casual detachment, and as rapidly as possible they were given special training to fit them for the duties they would be called upon to perform.

  The instruction in the ambulance companies was carried out according to the following memorandum :250


247

INSTRUCTION MEMORANDUM

First week:

7 to 9.20 a.m................................................... Drill, litter, 1 hour; ambulance, 1 hour.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m............................................ Motor companies only, mechanism of automobile.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m.......................................... Anatomy and physiology (Mason, pp.37-38).
1.30 to 2.20 p.m.............................................. First aid, (Mason, pp. 108-140).
2.30 to 3.20 p.m...............................................Messages, signals, general orders, etc.
3.30 to 4.20 p.m...............................................Nursing (continued as in program of first week).

Second week:

7 to 9.20 a.m.....................................................Drill, litter, 1 hour; ambulance, 1 hour.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m..............................................Motor companies only, mechanism of automobile.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m............................................Bandaging.
1.30 to 2.20 p.m................................................First aid, (Mason, pp. 108-140).
2.30 to 3.20 p.m................................................Messages, signals, general orders, etc.
3.30 to 4.20 p.m................................................Nursing (continued as in program of first week).

Third week:

7 to 9.20 a.m......................................................Drills, tent. During the ensuing weeks in such exercises as the commanding officer may deem necessary to promote the efficiency of his company.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m...............................................Motor companies only, mechanism of automobile.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m.............................................Bandaging.
1.30 to 2.30 p.m.................................................Entire week---review work of previous two weeks from Mason.
2.30 to 3.20 p.m.................................................Classes for specially selected privates.
3.30 to 4.20 p.m.................................................Entire week---review work of previous two weeks from Mason.

Fourth week:

7 to 9.20 a.m......................................................Drill as prescribed by the commanding officer.
9.30 to 11.30 a.m...............................................Classes for specialists.
1.20 to 4.30 p.m.................................................Instruction of company as a unit.

  The instruction of the field hospital companies was similar to that carried out bythe ambulance companies.250

NONCOMMISSIONEDOFFICERS' SCHOOL

  A special school for the training of noncommissioned officers was organized in a small way from the establishment of the camp, and all lance corporals who showed adaptability for this promotion were given instruction in this school in addition to their other duties.243 Whenever men detailed to this work showed that they were not suited they were immediately relieved and returned to the ranks of the detachment. The full course consisted of six weeks' instruction.

  First week:

Morning - Cooking and mess management, in camp amid field; setting up field range; daily menus.
  Afternoon - Arithmetic; hospital fund papers; daily report of mess. Second week:

  Second week:

Morning - Care of medical, ordnance, and quartermaster property; property books or cards; checking property; names of medical appliances and their component parts.
  Afternoon - Medical, ordnance, and quartermaster property papers. (Returns, requisitions, invoices, receipts.)

  Third week:

Detachment papers.
Army Regulations.

  Fourth week:

Morning - Sick and wounded.
Afternoon - Materia medica and pharmacy

  Fifth week: Minor surgery and first aid.

  Sixth week:
Elementary hygiene.
Review.


248

VETERINARY SECTION

  A special section for the training of Veterinary Corps enlisted men was started February 25, 1918.251 At first the training consisted mostly of drills and marching to get the men in proper physical condition. As soon as they received their equipment the men were assigned to recruit squads until proficient, when they were put into the regular squads for further instruction. Lectures on hygiene and military discipline, including honors and ceremonies, were given recruits as soon after joining as possible. All men were given one week's work and instruction at the corrals, where they were taught the misc and care of Cavalry horse equipment and stable management, including grooming, feeding, tying in, care of feet, and care of stalls.

Men with some previous experience were also assigned to the School of Hippology, Fort Riley, for a three weeks' course.251 Later, when there were no men with some training in this work, green men were assigned to the school for instruction, but the time required to make them qualified horseshoers had to be extended to two months.252 Difficulty was experienced in obtaining pistols with which to equip these men, and finally pistols were borrowed from the ambulance companies so as to give a certain amount of target practice to all enlisted men before they were ordered from the camp.252

  In May a noncommissioned officers' school was started with 18 selected men under instruction.253

  The training work in the veterinary section practically ceased in September, 1918, on account of shortage of veterinary recruits.254

  Copies of schedules followed in the instruction of these men are given below :251

  Schedule of instruction for week March 24 to 30, 1918

7.30 to 8.15 a.m ...................................................................Calisthenics; everybody except stable detail.
8.20 to 10.30 a.m..................................................................Equitation; second squad second week.
8.20 to 10.30 a.m..................................................................Equitation (Monday, Tuesday); tent pitching (Wednesday, Thursday, Friday); squad who  completes 20 hours' equitation.
8.20 to 10.30 a.m..................................................................Foot drill; old stable squad, recruit squad.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m................................................................First aid; second equitation squad, first equitation squad, old stable squad, recruit squad.
1.30 to 2.45 p.m....................................................................Gas drill (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday); all men in first-aid drill and every other man available.
2.45 to 3.45............................................................................Gas lecture (Thursday and Friday only).
2.55 to 4 p.m..........................................................................Foot drill; first equitation squad, stable squad, recruit squad.
2.55 to 4 p.m..........................................................................Stable sergeant's manual (lectures and recitations); second week for second equitation squad.
2.50 to 4 p.m..........................................................................Veterinary regulations and requisitions; selected men.
8 a.m.......................................................................................Inspection (Saturday).
9.30 to 10,30 a.m...................................................................Gas exposure (Saturday); gas house.
8.20 to 10.30 a.m...................................................................New recruits and awkward squad, foot drill.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m.................................................................Hygiene, Articles of War, military courtesy, and salute.
1.30 to 2.15 p.m.....................................................................Calisthetics.
2.20 to 4 p.m..........................................................................Drill.
4 to 4.50 p.m..........................................................................Hike; for entire command.
7.30 a.m to 4.25.....................................................................Stable detail; 20 men.


249

  Schedule of special classes, May 26 to June 1, 1918

7.30 a. m. to 4.30 p. m..........................................................Horseshoers' school; M. S. S.; 43 new men, 14 old men.
7.30 a. m. to 4.30 p. m..........................................................For police and guard duty at medical Officers' training school corrals; 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, 4 farriers, 66 privates, daily.
7.30 a. m. to 4.30 p. m..........................................................Manual of small arms; pistol target practice; all available men.
7.30 a. m. to 4.30 p. m..........................................................Noncommissioned officers' school; 18 specially selected men. Instruction in special foot drill, training and commanding, paper work in connection with office.

FORT RILEY, KANS.
(July 1, 1918, to February 4, 1919)1

  The partial merger of the Medical Officers' Training Camp at Fort Riley with that at Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. (see p.25), was made during the month of July, 1918.220With the change there was a sharp curtailment in the scope of training prescribed for the Fort Riley camp.

  The decision regarding the Reserve Corps instructors to he left at Fort Riley was based on the needs connected with the training of regimental detachments, ambulance companies, and field hospitals. This limitation in the extent of training was a material change from that previously effected by the camp. The new work was to be confined to the training of officers and enlisted men for service with front-line units, leaving for Camp Greenleaf the far more pretentious training for special services connected with units of the line of communications and base. The transfer of trained instructors removed from Fort Riley the majority of the Regular officers and a large number of Reserve Corps officers who had been developed into trained teachers along special lines. Certain excess property, including saddle horses and riding equipment, was sent to Camp Greenleaf, where it was greatly needed. The movement was almost entirely effected during July. There were left at Fort Riley five Regular medical officers. About 20 Reserve Corps officers remained who, by virtue of their prior service at the old camp as instructors or assistant instructors, could be utilized as instructors for the new camp.

  One of the first important changes made in camp administration immediately after the establishment of the new camp was the creation of the office of camp personnel adjutant, as directed by Special Regulations 57 and 57A. Because of the necessity of the work of this office being closely associated with headquarters, it was decided to move camp headquarters into one of the large barracks formerly occupied by one of the student companies. This building gave room not only for headquarters but for the desks, files, and personnel of the office of the camp personnel adjutant. The office of the officer in charge of the casual detachment was also moved from its former location in the camp to an adjoining building. These measures added to camp efficiency by having all administrative officers, including the quartermaster and mess officer, located close to headquarters.

  New medical officers for the course of instruction began to arrive during the transformation of the camp. They were assigned to barracks in company

1 Unless otherwise indicated, the statements herein are based on history of Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., from July 1, 1958, to its close, Feb. 4, 1919, by Lieut. Col. H. F. Pipes, M. C., Sept. 9, 1921. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 351.6 (M. O. T. C., Font Riley, Kans.).


250

organizations. The size of each company was not fixed numerically, being determined by the capacity of each building. From July 15 until the signing of the armistice 1,620 reported for training, and from the time of the organization of the camp until its close more than 4,500 officers and 25,470 enlisted men reported for training. Student Companies Nos. 36 to 54, inclusive, were created; 54 student companies in all were organized at Fort Riley.

  Officers who, in the opinion of the camp surgeon, were not physically fit for field service were acted upon by a board of medical officers, which rendered its report and recommendation as to whether or not the officer should he continued in the service. These reports were forwarded to the War Department. Some of these officers reported as physically unfit for field service were assigned to stations in the United States and some were discharged from the service.

  One of the important functions of the camp was the organization of units for overseas service. Orders were received for the organization of hospital trains, replacement units, evacuation ambulance companies, one corps sanitary train, and one Army sanitary train. Hospital Trains Nos. 38 and 39 were organized at the camp. Replacement Units Nos. 60 and 61, under orders dated August 9 and August 15, respectively, consisting of 250 men and 1 medical officer each, were reported ready for overseas service on August 16, 1918, and left Fort Riley, Kans., for Camp Merritt, N. J., August 24, 1918. Replacement Units Nos. 47 to 53, inclusive, consisting of 250 men each, were ordered to he organized by instructions, dated August 19, 1918, which were subsequently rescinded under instructions of September 7, 1918. Evacuation Ambulance Companies Nos. 21 to 49, inclusive, consisting of 1 officer and 37 enlisted men were ordered to be organized under instructions of September 7, 1918. Evacuation Ambulance Companies Nos. 27 and 28 and 36 to 41, inclusive, were reported ready for overseas service on October 22; and Evacuation Ambulance Companies Nos. 42 to 45, inclusive, were reported as ready under date of November 7. Evacuation Ambulance Companies 82 to 101, inclusive, were ordered organized under telegraphic instructions from the Surgeon General dated October 7, 1918, but these instructions were modified later by the Surgeon General under date of November 13 to the effect that they would not he sent overseas. Replacement Units Nos. 74 to 77, inclusive, consisting of 275 enlisted men and 2 officers each, were ordered to be organized under date of September 20, 1918, which was rescinded by telegram from the Surgeon General on October 19. Corps Sanitary Train No. 1 and Army Sanitary Train No. 1 were reported ready for overseas service on November 7, 1918. On November 21, 1918, instructions were received canceling all shipments of troops because of the signing of the armistice.

  The organization of these overseas units was placed in the hands of the officer in charge of the casual detachment and the commanding officer of the sanitary train. As far as possible men were assigned to the units in accordance with their vocational qualifications, as prescribed by tables of organization. In several instances it was impossible to find men trained along specific lines to make a unit complete. This was due primarily to the shortage of enlisted men that developed in the camp.


251

  Troop shipments and all the details relative thereto were performed by an entraining officer. Immediately upon receipt of orders from The Adjutant General directing a troop shipment, the entraining officer would be notified by headquarters. He immediately interviewed a railroad administration representative at Camp Funston, and arrangements were made for placing the necessary number of coaches and baggage cars on the medical officers' training camp siding of the Union Pacific Railroad.

  The camp quartermaster was a member of the Quartermaster Corps in the first Fort Riley camp. He was succeeded by a medical officer, detailed as camp quartermaster. The medical officers' training camp was under the commanding officer at Fort Riley for purposes of administration and supply only. The source of supply of all Quartermaster Corps articles was, therefore, Fort Riley. The Medical Department property was obtained from the medical supply depot at Camp Funston. Rations were procured from the quartermaster at Fort Riley or purchased in open market. Articles of uniform and camp equipment issued to the enlisted men were obtained by the camp quartermaster from Fort Riley, and in turn reissued by him to the several organizations in the camp. This service was satisfactory. The training camp maintained a motor-repair shop which rendered the necessary service for ordinary motor repairs required in the camp. Toward the close of the camp orders were received transferring all motor vehicles to the Motor Transport Corps.

  The messing of the student officers and the enlisted men in the camp was under the control of the camp mess officer. Formerly this work was done by a captain of the Quartermaster Corps, and upon his transfer to Camp Greenleaf, his responsible duties devolved upon a lieutenant in the Medical Corps who had previously seen very little service along that line. This officer assumed the duties of camp mess officer in an admirable fashion and rendered very efficient service. He was responsible for the student officers' messes and the messes maintained for the majority of the enlisted men. One, two, or three messes were maintained for the student officers according to the number present. Officers were charged a dollar a day for their food. The mess was satisfactory, but it required untiring vigilance to prevent complaints. Civilian cooks and waiters were employed in these messes. A large general mess was maintained for the enlisted men, located in the vacated artillery gun sheds at Fort Riley. Several messes were conducted in various locations throughout the camp for the enlisted men of the casual detachment. Other independent messes were maintained for such permanent camp organizations as the field hospital and ambulance companies.

  The Medical Department service in the camp was efficiently handled by a medical officer designated as camp surgeon, assisted by a variable number of medical officers, determined by the amount of current work. The base hospital at Fort Riley was considered as the hospital for sick of the command. All medical detachment reports relative to the sick and wounded were rendered by the base hospital. The surgeon of the camp did not supervise the sanitation of the camp, which was placed in the hands of an officer designated as camp sanitary inspector. The camp surgeon held daily sick call and made all reports on the physical examination of officers and enlisted men. All venereal eases


252

were handled in the camp, except cases of syphilis requiring the administration of salvarsan, which was given at the base hospital. The health of the command was very good. During the influenza epidemic of October, 1918, an extemporized camp hospital was organized for the receipt of all influenza patients. From this camp hospital cases were promptly transferred to the base hospital when they presented severe symptoms. No Medical Department records were kept in the camp of cases requiring slight treatment. There was a small camp hospital, regularly established in connection with the camp infirmary, to which one or more medical officers were assigned for the purpose of treating minor cases of the sick of the command. No permanent Medical Department records were kept of this group of cases.

  The camp exchange was centrally located in the training camp, but during the periods when the enlisted strength of the command varied between three and four thousand men one small subsidiary exchange was established. During the summer of 1918 the receipts of the exchange were heavy. A small improvised bakery was established, first by the mess officer, but subsequently it was taken over by the camp exchange in order to avoid the accumulation of unauthorized funds in the hands of that officer. Cakes, pies, and pastry, together with ice cream, were made by the bakery and considerable profit accrued from its operation. The exchange fulfilled a useful need in the camp, particularly in meeting the requirements of the enlisted men. Sales were much cheaper than those prevailing in the adjoining towns of Manhattan and Junction City, and yet the margin of profit was such as to permit of liberal dividends to those organizations participating in it. Upon the closure of the camp in February, 1919, the camp exchange officer, in pursuance of general instruction from The Adjutant General, transmitted to the War Department over $40,000, which was obtained from cash on hand and money accruing from the sale of stock and fixtures.

  The quarters occupied by officers and enlisted men were wooden cantonment buildings of the one-story type, of a capacity varying from 80 to 100 men. They were heated by coal stoves, from two to four stoves in each building. On account of the wooden construction of these barracks, although lined with beaver board, during the severe winters of 1917-18 and 1918-19 there was some discomfort from the cold. Lavatories were in the rear and detached from each barrack, one, as a rule, being provided for each building. There were not adequate quarters for the enlisted men at the medical officers' training camp at Fort Riley until the latter part of the summer of 1918, when the alteration and remodeling of 18 Cavalry stables had been completed in the casual area of the training camp. Lumber and other material were available for these alterations, and the labor was supplied by the enlisted men of the camp. From the Cavalry stable sheds fairly comfortable barracks were obtained by walling and flooring them. Adequate doors and windows were provided, together with stoves and iron bunks. Thus modified, the barracks were capable of holding from 80 to 120 enlisted men each, allowing each man the proper. amount of floor space. In these areas there was some discomfort on account of the lack of lavatories. In sonic cases it was necessary to establish pit latrines, and constant vigilance was required to keep them in proper condition. It was


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planned to construct camp lavatories connected with the water system of the camp in the area of these modified barracks, but this was not done because of the cessation of camp activities shortly after the signing of the armistice. During the fall of 1918, realizing that a large lecture hall must be provided for the officers' school during the winter, an auditorium with a seating capacity of 800 was erected by the enlisted men of the command. It met a great need of the camp, was centrally located, and was used as a lecture hall and a place for theatrical amusements for the benefit of the entire command.

GENERAL INSTRUCTION FOR OFFICERS

  In the old order of things among the medical officers' training camps it had been ascertained that no more than 40 percent of the Medical Reserve Corps officers called into active service during the war were sent to one of the several Medical Department training camps. The Surgeon General held that a shorter course of instruction would permit more medical officers to receive a course of medico-military instruction prior to their assignment to duty either in the United States or overseas. The officer then in charge of the training camp division of the Surgeon General's Office expressed the opinion that one month should prove adequate for this training, provided it was limited to only a few major subjects, with an entire elimination of all strictly professional instruction. With this idea in view, the following orders covering a course of instruction were issued:

General Order No. 37.

HEADQUARTERS MEDICAL OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMP,
Fort Riley, Kans., July 16, 1918.

  1. A course of instruction will be given to officers assigned to this camp for duty for preliminary instruction prior to their permanent assignment to units or other detail. As a rule the officers to take this instruction will be those recently called to active service from civil life or those officers previously called who have not had the benefit of training camp work.

  The following subjects will be taken up and the hours allotted to them as follows:
  Hours
Customs of the service and duties of the soldier..................................................1
Demonstration of personal equipment, sanitary soldier, and field and surplus kits.............1
Tent pitching, shelter half (1 hour); tent pitching pyramidal tent (2 hours)............3
Tent pitching, hospital tentage.................................2
Regimental detachment, its equipment, use, and internal administration...........4
Demonstration of regimental combat equipment..............................2
First aid, using soldiers' equipment only.....................................1
Army Regulations, general orders, bulletins, special regulations, War Department, essential elements of.............15
Manual of the Medical Department, essential elements of...................................................15
Paper work, Medical Department, Quartermaster Department, Ordnance Department.........15
Demonstration of field sanitary appliances (2 hours); sanitary inspections (2 hours).........4
Ambulance companies, equipment, use, and internal administration............4
Field hospitals, use, and internal administration...........................4
Manual for Courts-Martial and Military Law..................................3
Poison gases and liquid fire (2 hours); gas mask drill (2 hours)............4
Demonstration of trench system..............................................2
Equitation, including care of animals, saddling, etc. (each Saturday afternoon)....................4


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  2. The senior instructors in Army Regulations, Manual for the Medical Department, paper work (Medical Department), and officers in charge of drills, at the end of their subject will hold an examination and submit their marks on the student officers' work. Instructors in the other subjects will not submit marks but will make report to the commanding officer if any student officer's work is not satisfactory.
  3. The director ambulance companies, director field hospitals, and officer in charge regimental detachments (now casuals) will submit marks on the general efficiency and adaptability demonstrated by the student officers assigned to them for temporary duty in their departments, respectively.
  4. This school of instruction will be held for all student officers, whether assigned to ambulance companies, field hospital companies, or regimental detachments, and if practicable only one class will be held for the entire course. All student companies take the several classes and subjects at the same time, irrespective as to when they are organized.
  5. The schedule of instruction consists of four weeks, called first, second, third, and fourth week course. By keeping a record at headquarters of the course of instruction and day of that week in which the officer began his course he will receive his entire course, provided he remains at the school for four weeks.

By direction of Lieutenant Colonel Pipes:
J. N. SHERMAN,
Captain, M. R.- C., Assistant Adjutant.

General Order No. 38.

HEADQUARTERS MEDICAL OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMP,
Fort Riley, Kans., July 16, 1918.

  1. In addition to their other duties, the following officers are detailed as instructors in connection with the School of Instruction, medical officers' training camp, as follows:
 
SENIOR INSTRUCTOR   SUBJECT

Captain Abraham..........................................................Customs of the service and duties of the soldier.
  Demonstration of personal equipment, sanitary soldiers, and field and surplus kits.
  Tent pitching, shelter half tent pitching, pyramidal tent pitching, hospital tentage.
Major Clark.............Regimental detachment, its equipment, use, and internal administration.
Lieutenant Baird..................First aid, using soldier's equipment only.
Major Kinard......................Army Regulations, general orders, bulletins, special regulations of War Department
Lieut. Carl Davis.................Essential elements of Manual for the Medical Department.
Major Morrill.....................Essential elements of paper work, medical quartermaster Ordnance Department.
Lieutenant Bayer..................Demonstration, field sanitary appliances, sanitary inspectors.
Lieutenant Colonel Cook............................................Ambulance company, its equipment, use, and internal administration.
Major Wetherbee.........................Field hospital, its equipment, use, and internal administration.
Major Peters............................Manual for Courts-Martial and Military Law.
Lieutenant Halley.......................Poison gases and liquid fire and gas-mask drill.
Captain Pickard.........................Demonstration of trench system.
Lieutenant Hennessey....................Physical drill and sanitary drill.
Lieutenant Baird........................Equitation, including care of animals, saddling, etc.

By direction of Lieutenant Colonel Pipes:
J. N. SHERMAN
Captain, M. R. C., Assistant Adjutant

  Copies of these orders were sent to the Surgeon General, who decided that the new course of instruction should be extended from the period of one month to that of six weeks. This was accomplished by the following order:


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General Order No. 39.

HEADQUARTERS MEDICAL OFFICERS TRAINING CAMP,
Fort Riley, Kans. August 19, 1918.

  1. Beginning September 1, 1918, the official course of instruction at this camp for student-officers will extend over a period of six weeks.
  2. A similar course of instruction for a like period will be begun on the 1st day of each succeeding month for such officers as shall have reported for same.
  3. The officers who remain after the completion of their course of six weeks will continue to receive instruction until permanent assignment is made for them. This instruction will begin the15th day of each month and will be for the most part practical and will be given under the supervision of the directors of field hospital companies and of ambulance companies. Future orders from headquarters will govern assignment of such officers as remain for this instruction.
4. In addition to their other duties the following officers will give a course of instruction in the subjects as herein specified in the School for Medical Officers to begin September 1, 1918:

Hours
Army Regulations, essentials of (Maj. K. W. Kinard, M. C.)..............18
Demonstration of field sanitary appliances (Capt. A. G. Byers, M.C.)........2
Demonstration of field combat equipment(Lieut. R. A. Hennessey, M.C.)........2
Demonstration of trench system (Lieut. R. A. Hennessey, M.C.).............2
Duties of personnel adjutant (Capt. W. L. Nelson, M.C.)...........2
Examination of recruits with papers and finger prints (Maj. A. M.Farrell, M.C.)......8
Field Service Regulations, essentials of (Lieut. Carl Davis, M.C.)......5
Field and surplus kits; care and maintenance of soldier's equipment (Capt. E. H. Morgan, M. C.)............1
General organization of Medical Department for war (Lieut. Carl Davis, M.C.).......1
Handling of rations and mess management (Lieut. H. I.Conn, M.C.)..............2
Manual for the Medical Department, essentials of (Maj F. H.Dammasch, M.C.)...8
Manual for Courts-Martial and Military Law,essentials of (Maj.J. D. Peters, M.C.)......5
Map reading, use of compass, orientation, road sketching, etc. (Capt. F. E. Ellison, M.C.).......7
Military hygiene and sanitation, essentials of (Maj. H. C. Parker, M.C...............9
British Medical Service at the front (Maj. W.B. McDermott, C. A. M.C......5
Paper work relating to Ordnance Department,essentials of (Maj. F. H. Dammasch, M.C.)....2
Paper work relating to Quartermaster Department, essentials of (Maj. F. H. Dammasch, M. C.).......4
Paper work relating to the Medical Department, essentials of (Maj. F. H. Dammasch, M. C...........12
Poison gases, protection against, symptoms and treatment (demonstration); liquid fire (Capt. G. D. Halley, M.C.)......................2
Practical demonstration of saddling, bridling, and grooming; care of leather (Capt. Robert J. Coffeen, V.C.)................................4
Tent pitching, hospital tentage (Capt. H. C. Parsons, M. C.)................2
Tent pitching, shelter tent (Capt. H. C. Parsons, M.C.)............................2
Tent pitching, pyramidal and wail tent (Capt. H. C. Parsons, M.C.........2
Tent pitching, ward tent (Capt. H. C. Parsons, M.C.)...............2
The ambulance company, its equipment, use, and internal administration (Capt. V. R. Abraham, M.C.)............6
The field hospital, its equipment, use, and internal administration(Maj. J. R. Wetherbee, M. C.)..........7
The Medical Department in campaign and sanitary tactics (Maj. H. C.4Parker, M.C.).......5
The regimental detachment, its use and internal administration (Lieut. R. A. Hennessey, M. C.)...........4
The service and mechanism of supply in the field (Lieut.Donald J. Enfield, M. C.) ...........1
Tactical use of Infantry, Cavalry, and Field Artillery (Capt.E. H. Morgan, M.C.).........1


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  Hours
Gas-mask drill (Capt. G. D. Halley, M. C.)..........................................................................................................................................................2
Equitation and hikes (hikes, Capt. A. E. Westervelt, M. C.; equitation, Lieut. B. A. Baird, M. C.)..........................................................38
Practical demonstration, medical service, zone of the advance, including regimental detachment and sanitary train, complete...... 12

Total hours for course...........................195

  Because of the shortage of instructors, it was realized from the beginning that the only possible system of instruction that could be adopted was a rotary course, in which all of the student officers were in one large class. Immediately upon reporting to the camp, the new medical officer was assigned to this class where he took up the course of instruction then going on. As the class work was continuous and repeated, at the end of one month, and later six weeks, each officer covered the entire course of instruction. This method was not as efficient as that of the former system of instruction followed at Fort Riley, where instruction was given by companies, and, therefore, in comparatively small classes, which permitted not only lectures but recitations. When the course was of one month's duration, four schedules of instruction were issued one for each week as follows:

Schedule for the first week's instruction

  1. Reveille. Hours designated by camp orders as to roll calls.
2. Setting-up exercises for 20 minutes, beginning immediately after reveille roll call. Daily except Sunday and holidays.
3. Breakfast, followed by police of barracks, etc.
4. 7 to 8 a. m. sanitary drill, daily except Friday, Sunday, and holidays; 7 to 8, camp gymnasium, Friday.
5. 8.15, Saturday, student company inspection by officer in charge of student companies.
6. 8.15 to 11.30, daily except Sunday, student officers will be reported to organizations to which they have been temporarily assigned to duty, namely, duty with ambulance company, field hospital, and regimental detachment (casuals at present). On Saturday student officers report immediately after Saturday morning inspection.
  7. School for medical officers.

  During the summer of 1918, on account of the heat, class instruction was given out of doors in one of the numerous natural amphitheaters created by deep, shady gullies in the camp. Later, when the weather grew cooler, class instruction was given in the large auditorium, close to headquarters. Supplementary to the theoretical course heretofore described, a practical course of instruction was given by the commanding officer of the Second Sanitary Train, to which organization student officers were assigned prior to their transfer from camp. This could not always be done because of the numerous orders received transferring medical officers away from the camp. In the sanitary train an intensive practical course of instruction was given in ambulance company and field hospital work. The ambulance companies and field hospitals of the Second Sanitary Train at Fort Riley were motorized.

  It had formerly been the custom of the commanding officer to recommend to the Surgeon General the assignment of student medical officers. Orders were then requested from The Adjutant General of the Army and transfers effected, usually as recommended. After the establishment of the new camp,


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this method was not followed out, and all orders were received direct from The Adjutant General ordering the transfer of medical officers by number and not by name. No information was given as to the character of the service required, other than that inferred from the place covered by the particular order. Each officer was interviewed by the commanding officer of the camp and an estimate made upon his fitness for service based upon his character, appearance, address, military bearing, and reported efficiency in class work. The officers were then sent to their designated places by camp orders, and telegrams were sent to The Adjutant General and the Surgeon General giving the name of each officer transferred and place to which transferred.

GENERAL COURSE OF INSTRUCTION FOR ENLISTED MEN

The source of enlisted personnel of the camp was mainly by draft from Kansas and States contiguous thereto. Toward the latter period of the life of the camp, orders were received for the transfer of 3,000 men from Camp Funston, Kans., for the organization of units for overseas service, but only a small portion of these men were transferred to Fort Riley.

  Instruction of the enlisted men was placed in the hands of the officer in charge of the casual detachment. The work taken up was the school of the soldier, marching, tent pitching, individual cooking, and other training for field service. Full field equipment of the enlisted men of the Medical Department was not available at Fort Riley for issue to all enlisted men. This was due to the scarcity of equipment in the United States and its conservation for issue to troops upon arrival overseas. This shortage of essential articles of individual equipment was an impediment to the thorough instruction of troops.

  Noncommissioned officers were appointed to all grades by the commanding officer in accordance with existing orders. On August 24, 1918, a school of instruction for noncommissioned officers, with a view to their training for commissions in the Sanitary Corps, was established. This course of instruction was covered by the following order:

General Order No. 41.

HEADQUARTERS MEDICAL OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMP,
Fort Riley, Kans., August 24, 1918.

  1. A school for noncommissioned officers, with a view of their training for commissions in the Sanitary Corps for special service with sanitary detachments, will be established at the camp and will commence Tuesday, August 27, 1918.
  2. Old headquarters building is assigned as the assembly hall for this school.
  3. The following officers and noncommissioned officers, in addition to their other duties, are assigned as instructors in the subjects indicated after their names, together with the time allotted to each subject.
  4. Maj. K. W. Kinard, M. C., in addition to his other duties, is detailed as officer in charge of this school  .


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[table]

By order of Lieutenant Colonel Pipes:
J. D. ENFIELD,
First Lieutenant, M. C., Assistant Adjutant.

Thirty-eight noncommissioned officers and two privates took this course, Athletics and physical training of the enlisted men were placed in charge of one officer who had had considerable experience in such work. Baseball, football,and basket ball were taken up.

  A letter was received from the Surgeon General under date of November 21, 1918, stating that orders had been issued by The Adjutant General of the Army that all shipping schedules designating troops for early service overseas had been revoked. Meanwhile orders were received directing the discharge of emergency officers and enlisted men. All such officers were examined physically prior to their discharge and sent to their homes. Orders were then received to transfer all property to Fort Riley, Kans, excepting Medical Department property, which was turned over to the medical supply depot at Camp Funston. During December, 1918, and January, 1919, there was a progressive reduction of the strength of the command. All enlisted men regularly enlisted in the Army and not eligible for discharge were transferred to places designated by The Adjutant General. Orders were requested for the Regular medical officers, and finally on February 4, 1919, the medical officers' training camp was formally closed. Prior to its final abandonment the entire camp was thoroughly policed, and after rigid inspection of all buildings and grounds the camp was turned over to the commanding officer, Fort Riley.


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FORT BENJAMIN HARRISON, IND.m

ORGANIZATION

The medical officer who had been detailed to act as commanding officer of the training camp255arrived on May 23, 1917. The buildings, which had been ordered to be ready for occupancy on June 1, by 600 student officers, 1 were only partially completed, and the equipment was meager. The camp opened, however, on June 1, with 118 student officers, 9 Regular officers (who had been ordered to report as instructors), 150 recruits, and 1 female clerk.

SANITATION

  The sanitation of the medical camp was at all times as good as general conditions would permit; the sanitation of the military reservation as a whole was unsatisfactory for some weeks. To a certain extent this was inevitable, as the rapid change of the place from a garrisoned post to a great camp of recruits entailed the presence not only of recruits, but also of thousands of civilian laborers and hundreds of hired teams of horses, with the result that soil pollution got far ahead of conservancy measures, and fly breeding was extensive. Up to August 10 these conditions were not within the control of the medical officers' training camp, but on that date the commander of Fort Benjamin Harrison issued an order placing sanitary control of the reservation in the hands of the commandant of the camp, and providing means for making the control effective. Thereafter the faulty conditions were rapidly corrected and the process of correction constituted valuable instruction in sanitation.

INSTRUCTION

OFFICERS

  The course of instruction followed the outline prescribed by the War Department,256 which had beeti arranged to cover schedules of 10 hours' work per day for 13 weeks. Schedules for June, July, and August were prepared accordingly.

  The plan was to divide the student officers into companies, each to be commanded and instructed, in accordance with the schedule, by an officer of the Regular service. Each of the Regular officers had assigned to him in addition a subject or subjects in which he was to act as specialist and supervisor of instruction in all companies; for example, one officer was to plan and supervise all instruction relating to courts-martial, another that of equitation, another that of field hospital work. This plan was very good fundamentally, but many obstacles arose to interfere with its execution, notably among them being the following: (a) The irregular arrival of new men, which necessitated the placing of some in classes which had gone over from a few days to some weeks of instruction; or, as an alternative, starting new classes with inexperienced reserve officers in charge. The former procedure was the more satisfactory for a while, but the increase in numbers and the progress of the course necessitated change to the latter; (b)frequent calls to send officers away from the camp for foreign

  m Unless otherwise indicated, the statements herein are based on: History of Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind., by Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., Nov. 30, 1917. On file, record room, Surgeon General's Office 354.6 (Fort Benjamin Harrison, M. O. T. C. (C)).


260

service or duty in other places; (c) frequent calls to give numbers of officers training for special work, to be taken up at early dates; (d) organization of units which demanded the whole time of officers assigned to them.

  The broad outlines as given in the course of instruction prescribed by the War Department256 were followed as closely as possible. Every effort was made to have the instruction given by, or under the direct personal supervision of, Regular medical officers, to which end a Regular officer was assigned over as small a group of student officers as the supply of Regulars allowed. In general, each instructor had under him from 100 to 150 student officers. He could keep in touch with that number, learn their names, faces, and capacities, adapt instruction to individual needs, and answer the numerous questions which could be answered out of extensive experience, rather than out of books.

  All student officers, despite their rank, on arrival were required to remove their insignia and to assume the role of cadets for a time under a company commander and two assistants. Each Regular officer instructor had reserve officers as assistants, who, in time, came to be valuable teachers. It was not to be expected, however, that they would be able to take the place of Regular officers. It was the unanimous opinion at the camp that the personal influence and teaching of the Regular officers was the most important part of the instruction scheme.

  The lectures and quizzes were given in the company mess halls, except in very hot weather, when they were given in shaded groves in the camp. In addition to the routine class instruction, each Regular officer had assigned to him some subject or subjects which he was to prepare for or give to the entire camp, either in mass assemblage or by companies or sections. He was responsible for this instruction, whether he gave it in person or through assistants. These individual officers were responsible for instruction in map reading, road sketching, and field problems; hospital work and tent pitching; ambulance company work; regimental detachment work; equitation; and so on through the list. At first, they gave this instruction in person, and some of it was so given throughout the entire period; however, as assistants became sufficiently trained, their services were utilized for this purpose, under the supervision of the responsible officers. Later, certain reserve officers with special training in certain subjects assumed full charge of instruction in these subjects. For example, one officer taught the care of wounds in battle-front hospitals, another gas defense, and another examination for pulmonary tuberculosis, and as stated before, many reserve officers gave valuable lectures on special subjects.

  By the beginning of July it was apparent that newly arriving officers were at a disadvantage if placed in companies which had already received a month of the course of instruction; the number of arrivals was also increasing so rapidly as to show the necessity for forming new companies. No additional Regular officers were obtainable as instructors, and it was intimated that some of those at the camp might be ordered away. So it was determined to put two understudies at work with each Regular, at the same time realizing the impossibility of developing them into capable instructors in all the duties of the Medical Department in a few months. It was pointed out to the Surgeon General that it was much easier to develop men into capable field officers and


261

send them out to the front in place of Regulars than to have them take the place of Regulars in a camp of instruction. Attention of the Surgeon General again later was called to the impracticability of using reserve officers as instructors, but it was not possible to furnish any more Regular officers, as the need for services elsewhere was too great.

  As previously noted, one of the disadvantages of the plan of instruction was that it extended over a period sufficiently long to entail the calling away of men before the completion of the course. On such occasion, the question of the advisability of shortening the course arose. In view of the fact that more than half of the medical officers ordered to duty with troops went directly from their homes to that duty without any preliminary training, it appeared that it would have been preferable to plan for an intensive course of adaptation for all extending over a period of six weeks rather than the present plan of giving a minority of men a course lasting twice as long. No change in this direction was made, however, during the first three months'course. Later it became necessary to extend the use of reserve officers as teachers. This resulted in a lessening of interest on the part of the student officers and in a lowering of the efficiency of the work.

  On July 30 the commandant received word from the Surgeon General that on August 24 personnel to form training cadres for the sanitary trains of the National Army would have to be sent out.

  This made it necessary to bring about an almost complete rearrangement and reorganization of the units then in camp. The 4 field hospitals and 4 ambulance companies had to be split into 6, regimental detachments had to be split and rearranged, student officers had to be reassigned, and other changes made. It was apparent that at least 6 field hospitals and 6 ambulance companies would have to be made, 5 to be sent out and a skeleton one to be kept to look after the equipment of the departing companies. These contemplated withdrawals, and resulting changes again seriously interfered with the regular schedule, as it became necessary to concentrate upon the training and instruction of the new units of sanitary trains which were to go away. The plan then outlined and subsequently carried out in larger part was that one hospital company and one ambulance company should be sent to each of five National Army camps, where each was to expand into and form the training cadre of a battalion, the hospital company thus developing into a hospital battalion, the ambulance company into an ambulance battalion.

ENLISTED MEN

  The instruction of the enlisted men was carried on intensively from the beginning, mainly under four experienced Regular officers. Noncommissioned officers were developed in fair numbers and the field work of the detachments and units was brought to and kept in a good state of efficiency. All enlisted men not belonging to the units formed were organized into and trained as regimental sanitary detachments.


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SUMMARY

Supplies and men continued to come in until the end of September, but by that time it was definitely known that the camp was to close by the 1st of December (1917), and thereafter efforts were concentrated on giving as much training as possible to men who had arrived. This was mainly training in field work and administration, although some effort was also made to give instruction in special medical subjects, such as diagnosis of cardiovascular conditions and tuberculosis, Roentgenology, and orthopedics. Special classes were also trained for work as adjutants, registrars, and in other administration poistions.

  The training in medical specialties was never carried to the extent in this camp to which it was later carried at Camp Greenleaf; it was not believed by the commandant that a training camp such as those established in 1917, operated under the conditions there obtaining, was a satisfactory place in which to give such training. Nevertheless good was accomplished by standardizing methods and technique and increasing the general effectiveness of the average of men doing special work.

The strength of the camp at 15-day intervals was as follows:

[table]

 Altogether 2,141 officers and 4,211 enlisted men passed through the camp.

  The units organized were 4 field hospitals, 4 ambulance companies, and 1 evacuation hospital. The field hospitals and ambulance companies were twice formed, as almost their entire personnel was ordered away in August to form units elsewhere. In addition to the units organized here, 1 field hospital and 1 ambulance company of the Indiana National Guard and 1 base hospital unit were sent to the camp for training.

  The camp was closed on December 2, 1917.

FORT DES MOINES, IOWAn
(For Colored Officers and Enlisted Men)

ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION

  The training camp for colored medical reserve officers and enlisted men of the Medical Department was organized July 26, 1917, at Fort Des Moines, Iowa. The course of instruction is outlined in the following letter:257

  1. A training camp for colored medical officers has been authorized established at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, under first indorsement (354.1), The Adjutant General's Office,

  n Unless otherwise indicated, the facts stated herein are based on: Report of Activities, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Des Moines, Iowa, July 26 to Nov. 13, 1917. By Lieut. Col. E. G. Bingham, M. C., commandant. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (Fort Des Moines, Iowa, M. O. T. C.).


263

dated July 10, 1917. The capacity of this camp is 50 student officers, colored, and 10 regimental sanitary detachments, colored, for use in training colored medical officers and to meet the needs of colored troops as these are later organized.

  2. This training camp will be under the immediate jurisdiction of the local commander for purposes of administration and supply. It is under the Surgeon General in respect to all matters relating to the work of instruction. For the latter purpose, the surgeon, Fort Des Moines, will direct and be responsible for all matters of instruction.

  3. These instructions are intended to coordinate the work at the various medical camps of instruction so that it will be carried out on common lines.
  Also so that the instruction given at these camps, and that which it is proposed to give the medical personnel necessarily serving with troops to meet their needs in the field and at posts, shall have similar basis and method.
To the end that the instruction to be given and the results to be secured shall be standardized, the general provisions of this letter will be strictly carried out. All details of execution are left to you, and you are held responsible for proper results.

  4. The course at the medical officers' training camps is intended to give the student officers a general idea of the basic duties of a medical officer and prepare them for service with troops in the field. Training will be intensive and pushed as rapidly as possible.

5. The training to be given is intended to prepare these officers to conduct the service of the Medical Department without either the supervision of experienced medical officers or the aid of well-qualified noncommissioned officers. The limited number of these two classes in the Medical Department, and the necessity of assigning many of them to important administrative duties, renders it possible that few, if any, will be available for regimental duty.
For this reason, also, upon the reserve medical officers graduated from these training camps will fall the duty of themselves drilling and training the thousands of enlisted raw recruits which will be assigned to the Medical Department, and they must be put into a condition to carry out effectively this most important work.

  6. Your camp will have accommodations for 50 student medical officers. They will be organized into a company, duly officered and noncommissioned officered from among themselves, and trained on a basis of medical cadets. It is desired to impress upon these new officers, by actual experience, what will later be required by them of their subordinates.

  7. Your staff will be composed of all Regular medical officers at your post, who will be instructors in addition to their other duties. Due to the shortage of Regular officers, specially qualified militia or reserve medical officers may be assigned to such duty. Officers with regimental detachments will, in addition to their duties as such, serve as instructors.
You will make such assignments to instruction duty as you deem best, making due effort to assign to each subject officers known to you to have given special attention thereto and to possess ability to impart information.
You are authorized to use as instructors any student officers found specially qualified in any subject, and to give them special authority while so serving,irrespective of rank.
Your staff of instructors will, if desired, give the necessary instruction in hygiene and first aid to the line-officer candidates of the adjacent training camp. Conversely, you should ask the assistance of the line-officer instructors at line camps in teaching map reading, in special lectures, and in the tactical part of medicomilitary problems and maneuvers.

8. Instruction by lectures, except in special subjects, will, as far as possible, give place to recitations. Lectures are not considered as effective as recitations in imparting detailed information, nor do they afford opportunity to test the capacity and grade the student.
Lessons will, therefore, be assigned in the authorized textbooks, and quizzes held thereon, for the purpose of grounding them in theory and insuring that a competent knowledge of methods and principles has been acquired.

  9. But coincident with the theoretical instruction, the student officers should as far as possible be made to visualize the organizations, apparatus, and methods concerned. In addition to study and lectures, it is most important that they should learn in seeing and doing. So far as possible, instruction will be made practical.


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To this end, for example, specimens of all sanitary appliances and methods likely to be of use in field work will be procured or constructed, and continually kept in effective operation at the camp, and the officers will be shown their purpose and practical use.
  Bombproofs for trench warfare and gas chambers for practical trial of protection against poison gases will be constructed.
  In connection with paper work, all papers required by the medical and other departments will be actually made out until familiarity therewith and correctness of result is secured.
  Mess management, taught in theory, will be actually demonstrated in the organization kitchens. Applied camp sanitation will be taught by sanitary inspections.Drill will be taught until every officer can himself effectively handle and instruct therein the units and detachments of the Medical Department.
The internal economy and administration of regimental detachments will be taught not only by books but by assignment to such organizations and quartering and subsistence therewith, and by actually handling them in marches and comprehensive field problems.To permit of the latter it is expected that 10 regimental sanitary detachments, all complete and kept recruited up to war strength, will be organized at your camp without delay. The regimental detachments will be organized as three provisional companies, to be split into their integral regimental parts for demonstration purposes.

  10. You will assign student officers to duty with regimental detachments, as their officers and as supernumeraries, to familiarize them with these organizations, the handling of men, etc. Officers so assigned should be quartered and messed with these organizations, but will pursue the regular curriculum of training at the camp. Assignments as supernumeraries should be made in rotation, and ordinarily for 30 days with each organization.

  11. The training course will be divided into three periods, of one month each. The first, while instructing the officer as such, is intended especially to familiarize him with the duties of his enlisted subordinates whom he must shortly train. The second takes up his training in his own special functions as an officer. The third carries on and completes the work of the second period.
  New training classes should as far as possible be started at the conclusion of each month's training period. However, to meet immediate needs, officers needing training will be sent to camps at any time and will be organized at once into groups for instruction.

  12. The following textbooks are authorized for the course of instruction: Army Regulations, Manual for the Medical Department, Field Service Regulations, Drill Regulations for Sanitary Troops, Manual for Courts-Martial.
These books will be invoiced to you without requisition. You will issue one copy of each to each student officer, who will take them with him when he leaves camp for duty elsewhere for reference and use in training his subordinates.
  Maps and war-game sets will be sent without requisition.
You will procure maps of the maneuver grounds in the vicinity of your camp from the commanding general of your department. One map should be available to each student officer.

  13. The following school textbooks will be sent you without requisition. They are for use in your training work and will not be taken away by officers.
  Field Physical Training of Soldier, Koshler.
  Special Regulations No. 23.
  Manual of Physical Training, Koshler.
  Technical Military Dictionary (English-French and French-English), Willcox.
  Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry, 1917.
  Handbook for Sanitary Troops, Mason.
  Medical Service in Campaign, Straub.
  Elements of Military Hygiene, Ashburn.
  Principles of Sanitary Tactics, Munson.
  Military Hygiene, Havard.
  Sanitation in War, Lelean.
  Gunshot Injuries, LaGarde.
  Military Surgery, Penhallow.
  Surgery in War, Hull.
  Also Merton's life-size first-aid charts.


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  In addition, a miscellaneous assortment of reprints, bulletins, etc., will be sent you for reference and distribution. Also a series of current medical publications.

  14. The daily instruction, except Saturday afternoon and Sunday, should approximate seven and one-half hours.
  It is left to the commandant of cads medical officers' training camp to prepare schedules for the hours available in each period of instruction among the subjects and the therefor required. This will enable the meeting of the needs of emergency, stormy weather, etc.   Copies of the detailed schedules so prepared by you will be furnished this office as soon as practicable.

  15. The following general scheme is suggested for the daily schedule for the first month:

* * * * *  *

  16. On this general plan, 180 hours of formal instruction will be given monthly. While the colored medical officers will be assigned to regiments, they should of course be instructed in the work of the Medical Department as a whole. No evening exercises are contemplated. Time will be needed for study. Saturday afternoon should be a rest period. Officers should be encouraged in equitation on Sunday, preferably in form of tactical ride. The schedule provided for a total course of 580 hours of instruction.

17. The following scheme shows the proposed scope and distribution of training of medical officers during the first period of one month of 30 days: b
 
  * * *  *  *  *

18. Dental surgeons will be required to take the general course for medical officers, with the exception of the subjects which pertain more or less exclusively to the work of medical officers as such, and with the substitution therefor of subjects directly relating to the dental service. Pending instructions from this office, you will arrange tentatively for this special instruction.

  19. If any reserve officer is found unfit for the service by reason of physical, mental, moral, or temperamental reasons, you will, on vote of your staff of instructors, recommend him to this office for separation from the service.

20. Attention is invited to the administrative as well as training problems presented by your camp. The medical officers under training must be sheltered, fed, supplied, and administered, their camp policed, wastes disposed of, mounts cared for, etc.
  The personnel of the regimental detachments will, in addition to their other duties, be used by you as a service corps to carry out the above duties.

21. You will, without delay, secure definite accommodations and facilities for your medical training camp, in respect to the other training camp near by, so that there may be no later interruptions, modifications, or curtailment of the work of the Medical Departmentcamp.

  22. The medical officers' mess will not he supported from Government funds. Doubtless the quartermaster can furnish the necessary kitchen and mess equipment. Cost of mess will be charged on the officers' mess bills.

  23. For the purpose of practice in equitation, you will make requisition at once for the necessary number of mounts and saddle equipment therefor, on the basis of 1 mount for each 4 student officers. Make requisition also for the pack mules necessary to your 10 regimental sanitary detachments.

  24. The sick from your camp will receive infirmary treatment from a camp infirmary to be maintained by you. Hospital treatment will be given at the hospitals provided for the needs of the local coordinated training camps as a whole.
  You will arrange to have the use of this hospital for the instruction of medical officers in the administration of such hospitals, and the training of enlisted men as nurses and as surgical and dispensary assistants.

  25. In conjunction with the training camps for medical officers, it is proposed to establish training camps for enlisted men of the Medical Department. As soon as possible you will prepare a tentative plan for the training of these men in conjunction with the medical officers' training camp and forward it to this office for consideration. Your student medical officers will have to he the instructors of the enlisted personnel under training.

bsee pp. 78, 79.


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  Course should be based on a three months' period, having in mind that the needs of the service may require the detachment of some of these men after six weeks' or two months' training.

  26. You will also prepare and submit a plan for the instruction of selected privates who have finished the basic course proposed in paragraph 24, with a view to their promotion as noncommissioned officers. This course should not exceed four weeks.
It is proposed to appoint men who, after satisfactorily finishing the basic course for enlisted men and the additional course for candidates as sergeants, are reported by you as qualified for such promotion.

  27. Instruction as detachment cooks will also be given by you.

  28. Receipt of this letter will be acknowledged.
 
  For the Surgeon General:
  Colonel, Medical Corps, United States Army.

  The capacity of this camp as originally announced was changed later to accommodate 200 medical officers (colored) and 1,020 enlisted men (colored), Medical Department.

  The commanding officer, Fort Des Moines, was in command for the purpose of administration and supply. The Surgeon General was in control of all matters relative to instruction. At first the post surgeon, Fort Des Moines, was placed immediately in charge of instruction. The staff of instructors at that time was composed of all medical officers at this post. On August 11, 1917, the organization of the camp was changed by the appointment of a commandant, who was to assume full control of all matters pertaining to instruction and administration. The commandant arrived at the training camp on August 20, 1917, and August 27 put into full operation a course of instruction for the medical officers and enlisted men. The course of instruction for the medical officers was maintained according to the outline quoted above, and will not be repeated here.

  Upon the arrival of the commandant, three instructors were on duty with the camp. That this corps of instructors was inadequate was at once realized, and upon application to the Surgeon General additional instructors were furnished.

  This camp was in operation 110 days, the entire period being divided as follows: (1) Preinstruction period, July 26-31, 1917; (2) part-time instruction period, August 1-26, 1917; (3) active and intensive instruction period, August. 27, 1917, to date of closure, November 13, 1917.

  During the first period the camp was getting ready to receive the student officers. During the second period the student officers had begun to arrive and continued to do so until the beginning of the third period. During this period, due to lack of instructors and the daily arrival of officers, only a limited amount of instruction was given. During the third period instruction was most intensive and was given up to the limit of assimilation. The progress made by the student officers and enlisted men during this period was very satisfactory to all concerned.

  Of the 118 medical officers who received instruction, 8 failed to qualify, 4 were found incapacitated for physical reasons, 1 was disqualified for moral obliquity, and 1 was discharged for general unsuitability. The remaining 104 were assigned to various organizations of the 92d Division. Of the dental


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surgeons who received instruction, all qualified. Of the 1,021 enlisted men, Medical Department, who received instruction, 68 were discharged for physical reasons, 1 for fraudulent enlistment, 1 on account of dependent relatives, and 1 to answer call of the selective draft; 2 deserted. The 948 remaining were sent to various organizations.

  At no time, except during the last few weeks of its existence, did this camp have adequate or satisfactory quarters for the instruction or accommodation of the officers and enlisted men. A training camp for line officers (colored) was in operation here from June 12, to October 14, 1917, making it necessary to quarter many of our officers in Cavalry stables, as was done with all the enlisted men. Some of the officers were given quarters in a band barracks, and an officers' mess was maintained. However, only 48 officers could be accommodated there. This lack of proper and adequate quarters seriously interfered with the instruction and training, but was a condition not possible to remedy until about three weeks before the close of the camp. The stables were satisfactory as dormitories until cold weather, when they became very uncomfortable. Wooden floors were built in the stalls of four of these. Each stable accommodated 160 men and, although crowded, no real inconvenience arose from this condition, as ventilation was adequate at all times.

  The messing and cooking were seriously defective, due to the fact that all barracks were occupied by the line officers' training camp, and no provisions could he made to take care of the one thousand and odd men of this camp. To remedy this defect an estimate was submitted for the erection of four fly-proof kitchens and mess halls and allotments to cover this were requested to be expedited. At the close of the camp no appropriation for these structures had been made. As a makeshift, enough material was secured from an abandoned National Guard camp to erect four screened kitchens, which served the purpose as well as could be expected. No provision in the nature of a screened mess hall could be secured, and the men were required to eat as if under field conditions. Cooking was done on the ordinary field ranges with the Alamo attachment; two such ranges to each cook shack. Food served was at all times good, well cooked, and adequate in quantity. The cooking was done by the enlisted men secured from the detachment. In this connection it was the aim to develop as many cooks as possible to fill this important place in the regimental detachments.

  The same remarks as to messing and cooking apply in a measure to bathing. Four shower heads were all that were provided for a thousand men, which is not consistent with proper bathing facilities. By a mutual agreement between some of the company commanders of the line officers' training camp and the commandant of this camp, certain days were allotted to the medical camp for the use of the bathing facilities of those companies. This tided over an emergency that might have been a grave sanitary defect.

  The total expenditure for this camp was but $1,830, which was principally to cover the cost of flooring the stalls of the four stables used as sleeping quarters for the enlisted men.

  All the men were adequately supplied with clothing, including woolen clothing and overcoats, when, on the advent of cold weather, the issue was warranted. The real defect in this connection, was the arrival at the camp of a large number


268

of men with ill-fitting shoes. Some men requiring a No. 7 shoe reported here wearing a No. 11. This was corrected as rapidly as detected.

  A feature of the training camp much enjoyed by officers and men was a practice march and a three-day field encampment. The entire command was taken on a 10-mile march to the State fair grounds and lived under canvas (shelter tents) for three days, October 36, 1917. Practical instruction was given in camp-making sanitation, regimental detachment administration, camp-infirmary work, packing, bearer work, and field work in general. There was no disorder or accident attending this march and encampment, which constituted a most valuable instruction period.

  The Young Men's Christian Association maintained in this camp a branch which was a social and recreation center for the men. A well-equipped band was also organized from the enlisted men, which added much to the contentment and happiness of the men. A baseball team and a football team were organized from the enlisted men, and some games played with local teams. The enlisted men and officers generally attended in a body. With the camp band playing at the games, a goodly feeling of corps loyalty and union, not materially different from the college student spirit, was engendered to the noticeable and material gain in training efficiency. Boxing was encouraged, and one large boxing contest, which was attended by practically all of the instructors, officers, and enlisted men, was held in a large auditorium in Des Moines.

  The total attendance of this camp was as follows: Medical Reserve Corps, 118; Dental Reserve Corps, 12; enlisted men, Medical Department, 1,021.

  The health of the command remained uniformly good during the entire period of the camp. No epidemic of any disease appeared, though many cases of measles developed among the newly arrived men from the recruit depots. No outbreak of measles occurred, due largely to the rule established early in the camp of removing to the hospital all cases showing coryza and elevation of temperature immediately on discovery regardless of a diagnosis. A large contributing factor in the relative freedom from measles was the use of open Cavalry stables as barracks, for a variety of ventilation was obtained by necessity superior to that possible in a cantonment under canvas. No case of measles developed in any man who had been in camp more than two weeks. In all, 34 cases developed among 1,021 men and 130 officers, of 29.54 per thousand.

  The discipline of the men and officers was uniformly very good. No difficulty presented itself in the camp. Passes to the city of Des Moines were freely granted and resulted in no abuse of the privilege or disorder in the city. Fewer of the men from this camp were arrested by the local police authorities than was normal among Regular troops.

INSTRUCTION

The general scheme of instruction issued by the Surgeon General was closely followed. However the camp naturally divided itself into three schools: (a) A school for officers; (b)a school for enlisted men; (c) a school for prospective noncommissioned officers.

  The work of the several schools was closely coordinated, the officers in training serving as instructors in the school for noncommissioned officers and the school for privates in the more strictly professional topics.


269

Instructions from the Surgeon General directed the training of regimental sanitary detachments, and in practice this camp training was limited to this branch of the medical service. The other types of medical services were explained in lecture, only to familiarize the officers and men with the nature of such activities. It was found necessary because of the lack of adequate study halls and because of the fact that the officers did not grasp the subject readily, to give more hours of instruction in paper work and the Manual of the Medical Department than the outline from the Surgeon General prescribed. For a certain part. of this instruction, three night periods of two hours each were added in practical paper work each week. Each officer was required to prepare the more commonly used forms and medical blanks, and these were carefully graded and criticized.

  It is believed that the limitation put upon this camp to prepare regimental sanitary detachments only was a very happy decision, as more time could be given to regimental administration with associated larger consideration of the entire subject of Army Regulations, than would have been possible had it been necessary to give in detail the various phases of medical activity such as ambulance companies and field hospitals. The enlisted men were divided into detachments of 20 men each and placed under an officer in training. The squads were known as provisional sanitary detachments and were instructed as such. Two reserve officers were assigned to each provisional regimental detachment; eight such detachments were usually quartered together, and the whole known as a provisional company, and administered as such, one medical reserve officer being designated as company commander who was assisted by two sergeants out of the Regular Army detailed as assistant instructors and noncommissioned officers in charge of barracks.

  The instruction was divided among the instructors detailed to this camp by subjects, each instructor being responsible for the instruction given in the entire camp in this particular subject; this worked very well in securing uniformity of instruction in each subject throughout the entire camp.

  Most of the common field sanitary appliances were constructed and the officers and enlisted men were given daily a chance to see how each was constructed and operated. In the practice marches, the officers and men of each detachment were required to construct these appliances for the use of that march, using in this construction the knowledge they had gained in camp.

  The instruction of each detachment was made the subject of criticism so that quite a bit of competition to excel the results of other detachments developed, which was believed to have been very beneficial in its results.

OFFICERS

  The average age of all Medical Reserve Corps officers reporting to this camp was 32.79 years. Average age of all officers, Dental Reserve Corps, reporting to this camp was 29.83 years. The officers sent out from this camp were relatively young men, averaging 31.96 years. They were recently in practice from civil life, the average years of practice being 6.03 years. The older men were not found desirable. They could not grasp the situation, had


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difficulty in studying the text, and were not as well educated as the younger men. The States and schools from which the officers come, with the numbers from each, follow:

Medical and dental reserve offices by States

[table]

Medical and dental reserve corps officers (colored) by medical colleges:

Maharry Medical College, Nashville, Tenn.........43
Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia, Pa.................2
Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill.....................3
Leonard Medical College, Raleigh, N.C................13
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif.............2
Louisville National Medical College, Louisville, Ky...........4
Starling Medical College, Columbus, Ohio....................2
Boston College of Physicians and Surgeons, Boston, Mass........2
Howard University, Washington, D.C.................22
University of West Tennessee...........................................9
Knoxville Medical College, Knoxville, Tenn................1
Jenner Medical College................1
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa....................2
University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill..........................3
New York Homeopathic Medical College, New York City.....................1
University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt........1
Boston University, Boston, Mass.................2
Shaw University...............1
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich..................2
College of Medicine and Surgery, Chicago, Ill......................1
Indiana University, Indianapolis, Ind................4
Harvard University, Boston, Mass...........2
Columbia University, New York City........................1
Louisville Medical College, Louisville, Ky....................1
Reliance Medical College..................................................1
Chicago College Dental Surgery, Chicago, Ill.........2
Indiana Dental College, Indianapolis, Ind......................1
Iowa State University, Iowa City, Iowa.........................1

  The following schedule for the first six days of training will give a fair idea of the way in which the time and subjects for the training of the medical officets were divided.


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First day (Aug. 27, 1917):

5.45 to 6 a.m...............................Setting-up exercises.
7.30 to 8.25 a.m............................Drill and school of soldier.
8.30 to 9.25 a.m............................Litter drill.
9.30 to 10.25 a.m..........Lecture, personal equipment-10.30 to 11.25
10.30 to 11.25a.m.................................First aid using soldier equipment, lecture and demonstration.
1 to 2.25 p.m...........................Practical first aid.
2.30 to 4.30 p.m...........................Bearer work with and without litter.

Second day (Aug. 28, 1917)

5.45 to 6 a.m..................................Setting-up exercises.
7.30 to 8.25........................................School of the soldier.
8.30 to 9.25 a.m............................................Letter drill.
9.30 to 10.25 a.m...........................................Field and surplus kits, equipment, medical officers.
10.30 to 11.25 a.m........................................First aid, using soldier equipment only; lecture and demonstration.
1 to 2.25 p.m...........................Practical first aid.
2.30 to 4.30 p.m...............................................Bearer work with and without litter.
7 to 9 p.m..............................Reports, returns etc., pertaining to regimental detachment.

Third day (Aug. 29, 1917):

5.45 to 6 a.m..................................Setting-up exercises.
7.30 to 8.25 a.m.............................School of the soldier.
8.30 to 9.25 a.m.............................Litter drill.
9.30 to 10.25 a.m...........................Care and maintenance of soldier equipment.
10.30 to 11.25 a.m.........................Duties of a soldier; lecture and quiz.
1 to 2.25 p.m..................................Practical first aid.
2.30 to 4.30 p.m.............................Bearer work, with and without litters.

Fourth day (Aug. 30, 1917):

5.45 to 6 a.m...................................Setting-up exercises.
7.30 to 8.25 a.m..............................School of the soldier.
8.30 to 9.25 a.m..............................Litter drill.
9.30 to 10.25 .................................Care and maintenance of soldier equipment.
10.30 11.25 a.m..............................Duties of a soldier; lecture and quiz.
1 to 2.25 p.m...................................Practical first aid.
2.30 to 4.30 p.m..............................Litter-bearer work, with and without litter.

Fifth day (Aug. 31, 1917):

5.45 to 6 a.m....................................Setting-up exercises.
7.30 to 8.25 a.m...............................School of the soldier.
8.30 to 9.25 a.m...............................Litter drill.
9.30 to 10.25 a.m.............................General organization of military forces.
10.30 to 11.25 a.m...........................Duties of a soldier; lectures and quiz.
1 to 2.25 p.m....................................Practical first aid.
2.30 to 4.30 p.m...............................Bearer work, with and without litter.
7 to 9 p.m.........................................Reports, returns pertaining to regimental detachment.

Sixth day (Sept. 1, 1917):

5.45 to 6 a.m.....................................Setting-up exercises.
7.30 to 8.25 a.m................................Inspection.
8.30 to 9.25 a.m................................Demonstration and familiarization with Medical Department equipment.
9.30 to 10.25 a.m..............................Duties of a soldier; lecture and quiz.
10.30 to 11.25 a.m............................Articles of War; Manual for Courts-Martial; lecture and quiz.

ENLISTED MEN

The following is a schedule of progressive instruction, basic course for enlisted men.


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SCHOOL OF INSTRUCTION FOR RECRUITS, MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, FORT DES MOINES, IOWA

Schedule of progressive instruction


273

Schedule of progressive instruction (comtinued)


274

Schedule of progressive instruction (comtinued)


275

NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS

On September 24, 1917, there was organized in this camp a school for Prospective noncommissioned officers. The students for this school were selected from the enlisted men in the camp who had completed the basic course. It was the intention to develop the noncommissioned officers from the most suitable of these men and to appoint privates first class from the others. The basis for eligibility for this school was (a) general aptitude; (b) preliminary education---a minimum being the completion of eighth grade of public schools. Two hundred and ninety-one enlisted men were chosen to take this course. Six medical officers were assigned as instructors and the following course was inaugurated September 24, 1917.

AN ADVANCED COURSE OF INSTRUCTION FOR PROSPECTIVE NONCOMMISSI0NED OFFICERS
  Hours
1. Organization and duties Medical Department, Sept. 24 to 26, 1917.............6
2. Military hygiene and sanitation, Oct. 8 to 10, 1917..................6
3. Hospital organization and ward management, Oct. 11 to 12, 1917..........................4
4. First aid and nursing, Oct. 15 to 18, 1917..............................................................8
5 Instruments and appliances, demonstration, Oct. 19 to 20, 1917..............................4
6. Materia medica and pharmacy, Oct. 20 to 21, 1917...............................................6
7. Field equipment, Oct. 24, 1917..............................................................................2
8. Army Regulations, Oct. 25 to 27, 1917..................................................................6
9. Articles of War interpolation and explanation, Oct. 30, 1917...................................2
10. Practical instruction in care of feet, Oct. 17 to 18, 1917.........................................4
11. Care and accounting of public property and paper work, Medical Department, practical, Oct. 8 to 26, 1917...28
12. Cooking and mess management, Oct. 8 to 12, 1917............................................10
13. Field sanitation, practical construction of appliances, etc., Oct. 15 to 19, 1917.....10
14. Equipment, field, combat and horse, practical use of, Oct. 24 to 25, 1917.............4
15. Tent drills, special, Oct. 26, 1917.........................................................................4
16. Equitation, care of animals, duties of orderlies, etc., Oct. 8 to 30, 1917.................36
17. Bugle instruction, special for those selected for bulger's course..............................36
18. Minor surgery and nursing, practical (general anesthesia, disinfection, sterilization of instruments  and
dressings, catheterization, preparation and administration of enemata, gastric lavage, bed making, etc.)..............35

  The early call (October 29, 1927) for privates and privates first class from this school for duty with the colored organizations elsewhere terminated the course before completion and before the men could become sufficiently well qualified to assume the duties of noncommissioned officers.

  As a result of this 221 were appointed privates first class, but no noncommissioned officers were made from them.

FINAL DISPOSITION OF OFFICERS IN TRAINING

Medical Reserve Corps

1. Assigned to organizations, colored troops:

(a) Camp Upton, Yaphank, N.Y.............................................................7
(b) Camp Meade, Annapolis Juncton, Md...............................................9
(c) Camp Shermami, Chillicothe, Ohio.....................................................3
(d) Camp Grant, Rockford, Ill.................................................................7
(e) Camp Dodge, Des Moines, Iowa.......................................................6
(f) Camp Dix, Wrightstown, N. J.............................................................6
(g) Camp Funston, Fort Riley, Kans........................................................66
Total.............................................................................................104


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2. Disqualified as unsuitable.................................................................9
3. Disqualified physically.....................................................................4
4. Disqualified for moral obliquity........................................................1
Total.......................................................................14

Dental ReserveCorps

1. 77th Division, Camp Upton, Yaphank, N.Y........................................2
2. 78th Division, Camp Dix,Wrightstown, N.J.........................................2
3. 79th Division, Camp Meade, Annapolis Junction, Md.........................2
4. 83d Division, Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio..................................2
5. 86th Division, Camp Grant, Rockford, Ill............................................2
6. 88th Division, Camp Dodge, Des Moines, Iowa..................................2
Total.........................................................................  12

Disposition of enlisted men in training at this camp

1. 301 Stevedore Regiment, Newport News, Va..................................28
2. 302 Stevedore Regiment, Newport News, Va..................................28
3. 303 Stevedore Regiment, Newport News, Va..................................28
4. 304 Stevedore Regiment, Newport News, Va..................................28
5. Engineer Service Battalion, Camp Taylor, Ky...................................12
6. Engineer Service Battalion, Camp Lee, Petersburg, Va.....................24
7. Engineer Service Battalion, Camp Travis, Fort Sam Houston, Tex...............12
8. Engineer Service Battalion, Camp Pike, Little Rock, Ark............................12
9. For duty with drafted colored men,Camp Travis, Fort Sam Houston,Tex.....64
10. 317th Sanitary Train, Camp Funston, Kans...............................................712
11. Discharged....................................................................................71
12. Deserted........................................................................................ 2
  Total..........................................................................................1,021

This camp was closed on November 13, 1917.

REFERENCES

(1) First indorsement from The Adjutant General to the Quartermaster General, May 11, 1917. Subject: Medical training camps. On file, Mail and Record Division,. A. G. O., 2,581,692 (Old Files).
(2) S. O. No. 116, W. D., par. 68, May 19, 1917 (detailing Col. Henry Page, M. C.).
(3) History of Camp Greenleaf, November 1-30, 1917, by Col. Henry Page, M. C. (On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 Camp Greenleaf (C).
(4) Plan of Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 632 (General).
(5) Administrative History, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., by Lieut. Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C. (undated). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(6) Letter from the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C., January 16, 1919, Subject-: History of Medical Officers' Training Camp, Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
 (7) Medical History of Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga. (undated), On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(8) Monthly report of battalion group commander, student battalions, February, 1918, by Lieut. Col. E. M. Talbott, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353  (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(9) Letter from the senior instructor to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, March 7, 1918. Subject: Report of instruction, February, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.


277

(10) Letter from The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, March 14, 1918. Subject: General hospitals. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (General Hospitals) K.
(11) Letter from the Surgeon General of the Army to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., April 13, 1918. Subject.: Memorandum to heads of divisions, with correspondence attached. On file, Record Room S. G. O, 2103 Camp Green-leaf (April 13).
(12) First indorsement from the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., to commanding officers, student officers' group, April 17, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 210.3 (Student Officers, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(13) Letter from the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, to Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., Surgeon General's Office, June 1, 1918. Subject: Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 680.3 (Med. Dept., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(14) Letter from the commanding officer, Service Company, M. O. T. C., to the commandant, M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf, June 2, 1918. Subject: Report of changes and activities of personnel. On file, Record Rooms. S. G. O., 210 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(15) Report on division of medical department training, S. G. O., July, 1918, to January, 1919, by Lieut. Col. S. J. Morris, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353 (Training, General).
(16) Memorandum from the Assistant Chief of Staff to The Adjutant General, November 30, 1918. Subject: Transfer of enlisted men to camps near or within their respective States for discharge On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 370 (Demobilization, General).
(17) Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the Army, 1919, Vol. I, 318, 623.
(18) Letter from the president, general examining board, to the commandant, M. O. T. C., November 2, 1918. Subject: Classification of student officers for October, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 210.3 (Camp Greenleaf, Student Officers) C.
(19) History of Camp Greenleaf, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., November, 1917, by Col. Henry Page, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(20) Report on base and evacuation hospitals, by Maj. H. H. Bailey, M. C. (undated). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 323.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(21) Annual reports of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, for 1917, 1918, and 1919. Also: History of individual hospital. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O. Also: Letter from Col. Charles Lynch, M. C., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., March 22, 1921. Subject: Inclosing list of base and evacuation hospitals organized at camps during the war. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(22) Report of motor section, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., by Maj. Mahlon Ashford, M. C. (undated). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(23) Letter from the commanding officer to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, February 4, 1918. Subject: Report of the command for months of January, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 32L6 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(24) Current reports of field hospitals and evacuation ambulance companies battalion, Camp Greenleaf Annex, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. (undated). By First Lieut. H. N. Ervin, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(25) Report on training of motor-ambulance companies for the month of February, 1918, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., by First Lieut. Daniel C. W. Smith, M. R. C., February 26, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf).
(26) Letter from the commanding officer to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 18, 1918. Subject: Motormen required for Medical Department. With first to seventh indorsements, inclusive. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 221 (Motormen) (M. O. T. C., Fort Oglethorpe) C.
(27) Schedule "A" headquarters, motor sanitary units, Camp Greenleaf Annex, Chickamauga Park, Ga., May 22, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(28) Schedule "B" headquarters, motor sanitary units, Camp Greenleaf Annex, Chickamauga Park, Ga., June 13, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).


278

(29) Schedule "C" replacement and similar units, headquarters, motor units, August 23, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(30) Schedule "D" for reservists, headquarters, motor units, August 23, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(31) Schedule "E" provisional ambulance companies; provisional hospital companies; evacuation ambulance companies; headquarters, motor units, August 23, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(32) Letter from the commanding officer, animal-drawn replacement group, to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, January 31, 1918. Subject: Report condition of command for month of January, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (Camp Greenleaf).
(33) Report of animal-drawn group, Camp Greenleaf, February, 1918, by Maj. J. E. Bastion, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(34) Report of ambulance companies, animal drawn, Camp Greenleaf, February, 1918, by Maj. H. B. Mclntyre, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(35) Report of animal-drawn group, Camp Greenleaf, May, 1918, by Maj. J. E. Bastion, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(36) Report of replacement group, Camp Greenleaf, August, 1918, by Lieut. Col. J. E. Bastion, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(37) Letter from the Assistant Adjutant to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, August 1, 1918. Subject: Camp history for July. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(38) Scheme of depot brigade (undated), by First Lieut. George B. Hunt, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(39) Reports of instruction at Camp Greenleaf at units other than the M. O. T. C., by Col. Roger Brooke, M. C. (undated). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf).
(40) Report: Success of the training camp replacements, by Maj. J. E. Bastion, M. C. (undated) - On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf).
(41) Letter from the district orthopedic surgeon to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 16, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic work, Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(42) G. O. No. 45, May 9, 1918.
(43) Report of replacement group, Camp Greenleaf, September, 1918, by Lieut. Col. J. E. Bastion, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (Camp Greenleaf).
(44) Letter from Maj. W. M. Robertson, I. G, to The Adjutant General of the Army. September 11, 1918. Subject: Inspection of Camp Greenleaf, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 333 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(45) Report for July, 1919, of the 15th Battalion, Camp Greenleaf, by Maj. N. T. Kirk, August 4, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(46) Letter from the director of instructions in orthopedic surgery to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 31, 1918. Subject: Report of activities of School of Orthopedic Surgery for August, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(47) Letter from Capt. John T. O'Farall, M. R. C., to Maj. J. Ridlon, M. R. C., director, School of Orthopedic Surgery, August 1, 1918. Subject: Personal teaching activities for July, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(48) Monthly report, Noncommissioned Officers' School, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., December 31, 1917, by Maj. N. T. Kirk, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (Camp Greenleaf).
(49) Report of Noncommissioned Officers' School group, Camp Greenleaf, February, 1918, by Maj. N. R. Kirk, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (Camp Greenleaf).
(50) Report of detention camp, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., February, 1918, by Maj. Edward M. Colic, M. R. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (Camp Greenleaf).


279

(51) Report of 15th Battalion, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga., August, 1918, by Maj. N. T. Kirk, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353 (Camp Greenleaf).
(52) General Orders No. 52, headquarters, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga., June 3, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(53) Report of 15th Battalion, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga., July, 1918, by Maj. N. T. Kirk, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf). Also: Report by Maj. N. T. Kirk, M. C. (undated). Subject: Handling and training recruits. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353 (Camp Greenleaf).
(54) Letter from the commanding officer to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, M. O. T. C., Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., June 1, 1917. Subject: Report of Battalion No. 14 and Service Battalion No. 11. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(55) Letter from the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 8, 1918. Subject: Base and evacuation hospitals. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (General Hospital, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(56) Report of hospital train group, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., February, 1918, by Lieut. Cal. G. H. Scott, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(57) Letter from the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., to Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., January 3, 1918. Subject: Base and evacuation hospitals. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Misc. M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(58) Organization of evacuation hospitals, by Lieut. Col. H. H. Rutherford, M. C. (undated). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(59) General Orders, N o. 1., Headquarters, E. G. group, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., July 24 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(60) Evacuation hospital group, Camp Greenleaf, schedule of instruction for enlisted men, first week, beginning July 29, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf)
(61) Evacuation hospital group, Camp Greenleaf, Ga. Schedule of instruction for officers, first week, beginning July 29, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf).
(62) Report of Noncommissioned Officers' School, Camp Greenleaf Annex, January, 1918, by Maj. N. T. Kirk, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (Camp Greenleaf).
(63) Noncommissioned Officers' School, by Capt. George Walter, M. R. C. instructor. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352.4 (Noncommissioned Officers' School).
(64) Report on Noncommissioned Officers' School, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga., May, 1918, by Maj. George Walter, M. R. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 352 (Camp Greenleaf)
(65) Noncommissioned Officers' School, by Maj. H. McSnyder, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (Camp Greenleaf).
(66) Memorandum to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., November 7, 1918, from Lieut. Col. Thomas J. Flynn, M. C. Subject: Progress of group for October, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (Camp Greenleaf).
(67) Letter from the Adjutant to the commanding officer, Noncommissioned Officers' School, November 7, 1918. Subject: Noncommissioned Officers' School. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (Camp Greenleaf).
(68) Memorandum from Col. E. L. Munson, M. C., to the Surgeon General, March 2, 1918. Subject: Need for a systematic plan for psychological stimulation of troops in promoting fighting efficiency. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 2 (General Files).
(69) G. O. No. 57, headquarters, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga., June 6, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 300.5 (Camp Greenleaf).
(70) Memorandum to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., from First Lieut. Elliott P. Frost, Sanitary Corps, October 1, 1918. Subject: Munson plan of morale work at Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 250.1-1.


280

(71) Memorandum to Major Kirk from Capt. Wm. S. Foster, Sanitary Corps, June 26, 1918. Subject: Weekly report of morale work, Battalion 15. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (Psychological, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(72) Letter from the senior instructor to the commandant, dated January 5, 1919, signed by Col. Roger Brooke, M. C. Subject: Monthly report of instruction, December, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf).
(73) Circular, W. D., July 16, 1917.
(74) Scheme of instruction, M. O. T. C., Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. (undated). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(75) G. O., No. 51, headquarters, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga. May 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(76) Lectures delivered at Camp Greenleaf, M. O. T. C, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., September 12, 1917, printed by Camp Greenleaf Publishing Co., Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 7003.
(77) Letter from the Surgeons General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., November 28, 1917. Subject: Condensed schedule of instruction for medical officers under training for line of communications service. 0n file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Fort Oglethorpe) C.
(78) General Orders No. 58, headquarters, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga., June 6, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(79) Letter from the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., to Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C. (undated). Subject: Medical officers. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(80) Letter from the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., to Col. E. L. Munson, M. C., June 23, 1917. Subject: Scheme for early training for enlisted men. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(81) Report by Maj. N. T. Kirk, M. C. (undated). Subject: Handling and training of recruits. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf).
(82) Tables compiled from classification of draft, based on "Trade specifications and occupational index." On file, Enlisted Section, Personnel Division, S. G. O. (Misc. File).
(83) Success of the training camp, by Maj. J. E. Bastion, M. C. (undated). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(84) Memorandum to Col. E. L. Munson, M. C., from Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., September 9, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(85) Letter from the Assistant Adjutant to the commandant, medical officers' training camp, November 1, 1918. Subject: Camp history for the month of October, 191S. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 314.7 (Medical History, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(86) Report of the division of Medical Department training, Surgeon General's Office, May and June, 1918, by Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (General).
(87) G. O. No. 54, headquarters, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga., June 4, 191S. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6-1 (General).
(88) Correspondence concerning School of Hygiene, Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(89) Letter from Col. E. L. Munson, M. C., to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., January 7, 1918. Subject: School of Hygiene. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352.4 (School of Hygiene, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(90) Letter from the senior instructor, to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, June 10, 1918. Subject: Monthly report of instruction. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf).
(91) Letter from the director, department of hygiene and sanitation, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., January 9, 1919. Subject: Report on the School of Hygiene and Sanitation. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 M. O. T. C., (Camp Greenleaf).
(92) History of Camp Greenleaf, February, 1918, by Col. Henry Page, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf, Ga.) C.


281

(93) Letter from the camp sanitary officer to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, November 1, 1918. Subject: Report of the laboratory of field sanitation. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf).
(94) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., January 7, 1918. Subject: School for Sanitary Engineer Officers of the Sanitary Corps. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.1 (Instruction, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(95) Letter from Maj. William C. Hood, Sanitary Corps, senior instructor, to Col, Roger Brooke, M. C., senior instructor, Camp Greenleaf, May 10, 1918. Subject: Instructional program in salutary engineering. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf).
(96) Letter from Maj. Edward D. Rich, Sanitary Corps, director, School of Sanitary Engineering, to Col. Roger Brooke, M. C., senior instructor, M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf, December 26, 1918. Subject: Final report of the School of Sanitary Engineering, covering the months of November and December, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 322.3 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(97) Memorandum to headquarters, M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf, Ga., from Maj Ellis K Kerr, M. C., November 3, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (Camp Greenleaf).
(98) Letter from Maj. Estes Nichols, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, January 31, 1918. Subject: Monthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(99) Letter from Maj. Estes Nichols, M. R. C., to the commandant, M. O. T. C., March 6 1918. Subject: Camp Greenleaf School of Lung Diseases. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (School of Lung Diseases, Camp Greenleaf).
(100) Letter from Maj. Estes Nichols, M. R. C., to Lieut. Col. E. H. Bruns, M. C., April 30, 1918. Subject: Preliminary report of instruction, lung diseases. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Cardiovascular, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(101) Report of the department of cardiovascular instruction, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga., March 1, 1918, by Maj. Maurice L. Goodkind, M. R. C., director. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Cardiovascular, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(102) Letter from Maj. Maurice L. Goodkind, M. R. C., to commanding officer, Camp Greenleaf, February 5, 1918. Subject-: Cardiovascular department report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353 (Cardiovascular, Camp Greenleaf).
(103) Letter from Maj. Roy D. Adams, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, May 17, 1918. Subject: Report of instruction in the School of Internal Medicine. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(104) Letter from Maj. Roy D. Adams, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 9, 1918. Subject: Instruction in general medicine and gastroenterology, in Camp Greenleaf School of Internal Medicine. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353, (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(105) Letter from Maj. Roy D. Adams, M. C., to the commanding officer, Camp Greenleaf, October 3, 1918. Subject: Report of instruction in School of Military Medicine during the month of September, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Medicine, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(106) Letter from the senior instructor to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, January 5, 1919. Subject: Monthly report of instruction, December, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(107) Fifth indorsement, W. D., from The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, January 19, 1918 (to letter from the Surgeon General, to The Adjutant General, December 7, 1917. Subject: Continuance of psychological work). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 702.4 (Psychological Exam.) 1917.
(108) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., June 5, 1918. Subject: School of Military Psychology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352.1 (Psychologists).


282

(109) Letter from Capt. William S. Foster, Sanitary Corps, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 13, 1918. Subject: Report of the School of Military Psychology. 0n file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.4 (Psychology, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(110) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Camp Greenleaf, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., June 26, 1918. Subject: Tentative syllabus of course in military psychology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf).
(111) Letter from the senior instructor in psychology to the Surgeon General (undated). Subject: Report of the School of Military Psychology, Camp Greenleaf, Ca., from August 7, 1918, to January 9, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (School of Military Psychology, Camp Greenleaf).
(112) Letter from the School of Applied Surgical Mechanics to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, February 28, 1918. Subject: Monthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Training, General).
(113) Correspondence from the S. G. O. to the commandant, M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Orthopedics). Also: History of Camp Greenleaf, month of February, 1918, by Col. Henry Page, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf, Ga.) C.
(114) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., December 6, 1917. Subject: School in Military Orthopedics. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (Orthopedics, M.O.T.C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(115) Letter from Col. Henry Page, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 31, 1917. Subject: Report for the month of December, 1917. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Oglethorpe).
(116) Letter from the director of the School of Orthopedic Surgery to the Sturgeon General, U. S. Army, December 24, 1918. Subject: Monthly report of the School of Orthopedic Surgery. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(117) Letter from the commandant. Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., to Maj. E. G. Brackett, M. C., December 11, 1917. Subject: School  of Orthopedics. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenheaf) C.
(118) Letter from Col. Henry Page, M. C., to Maj. E. C. Brackett, M. C., January 3, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf).
(119) Letter from the orthopedic surgeon, post hospital, to Col. Henry Page, M. C., February 6, 1918. Subject: Course in military orthopedics. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Orthopedic Surgery, M. O. T. C. Camp Greenleaf) C.
(120) Letter from the instructor in clinical orthopedic surgery to the commandant of the medical training camp, March 1, 1918. Subject: Monthly report. 0n file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Orthopedic Surgery, M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf, Ca.) C.
(121) Letter from the instructor in clinical orthopedic surgery to the commanding officer, M. O. T. C., May 31, 1918. Subject: Monthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(122) Letter from the director of instruction in orthopedic surgery to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 15, 1918. Subject: Report of July 15, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(123) Letter from Maj. J. T. Rugh, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, May 12, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic surgery at Fort Oglethorpe and Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(124) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., July 12, 1918. Subject: Student officers division of orthopedic surgery. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353 (Orthopedics, M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(125) Letter from the district orthopedic surgeon to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, August 26, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic activities at Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720 (Orthopedists, M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.


283

(126) Letter from Maj. Edwin W. Ryerson, M. C., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C. (undated). Subject: Instruction in Orthopedic School. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Orthopedic surgery, M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf, Ga.) C.
(127) Letter from Capt. E. A. Klein, M. R. C., to Maj. John Ridlon, M. R. C., July 31, 1918. Subject: Report of activities during July, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(128) Letter from the acting director, School of Orthopedic Surgery, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, September 30, 1918. Subject: Monthly report, orthopedic teaching activities. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(129) Letter from the director of the School of Orthopedic Surgery to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 31, 1918. Subject: School of Orthopedic Surgery. 0n file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(130) Letter from the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Ca., to Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., S. G. O., June 4, 1918. Subject: Courses of instruction. 0n file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(131) Letter from the director, School of Military Surgery, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 24, 1918. Subject: Final report of School of Military Surgery. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.1 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(132) Letter from Maj. Edward Martin, M. C., to the Surgeon Genera!, September 11, 1918. Subject: Report of the School of Surgery. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(133) Letter from the director, School of Surgery, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, October 4, 1918. Subject: Report of class 2 for September, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(134) Letter from the director, School of Military Surgery, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 27, 1918. Subject: Report for November, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Surgery, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(135) Schedules, School of Surgery, M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Surgery, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(136) Letter from Maj. Karl W. Ney, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 9, 1918. Subject: Neurosurgical School. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(137) Letter from Maj. Karl W. Ney, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, June 28, 1918. Subject: Report of Neurosurgical School. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Neurosurgery, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(138) Reorganization of Neurosurgical School at Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(139) Letter from Maj. Claude C. Coleman, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 16, 1918. Subject: School of Neurosurgery. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Neurosurgery, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(140) Letter from the director, School of Neurosurgery, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 23, 1918. Subject: School of Neurosurgery. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(141) Letter from the director, School of Neurosurgery, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 12, 1918. Subject: School of Neurosurgery. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Neurosurgery, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(142) Harris, T. J., Lieutenant Colonel, M. C.: An account of the organization and development of the School of Otolaryngology, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, St. Louis, 1920, xxxix, No. 7, 144.
(143) Letter from Lieut. Col. T. J. Harris, M. C., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., January 3, 1919. Subject: Outline course of instruction of School of Otolaryngology, Camp Greenleaf, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf).
(144) de Schweinitz, G. E., lieutenant colonel, M. C.: Organization and development of the School of Ophthalmology, U, S. General Hospital No. 14, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. American Journal of Ophthalmology, Chicago, 1918, i, No. 12, 817.


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(145) Letter from Maj. Meyer Weiner, M. C., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., January 2, 1919. Subject: Course in ophthalmology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Ophthalmology, Camp Greenleaf).
(146) Letter from the commanding officer, Camp Greenleaf, Ca., to the Surgeon General of the Army, April 28, 1918. Subject: Director of School of Urology. On file. Record Room, S. G. O., 201 (Gideon Timberlake).
(147) Letter from the director, School of Urology, Camp Greenleaf, Ca., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 27, 1918. Subject: Availability of urologists. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353 (Urology, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(148) Letter from Capt. Gideon Timberlake, M. C., to Maj. Warren Walker, M. C., August 31, 1918. Subject: School of Urology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Urology, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(149) Letter from the director to chief of instruction, Camp Greenleaf, June 7, 1918. Subject: Progress of school. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Urology, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(150) Letter from Capt. Gideon Timberlake, M. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, April 1, 1918. Subject: Instruction in urology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(151) Letter from Maj. Gideon Timberlake to Maj. Warren Walker, September 3, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Urology, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(152) Letter from the director, School of Plastic and Oral Surgery, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 19, 1918. Subject: Report of second month's work, School of Plastic and Oral Surgery. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Oral and Plastic Surgery, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(153) Letter from the director, School of Plastic and Oral Surgery, Camp Greenleaf, Ga. to the Surgeon Genera!, December 26, 1918. Subject: Activities, School of Plastic and Oral Surgery, December 16-24. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(154) Letter from Maj. W. F. Manges, M. C., to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Ga.. January 31, 1918. Subject: Monthly report of Camp Greenleaf, School of Roentgenology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352.4 (Roentgenology, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(155) Letter from the Acting Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to Maj. Willis F. Manges, M. C.. Camp Greenleaf, Ga., September 28, 1918. Subject: Memorandum on enlargement of school Roentgenology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353 (Roentgenology. Camp Greenleaf) C.
(156) Letter from Maj. A. S. Begg, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, July 6, 1918. Subject: Proposed School of Anatomy. Also: First indorsement of approval. signed by Col. E. L. Munson, M. C., commandant. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353-1 (Camp Greenleaf).
(157) Letter from the director of the School of Anatomy to the commandant, M. O. T. C.. Camp Greenleaf, Ca., December 20, 1918. Subject: Report of work done in the School of Anatomy from the time of its organization to December 16, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (School of Anatomy, Camp Greenleaf).
(158) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., January 19, 1918. Subject.: School for training of laboratory specialist officers. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(159) History of Camp Greenleaf, month of February, 1918, by Col. Henry Page, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf, Ca.) C.
(160) Memorandum for Col. F. F. Russell, M. C., from Col. E. L. Munson, M. C., June 29, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(161 Letter from the chief of the laboratory service to Col. F. F. Russell, M. C., July 2, 1918. Subject: Laboratory instruction. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Laboratory Gen. Hosp. No. 14) K, Fort Oglethorpe.


285

(162) Memorandum for Col. Henry Page, M. C., commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Ca., January 30, 1918, by Capt. D. H. Bergey, M. R. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(163) Laboratory course for student officers, July 2 to July 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(164) Laboratory schedule for course of instruction for enlisted men, November 25, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(165) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ca., March 7, 1918. Subject: School for officers of the division of food and nutrition, Sanitary Corps. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Nutrition, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(166) Memorandum for Maj. John Murlin, chief, division of food and nutrition, March 7, 1918. 0n file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(167) Syllabus of instruction, course for nutrition officers at Camp Greenleaf. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Nutrition, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(168) Letter from Capt. R. J. Anderson, Sanitary Corps, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, December 16, 1918. Subject: Work in the School of Nutrition. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 720.1 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(169) Letter from Maj. E. B. Forbes, Sanitary Corps, N. A, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 25, 1918. Subject: Work of party from food division. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Nutrition, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(170) Memorandum to the commandant. Subject: Outline of course for nutrition officers, January 1, 1919. On file, Record Room, 353 (Nutrition, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(171) Letter from Capt. R. J. Anderson, Sanitary Corps, to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, November 4, 1918. Subject: Improving the course of instruction for nutrition officers. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353 (Nutrition, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(172) Letter from the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., February 1, 1918. Subject: School for training officers of the Dental Corps. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 354.1 (Instruction Dental Corps, Fort Oglethorpe) C.
(173) Letter from the senior dental instructor, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., to the Surgeon General, U.S. Army, March 6, 1918. Subject: Army Dental School. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Course of Instruction for Dental Surgeons, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(174) Letter from Maj. J. H. Snapp, D. C., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., January 2, 1919. Subject: Instruction in School of Dentistry. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (School for Dental Surgeons, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(175) Letter from the commander to the commandant, March 1, 1918. Subject: Report for February of the School for Veterinarians. On file, Record Room, S. G.O., 353 (Veterinary School, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(176) Letter from Maj. David S. White, V. C., to acting director of veterinary service, April 4, 1918. Subject: Report on instruction given veterinary officers, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., March 6 to 30, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Vet., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(177) Letter from Maj. Wilfred J. Stokes, V. C., to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ca., January 10, 1919. Subject: Instruction of veterinary student officers. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Vet. Camp Greenleaf) C.
(178) Letter from the Surgeon General to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Camp Greenleaf, Fort Oglethorpe, Ca., June 8, 1918. Subject: Veterinary officers in training. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Veterinary, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(179) Letter from the director, School of Gas Defense, to the commanding officer, Camp Greenleaf, December 11, 1918. Subject: Final report of instruction. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(180) Letter from the director, School of Gas Defense, to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., January 2, 1918. Subject: Suggestions in gas-defense instruction. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (School of Gas Defense, Camp Greenleaf) C.


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(181) General Orders No. 65, June 27, 1918, headquarters, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Adjutants, Mess Officers and Registrars, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(182) Report of N. C. O., school group, Camp Greenleaf, February, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(183) School for Mess Sergeants and Cooks, by Capt. J. B. Piggott, M. R. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.4 (School for Mess Sergeants and Cooks).
(184) Report of 15th Battalion, Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Ca. May 31, 1918, by Maj. N. T. Kirk, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(185) G. O. No. 59, headquarters, Camp Greenleaf, June 13, 1918, Chickamauga Park, Ga. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (General).
(186) Letter from the commandant to Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., June 12, 1918. Subject:School for Cooks and Bakers. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352.4 (School for Cooks and Bakers, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(187) Memorandum for Colonel Bispham, commandant Camp Greenleaf, Ca., October 7, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(188) Letter from the commanding officer to the commandant, Camp Greenleaf, Ca., November 7, 1918. Subject: Report of progress, month of October, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(189) Memorandum to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., from Maj. E. L. Claeren, Q. M. C., January 11, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(190) Report of School for Motor Mechanics and Drivers, by Capt. George S. Foden, M. R. C., February 28, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352.4 (Camp Greenleaf) C.
(191) Headquarters, motor sanitary units, Camp Greenleaf Annex, January 28, 1918, by Maj. M. Ashford, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352.4 (Motor School, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(192) Motor section, Camp Greenleaf, Ca., by Maj. M. Ashford, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Camp Creenleaf) C.
(193) Letter from the group commander, headquarters motor unit, to the commanding officer, division hospital and sanitary trains, Camp Greenleaf, Ca., July 29, 1918. Subject: Scheme for training in this group. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M.O. T. C., Camp Greenleaf) C.
(194) History of the veterinary division, S. G. O., by Lieut. Col. C. F. Morse, M. C. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(195) Letter from Col. E. L. Munson, M. C, to Lieutenant Colonel Snapp, Dental School, June 28, 1918 (no subject given). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Dental Assistants, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(196) Letter from Maj. Harold D. Corbusier, M. R. C., to the senior instructor, Camp Greenleaf, May 2, 1918. Subject: Monthly report, School of Orthopedics. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(197) Letter from Maj. Harold D. Corbusier, M. R. C., to the senior instructor, Camp Greenleaf, June 4, 1918. Subject: Monthly report, School of Orthopedics. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(198) Letter from Maj. Alexander S. Begg, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, July 9, 1918. Subject: Orthopedic conditions, Camp Greenleaf, Ca. On file, Record Room, S.G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) D.
(199) Letter from the director of instruction in orthopedic surgery to the Surgeon General, July 15, 1918. Subject: Report of July 15, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G.O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(200) Letter from Capt. John R. O'Ferrall, M. C., to Maj. John Ridlon, M. C., August 31, 1918. Subject: Teaching activities for month of August. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(201) Letter from the acting director, School of Orthopedic Surgery, to the Surgeon General, September 30, 1918. Subject: Monthly report, orthopedic teaching activities. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.


287

(202) Letter from Capt. Wm. J. Merrille, M. C., to the director of the School of Orthopedic Surgery, September 30, 1918. Subject: Report of teaching and other activities for month of September, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(203) Letter from Capt. Elmer A. Klein, M. C., to the director of the School of Orthopedic Surgery, October 31, 1918. Subject: Report of activities during October, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(204) Letter from Capt. Wm. J. Merrille, M. C., to the director of the School of Orthopedic Surgery, October 31, 1918. Subject: Report of teaching activities, October, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(205) Letter from Capt. J. T. O'Ferrall, M. C., to Maj. Edwin W. Ryerson, M. C., October 31, 1918. Subject: Personal teaching activities, month of October, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(206) Letter from the School of Orthopedic Surgery, to the Surgeon General, November 30, 1918. Subject: Monthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 730 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(207) Letter from the director of the School of Orthopedic Surgery to the Surgeon General, December 24, 1918. Subject: Monthly report for the School of Orthopedic Surgery. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Orthopedics, Camp Greenleaf) C.
(208) Letter from commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., to Surgeons General of the Army, December 19, 1917. Subject: Report of the Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M.O. T. C., Fort Riley) C.
(209) Report on the general course of instruction for officers (undated), by Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley) C.
(210) Report of the division of medical department training, S. G. O., April 6, 1917, to May 10, 1918, by E. L. Munson, colonel, M. C. On file, Record Room S. G. O., 353 (Training, General).
(211) Yearbook, Fort Riley, Kans., written by Board of Editors, published by Bank. Note Co., Kansas City, Mo., 1918, 137. On file, historical Division, S. G. O.
(212) Letter from commandant (W. N. Bispham, lieutenant colonel, M. C.) medical officers' training camp, to Surgeon General of the Army, January 15, 1918. Subject: Report of Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, for November. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 3546 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley).
(213) History of individual hospital. On file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
(214) Report for December, 1917, from commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., to Surgeon General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(215) Report for January, 1918, from commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 319.1 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley); 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley) C.
(216) Report for February, 1918, from commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., to the Surgeon General. 0n file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley) C.
(217) Report for March, 1918, from commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., to the Surgeon General. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley) C.
(218) Report f or the month of April, 1918, from the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., to the Surgeon General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley).
(219) Report for the month of May, 1918, from the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., to the Surgeon General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(220) Report for the month of June, 1918, from commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, to Surgeon General of the Army. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley).


288

(221) Third indorsement from The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, June 4, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley) C.
(222) Letter from P. M. Ashburn, colonel, M. C., to Col. E. L. Munson, M. C., June 26, 1918. Subject: Output of medical officers' training camps from the beginning of the war to June 1, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley).
(223) Report of the general course of instruction for officers at Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., from the commandant to the Surgeon General of the Army (undated). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 352J1 (M. O. T. C, Fort Riley).
(224) Syllabus of instruction conducted at Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.1 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(225) Letter from the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., to the Surgeon General of the Army, May 12, 1918. Subject: Weekly schedules. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley) C.
(226) Letter from the Surgeon General of the Army, to the commandant Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., December 6, 1918. Subject: School in Military Roentgenology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Military Roentgenology, M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(227) Letter from the Surgeon General of the Army to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans, December 7, 1917. Subject: School in Military Orthopedics. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Military Orthopedics, M. O. T. C, Fort Riley, Kansas).
(228) Letter from Maj. Ariall W. George, M. R. C., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, February 19, 1918. Subject: Report of section in Roetgenology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Military Roentgenology, M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kans).
(229) Letter from Maj. Arial W. George, M. R. C., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., March 4, 1918. Subject: Report of section in Roentgenology M. O. T. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Military Roetgenology, M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kans.).
(230) Schedule of instruction, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., week ending March 16, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353.1 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(231) Letter from Maj. J. P. Lord, M. R. C., chief instructor military orthopedics, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 1, 1918. Subject: Monthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Military Orthopedics, M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(232) Letter from Maj. J. P. Lord, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, April 1, 1918. Subject: Monthly report, military orthopedics, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(233) Letter from Maj. J. P. Lord, M. R. C., to commanding officer, April 30, 1918. Subject: Monthly report, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(234) Letter from Maj. Charles Spencer Williamson, M. R. C., to the Surgeon General, U. S. Army, June 4, 1918. Subject: Report of the department of hygiene and sanitation, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(235) Shewbrooks, Daniel M., major, M. C.: A laboratory of experimental sanitation at the M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kans. The Military Surgeon, Washington, D. C., 1918, xlii, No. 2, 179.
(236) Letter from the director of the sanitary laboratory, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans, to the Surgeon General of the Army, February 1, 1918. Subject: Monthly report of department. On file, Record Room, S.G.O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).


289

(237) Letter from the director of the sanitary laboratory. Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 1, 1918. Subject: Monthly report of department. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(238) Notes on sanitary appliances, war plans division, April, 1919, War Department, Document No. 897. Office of The Adjutant General, Government Printing Office, 1919.
(239) Letter from Ellis K. Kerr to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., January, 1918. Subject: Report of department of inspection of communicable diseases. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (General).
(240) Report from the senior instructor, contagious diseases, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Font Riley, Kans., to the commandant (undated). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (General).
(241) Outline for examination of lungs for tuberculosis, Fort Riley, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Tuberculosis, M. O. T. C., Font Riley, Kansas) C.
(242) Letter from Ralph E. Morris, contract surgeon, U. S. Army, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans, to the Surgeon General, February 11, 1918. Subject: Cardiovascular instruction at M. O. T. C., Font Riley, Kans. (inclosing synopsis of two lectures). On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C.).
(243) Report of instruction and assignment of recruits, Font Riley, Kans, undated, by Maj. H. B. Pillsbury, M. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C).
(244) Letter from Lieut. Don S. Numbers, physical instructor, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans., to commandant, Februany 28, 1918. Subject: Monthly report, physical classes, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Font Riley. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(245) Letter from Lieut. Don S. Numbers, M. R. C., physical instructor, to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Font Riley, Kans., April 1, 1918. Subject: Report, physical instruction, month of March, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Font Riley, Kansas).
(246) Letter from Lieut. Don S. Numbers, M. R. C., physical instructor, to commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Font Riley, Kans., April 30, 1918. Subject: Report, physical class, month of April, 1918. On file, Record Room, S.G.O., 3546 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(247) Letter from Maj. Charles Spencer Williamson, M. R. C., director of the sanitary laboratory, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans, to the Surgeon General of the Army, April 1, 1918. Subject: Monthly report of department. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(248) Letter from Maj. Arial W. George, M. R. C., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C., commandant, M. O. T. C, Fort Riley, Kans, June 1, 1918. Subject: Report of section in Roentgenology. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353 (Roentgenology, M. O. T. C., Font Riley, Kansas).
(249) Letter from Maj. Arial W. George, M. R. C., to Col. W. N. Bispham, M. C, commandant, M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kans., April 4, 1918. Subject: Report of section in Roentgenology, M. O. T. C. On file, Record Room, S. G. O, 353 (Roentgenology, M. O. T. C., Font Riley, Kansas).
(250) Letter from the director of field hospital companies, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Font Riley, Kans., to the commandant, March 4, 1918. Subject: Monthly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Font Riley, Kansas).
(251) Letter from Capt. Robert J. Foster, V. C., to the Surgeon General of the Army, March 16, 1918. Subject: Training, veterinary section, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.1 (Veterinary, Font Riley).
(252) Letter from Capt. Robert J. Foster, V. C., to the director, Veterinary Corps, April 20, 1918. Subject: Weekly report, veterinary section, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Font Riley, Kans. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley) C.


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(253) Letter from the commanding officer, veterinary section, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, to the Surgeon General's Office, May 26, 1918. Subject: Weekly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.1 (M. O. T. C., Fort Riley, Kansas).
(254) Letter from the commanding officer, veterinary section, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Font Riley, Kans., to the Surgeon General's Office, September 15, 1918. Subject: Weekly report. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.1 (M. O. T. C., Font Riley).
(255) S. O. No. 116, W. D., par. 68, May 19, 1917 (detailing Col. P. M. Ashburn, M. C., as commanding officer, M. O. T. C., Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind.).
(256) Special Regulations, W. D., 49a, 1917.
(257) Letter from the Surgeon General to the commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Des Moines, Iowa, July 14, 1917. Subject: Nature and scope of instruction to be given at training camp, Fort Des Moines. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 354.6 (M. O. T. C., Fort Des Moines, Iowa).