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Chapter II, Part II

Contents

163

THIRD WEEK
  Hours
Setting-up exercises and drills.......................10
Poison gases, practical................................2
Special subjects:
Plastic surgery................................................2
Bacteriology, dental...................................2
Bacteriology, dental, laboratory, practical............4
Cavity preparation, (Blacks)...........................1
Written examination (pathology, bacteriology, anesthesia, etc.).......3
Dentistry, l)roSthetic, practical, splint making......................4
Anesthesia, infiltration and conductive, practical....................4
Exodontia, practical....................................Unlimited.
Apicoectomy.............................................Unlimited.
General review................................................4
Written examination...........................................4

FOURTH WEEK

Setting-up exercises, drills, and marches....................10
Cavity preparation, practical................................Unlimited.
Prosthetic dentistry, practical (splints and wiring).........Unlimited.
Anesthesia, local, clinica...................................Unlimited.
Exodontia, clinical..........................................Unlimited.
Root-canal treatment and filling, clinical...................Unlimited.
Xray, clinical...............................................Unlimited.

Under operative dentistry a rather extensive course was given in the proper treatment and filling of the canals of pulpless teeth and the proper preparation of cavity and filling material.174 For all practical work the classes were divided into sections, and ample clinical material was furnished each student officer.

In oral surgery no effort was made to instruct students in the actual surgery of a given case, but rather in the prosthetic appliance the oral surgeon would probably need. In this the school was handicapped until the middle of the summer of 1918 because of lack of information coming from the hospitals in France regarding just what they had found to be good and what they had discarded. There had never been any adequate and comprehensive instruction along these lines, as never before had it been necessary, and the few mechanical appliances that had been described in the professional literature of the past were awkward and known to be inefficient for this emergency. However, late in the summer, the school began teaching the form of prosthesis that was being used in France; e. g., case silver, banding, wiring, etc.174

In dental radiography the student-officers were taught the practical opera-tion of the X-ray machine and film interpretation.174

Pathology consisted of lectures having to do with oral infections and placing particular stress on the theory of focal infection.174

The school was closed December 24, 1918. 106

VETERINARY TRAINING SCHOOL

This school was organized February 15, 1918.175 The first class consisted of 44 student officers. These officers were combined into one company of the training group and this was given the number 27 and made part of the 7th Battalion.176 At first most of the instructors were selected from the best qualified student officers, but later special instructors in addition to these were


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provided.177 All officers on reporting were examined professionally and classified. This gave an excellent idea of the capabilities of the students from a professional standpoint.175 The post veterinary hospital and all stables in the camp were put at the disposition of this school for instruction purposes. A vacant mess hail made an improvised classroom. At first the basic instruction was given with the medical officers of the training group; this necessitated the veterinary officers receiving a great deal of instruction which, though useful, was not pertinent to an intensive course during war.

The status of the instruction six weeks after the organization of the school can be shown very clearly in the following letter: 176

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL,
Washington, April 4, 1918.

From: David S. White, major, V. C., N. A., War Department, Surgeon General's  Office.
To: Acting Director, Veterinary Service, United States Army.

Subject: Report on instruction given veterinary officers, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., March 6 to 30, 1918.

1. Pursuant to a special order, I reported to the commanding officer, Camp Greenleaf, Ga., March 6, 1918.
2. The 27th Company of the 7th Battalion is composed of veterinary officers only, of whom there were 52 at this date. Fifty were second lieutenants in the Veterinary Reserve Corps, two were majors in the National Army.
3. As with all officers under instruction at this camp, veterinary officers are disciplined as privates. They are not allowed to wear rank marks. If, however, they attain, through proper attention to duty, the grade A, B, or C, certain privileges, such as permission to leave camp, wear insignia of rank, etc., on Saturday afternoomis and Sundays, are accorded.
4. The company officers and noncommissioned officers are selected from those of the company who show the greatest military aptitude.
5. The daily routine to which veterinary officers are subjected, while strenuous, is excellent for building up the men morally, mentally, and physically. Through lectures, recitations, demonstrations, and quizzes the mind of the officer is kept continuously at work, arid through setting-up exercises and drills, both foot and mounted, the body is maintained in condition.
6. Most of the officers gain in weight, color, brightness of eye, and alertness of step, and constipation, anorexia, insomnia, and disinterestedness soon disappear.
7. While each day's routine differs in detail, the officer is kept busy from reveille to taps with something which makes for better discipline and greater military efficiency.
8. Depending on deportment, attention to duty, professional scholarship, military bearing, alertness, etc., the officers are classified as follows: Class A, exceptional; B, above average; C, average; D, below average.
9. The officers of the camp are inspected each week by the commanding officer, and the company receiving the highest score is permitted to fly a special distinguishing flag until it is won by some company at a subsequent inspection. The veterinary company won this flag the second week in camp, which record to date has not been equaled.
10. Until my arrival no provision had been made to give instruction in veterinary matters. While all of the instruction received was of undoubted value, some of it was irrelevant, as it pertained to human beings and not animals.
11. Through the energy of the battalion commander and the courtesy of the officer in charge of instruction at the camp, as many hours as could be spared each day from the prescribed course of lectures, selecting hours at which irrelevant subjects occurred, were allotted for instruction in veterinary matters. Thus from one to three hours daily becamne available for this work. A classroom was improvised out of a vacant mess hall.


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12. The instructios in veterinary matters given consisted in:
(a)Lectures, recitations, and quizzes covering S. R. No. 70.
(b)Lectures, recitations, and quizzes covering the guide for veterinary officers.
(c)Lectures on tables of organization (veterinary).
(d)Lectures, recitations and quizzes on blank forms, tags, etc., of the Veterinary Corps.
(e)Lectures on supplies and equipment of veterinary units.
13. About 32 hours were devoted to this work.
14. On March 20, 1918, Capt. W. J. Stokes, V. C., N. A., relieved me.
15. Conforming with verbal instructions, I remained with Captain Stokes long enough to assist him in getting started.
16. Returned to my home station, War Department, Surgeon General's Office, supply division, March 30, 1918.
17. With possible betterments in view the following recommendations are made:
a. All veterinary officers, whether just joined or of longer service, should be sent to Camp Greenleaf or a similar camp for instruction.
b. The curriculum should be arranged so that a certain percentage of the officers (when feasible, selection from the higher grades) may be sent out into the field at stated intervals (say, once every two weeks) and their places filled with officers who have had field service only.
c. The location of a veterinary officers' training camp in the medical officers' training camp where they will commingle with officers of other corps of the Medical Department, is, for the present at least, riot undesirable. The contact is mutually beneficial, provided, however, that the veterinary curriculum include only relevant courses; i. e., be made as watertight as possible.
d. As there is more work than one veterinary instructor can do properly, it is recommended that additional instructors be added as the curriculum becomes intensified and the work develops. Two are needed now.
e. The military instruction should be turned over eventually to the veterinary instructors.
f. The course in equitation should be made just as military ("drill mounted" ) as the foot drill. At present it is largely recreative only.
g. Veterinary officers should Be graded not on military work alone. The following is suggestive in this regard: The officers' professional ability as determined by examination, adaptability to military service, general education, deportlnent, proficiency in military work, psychological test.

DAVID S. WHITE,
Major, V. C., N. A.

This method of instruction was followed until June 20, 1918, when, after some correspondence and the receipt of the following letter, the instruction was completely changed: 178

JUNE 8, 1918.
From: The Surgeon General.
To: Commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Camp Greenleaf, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga.
Subject: Veterinary officers in training.

1. It is desired not to request orders for assignment to station of the veterinary officers comprising the class due to graduate June 20 until recommendations have been received from the school regarding promotions and qualifications.
2. As concerns qualifications, it is requested that the men be listed as to their general suitability for the positions enumerated below. Where the main reason for suggesting an officer for a given line of work is his preference in the matter please so state.
3. The positions referred to are:
(a) Camp veterinarians in divisional cantonments with possibility of becoming division veterinarians.
(b) Veterinarians at auxiliary remount depots (senior).
(c) Veterinarians in charge of mobile veterinary units for overseas, a, b, and c, require energetic and progressive men with executive ability and the demand is far ahead of the supply.


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(d) Veterinarians of smaller camps and of Cavalry and other detached organizations.
(e) Assistants for veterinary hospital units and remount squadrons for overseas.
(f) Assistant veterinarians.
(g) Veterinarians for meat inspection service.
(h) Veterinarians for transport duty.
Under g and hlist only men who have had experience and please state what this experience is.
4. It is requested that this report be expedited for the reason that a new class of 290 is being ordered to report to you for instruction on June 20, 1918.
5. It is also desired that the new class be divided with the view to graduating the most promising half of them July 20, 1918.

C.F. MORSE,
Lieutenant Colonel, M. C.

The new course of instruction was carried out as indicated in schedules which were supplied. These schedules covered the period from July to December, 1918, and were divided into two sets: One for the basic course, the other for the prof essional course of instruction. Prior to July 20 the professional subjects were given with the basic course, professional lectures being substituted for lectures on the basic schedule, which were of no value to the veterinary officers. Lectures were given on the following subjects : 177 Inspection, purchase, and shipment of animals; disinfection; feeds (grain, roughage, grass); feeding; watering; water; poisonous plants; salting; glanders; influenza; lice, flies, etc.; mange; shoeing; stable management, hygiene; veterinary administrative matters.

On June 20 a class of 200 student officers reported and 100 of the most promising were selected and given an intensive course of instruction.177 The selected group was designated the "short-term class" and received but one month's instruction. The basic course was given at regularly scheduled hours and the professional course when hours became available during the day, each evening, and Saturday afternoons. The remaining student officers formed a group which was designated as the "long-term class," and received the basic course of instruction during the first month and the professional course during the second month. A new class reported July 20 and the designation of the "long-term class"   was changed to the "senior class,"; the new class being designated the "junior class."  From this time on two classes were in attendance, a junior class reporting each month and a senior class graduating or completing the course.

Until the middle of June not one veterinary officer was detailed as instructor, and with the great increase in the number of students and the formation of two classes, the detail of more instructors became imperative. The course of instruction was improved and the scope of the work increased. On September 1 the veterinary officers were formed into a separate battalion and veterinary officers were detailed to serve in the following capacities: 177 1 battalion commander, 1 battalion adjutant, 4 company captains, 2 quiz masters. The company captains selected the company lieutenants, sergeants, etc. These assignments were for one week only, thus permitting a maximum number of officers to function in these various capacities.

In addition to the regular schedule, the classes received practical instruction in glanders testing (ophthalmic), disposal of carcasses (cremation), and other practical instruction, as time and opportunity permitted.177 On Saturday


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morning the quiz master gave a written examination on the basic subjects covered during the week. The seniors were examined on the professional subjects covered during the week. The grades were entered in the card files, a card being made out for each student at time of arrival. Two sets were kept, one for the basic course, the other for the professional course data, including the qualifications and nature of previous professional work. From these cards were obtained the data for necessary reports.

Student officers having special experience in military or professional matters were called upon to lecture on the subject. The junior students were given a preliminary examination (written) on professional subjects at the completion of the basic course, or as early in the senior month as possible. Men unfit, professionally or otherwise, were recommended for appearance before art efficiency board.177

SCHOOL OF GAS DEFENSE

The School of Gas Defense was opened November 23, 1917, the gas house being situated at the northern extremity of the camp near the septic tank.179During the winter, when possible, instruction was given in the open at the gas field, but when the weather interfered it was given to the enlisted men in the mess halls of the various groups, and. to the officers in the "Y" at Camp Greenleaf and later in the Warden McLean auditorium. In the latter part of May, 1918, it was decided to move the gas field to a new location in section B, near the Snodgrass Hill road. (See Chart I.) The gas house was taken. down and reerected in the new location, and a convenient administration building, including a lecture hall with a capacity of 200, mask room with racks, and offices, was provided. The new gas field was opened for instruction on June 15, and, with the exception of certain lectures given to the medical officers'  training camp classes in the Warden McLean auditorium, all training was given there. Later, benches for the accommodation of 600 men were provided. Instruction was suspended December 7, 1918. 179

During the life of the school, instruction was given to 41,361 enlisted men of the Medical Department and 8,781 officers of the Medical Corps.179 In addition, instruction was given to approximately 1,300 men and 60 officers of the 11th Cavalry, in August, 1918. In compliance with orders from the Chief of Engineers, on September 16, a full course was given to a class of 1 officer and 32 noncommissioned officers from Camp Forrest, to fit them for instructors in a school to be established in that camp.179 After that school had been formed, at the conclusion of the training given to the several classes, the men were brought to the gas field at Camp Greenleaf for demonstrations and gas-house experience. The officers and men of the 605th, 210th, 211th, 212th, and 213th Engineer Reginients were in this way passed through gas.
Equipment.179 When the school was opened it was provided with the full equipment for a divisional school as in use at that time, including 496 masks. In a short time equipment used at the Medical Officers' Training Camp at Fort Benjamin Harrison was made available, increasing the number of masks by 504. Additional masks were received from time to time until, when instruction was closed, the supply totaled approximately 6,200.


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Sterilization of masks
.179 - ”The masks were all sterilized by the gas squad, following the standard method, by compound cresol solution. After each batch had been treated, sample masks were submitted to the laboratory at General Hospital No. 14 for bacteriological examination, with uniformly good reports.

The gas squad.179 - On December 2, 1917, three enlisted men were assigned to care for the property then housed in tents at the gas field. The squad later was increased from time to time until it numbered 17. These men cared for the masks, disinfected them, kept them in repair, policed the field, assisted in the demonstrations, etc. Certain of the sergeants and corporals who showed proper capacity acted as drillmasters to the enlisted classes, and without exception the men detailed to this squad showed themselves capable and faithful.

Meteorological station.179 - Early in 1918, application was made for the establishment of a field weather observation station at Camp Greenleaf, in connection with the gas school, and when the new gas buildings were constructed, provision was made for this station in the erection of a steel tower for wind instruments. Finally the Signal Service established the Greenleaf station, sending three noncommissioned officers, with the necessary equipment. In addition to the ordinary weather observations, aerological high-level wind observations were taken twice daily by means of hydrogen balloons.

INSTRUCTION

Instruction, as finally evolved, naturally divided itself into two courses, one given to enlisted men and one to officers.180

Enlisted men. - The course lasted one week and was planned to include 12 hours, 5 hours being devoted to instruction and drill at the gas school, 5 to drill under the mask at their own camps and under their own officers, and 2 to a demonstration at the gas house of gas clouds, tear bombs, and the protective qualities of the mask against lung irritants and tear gases in the gas chamber. The instruction was for the purpose of giving them an understanding of the whole subject and drill in the adjustment of the mask, and included an outline of the gas offense, describing the objects sought for in the use of gas, the physical standards of gas and the atmospheric conditions necessary for a successful gas attack, the types of gases used as to their effects on the individual, and the various ways in which gas was used in actual war. Then the system of protection, including the principles and construction of the mask, as well as the adjustment drill, the action of the vesicants (mustard oil) and means of protection, the construction of gas-proof dugouts and shelters, and the protection of stores, the signs of different kinds of gas attacks and customs of giving and transmitting warnings, as well as the regulations in force at the gas alarm, the methods of clearing trench and adjacent areas of gas after an attack, of repairing damages to property and equipment, and also an outline of first-aid treatment was explained to them. The second part of the instruction, carried on in their own organizations was for the purpose of accustoming the men to work under the mask.


169

Officers' & course. -  This course followed the same general lines as that given to the enlisted men, but was naturally much more elaborate. The responsibility of the officer for his men was impressed on them, and the theories and principles involved in both offense and defense were fully explained. In addition the gases used were described in detail and their pathologic effects noted. The principles of treatment were given in as full a manner as the time would allow.

COURSE FOR LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE

A special course for line of communications service was given under a letter of instructions from the Surgeon General, November 28, 1917, for text of which see page 78.

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FOR ENLISTED MEN

Second in importance only to the training of officers was the training of enlisted men of the Medical Department. To this end several miscellaneous schools were conducted at the camp.

 SCHOOL FOR ADJUTANTS, REGISTRARS, AND MESS OFFICERS

This school was established pursuant to the following order: 181

General Orders, No. 65.
 HEADQUARTERS CAMP GREENLEAF,
Chickamauga Park, Ga., June 27, 1918.

1. A school for the training of selected noncommissioned officers as candidates for commission in the Sanitary Corps as adjutants, registrars, and mess officers is hereby established.  
2. This school will function directly under these headquarters. The senior instructor, Camp Greenleaf, will provide the necessary instructors and outline and direct the course.
3. The buildings of the former brigade headquarters, South Dyer Hill, with such tentage as may be necessary, are set aside as accommodations for this school. Personnel pertaining to this school will be quartered and subsisted therein. Cooks and necessary attendants will not be members of the class under instruction.
4. Each entering class of candidates will not exceed 75, and at the end of two weeks it will be so reduced by vote of the staff of instructors as not to exceed 50. Candidates discharged from one class may be authorized to join another, but not a third.
5. Class of candidates will be limited approximately as follows: For adjutants, 20; for registrars, 8; for mess officers, 20.
6.Candidates will be relieved from duty with any organization to which they may have previously been attached.
7. Training will be both didactic and practical. The didactic instruction will be carried out in the school camp on Dyer Hill. The practical instruction will be carried out in the officers kitchens, messes, and School for Cooks of Camp Greenleaf and General Hospital No. 14.
8. As much of the didactic training which would be properly common to the several groups comnposing this school will be given to these groups together.
The time required for this didactic training will be one month. 
9. Candidates under practical training will be quartered and subsisted with the organizations with which they are being trained. For administrative and disciplinary purposes, they will be under the command of commanding officers of such organizations.
The period of practical train,ing will not be less than one month.
10. Course in practical instruction will be so arranged as to include a period covering the latter part of one month and beginning of another, when most of the clerical work is done.


170

11. Practical instruction as adjutants will be given five groups of four candidates each at the following headquarters offices: Camp Greenleaf, General Hospital No. 14, motor group, animal-drawn group, hospital group.  
Practical instruction for registrars will be given the entire group in that subject in the registrar's office of General Hospital No. 14.
Practical instruction for mess officers will be given in the messes of General Hospital No. 14 and the School for Cooks and various public messes of Camp Greenleaf.
12. Candidates under instruction in this school, whether receiving didactic instruction at the Dyer Hill Camp or practical instruction in offices, messes, etc., will not be required to perform any duties not directly pertaining to their special training, other than a reasonable amount of drill and setting-up exercises.
13. Organization commanders will submit to this office, between the 1st and 15th of each month, the names of noncommissioned officers who in their opinion are sufficiently qualified to be acceptable candidates for this course of training.
Designation of those to take this course will be made by this office from among the candidates so recommended.

By order of Colonel Munson:
E. S. SLEDGE, Major, M. R. C., Adjutant.

As shown in the above order, the school was first quartered on South Dyer Hill as a separate entity.181 (See Plate I.) In October it was moved to the noncommissioned officers group and made a part of that command.66

A six weeks' course was conducted, followed by from four to six weeks of practical training. After the school became a part of the noncommissioned officers' group, most of the practical training was given in the group by using the students as cadet officers for the companies of prospective noncommissioned officers. 66

The school started late and therefore the number of graduates was small. The classes graduating about the time of the armistice were given certificates of proficiency instead of commissions.6

NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS' SCHOOL

The most promising enlisted men were sent to this school for a course intended to fit them for the important work which the noncommissioned officer performs in the Medical Department.6 This work was of prime importance, as the call for men so qualified was at all times greater than the supply, and the school was pushed to the utmost throughout. The various headquarters and company officers were utilized for qualifying men for these positions, and men were carefully picked for such duty with that end in view. In the organization of different sanitary units a request was made upon this school by the group concerned, and the number of noncommissioned officers required for such a unit was sent.

The curriculum for the Noncommissioned Officers' School was arranged to cover, as completely as possible, the military duties of noncommissioned officers of the Medical Department, requirements of paper work necessary in all sanitary detachments, and the handling of men; the object being to have on hand and to be able to supply on demand well-trained personnel ready for promotion to corporals and sergeants.182 It was worked out so that any number of officers might be sent to the school and trained for the specific duties of various units, the training being in part separate and in part conjointly with the men who were to become their enlisted personnel.


171

The regular curriculum of the school consisted of 24 hours per week of didactic lectures on paper work, selected portions of Army Regulations and of the Manual for the Medical Department, and the solution of practical problems; 7 hours per week on Mason's Handbook of Sanitation and several hours each day of instruction in the school of the soldier, platoon and detachment, litter and shelter tent drill.

SCHOOL FOR COOKS AND BAKERS

This school played an important part in the development of men qualified for positions as cooks and bakers, for which the demand was very great. Men whose trade was cooking or work allied to this, or men who desired to learn the trade, were selected for this course, and an extremely practical scheme of instruction was used wherein the men were given elementary instruction in cooking and were then required to cook in the kitchens of the camp under the direct supervision of the officers of the school. After the school was well organized no sanitary organization left this camp without its full quota of cooks, and a great many mien graduating from the school were sent on requisitions elsewhere 6

In the early days of the camp, schools for cooks were conducted in practically every section, but they were naturally on a very small scale. Their combined output did not exceed 60 per month.92  One special school was conducted in Battalion 15 under the same direction as the school for noncommissioned officers.182

Owing to the limited time allotted this course---8 weeks---the instruction was necessarily intensive and the men devoted 12 hours daily to this work, inclusive of 1 to 2 hours of lectures. At all times the men were under the constant supervision of old and competent mess sergeants and cooks. At the outset they were thoroughly drilled in matters pertaining to cooks, poiice, cleanliness, and sanitation. Gradually, as efficiency manifested itself, they were allowed to assume some of the duties of cooking, until, as the term drew to an end, the embryo cooks were doing all the cooking and the old cooks exercising only an advisory capacity.

By experience it was found that the best results were obtained by the volunteer system. That is, after being in camp a period the recruit had become accustomed to camp life, had gotten considerable drill, had become orientated and in a position to specialize, as it were. Then the duties were made known to the command and volunteers called for, each applicant questioned privately and carefully as to his qualifications, and the duties again explained to him. By so doing a surprisingly large number of highly intelligent, industrious, and capable men could be selected who, by hard and painstaking work, could be made into efficient mess sergeants and cooks. This school furnished numerous cooks to organizations organized in this and other groups of Camp Greenleaf for overseas duty.183

The school gradually deteriorated on account of the great demands upon its personnel until it practically ceased to function.184

In June, 1918, the seriousness of the situation was so manifest as to call for the issuance of the following order: 185


172

General Orders, No. 59.
HEADQUARTERS CAMP GREENLEAF,
Chickamauga Park, Ga., June 13, 1918.

1. A school for cooks and bakers is hereby established at this camp. It will function directly under these headquarters.
2. The main purpose of this school is to train men in plain Army cookery. Those showing special aptitude will be given a course in cooking for the sick and in the preparation of light diets.
3. The instructor staff of the School for Cooks and Bakers will include an officer in charge and such assistants, both commissioned and enlisted, as may be necessary.
4. Men will not be sent to this school until after they have received fundamental instruction in the duties of the soldier.
They may be taken from any organization in Camp Greenleaf, and during such instruction will be under control of the officer in charge of the School for Cooks and Bakers.
Men who have completed their training as cooks and bakers will be returned to their previous orgamiizations unless ordered away to outside duty.
5.The enlisted men selected for instruction will, as far as possible, be chosen from those who have had some experience in cooking, or who have expressed desire to take up this line of work.
Men who are physically substandard, but not to an extent which would in any way interfere with their efficiency as cooks, may be selected.
6.All men selected for training as cooks and bakers will be given a thorough examination to determine their freedom from communicable disease.
7. Selected men who have qualified in, the School for Cooks and Bakers, and who show apparent aptitude for the duties of mess sergeant, will be given a special course of training therefor.
8.The school will be organized on a basis of 300 men under instruction, and with a basic course extending over a period of six weeks. Persons being trained as hospital cooks or mess sergeants will be retained proportionately longer. As far as practicable, classes will be graduated in the proportion of one of 100 men every two weeks.
9.The course of instruction in the School for Cooks and Bakers will be a full-time course, other than such exercises as are necessary to keep the persons under instruction in good physical condition.
10. Six kitchens and mess halls, 12 barracks and 6 lavatory buildings pertaining thereto, located in the eastern end of the cantonments formerly occupied by the 81st Field Artillery, are thereby set aside as accommodations for the School for Cooks and Bakers.
11. Training will consist of a basic course, which will include the theory and practice of cookery, nutrition, and the handling and preparation of the ration. This basic course will be carried out in the buildings of the School for Cooks and Bakers. It will be supplemented by practical training of persons under instruction in the various public messes of Camp Greenleaf, the regular cooks of these messes serving as instructors for this purpose.  
12.The public messes in which practical training in cookery and mess management is being given will be given constant supervision by instructors of the School for Cooks and Bakers. They will report to the officer in charge of the school any mess which may appear to them to be faulty in any respect, with a view to its correction through these headquarters.
13.Pastry, cake, and other articles of food prepared by the School for Cooks and Bakers as part of its work of instruction may be sold to the post exchanges or messes, and the funds used for the purchase of materials and equipment necessary to such instruction.
14.Requisition will be made for such equipment for both post and field use as may be necessary for the instruction work.

By order of Colonel Munson:
E. S. SLEDGE, Major, M. R. C., Adjutant.

This newly constituted school was put under the direction of officers assigned to the Nutrition School.186


173

In July, 1918, the school was again reorganized, and from that time on it was very successful, no sanitary organization leaving camp without its full quota of cooks, a great many men graduating from the school being sent on requisition elsewhere. 187

A section of the camp was assigned to this school; and besides the barracks occupied by instructors and students, several model kitchens were established and a large model bakery was built, where 20 student bakers could receive instruction at one time. This bakery was built with funds appropriated by the camp exchange, and its output was sold to organizations of the camp and at the several branches of the camp exchange.187

Just before the armistice was signed this school consisted of 600 student cooks and bakers, and arrangements were being made for the graduation of 200 every two weeks.188

The main purpose of the school was to train men in plain army cookery. 189 The instructor staff for the school consisted of an officer in command, an officer in charge, supply and mess officer, one officer in charge of classes and instructors, one officer in charge of students taking the practical work in kitchens, and such noncommissioned officers, who were especially adapted for the work, as were required.

The students were men transferred from the draft after they had received fundamental instruction in the duties of a soldier. They either had previous knowledge of cooking, were adapted to the work, or manifested a desire to be cooks. Also men from other organizations were detailed on detached service to the school. When the course was finished the latter returned to their respective organizations. Each student was given a thorough examination in order to exclude the possibility of any communicable disease.

The basic course consisted of six weeks' training. The first two weeks were given to the study of the Manual for Army Cooks, lectures on personal hygiene, and demonstrations in the school kitchens of one or two articles on that day's bill of fare.

For those who had shown special ability during the two weeks' theoretical training, a course was given covering a period of three weeks to fit them for mess sergeants. During this course the textbooks used were Manual for Army Cooks, Mess Sergeant's Handbook, and Mess Officer's Assistant. Such subjects as food spoilage, mess management, purchasing of food, food values, balanced bills of fare, sanitation, handling the Army ration, food substitutes, use and care of kitchen utensils were gone over thoroughly and an examination was given at the end of the course.

In the theoretical course the demonstrations were given by an experienced cook in the school kitchens. The dish demonstrated was cooked and used at the following meal. Questions were asked during and after the demonstration. At the end of the two weeks' theoretical course an examination was held and each student rated. Those showing adaptability were then started on their practical course in the kitchens. Those making a low rating or found inapt were transferred as not suitable for cooks.

The students for their four weeks practical course were assigned to duty in the kitchens, under the supervision of a qualified mess sergeant and good


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cooks, as assistant cooks. Here they themselves were required to do the actual preparing and cooking for a company of men. While serving as assistant cooks they were visited daily by an officer, their work supervised, and they were questioned in regard to the kitchen, the food being cooked, and their progress noted.

When they were found not doing the work according to the Manual for Army Cooks, their attention was called to the fact. At the end of the four weeks' practical work the students were again examined. Those found to have made suitable progress were transferred to units in need of cooks. Those making a low rating were kept in kitchens a longer period, until such time as they demonstrated their ability to make second cooks, when they were transferred.

A pastry kitchen was operated for the training of students in the making of pastry such as is used in an army mess. This was supervised by an experienced baker. As nearly as possible all students at the end of their practical training course were given 10 days' practical work in the pastry kitchen before being transferred to other units.

In brief the whole course of instruction consisted of 2 weeks' theoretical study, 4 weeks' practical work, and 10 days' special pastry cooking.189

By giving the two weeks of theoretical work in one continuous course it was thought the time with about 80 per cent of the men was entirely lost and wasted.

SCHOOL FOR MOTOR MECHANICS AND DRIVERS

In this school men, preferably experienced by reason of former employment along the lines of motor mechanics and driving, were instructed in the work of caring for and maintaining motor trucks and cars, and in addition those showing an aptitude for this work were given preliminary courses along these lines, as well as lessons in driving.190 No instruction of novices was attempted, but the instruction was given to men who already knew how to drive cars but who required correction of faults and a more thorough knowledge of the machines they were to use. A certain amount of instruction was given motor drivers from the early days of the camp, but such instruction was not well organized or systematic. The school work was reorganized January 28, 1918, and a regular motor school for field sanitary units was established in the motor group.191No instruction was given men unfamiliar with this work, but all men showing some knowledge of driving or repair of motor cars, who arrived at camp either from recruit depots or in the draft, were assigned to these units and were then sent to the school.

The school consisted of three departments:191 The truck-driving department, which instructed drivers in operating the type of truck assigned to an organization; the truck-repair department, which instructed company mechanics in replacing parts of trucks; the ambulance repair department, which instructed ambulance company mechanics in replacing ambulance parts.

The truck-driving department. - Thisdepartment was under the general supervision of the senior instructor, who taught the drivers of each organization to operate their own trucks.191 Each field hospital company and ambulance company having trucks assigned to it placed in charge of one of its trucks


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a driver. This driver was definitely and permanently assigned to that truck. Each truck was numbered by the company transportation officer. Drivers thus assigned reported each drill day at 1 p. m. at the place of assembly of his trucks, for instruction in operating the truck so assigned, and devoted the time to care and operation of his truck. The drivers of each organization, during the period of the motor school, were under the charge of the company transportation officer and the immediate charge of the company truckmaster.

As new members were added to the school from the general camp, each truck driver was given a truck in his company, in this way building up in each company its quota of truck drivers permanently assigned to definite trucks.

The truck-driving instruction was under the general charge of a sergeant, first class; and the immediate charge of the truck drivers for each company was placed with the company truckmaster or transportation sergeant. The transportation officers of companies saw that the details reported promptly. They also endeavored to become acquainted with the transportation of their units and the qualifications of the men detailed for this work.

Ambulance-repair department. - This school was placed under the immediate charge of a corporal. The students were two men from each ambulance company and evacuation ambulance company selected by the company commander. One of the men so selected was the company mechanic. These men were known in the company as the two repair men, and were to be instructed so that they would be able to disassemble an ambulance, locate damage, and replace broken parts from the spare parts equipment of the company.

By arrangement with the Motor Transport Corps, one ambulance was available for the instruction of the class daily. An ambulance having broken parts was selected, and it was the problem of the class to locate the damage and replace the broken parts with serviceable ones. The broken parts were turned in to the motor property officer and new spare parts received, so that at the conclusion of the class the ambulance would have been rendered serviceable. The purpose of theclass was to train every man so that he would be able to take out a broken part and put in the new one.

The truck-repair department. - This department was conducted, under the immediate charge of a corporal, in the same manner as was the ambulance-repair unit. Arrangements were made with the Motor Transport Corps and the motor property officer so that a truck needing replacement of broken parts might be used for class instruction. Broken parts were taken out and serviceable ones substituted from the supplies on hand, or from the trucks out of service. When no trucks were available for instruction in the foregoing manner, a truck was disassembled by the class and then put together.

The pupils in this class were one repair man from each ambulance company and two from each field hospital.191 Each ambulance and field hospital company detailed to the school a quota of students necessary to keep 40 trucks and 20 ambulances in daily operation for the necessary camp service, hauling wood, supplies, and food; also road building, sanitation, hospital, and incidental quartermaster work, including a quota of company mechanic students to work with qualified mechanics as understudies. This particular quota of drivers was composed of men who had been taught to handle a vehicle or who


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had this ability from practice or vocation. With each student driver was placed an understudy or orderly who accompanied the vehicle on its daily road work to observe the manipulation, operation of mechanical parts, rules of road, methods of getting out of bad and rough places loaded and unloaded, etc. This duty the understudy performed for 14 days, during which period, at intervals of every few days, an instructor took him out to teach him actual manipulation, so that at the end of his understudy period he had proved his aptitude to be advanced to drive on light detail work, now being determined whether or not he was material for a field driver, and a report sent to his company commander. After completing this course of two weeks as understudy and followed by two more weeks of road driving, the student was returned to his company for the regular company work during the morning; in the afternoon small classes made up of drivers were detailed from the units to the motor school for advanced work on overhauling, adjustments, and replacement of parts, with individual staff mechanics and instructors who acted as foremen, and thus the work done on the unserviceable vehicles finally placed them in working order for the service of transportation. The aim was to let the student use only the ordinary equipment to keep his vehicle in condition, such as would be supplied in campaign service, and to thoroughly acquaint him with a method of attack for all possible troubles he might encounter in routine field work. The school was using and maintaining some 72 trucks, 40 ambulances, 3 automobiles, and 7 motor cycles, 80 per cent of which were old and worn, a large portion having seen service on the Mexican border. It maintained a spare parts supply department, which was well stocked with all the necessary equipment, tools, etc.

Special instruction was given in assembling motors for the students.19 Special demonstrations of the make-up of storage batteries, their care and operation; carburetors, their working parts, adjustments, and uses; methods of ignition, generators, and magnetos; wiring adjustments and systems; in short, the advanced classes dissected and replaced all parts of a motor vehicle, which had to pass the final inspection and test before credit was given for the work done. This work was augmented by lectures under the immediate charge of the school director and his assistants.

During the six weeks in operation, the school had in its entirety 175 students on the roll; 75 of this number were advanced students and the remainder were in the driving classes, with 50 percent of these drivers ready to pass into the advanced class in the course of a few more days on the road work.190

In the early summer of 1918 the War Department sent three specialists (Sanitary Corps officers) to operate this school. Through their efforts the work of instruction was coordinated and improved so that a very excellent motor school was conducted. During the entire life of the school all officers assigned to motor units received the same instruction as the enlisted men.192

The difficulties of pursuing a systematic course of instruction for recruits received in this camp, in view of the numerous calls upon the personnel and the entire uncertainty as to the length of stay of any body of men, caused the adoption of two schedules of instruction, designated "A" and "B," for the first four weeks training.193 Recruits received were put through two weeks' training


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under Schedule A and then passed to Schedule B. If they remained longer than four weeks they passed on to special training, either in the regular organization to which assigned or in the motor department. The first two weeks of mnotor instruction was devoted to the classification of mechanics and drivers in order to determine the knowledge they actually possessed. The second two weeks was devoted to training men who were shown to be good mechanics or drivers in the special requirenients for handling the motor transportation furnished the Medical Department.Subsequent time was devoted to raising men by instruction to a higher rating. During the first four weeks this instruction was carried on hand in hand with general instruction in the duties of a soldier.

From this school highly trained mechanics and specialists in every phase of motor equipment were graduated. Large classes of trained chauffeurs and motor-cycle drivers were also graduated.192

The students who had completed the course of instruction and were awaiting assignment were utilized to handle the motor transportation of the camp, which was concentrated in the motor group.192 This part was quite a large one, having, in the fall of 1918, 50 motor cycles, 12 touring cars, 60 ambulances. and 100 trucks.192

The success of the school can well be judged by the condition of this transportation when inspected by an inspector of the Motor Transport Corps in October, 1918, who reported that this equipment was in better condition than at any other camp he had visited, and at the time of his inspection less than 4 per cent of the motors were in need of repair.192

VETERINARY SCHOOL

Enlisted men of the Veterinary Corps at Camp Greenleaf were organized into Enlisted Company A on May 2, 1918. 194 The company had a regular company organization and functioned primarily to train men for the duties of veterinary soldiers. At the same time it took over and operated the stables of the mnedical officers' training camp, with about 400 horses and mules and 210 sets of horse equipment to care for. Although this was an instruction company, it acted as a service comnpany as regards the animals.

The personnel of the company comprised graduate veterinarians and non-graduates. The nongraduates numbered 422, and were of the following vocations: Horsemen, teamsters, farmers, agricultural students, veterinary students, horseshoers, saddlers, farriers, clerks, stenographers, cooks, pharmacists, miscellaneous. From this group were derived a number of noncommissioned officers of long service in the mounted branches who were of the utmost value in training and instructing recruits.

The course of instruction for enlisted men included the subjects of the school of the soldier, foot drill, discipline, honors and customs of the service, sanitary and infantry drill, tent pitching, gas drill, first-aid and stable nmanagement, and other veterinary subjects. All men received daily three hours of instruction in equitation, including fitting and care of equipment and care of the horse.


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The care of the animals and equipment afforded much practical instruction in animal management, hygiene and sanitation, and care of equipment.

Additional instruction was provided for the enlisted men who were graduate veterinarians and who were expected to take examinations for commissions. Special attention was given to Army paper work and the rendition of reports. Mimeograph copies of correspondence forms and the most common and important reports were furnished to each man, as were the common War Department manuals. Lectures were given at least twice a week on Army paper work, and the men were also encouraged and detailed to prepare papers dealing with veterinary subjects, which they read before the company.

Company A was disbanded about December 20, 1918, by the discharge of all enlisted men. This included all the graduates and practically all the nongraduates.

SCHOOL FOR FARRIERS

This was a part of Stable Company No 1, in the animal-drawn group, and was organized in February, 19l8. 33 Twenty selected enlisted men took this course, in addition to men who performed this duty in each mounted organization.

On May 13, 1918, this school was discontinued, as a separate entity, all men to be trained as farriers being instructed after that date in the veterinary school and transferred to the veterinary department.35

SCHOOL FOR BLACKSMITHS, HORSESHOERS, AND SADDLERS

This school was established in the animal-drawn group in February, 19l8. 33 Men rated in the different organizations as blacksmiths, horseshoers, and saddlers were sent to this school for training. The time allotted to this instruction was variable, depending upon the ability of the men. If a student became proficient in a short time, he was sent back to his organization and his place was taken by another man. Plenty of material for instruction was available, as the students not only received didactic instruction, but were required to shoe all the horses and keep the wheel transportation and horse equipment in proper condition.33, 35

SCHOOL FOR DENTAL ASSISTANTS

Enlisted graduate or undergraduate dentists were instructed in this school in the work pertaining to their department, and at the end of a specified course men who were found thoroughly qualified in a professional way were recoinmnended for examination for commission in the Dental Corps.6

The course consisted of one month's intensive training in the school of the soldier, including gas instruction. As those men were all dental graduates, it was not deemed necessary to give them any professional training. However, they were given a course in Army paper work, and each day eight different men from this company worked in the dental infirmary, which gave them a working idea of the Army equipment. They were also instructed in the unpacking, setting up, and packing of the field equipment.195


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SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY

In this school enlisted men who had had previous experience in this branch, and those who desired to undertake the work, were taught the use of psychology in the Army and the system of morale work.6 The work of this school is described under the head of "School of Military Psychology" (p.100).

ORTHOPEDIC SCHOOL

At the school for care of feet, one of the orthopedic sections for instruction which was afterwards merged into the School of Military Orthopedics, a number of selected noncommissioned officers were instructed in the fitting of shoes and the care of minor injuries of the foot.92

The capacity for the instruction of numbers of enlisted men in the School of Orthopedics was gradually increased, and in April, 1918, 70 enlisted men from 18 organizations were instructed.196 This instruction was suspended in May, 1918, on account of the many changes and readjustments in the camp during that month.197 It was recommended in June, 1918, and efforts were made to give basic instructions in minor foot ailments, shoe fitting, and splint application to 4 per cent of the enlisted men of the different organizations.198 In July this instruction was given to this percentage of men in the motor group, animal-drawn group, and evacuation base hospital group, numbering 440 men.47 More intensive instruction of small groups of enlisted men in massage, brace making, mitinor foot ailments and shoe fitting was begun.199During August the instruction of the 4 per cent of the enlisted strength was continued, and 523 men received instruction. It was quite difficult to get the full attendance on account of the large number of outgoing organizations during the month.199 During September 892 enlisted men received orthopedic instruction.

A number of chiropodists were assigned to the camp and received special instruction in the Orthopedic School and were then assigned to different hospital units and to the development battalion. 201 202

In October special instruction in shop and plaster work was given to nine selected enlisted men of Base Hospital No. 157 (orthopedic). General instruction was given to 974 enlisted men during that month. 203

The number of students began to diminish in November, only 510 enlisted men being instructed during that period. 204, 205, 206

This school was formally closed December 24, 1918.207

SCHOOL FOR X-RAY TECHNICIANS

The work of this school is described in the discussion of the School of Military Roentgenology (p. 137 et seq.).

MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUCTION

In addition to the instruction given in the schools briefly described above, special instruction was given to enlisted men in the duties pertaining to the following activities: Laboratory helpers;92animal-drawn units ; 3 19 hospital trains 92and evacuation group; 59 convalescent depot and convalescent camp; 182 mobile operating units; 182sanitary squads. 182


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When it is remembered that the great majority of enlisted men in the Medical Department must be specialists in one or more lines, the importance of these schools and courses will be recognized, and one of the sources of greatest disappointment to the command was that it was frequently not possible to keep enlisted men at the camp long enough to impart the instruction and training intended 6

FORT RILEY, KANS.

(June 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918)

ORGANIZATION

This camp was organized in compliance with a letter from The Adjutant General of the Army to the commanding general, Central Department, dated May 11, 1917, and to the quartermaster general, of the same date.1 It began to function June 1, 1917.208 On the date of the opening the personnel of the camp consisted of the commandant, nine Regular medical officers, and two enlisted men. The site for housing the camp consisted of a tract of land northeast of the post hospital and north of the main road leading through the reservation. This area extended a short distance up what is known as Magazine Canyon. The terrain rises gradually from the road up to an eminence known as Wireless Hill, upon which was situated the wireless tower. To the east is a ravine through which runs One Mile Creek. Running northeast from the main ravine is a smaller ravine which divides the area described into two parts. That to the south was the section occupied by the medical officers' barracks; that to the north and west was the location of the barracks of the ambulance companies and field hospital companies, with the sheds and stables for their transportation. 

This site had been selected a few days prior to the date set for the opening of the camp, and a contract had been let for four barracks, with mess halls and toilets for medical officers, and two barracks, with attached mess halls and toilets for an ambulance company and field hospital company.208 When construction actually began, allotment was also made for barracks, etc., for three more ambulance companies and three more field hospital companies. This last allotment also included stables and sheds for the necessary animals amid vehicles, which were completed July 1, 1917.208

Headquarters of the camp was first established in the old Cavalry headquarters at Fort Riley.208 As no barracks were as yet completed, the Artillery guardhouse and the first floor of the Artillery band quarters were also temporarily assigned to the camp for quarters and mess, respectively, for the first student officers reporting. Notice was received from the Surgeon General of the prospective arrival of student officers on June 1, and as accommodations had not been completed, an effort was made to have orders amended so as to have-students arrive in time for instruction to begin on June 15. This effort, however, was not successful, and the student officers began to arrive on May 28. On June 1, Student Company No. 1, composed of 34 student officers, was organized. 205

The original organization of the student companies provided for the detail of one of the Regular officers on duty at the camp as company commander, but when the number of the companies began to materially increase, company

[PLATE II.  MAP OF MEDICAL OFFICERS TRAINING CAMP, Fort Riley, Kansas]


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commanders and other officers were selected from the members of the several companies. Each company averaged approximately 100 students, and was quartered in its own barracks, with mess hail adjacent.209 The companies were combined into battalions and each battalion was commanded by a Regular officer.

The medical officers' training camp was under the commanding officer of Fort Riley for purposes of administration and supply, only the training being in charge of the commandant of the camp, who was responsible directly to the Surgeon General for its accomplishment.210

On June 4 regular instruction began, and classes were held in the Artillery guardhouse. Student Company No. 1, on that date, contained 74 student officers.208 On June 7 the camp headquarters was moved to the new cantonment then nearing completion, and on the next day the student officers were moved into the first barrack building to be completed. 208On June 9, 15 noncommissioned officers and 523 enlisted men reported for duty.

On June 12, as enlisted men were arriving in appreciable numbers, a casual detachment was organized to handle all the enlisted men on their arrival.208 In this detachment provisional companies lettered from A onward were formed and placed tinder command of trained medical officers, and these companies in turn were divided into sections which were placed under the charge of especially selected enlisted men who had been made lance corporals. The lance corporals were promoted or demoted accordingly as they succeeded or failed. Those who made good had the advantage of starting their education in discipline and control of men at the very outset of their military life. From this casual detachment the recruits were assigned to whatever regular units were to be formed, such as field hospitals, ambulance companies, and evacuation hospitals.

It was realized that a camp exchange was of very great value, not only in providing articles needed by the personnel of the camp, but also to retain the profits of such sales in the camp to be distributed among the units to be formed. An officer was detailed as exchange officer, and when the camp was ready for occupancy an exchange was established in the headquarters building. It opened for business on June 19, 1917.211 The business of the exchange increased enormously and finally a large building to house it was constructed from the funds of the exchange. in addition to the usual articles kept for sale in such stores, clothing and equipment for officers were handled, thus decreasing materially the necessary expenditures for these items made by officers entering the service. Each unit formed in the camp became a stockholder in the exchange, and on its departure from camp a settlement was always made. Frequently from this source alone a company would leave camp with a company fund of over $1,000.

A number of officers and enlisted men of the National Guard were ordered to the camp for instruction, and they began to arrive June 20.208 The officers were combined into a company separate from the Reserve officers, and the enlisted men formed a detachment, which was placed under the command of one of the National Guard officers.

The first ambulance company (No.18) and field hospital company (No.18) to be formed completed their organization on June 24. A few days thereafter,


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Ambulance Company No. 17 and Field Hospital Company No. 17 were organized.208 Officers for all of these units and for most of those subsequently formed were detailed for this duty from the student companies. If for any reason an officer did not perform satisfactory service on this duty, he was relieved and another detailed in his place.

At the end of June, 1917, 179 student officers had reported for instruction, and 60 noncommissioned officers and 1,626 enlisted men had reported for duty and instruction.208 The teaching staff of Regular medical officers at this time was 12, including the commandant.

On July 8 Ambulance Company No. 20 and Field Hospital Company No. 20 were organized, followed by the organization, on July 12, of Ambulance Company No. 19 and Field Hospital Company No. 19.208 During the month of July a special athletic department for the camp was started. 208 An officer who had had a great deal of experience along this line was detailed as director. This department not only arranged athletic events and entertainments, but also superintended the physical instruction of the officers and enlisted men. An open-air theater accommodating from 2,000 to 3,000 men was designed and built. In this theater nightly entertainments of some sort were provided. An athletic field was laid out, and the outdoor physical instruction was so arranged that every man of the command got proper physical instruction daily. During this month 58 additional officers and 365 recruits reported for instruction.

In preparation for the early transfer of regimental detachments to the divisions to be formed, these detachments were organized in the provisional companies of the casual detachment and received very thorough instruction in regimental work. 208

A Young Men's Christian Association building for the camp was opened formally on August 4. This building was in the center of the camp and its many aids for the welfare of the men were taken advantage of by a large majority of the camp personnel.208

On August 11 a Regular medical officer arrived in camp and gave approximately one week course of lectures on military surgery, and the first review held by the camp was given him on August 16.208 On August 12, 12 assistant instructors were selected from the student officers who had been under training in the camp.208 On August 13 and 15 Provisional Ambulance Company No. 1 and Provisional Field Hospital Company No. 1 were organized.208All of the companies for which authorization had been received had been formed, and these new units were organized to form a training unit for future companies, which might be ordered. These companies were kept filled to their capacity, and as soon as a new unit was started the major portion of the personnel was assigned from one of the provisional companies, and the provisional company in turn was filled by recruits from the casual detachment. On August 14 the first enlisted men were selected for service overseas.208 The detachment of officers and enlisted men to form the nucleus of the regimental services and sanitary trains of the 91st Division (Camp Lewis), 87th Division (Camp Pike), 88th Division (Camp Dodge), 90th Division (Camp Travis), and 89th Division (Camp Funston) left camp August 25.208 The number of officers sent to each


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camp was 40. The last part of August saw the gradual withdrawal of a number of Regular officers from the camp to duty elsewhere and the detail in their places of reserve officers from the student companies which had just completed their three months' course of instruction: From that time on, all new instructors and assistant instructors were taken from the reserve officers on duty in the camp.

During the month of August, the first three companies of student officers completed their course of instruction as far as it was possible for them to go, and seven new companies were formed having at the end of the month, 1,028 officers under instruction. During the month 1,006 additional officers and 470 recruits reported to the camp for instruction.

A press bureau was established at the camp in August in order that helpful and proper advertising might be given this training.208

A complete system of trenches built according to the plans of those used on the Western Front, was started at this time, and their construction was continued by the labor of enlisted men who were afterwards to be detailed to regimental detachments. This method of construction was used so that there would be at least a few men in each detachment who were familiar with trench construction.208

On September 8 the officers and men of the National Guard who had been under instruction at the camp for two months were ordered back to their commands.208 During September 102 officers and 1,392 recruits reported to the camp for instruction, and Companies No. 11, No. 12, and No. 13 were organized.

Quite a number of dental officers had recently arrived in camp, and as they were all new men a course in Medical Department paper work was started and these officers were given instruction in all papers which concerned the Dental Corps.208

The first evacuation hospital which was formed in this country during the war, Evacuation Hospital No. 1, was organized October 10.208 The entire personnel, both officers and men, were selected from those on duty at the camp and the unit received very careful training along military lines. During October only 14 officers and no enlisted men reported for instruction. On the other hand 332 officers were ordered to other stations for duty.208

In spite of repeated requests no allotment was made to prepare the barracks and other buildings for winter occupancy. 212 The buildings as originally constructed were built with a single sheathing of partially cured lumber and the walls of the barracks had shrunk to such an extent that many cracks were visible, and it was realized that during the winter they would be uninhabitable. As the camp was left to its own resources, different expedients were made use of to make the buildings comfortable. Permission was obtained to haul from Camp Funston scrap lumber left from the construction of that cantonment. Altogether 100 truck loads of this material were obtained. All the carpenters found among the enlisted men were organized into a separate detachment and put to work lining the inside of the buildings with this lumber. The walls were first covered with newspaper and some tar paper purchased locally from


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company funds, and then wainscoted to the height of the windows. By this method the wind was kept out and the barracks were made very comfortable and tight for winter without the expenditure of Government funds. By the end of November a large number of the barracks had been completed in this fashion.

In November the first hospital trains were organized. 212 As their training was of a rather special character, a building was remodeled in such a way as to simulate the interior of a hospital car. A number of these units were formed in this camp and sent overseas.

Most of the work of training heretofore had been confined to sanitary trains and regimental sanitary detachments, but during this month orders were received to organize a number of evacuation hospitals. In these units all of the enlisted personnel was furnished by the camp, but the officers were detailed to them by the War Department.212

During the month of November, 16 officers and 85 recruits reported to the camp for instruction.212 Seventy-nine officers were ordered to other stations for duty, including eight officers ordered to Deming, N. Mex., for duty, five to the 34th Division and nine officers ordered to Washington University, St. Louis, for a course of instruction in head surgery. Four hundred and eighty-six enlisted men were ordered to duty at other stations.

The gas house, which provided for gas instruction, was completed on November 16.212 Evacuation Hospital No. 7 was organized during this month, but no additional training companies were formed. 212

During the life of the camp (June 1, 1917, to February 4, 1919) the following units were organized:213 Evacuation Hospitals 1, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21; Base Hospitals 70, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90.

The cantonment previously occupied by the 13th and 20th Cavalry Regiments and the gun sheds and artillery stables in the post of Fort Riley were turned over to the camp during the month of December. These additional buildings were to be used to accommodate the expected expansion of the camp.214 An allotment of $80,000 was made to remodel and to fit the gun sheds and artillery stables for barracks and the temporary buildings in the cantonment for winter occupancy.214 When the material purchased for this work was received, a construction company of 100 men was formed from the enlisted men in the camp. This company furnished all the labor, both skilled and otherwise, and the work was brought to a rapid and successful conclusion.214 The remodeling of the permanent buildings consisted of building large stairways to the second floors of the gun sheds, of flooring the stalls in the stables, of installing baths and toilets, and of arranging one gun shed as a mess hall and kitchen.214

During the month of December, 387 Medical Department officers and 885 enlisted men reported to the camp for instruction.214 Twenty-one officers and 79 enlisted men were ordered to other stations for duty. The department of current literature and Student Companies Nos. 15, 16, and 17, were organized during the month. Orders were received for the establishment, in connection with the basic course, of the schools of military Roentgenology and military orthopedics. The unassigned officers in the camp who had not been recommended for any particular line of duty were placed under observation and


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carefully examined with a view of eliminating the unfit and assigning the qualified to duties for which they were best fitted.214
 
During January, 1918, 274 officers reported to the camp for instruction. No enlisted men were received during this month. Orders were received during this month for sending large numbers of enlisted men to various base hospitals and other stations for duty in the United States and for overseas service. It therefore became difficult to fill the many requisitions received, and the training of both enlisted men and officers was somewhat hampered through this shortage.215

The weather during the month of February being very mild a good deal of work was done in the sanitary laboratory, and all of the different types of incinerators were tried out under strictly scientific conditions.216 It was determined by experiments that the amount of wood necessary as fuel in wood incinerators was excessive. As a result of these experiments a new incinerator was invented and used successfully throughout the remainder of the life of the camp. One hundred and seven officers reported for instruction during this month, but no enlisted men arrived. One hundred and fifteen officers were ordered to other stations for duty, eight were discharged from the service and ordered to their homes. Four hundred and sixty-four enlisted men were ordered to other stations for duty. Weather conditions made possible the more satisfactory drilling of companies and physical instruction of the command. The work in the snap-drawing department was also made more satisfactory during this month. The personnel of field hospitals was cut down to such an extent in order to furnish details for base hospitals throughout the country that lectures and recitations only could be given these organizations.

On March 2 the first men to be received from the draft reported to the camp for induction into the service.217 Prior to this all increments of enlisted men were either from recruit depots or transfers from other camps. Two hundred and sixty-three had reported to the camp on this date for voluntary enlistment.217 About 4,000 men were received during the following week, hut the rejections totaled 8 per cent of the whole.217

During the month of March, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th Companies completed their courses.217 Unfortunately, on account of the exigencies of the service, the number of men remaining to the end in the basic courses of these companies was a comparatively small percentage of those who started. Two hundred and one student officers reported to the camp for instruction and 377 were ordered to duty elsewhere, 22 officers were honorably discharged from the service during this month and 2 officers resigned.

A large replacement detachment, consisting of 52 medical officers and 700 enlisted men for overseas service, was sent out April 1.218 Four hundred and twenty student officers reported for instruction during the month and 130 were ordered to duty at other stations. Officers and enlisted men had previously been sent to camps and stations all over the country, but apart from a few individual officers and a small number of enlisted men none of the personnel had heretofore gone directly overseas. Later, continuous drafts for overseas service were made on this camp.


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The second increment from the draft received at the camp began to arrive May 24.219 It consisted of 3,000 men. In May the thirty-third, and last, student company to be formed in the first camp was organized. One hundred and five officers and 604 enlisted men were ordered to other stations for duty, and on June 1 a replacement draft for overseas service, consisting of 200 officers and 1,040 enlisted men was ordered out.

The third increment began to arrive June 25 and this also consisted of 3,000 men.220

The meeting of the American Medical Association in Chicago in June was attended by a large number of officers from the camp, and an exhibit of models of field sanitary appliances made in the sanitary laboratory received the gold medal. At the special request of the association, the band from the camp was sent to Chicago and gave concerts the week in which the sessions were held. This band was the first 50-piece band to be organized in the Army, and as it was not officially authorized, the instruments had to be bought from private funds. These funds were provided by the publication of a camp yearbook. 211

The general training of officers began to diminish from the 1st of June as the officers in training were gradually ordered away and very few officers reported at the camp for instruction. 229This was due to the decision to stop all general training at the camp after July 1.220 After that date the camp was used as a replacement and training camp for regimental detachments and sanitary trains.

As for training Medical Department personnel progressed, it appeared advisable, early in 1918, to consolidate the effortsof the Medical Department along these lines by combining the Medical Officers' Training Camp at Fort Riley with that in operation at Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., and by the expansion of the training camp at Fort Oglethorpe to conduct instruction of all Medical Department personnel there. An endeavor was made to secure the authority of the War Department for this movement, but The Adjutant General of the Army disapproved of such action, and ordered a continuance of the training camp at Fort Riley. 221It was apparently considered that the maintenance of a training camp for the Medical Department was required in the central west to curtail the amount of travel of personnel called into service from a territory nearer that area. The Surgeon General, however, was able to secure authority for the transfer of a large number of medical officers, both Regular and reserve, and 300 enlisted men from Fort Riley to Camp Greenleaf, and thus a partial merger was effected. These officers and men left for Camp Greenleaf early in July, and what might be called the first Medical Officers' Training Camp at Fort Riley closed July 1, 1918. 220

From June 1, 1917, to June 1, 1918, 2,094 officers and 9,228 enlisted men arrived at this camp for training, after which they were assigned to other stations.222On May 31, 1918, there remained in camp, under training, 986 officers and 6,809 enlisted men. During June approximately 450 medical officers were ordered out to various stations in the United States and to service overseas, in addition to those composing the organized units. 220


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GENERAL INSTRUCTION FOR OFFICERS

Instruction was followed according to the outline prepared in the office of the Surgeon General and later published as Special Regulations 49a, 1917. Schedules were made covering the hours specified, and instruction was begun on June 4, 1917. 223 The method pursued was to detail instructors to certain specific subjects and to place all instruction in these subjects under their charge. At first only Regular officers were detailed as instructors, but as the camp increased in size and the reserve officers became more conversant with the work, some of the best qualified among these were detailed to the instruction force. Each training company, consisting approximately of 100 officers, had a separate schedule. It was necessary for each company to have a separate schedule because officers reported for duty irregularly, a few at a time, and the number 100 was taken as a basis for the formation of companies, as each barrack held approximately that number. These schedules were identical in subjects and number of hours for each subject, but naturally varied as to the time of any specified instruction. They were carefully made out, so that the time for the instruction of the several companies in any one subject did not conflict. This method had the redeeming feature, that the classes to be handled by one instructor were of convenient size, and permitted a more personal contact with the student officer. In giving this instruction, lectures were eliminated as much as possible and were only used to outline some important military or professional principle. Practical demonstrations, recitations, and the actual performance of the duties taught, comprised the major part of this instruction, and the final results showed that this method was successful.

Physical and military drills were conducted by companies under carefully selected instructors, and always under the supervision of a well-qualified Regular officer.223Shortly after each company was organized, members of this company were detailed by roster for one week's duty with either an ambulance company or a field hospital company, and during the drill period they were on duty with these companies, and also received other instruction when practicable, though they were not excused from the instruction outlined in the regular course. By this means the suitability of officers for this type of work was readily determined.

Army Regulations, Manual for the Medical Department, and Manual for Courts-Martial, were taught the student not with the idea that he would thoroughly digest these works and be able to make decisions without reference to the text, but to thoroughly ground him in the principles underlying these regulations.223 They were also taught the use of these manuals, so that on occasion they would know where to look for the correct information. The instruction in the examination of recruits was entirely practical. Each officer was given personal instruction by the instructor, and was then given recruits to examine. Their errors were shown them, and every effort was made to perfect them in this work before they left camp. In handling paper work every officer was required to complete an entire set of the regular Medical Department forms from data furnished him, and the principles underlying the use of these papers were thoroughly explained to him. When field equipment of any kind was studied, the student officer was required to handle it himself. This method gave him an actual personal knowledge of the equipment.


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As the student officers were direct from civil life, the field equipment of the Medical Department was naturally strange to them, differing in so many ways from that which they were accustomed to use in their practice. All of this equipment was carefully explained to them, and they were given the reasons for its use and also the reasons why the equipment they had used in civil life could not be used in the field. 223

As many of these officers were being trained for front-line work, their instruction in map reading and sketching, while elementary was extremely thorough, so that they could readily read a map and on occasion send back an accurate description of where their dressing station or other unit was located. 223

In the beginning no horses were furnished the camp, so equitation, though scheduled, could not be given.223 This period, therefore, was used by giving the class a short march of from 3 to 5 miles. No attempt at grading these marches was made at first, but later a new class was taken a very short distance at the beginning, to be increased as the officers became more hardened to the work. This was found to be an excellent method of rounding out the day and most officers felt much better for it. The equitation instruction itself was not conducted with the idea that these officers would be made finished horsemen, but their instruction was limited to the most elementary principles, teaching primarily the correct seat and how to control and handle a horse.

It was impossible to give a complete course in mess management in such a limited time, but a certain number of officers were detailed as assistants to the mess officer for one week at a time, and these officers were made familiar with the most approved methods used in this work.223

During the periods of the basic course allotted to hygiene and sanitation, the classes were given practical demonstrations as to how sanitary inspections should be made, and in the laboratory of field sanitary appliances they were not only shown the actual working of approved methods but were required to make drawings of appliances which they were most likely to find useful to them in the future.223

The salient aspects from a medical officer's standpoint of the following professional subjects as developed during the war were taught by instructors thoroughly familiar with the subjects: Military surgery, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, orthopedics, war psychoses, and neuroses.223

Instruction in sanitary tactics was confined to the principles of this science, and after a thorough grounding in them, these principles were put into effect, first, on the map in map maneuvers and later in actual maneuvers held on the reservation.223 Every effort was made to have the latter as realistic as possible, using the actual number of sanitary troops with their equipment that the strength of the command engaged called for. Details of men to act as wounded were made and these men were distributed about the battle field, properly tagged. The actual dressing of these men and their removal from the field was performed by the student officers and troops furnished for the purpose. The commands used in these maneuvers were never larger than a regiment. Complete maneuvers of a division in both offense and defense, with the propel allotment of sanitary troops, were held for the first four companies, but later companies remained so short a time that their instruction could not be brought to this point.


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Only the first three companies as a whole completed the three months' course as outlined.223 Later companies gradually disintegrated on account of the pressing need of medical officers. As officers were required to fill details to divisions, etc., the average men in the companies were sent out first, leaving the best and the poorest. The best men were kept to be trained more thoroughly for important details and the poorest to give them the benefit of as much instruction as possible so as to raise their general efficiency.

As the camp progressed it was found that the original plan of instruction did not include certain important parts of the work, and special departments were instituted to cover these deficiencies.223 The first of these was a department for the inspection of communicable diseases, which afterwards became the School of Epidemiology. This was started October 13, 1917.208 Officers specially qualified for this work were given instruction in this department, consisting of lectures and detailed instruction combined with the actual inspection and handling of communicable diseases at this camp and at Camp Funston.223 The course was indefinite in length, and as the demand for officers qualified to do this work arose, the best instructed men were detailed.

The physical instruction of the officers at first was uniform, but on account of the decided range in age of these men, two classes for physical instruction were started, one division for all officers under 40 years of age, and the other for all those over 40. 223 The former were given the regular course, but the latter received carefully graded instruction, so that no strain would be put upon an older and potentially weaker heart. This was done with the knowledge that officers of the second age group who have lived sedentary lives are easily injured if they are permitted to perform exercises of a more or less strenuous character, though later on, after a thorough and gradual development, they would possibly stand the same amount of strain as the younger men. This special physical instruction was under the direct supervision of officers specially qualified for this work. The older officers were watched closely, and when, in the judgment of the instructor, an officer was found who could not stand the hardships of any kind of Army work he was reported to the regular physical examining board of the camp, and if they agreed that any service would probably prove dangerous to him he was recommended for discharge. Some difficulty was experienced, at first, in getting the personal cooperation of these older officers, for naturally it was trying for them to start the course of exercise after years of a sedentary occupation. But after the results were seen the officers themselves were anxious to take advantage of the instruction. This class averaged 100 daily, and by steady training became able to do work which they were physically unable to accomplish a short time before. The exercises given were of a graded nature, beginning with gentle resistance exercises. These were gradually increased in degree, and breathing and boxing exercises were added as the class progressed.

Instruction in gas defense was carried out at first theoretically with naturally little success, but on November 16, 1917, a gas house was completed, after which the course was conducted in a very thorough manner.223 This course was the same as that outlined for the divisional camps (q. v.).


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As medical officers at a training camp were decidedly separated from professional work it was thought that they should be kept abreast of the progress in medical science, particularly that of the military service. To accomplish this a department of current literature was organized and an editorial board selected from the best qualified officers in the camp.223 This board abstracted the current literature and once a week the entire student body was assembled and given the results of the labors of the board. The material was afterwards mimeographed for general distribution. It was not considered practical to include all branches at one session, so one week was devoted to surgery, another to internal medicine, etc.

SYLLABUS OF GENERAL INSTRUCTION

To carry out the instruction outlined above in a uniform manner, a syllabus covering all the important subjects was prepared.223 It might be considered that such a method would cause criticism, in that it limited the initiative of the individual instructor. This criticism in times of peace would be justified, but in the rapid training of officers for war service, uniformity of instruction was very necessary.

This syllabus is given in detail:224

DRILL INSTRUCTION

Drill Regulations and Service Manual for Sanitary Troops.
General instruction in forming company.
General principles, articles 1-24, inclusive.
Instruction in company formation for retreat.
School of the soldier, articles 27-38, inclusive, and 40-54, inclusive.
Instruction in formation for Saturday a. m. inspection, articles 220-221, inclusive.
School of the detachment:
Articles 55-73, inclusive.
Articles 74-79, inclusive.
Articles 80-89, inclusive.
Special attention to column of platoons and line of platoons:
Articles 90-92, inclusive.
Article 25, arm signals.
School of the battalion.
Mass formations.
Parades and reviews.
Litter and ambulance---litter drill.
General instructions, articles 93-97, inclusive:
(a) Manual for closed litter.
(b) Manual for open litter.
(c) Manual for ambulance litter drill.
(d) Manual for marching with litter.
(a), (b), and (c)at ambulance sheds; (ci)on drill grounds.
Remarks.--Progressive instruction given as out-lined.
Litter and ambulance drill began for each student company when they had progressed to article 74.
Instruction and exercise in giving commands.
Grading drill, giving every student an opportunity to exercise command.
On days when outdoor instruction was inadvisable, indoor quizzes and blackboard work were substituted.
No arbitrary number of hours were scheduled for each lesson, as each company progressed as rapidly as they became proficient and all completed the course in the prescribed number of hours.


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SYNOPSIS OF COURSE ON PHYSICAL TRAINING

The following abstract on physical training gives commands only. Methods of execution were learned from Koehler's Manual of Physical Training, from attending physical drill, or from the instructor in physical drills.116

FORMATIONS

FALL IN; count FOURS. Take physical exercise interval; MARCH. Company, HALT. Company assemble on No. 1 (or 4); MARCH.

STARTING POSITIONS

Arms forward, RAISE. Arms, DOWN. Arms upward, RAISE. Arms sideward RAISE. Arms across back, PLACE. Arms to thrust, RAISE. Arms across chest, PLACE. Hands in rear of head, PLACE. Hands on shoulders, PLACE. Arms upward, thumbs locked, RAISE. Side straddle position, PLACE. Leaning rest position, PLACE. Squatting, hands on ground position, PLACE. Side straddle, arms upward, thumbs locked position, PLACE.

EXERCISES

The preparatory command and command of execution for all exercises not starting positions, are "Ready, EXERCISE." Exercises should alternate between arms, trunk, and legs to avoid monotony and fatigue. "Company, HALT."  Discontinue any exercise. "Company, ATTENTION" brings from any position to attention.

First series

Eleven sets of three each.
1. Finger: Forward, backward, close, open, circular.
2. Right ankle: Hands on hips, PLACE. Down, up, in, out, circular.
3. Wrist: Forward, back, up, down, circular.
4. Left ankle: Hands on hips, PLACE. Down, up, in, out, circular.
5. Arms: Arms sideward, RAISE. Forward, backward, up, down, circular.
6. Right leg: Hands on hips, PLACE. Forward, backward, out, in, circular.
7. Shoulders: Arms to thrust, RAISE. Forward, backward, upward, downward, circular.
8. Left leg: Hands on hips, PLACE. Forward, backward, out, in, circular.
9. Neck: Hands on hips, PLACE. Forward, backward, right, left, circular. (Eyes closed in neck exercises.)
   10.Trunk: Hands on hips, PLACE. Forward, backward, right, left, circular.
   11.Arms: Forward, backward, upward, sideward, downward, sideward, circular.

Second series

1. Side straddle exercises: Ready, EXERCISE (two counts).
  2. Side straddle triplet: Side straddle position, arms upward, thumbs locked (or fingers laced), PLACE. Downward, upward, right, left, circular.
  3. Side straddle full bend: Side straddle position, arms upward, fingers laced, PLACE. Downward, upward, touch knuckles to ground, knees extended.

Third series

1. Leaning rest leg exercises: Leaning rest position, PLACE (two counts). Flex, right knee (two counts). Flex, left knee (two counts). Right leg position, PLACE. Alternate flexing knees (two counts). Company, ATTENTION.
2. Leaning rest arm exercise: Leaning rest position, PLACE. Flex arms (two counts). Company, ATTENTION.
3. Leaning rest leg sideward exercise: Right (two counts), left (two counts), both (two counts).


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Fourth series

1.  Squatting hopping circle-arm exercise: Squatting position, PLACE. Arms sideward, RAISE. Hop and circle arms (one count).
2.  Squatting hands on ground leg exercise: Squatting hands on ground position, PLACE. Right, left, both. Company, ATTENTION.
3.  Squatting---leaning rest exercise: Squatting hands on ground position, PLACE. Extend and flex both legs (two counts).
Always concluded with lung exercise: Inhale (raise arms upward slowly,inhaling through nose); exhale (return arms rapidly, mouth open to let air escape rapidly).
After any strenuous exercise give a few lung exercises.
Other series and groups of exercises were prescribed as the proficiency of the class permitted.

THE FIELD HOSPITAL

A. History.
1. Earliest knowledge.
2. Uses in previous wars.
3. Early uses in wars---this country.
4. Progress--in the transportation and personnel as well as material up to the present day.

B. Authorization and organization.
1. Paragraphs 157 to 167, M. M. D., pertaining to animal-drawn vehicles---later motorized companies.
2. Personnel (officers, Medical Department and Quartermaster Department. Enlisted men, Medical Department and Quartermaster Department).
3. Equipment--
Medical Department.
Quartermaster Department.-
Ordnance Departmen
4. Transportation
Medical Department.
Quartermaster Department.
Civilian.
5. Instruction: Brief outline, including discipline---officers and enlisted men.

C. Administration.
1. Assignment of personnel---exact manner of acquiring full quota of officers and enlisted men, commanding officer, adjutant, etc.
2. Paper work.
a. Reports---daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, emergency, semiannual, and annual.
b. Requisitions---form number. Quadruplicate.
I. Authority for same.
II. Disposition of same.
c. Property (complete).
I. Acquisition and replenishing of field supplies.
II. Accounting for same.
III. Responsibility and accountability.
IV.Inspection and condemnation---public animals and other property.
V. Survey of: (a) Purpose. (b)Relief from responsibility amid accountability. (c) "Dropping" of property. (d)Durable property.
d. Company fund---hospital fund.
I. Mess officers and supervision of mess.
II. Mess sergeant and purchase of supplies.
III. Sources of revenue.
IV.Expenditure authorized and monthly statement of fund.
   V.Manner of returning mess: (a) Keeping on daily slip absolute cost per meal for each article used. (b) Auditing purchases daily from all sources and initialing of vouchers by mess sergeant and mess officer. (c) Durable property.


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D. Transportation.
1. Care of animals, wagons, harness, motors, etc.
2. Equitation, hippology, study of motors (internal parts, fuel---consumption of).
3. Motors, etc.
E. Duties of field hospital.---Dutiesacting in conjunctiom1 with ambulance companies---with evacuation hospitals---with evacuation ambulance companies. Their relations to regimental officers.
F. Duties and responsibilities of the commanding officer, field hospital company.
1.Care of his personnel and transportation.
2. Care of troops on march---each night.
3. Selection of proper site for pitching field hospital company.
1. Shelter---artillery fire.
2. Marking with guidon to show approach.
3. Proximity to roads and water---drinking, cooking, watering of animals.
4. Efficiency for prompt treatment and evacuation.
5. Records.
6. Orders.
7. Contact with directors.
8.  Dead---identified---recorded and evacuated.
9. Detail of personnel so that a few men will always be available for immediate special diuty.
10. Proper pitching of field hospital in one-half hour and ready to take care of patients.
11. Having all equipment on hand originally and keeping of such as is lost, broken, or used replaced.
G.  Practical demonstration of field hospital (one afternoon).

ARMY REGULATIONS

CHAPTER I (FIRST 6 DAYS)

First lecture: Military discipline, general organization of the Army:
a.Company, battalion, regiment, brigade, division.
b. Staff departments, General Staff Corps, Territorial departments, etc.
c. Honors, courtesies, and ceremonies.
Second lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz on last lecture.
a. Leaves of absence.
b. Officers traveling on duty.
c. Retirement of officers.
d. Resignation of officers.
e. Deceased officers. New insurance act.
Third lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz on last lecture.
a.Detached soldiers.
b. Service records.
c.Furloughs.
NOTE. - Service record and furlough blanks were given the class to be drawn and filled in as directed by instructor.
Fourth lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz on previous lecture. Papers of the day before turned in.
a. Transfer of enlisted men to the Medical Departnierit.
b. Deserters.
c. Discharges.
d. Final statements.
NOTE. - Five discharge blanks and final statements were properly filled out by the class as directed by the instructor.
Fifth, lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz on previous lecture. Papers of the day before turned in.
a. Certificate of disability.
b. Proceedings of disability boards.
N0TE. - Five certificates of disability blanks were properly filled out by the class as directed by the instructor.
Sixth lecture: Written quiz on previous lectures. Papers of the day before turned in.


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CHAPTER II

Seventh lecture: Fifteen-minute review on common errors noted in written quiz
a. Deceased soldiers. Letter made out notifying commanding officer of death of man in the detachment. Explanation of the new insurance act.
b. Extra and special duty.
c. Soldiers' Home.
d. Troops, batteries and companies (pars. 275, 276, 277, 281).
Eighth lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz.
a. Interior economy of companies.
b. Messing and cooking.
c. Company and mess funds (par. 327).
Ninth lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz.
a. Government Hospital for the Insane.
b. Public property and accountability.
Tenth lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz.
a. Surveys.
b. Inventory and inspection reports. Inspector General's Department.
c. Destruction of property.
NOTE. - Five survey blanks and inventory and inspection reports were properly filled in by students as directed by instructor.
Eleventh lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz. Papers of the day before taken up.
a. Adjutant General's Department.
b. Military correspondence. A letter with two indorsements was written.
c. Orders.
Twelfth lecture: Written quiz on previous five lectures.

CHAPTER III

Thirteenth lecture: Review of common errors noted on written quiz.
a. Muster roll.
b. Pay roll.
NOTE. - Five copies of each were turned over to the company to be completed by students.
Fourteenth lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz. Papers of previous lecture taken up.
a. Judge Advocate General's Department.
b. Quartermaster Department (papers made in course on quartermaster papers).
Fifteenth lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz.
a. Quartermaster Department continued.
b. Ordnance Department (papers made out in course on Ordnance papers).
c. Medical Department.
d. Engineer Corps---Signal Corps.
Sixteenth lecture: Oral quiz on the entire course.
Seventeenth lecture: Oral quiz on the entire course.
Eighteenth lecture: Written quiz on the entire course.

MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL

First lecture:
a. Source and kinds of military jurisdiction.
b. Classification of courts-martial.
c. Composition.
Second lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz.
a. General courts-martial.
b. Special courts-martial.
c. Summary courts-martial.
Third lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz.
a. Courts-martial jurisdiction.
b. Arrest and confinement.


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Fourth lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz.
a. Preparation of charge (specimen charges, p. 335).
b. Action upon charges.
c. Charges to be made out. Fifth lecture:
Fifteen-minute quiz.
a.Courts-martial organization.
b.Challenges.
c. Arraignment. Sixth lecture:
Fifteen-minute quiz.
a.Witnesses and depositions.
b.Evidence.
Seventh lecture: Fifteen-minute quiz.
a.Evidence continued.
b.Charges to be made out.
c. Maximum limits (p. 161).
d.Forms for sentence (p. 369).
Eighth lecture: Written quiz.

EXAMINATION OF RECRUITS

1. Lecture:
Army surgeon's responsibility to Government.
Place for examination.
Supplies for examination.
Rules for examination--Tripler's Manual--Circulars, W. D., etc.
2. Lecture:
Physical examination--head, chest, abdomen, etc.
  Rules for rejection of recruits.
3. Lecture: Physical examination continued.
4. Lecture and oral quiz: Papers---enlistment papers, service records, examination blanks, surgeon's certificate of disability, identification card, etc. Practice in filling out blanks.
5. Shoe fitting:
Lecture and demonstration.
The foot and the Army shoe (Munson).
Practical methods of shoe fitting.
6. Shoe fitting:
Lecture and demonstration.
Practical shoe fitting.
7. Finger prints:
Lecture and demonstration.
Value of finger prints for identification.
Demonstration of method.
8. Finger prints: Practice in taking finger prints.
9. Quiz: Written quiz on entire course.

PREVENTION OF CONTAGIOUS DISEASES

1. Demonstration of inspection, methods of handling active eases of exposed men, Schick test, etc. To sections of class--each one period--7 to 9 a. m.
2. Practical work in inspection, etc., for a period of one week. To sections of class--two periods daily, 7 to 9 a. m. and 3 to 5 p. m.

REGIMENTAL MEDICAL SUPPLIES

1. (a)Position of regimental sanitary troops in relation to other units, anmhulamice companies, field hospital companies, etc.
(b)Personnel: Officers--enlisted men--bandsmen.
(c)Duties of regimental detachments
1. Officers--in camp--on the march---in combat.
2. Enlisted men.
3. Bandsmen.
4. General: Maintenance of fighting units. Difference from civil practice.


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2. Explanation of tables: Expendable and nonexpendable (A. B. an(l C.).
3. First-aid packet--carried by every officer and enlisted man.
4. Officers' belts, contents of:
(a)Practical demonstration of belt and contents.
(b) Diagnosis tag. Proper method of making out.
5. Belt, hospital corps. Practical demonstration.
6. Regimental combat equipment:
(a) Practical demonstration, packing and unpacking mule.
Setting up of regimental aid station.
Showing contents of chest.
Demonstration of Lyster bag.
Hypochlorite from quartermaster.
(b) Explanation of--when and where set up, and class of work done there.
(c)Litters and where obtained. How carried.
(d)Nine boxes of dressings. How carried.
(e)How replenished -
1. In camp.
2. In combat.
7. Camp infirmaries:
(a)Equipment weight:
(b)Purposes when used--in camp--in combat.
(c)How transferred.
(d) Personnel attached.
(e)Notification as to location when serving other units. Camp infirmary reserve. Division of equipment for two or more parties of regimental or camp infirmaries.
8. Regimental hospital:
(a)Purposes.
(b)When used.
9. Accountability and responsibility for supplies of detached battalions.

DEMONSTRATION OF TRENCH SYSTEM

First Day: Lecture with blackboard demonstration

1. General outline of trench system:
(a)Firing trenches.
(b) Support trenches.
(c)Reserve trenches.
2. Location of system:
(a)Chosen.
(b)Forced position.
3. Trace of trenches:
(a) Enfilade.
b)Defilade.
4. Wire:
(a) Types.
(b) Positions -
1. In front of trenches.
2. At sides.
(c)Lanes.
(d)Repair.
5. Depth and contour of trenches.
6. Brief description of difference between French and British systems.
7. Location of sanitary formations:
(a) Local dressing stations.
(b)Regimental aid stations.
8. Location of sanitary appliance
(a) Latrines.
(b)Kitchens.
(c) Water shelters.


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9. How water and food are carried to trenches; waste is carried out.
10. Gas alarms.
11. Electric lights and telephones.

Second day

1. Description of position. Location of enemy line of firing and reserve trenches.
2. Different steps in building a trench,:
(a)Laying out trace.
(b) Posts in position.
(c) Wire laid.
(d)Trench dug.
(e) Trench sloped.
(f)Ditch for revetting poles.
(g) Woven revetment placed.
(h) Revetment braced back and tied.
(i) Ends of poles cut off.
(j)Central drainage ditch dug.
(k) Miniature piles driven.
(l)Walk laid.
3. Approach trench described and shown.
4. Sniper's pit:
(a)Size.
(b)Sand-bag revetment.
(c)Overhead cover.
(d)Loop holes.
(e)Field of fire.
(f) Camouflage.
5. British trench:
(a)Firing banquette.
(b)Slopes of wall.
(c)Sand bags---how laid.
(d)Head cover.
(e)Loop holes.
(f)Thickness of parapet.
(g) Field of fire.
6. French trench:
(a) Firing banquette.
(b)Amount of exposure of troops on firing step.
(c) Field of fire.
(d)Camouflage on British trench.
7. Exit of first drainage system:
(a) Built up paredos.
(b)Size of drainage ditch.
(c)Use of concrete.
(d) Thickness of concrete used.
8. Traverse protecting entrance to covered trench.
9. Covered trench:
(a) Height.
(b) Width.
(c) Lightning.
(d) Knife gate.
(e) Depth of overhead cover,
10. Surface drainage:
(a)Chute.
(b)Use of concrete.
11. Firing trench:
(a)Depth.
(b)Width.
(c)Height of concrete.


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12. Traverse:
(a) Thickness.
(b) Depth of trench back of traverse.
(c) Width.
(d) Brush revetting.
13. Trace of trench with perpendicular walls.
14. Winding course of trench:
(a) Difficulty in litter transportation.
(b)Confusion in estimating distance and direction.
15. Exit on surface:
(a)Contour of lines.
(b) Disposal of surface water.
(c)Contour of parapets with view to concealment.
16. Approach trench to second line support.
17. Board revetment.
18. Small dressing station:
(a)Approach.
(b) Head cover over door -
1. Against shell burst.
2. For water shed.
(c) Roof of dressing station---
1. Logs.
2. Dirt.
3. Logs.
4. Dirt.
5. Rock.
6. Dirt.
(d) Timber support.
(e) Sump for drainage.
(f) Capacity.
(g) Type of cases handled.
19. Dugout dressing station:
(a) Traverse protecting door.
(b) Shaft -
1. Depth.
2. Revetment.
3. Overhead cover.
4. To shed water.
To protect from fire.
For concealment.
(c)Gallery---
1. Gas curtains.
2. Length.
3. Timbering.
4. Pitch.
5. Construction of steps.
6. Arrangement of electric lighting.
(d) Dressing station -
1. Thickness of rood (25 feet).
2. Timbering.
3. Overhead planking.
4. Side wall protection.
5. Ventilation. How driven.
6. Stove and stove pipe.
7. Capacity.
8. Drainage.


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19. Dugout dressing station - Continued.

(d)Dressing station - Continued.
9. Grenade trap.
10. How extended.
11. Lighting.
(e) Exit
1. Same as entrance.
2. Necessity for both entrance and exit.
3. Masked by curve in trench instead of traverse.
4. Heavy log revetment.
20. Winding trench:
(a) Comparison with angular type.
Advantages.
Easier to pass.
Facility for better transport.
Difficulty to take in bombing attack.
21. Rabbit wire revetment:
(a)Combined rabbit wire and brush.
22. Latrine:
(a)Local trench -
1. Raised 1 foot.
2. Entrance concreted to prevent wearing down.
(b) "T" head construction.
c)Width of trench to latrine.
(d)Roof of latrine -
1. Open to provide access of light, sun, and air.
2. Layer construction.
(e) Cubicles for seats -
1. Concreted on bottom.
2. Raised 3 inches from floor of trench.
(f) Type of seats
1. Seat on top of oil tin.
2. Double boxed.
3. For bucket.
4. With legs.
5. Single completely closed
(g) Preparation of empty oil can for containers. Rope handles.
(h) Covers for filled cans.
(i)Urine tub with pole handle.
(j) How waste is carried out.
(k) Hints on sanitary care of latrine.
23. Water and wash room shelter:
(a)Overhead shelter.
(b) Walls.
(c) Floor concreted.
(d)Advantage of location.
(e) Water barrels.
(f)Wash-basin rack.
(g) Camouflage.
24. Electric wiring:
(a) When carried on trench wall.
(b) Conduits on trench crossings.
25. Flume over trench for surface water:
(a)Great necessity for disposing of surface water.
(b) Review of different systems of drainage used.
(c)Brief description of trench foot.


200
Third day at trenches

1. Questions: Review and added demonstration of parts of trenches not understood.
2. Brief talk on where men live and sleep.
3. Demonstration by a regimental detachment (enlisted):
(a)Five methods of taking a wounded man over the top.
(b) Handling litters around traverses.
(c)Difficulty in passing a litter through an occupied trench. How it may be avoided.
(d) Carrying a hitter into and out of dressing stations of both types.
(e) Relative ease of transport through winding trench (circular).

REGIMENTAL DETACHMENT

First day. Use and internal administration

1.Size:
(a) Infantry.
(b)Cavalry.
(c) Field Artillery.
2. Duties in permanent camp:
(a) Care of infirmary -
1. Description of infirmary bulding found in cantonments.
2. Dressing room attendants.
3. Dispensary attendant.
4. Medical officer of the day.
5. Kitchen.
6. Ward - attendants.
7. Squad room -
Alignment of cots.
   Arrangement of cots.
   Arrangement of equipment on Saturday.
   Inspection.
   Cuspidors.
   Cleanliness.
   Airing bedding.
(b) Sick call - 
1. Noncommissioned officer in charge of blotter.
2. Clerk posting sick books.
3. Attendant to take temperature.
4. Two attendants. Dressings.
5. Noncommissioned officer dispensing.
6. Orderly to arrange sick incoming.
7. Orderly to send out sick attended to.
(c)Typhoid prophylaxis -
1. Attendant to arrange men in line as they appear on record.
2. Attendant to spot arms with iodine.
3. Noncommissioned officer clerk to check names on record.
4. Attendant to boil needles.
5. Attendant to fill syringes.
6. Medical officer to give prophylaxis.
7. Attendant to spot arms with iodine.
8. Attendant to hasten orderly departure of men completed.
(d)Sanitary inspection -
1. Noncommissioned officer of kitchens amid latrines.
2. Privates first class of latrines.
3. Instructed carefully to report, not criticize.
(e)Duties of noncommissioned officer in charge of quarters.
(f)Instruction as per schedule. Importance of being earnest in all instruction.


201
Second day

3. Duties on the march:
(a)Before march begins -
1. Check supplies. Diagnosis tags.
2. Review duties to insure smooth performance.
3. Check carts, wagons, and all mule shoes
(b) At start - 
1. Absolute and correct promptness.
2. Be at detachment 20 minutes before tune.
3. Verify watch with adjutant.
(c)During march -
1. Position in column - 
(a)Noncommissioned officer to each battalion.
(b) One private to each company.
(c)Balance in reserve at rear.
2. Position of medical officers - 
(a)Surgeon with commanding officer.
(b) Two medical officers with each battalion.
3. Care of sick - 
(a) Must be seen by medical officer.
(b) Must be cared for by Hospital Corps men.
(c)Care to avoid overloading transportation
4. Care of footsore - 
(a)Everybody's feet are sore.
(b) Utilize halts.
(c) Privates, Medical Department, must act as instructors to men
  5. Restrict passes to transportation---
(a)Use utmost care that no sick man is forced to walk.
  6. Care of water -
(a)Allow use of no water from local sources unless known.
(b) Post one private, Medical Department, at water to inform all company commanders that water is not safe.
7. Care during halts - 
(a)Allow no straying.
(b) Loosen clothing.
(c)Sit down and elevate feet when possible.
(d)Drink water sparingly.
  8. Save your men every needless fatigue. Utilize every moment of rest.
(d)At conclusion of march -
1. One junior medical officer and one private supervise water from local sources.
2. One junior medical officer supervises care of regimental water carts.
3. Two noncommissioned officers supervise digging of straddle trenches after site is selected.
4. Regimental surgeon obtains information as to hour when infirmary is available for his regiment.
5. Hold sick call rapidly, using 5 medical officers, 2 noncommissioned officers, and 10 privates.
6. Care of feet. Men must act as advisers, rather than attempt to care for every sore foot. All serious cases to be seen by medical officer.
7. Litter no cases unless absolutely necessary. Carry no litters by hand.  
8. Before nightfall put out such dressings as may be necessary for morning, and pack remainder.
9. See that your men get plenty to eat, plenty of rest, and a good nights sleep.


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Third day

4. During combat, open fighting:
NOTE. - To be taken up in detail on the actual terrain on maneuvers.
(a)Position during combat - 
1. Noncommissioned officer to each battalion.
2. One private to each company.
3. Balance in reserve -
a.To get part of line worst punished.
b.To act as stretcher bearers.
(b) Position of aid station (brief, covered in other courses).
(c)Labor involved in litter transportation.
(d)Do not spare your men. Drive to limit of their strength.
5. During trench warfare:
NOTE. - To be taken up in detail in trenches during demonstration of trench system.
(a)Position -
1. Small dressing station.
2. Local dugouts.
3. Regimental aid station
(b)Wounded evacuated on litter - 
1. Never removed from litter from time they are laid on it.
(c)Evacuated after nightfall.
(d)No corps men in trenches until called from dugout.
(e)Practice in work with gas masks on.
(f)Absolute training for care of gassed cases.

Fourth day

6. Company punishment:
(a) Reprimand.
(b) Restriction.
(c) Kitchen police.
(d) Unpleasant fatigue.
(e)Extra and special form of fatigue.
(f)Courts-martial.
7. Reward the worthy.
8. Study each individual soldier arid know every peculiarity and weakness before combat begins.
9. Keep your men constantly occupied.
10. Amusements and athletics.
11. Allow no officer from another organization to reprimand your own men.
12 Allow no dereliction of duty to go unpunished.
13. Punish every failure to salute an officer or any discourtesy shown to a sick man.
14. Allow no sloppy dress or behavior. Keep your much smart and alert.
15. Back your noncommissioned officers to the limit.
16. Allow no noncommissioned officer to abuse, hector, or tyrannize over the mnen.
17. Never raise the voice when reprimanding a man. Never show temper.
18. Set your men an example of what they should do:
1. In deportment.
2. Dress.
3. Punctilious performance of every duty.
4. Exact performance of duty.
5. Promptness.

EQUITATION

The ultimate aim of the course was that each officer should have a strong seat, be able to correctly apply the aids, be capable of covering distance with the least fatigue to himself and horse, and be able to ride broken country.


203
First month

First week:

To fold the saddle blanket.
To put on the blanket and surcingle.
To put on and take off the watering bridle.
To saddle.
To unsaddle.
To put on and take off the bit and bridoon bridle.
Stand to horse.
To head out.
Stirrups.
To mount.
To dismount.
To take the reins in the hand and separate them.
Position of the trooper mounted.
Supplying exercises.
To rest.
Dismiss.
Stand to heel.
Mounted exercises at the walk.
 
Second week:

Repetition of the first week and added---
To gather the horse.
To move forward.
To halt.
The trot.

Third week:

Repetition of the first and second week and added -
By the right and left flank.
The oblique by trooper.
General provisions regarding work on the track.
Marching upon fixed points and a designated objective.
Circling.

Fourth week:

Repetition of the first, second, and third weeks and added -
The gallop.
The gallop depart.
Changes of gait.
To change hands.
Supplying exercises, mounted.
Posting.
Care of horses and saddlery.

Second month

Repetition of the work of the first month, increasing the severity and difficulty of all exercises, and added
Points of the horse.
Rules for the care of horses.
Stables and stable management.
Stable duty.
Grooming.
Watering.
Feeding.
Exercising.
Sick horses.
Shoeing.


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Third month

Repetition of the work of the first and second months, requiring proficiency in all exercises, and added - Jumping.

SYNOPSIS OF COURSE OF INSTRUCTION IN MILITARY HYGIENE AND SANITATION, SANITARY INSPECTION, CIVIL FUNCTION OF MEDICAL DEPARTMENT IN OCCUPIED TERRITORY

CHAPTER I

Hygiene and sanitation, 20 hours; lectures and recitations on subject matter on the following heads:
1. Introduction.
Importance of subject.
  Definitions.
  Responsibility of medical officers and authority for actions.
  Morbidity and mortality rates in civil communities, in military service, past and present, in peace and in war.
  Influence affecting mortality rates in military service.
Common diseases in war, past and present.
   Character of wounds in modern war.
2. The recruit.
Standards - physical, mental, and moral.
Training - effect, methods, objects to be attained, dangers of overtraining.
Personal hygiene
3. Food.
Principles and constituents, nutritive function and value of each.
Rations; kind issued; nutritive value and use of each.
Field cooking.
4. Clothing and equipment.
   Brief description of articles issued and used in the military service.
5. The march.
   Distance, speed, duration, steps, and attitude.
   Energy distribution and heat dissipation at rest, on march.
   Water supply.
   Regulation and discipline.  
   Sanitation on the march.
6. Quarters, barracks, cantonments.
   Air - constituents and requirements, floor space, ventilation, heating.
   Care of barracks, guardhouse, kitchens, mess room, etc.
  Hospitals.
7. Camps.
  Semipermanent, temporary, bivouac.
  Location; sanitary survey of camp sites.
   Soil--physical properties, purification, soil bacteria, etc.
  Sanitation of camp--police, kitchens, latrines, bathing and washing, disposal of wastes, garbage, refuse, manure, etc.
   Sanitary orders--form, purpose, scope.
   Hygiene of the battle field.
   Trench hygiene and sanitation, disposal of the dead, etc.
8. Water.
   Amount required.
   Occurrence in nature.
  Examination of water--external qualities, chemical, microscopical, bacteriological
Purification --heat, chemical, mechanical, biological.


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9. Sickness in the Army.
Cause--infective agencies, contact, carriers, etc.; agencies concerned in transmission.
Animals and insects concerned in transmission of disease:
Mosquitoes....................................}
Flies.......................................}Classification, life cycle, habits,
Lice........................................}Role in transmission of disease,
Bugs, etc.........................................}Methods of combating

Diseases transmitted! by insects by direct inoculation malaria, yelow fever, dengue, plague, typhus, filiariasis, etc.
Diseases of infective intestinal --typhoid, dysenteries, cholera, etc. Method of transmission, epidemiology, etc.
Diseases of infective respiratory type--the exanthemata, pneumonia, cerebrospinal fever, diphtheria. Method of transmission, epidemiohogy, etc.
Miscellaneous and deficiency diseases--scurvy, beri-beri, trench diseases, heart diseases, nervous diseases, alcoholism, etc.

CHAPTER II

Sanitary inspection, twohours; individual instruction.
Class divided into squads and given practical demonstration of matters to be investigated, and noted in making a sanitary inspection. Each individual then required to make a sanitary inspection and render a report thereof.

CHAPTER III

Civil function of Medical Department in occupied territory, one hour; subject covered in one lecture.

CHAPTER IV

Practical demonstration in laboratory of field sanitary appliances, six hours.
Class divided into squads, individuals given practical demonstration in construction and use of sanitary appliances. Individuals required to make and submit drawings of approved types of incinerators, latrines, field cooking apparatus, and sanitary appliances used in the field and in semipermanent and temporary camps, etc.

SYNOPSIS OF COURSE IN MILITARY SURGERY

LECTURE I
Projectiles and ballistics

Varieties of projectiles used in the belligerent armies:
Bullets--similarities and differences in structure, velocity, behavior, and effect of German, French, English, Belgian, and American bullets at different ranges.
Shells--Construction, behavior, and effect of high explosives and shrapnel. Types of fuzes.
Miscellaneous projectiles--Bombs, grenades (hand and rifle), etc.

LECTURE 2
Wounds and wound treatment

Characteristics of injuries produced by bullets, shells, bombs, grenades, etc., upon various tissues:
Infection -
Prevalence and the factors responsible for it.
Pathologic and bacteriologic considerations.
Clinical features and manifestations.
Treatment--general principles; infection and the methods of dealing with it, based upon the experience of this war; discussion of different methods and their use.


206

LECTURE 3
Antisepsis and antiseptics

Chemistry and therapeutic employment of different antiseptic substances.

LECTURE 4

Gas infection--prevalence; factors involved in its production; pathologic and clinical manifestations; principles of treatment.
Tetanus: Prevalence; prophylactic and therapeutic measures employed; delayed tetanus.
Trench foot: Prevalence; factors involved in its production; pathology; principles of treatment; prophylaxis.

LECTURE 5
Wounds of the abdomen, chest, and head

Prevalence; characteristics; climatical manifestation; complications; principles of treatment.

Wounds of the buttocks

Principles of, and factors complicating treatment.

LECTURE 6
Fractures

Character of fractures encountered; prevalence of infection; complicating factors influencing treatment; principles of treatment; discussion of methods and splints used for transportation and treatment; after treatment.

LECTURE 7
Joint injuries

Characteristics (clinical appearance and manifestations).
Principles of, and factors complicating treatment; after treatment.

Amputation

Indications; types of amputations and discussion of their advantages; the "flapless amputation";  amputations in  relation to the subsequent use of artificial limbs.

Resections


Indications; discussion of resections in relation to infected fractures.

LECTURE 8
Localization and extraction of projectiles

Methods of localization and their use. Extraction of projectiles; when to extract them and when to leave them.

Plastic surgery

Types of wounds requiring plastic repair; clinical and therapeutic considerations; Thiersch grafts; whole skin grafts; bone grafts in ununited fractures; transplantation of fat to fill in retracted scars; facial transplants in nerve suture, etc.

LECTURE 9
Evacuation of the wounded from the front

Problems involved in bringing in wounded from No Man's Land to dressing station; attention given at dressing station; conditions under which men are wounded and brought back as influencing their condition and the course and treatment of their injuries. The work of a field hospital; condition under which patients are received and the work done.


207

Evacuation hospitals; their function and factors influencing the work done. Evacuation of wounded from evacuation hospital to base; conditions at base. Convalescent hospitals; special hospitals for after treatment of fractures and joint cases; mechano-therapy; electro and hydra therapy; etc.

ORTHOPEDIC INSTRUCTION

LECTURE 1

The human foot: Its anatomy, physiology, examination, and the significance of its abnormalities. Symptoms and signs. Limitations of flexion. Abduction and pronation. Eversion, inversion. Low arches. Flat feet. Prominent scaphoid arthritis.

LECTURE 2

Quiz and recitations (Munson), one hour.

LECTURE 3

The disabilities of the soldier's foot and their treatment. Acute foot strain. Treatment, acute foot strain. Purpose, application. Further treatment. Ordinary foot strain. Flaccid feet. Rigid feet. Spastic feet. Flat feet. Treatment. Osseous flat foot. Affections of the anterior arch.
Callouses on sole over the metatarsal heads. Metatarsalgia treatment. Affections of the regions of the heel involving the tendo achillis. Involving os calcis. Treatment. Hallux rigidus, hammertoe, treatment. Deformities of the little toe.
Period 4: Quiz and recitations (Munson), one hour.
Period 5: Clinic, one hour.
Period 6: Shoe fitting for abnormal feet, one hour.
Period 7: Examination, one hour.

COURSE IN FIRST AID

Lecture (two hours)

1. Modern definition of first aid:
a.First aid in its relation to minor surgery.
b.Improvised minor surgery at aid and dressing stations.
2. The first-aid packets, application, results.
3. Cardinal conditions to be treated:
a. Hemorrhage--use of the tourniquet.
b. Shock--morphine and atropine, immobilization of patient.
c. Fatigue--hot drinks--rest--wounds (complicated with burns, etc., use antitetanic serum). -
4. Effects heat and cold--treatment.
5. Dislocations and fractures--improvised dressings and splints as found in men's equipment and in the field.
6. Necessity for having trained assistants who know your personal ideas an treatment and handling of wounded.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT IN CAMPAIGN

Eight hours were devoted to the study of the Medical Department in campaign, following the subject as outlined in the textbooks. j224

A thorough knowledge of map reading was essential, and special emphasis was laid on the subject of orders, the student being impressed with paragraph 4, pertaining to the Medical Department.224

j(1) Straub, Paul Frederick, major, MC.: Medical Service in Campaign. A handbook for Medical Officers in the Field, Philadelphia. P. Blakiston's Son & Ca., 1912, second edition.
(2) Munson, Edward Lyman, major, M. C.: The Principles of Sanitary Tactics. A handbook an the Use of Medical Department Detachments and Organizations in Campaign. Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wis., 1911.


208

A short course of instruction was given on the examination of lungs for tuberculosis, concerning which the details are outlined under special courses of instruction for officers.224

Profile making was well demonstrated, and the student was required to hand in a profile of some part of the map. The subject of overshots was dwelt upon and each student was required to hand in several problems to show that the subject was well understood.224

The next course included a study of each of the different stations established by the Medical Department, the internal administration, personnel and the conditions under which they are established; the line of communications with its different sections, the components of each section, and how the different zones related to each other.224 A chart was placed on the blackboard for each class, showing the zone of advance and the zone of the line of communications, and the component parts of each zone and how they operate.

Each student was quizzed on the lectures as given, and if the instructor thought necessary an examination was held at the end of the course, each man being graded accordingly.

PRINCIPLES OF SANITARY TACTICS

Twelve hours were devoted to the principles of sanitary tactics. In so far as visibility is concerned this subject was covered by means of projecting the line of sight and solving the problem by mathematics and by the profile method; each student was required to solve problems by both methods.224 The student was given enough instruction in tactics pertaining to the line to enable him to have an enlightened idea of what the commander of the forces was trying to do and to intelligently cooperate with him and give the proper instructions to his sanitary troops. The smallest unit (the battalion) was first studied both in advance, retreat, and defensive formations, explaining the use, position, and personnel of the sanitary troops. The regiment, the brigade, and the division were next studied, always laying particular stress upon the use of the sanitary personnel. The 12-inch map of Leavenworth was placed in front of the class and the position of the different units pinned on with the war game sets, and each student was required to show where he would establish his aid and dressing stations, the stations for the field hospitals, how the line of communications was brought in, how to trace a wounded man from the front to the rear, showing what organization he passed through and what records were made and the disposition made of him. Road space and the factor of time were emphasized. Students were quizzed upon each problem. A student was placed at the board, required to make a solution on the map and give his reasons. The rest of the class had their maps and followed his solution. When he finished each man in the class was asked to criticise his solution.

MAP PROBLEMS

Four hours were given to the study of map problems.224 A problem was given to the class, which was taken out and shown the terrain over which the problem was to be worked. Each man, individually, then worked his problem, wrote it out, and handed it in to the instructor.


209

Eight hours were devoted to this subject. The students had their maps, the large 12-inch map was put upon the wall, a problem was given to them, and students were designated to act as the chief surgeon, sanitary inspector, regimental surgeon, directors, and commanders of ambulance companies and field hospitals.224 Orders were written and given verbally and the students took sides, one side worked the problem and the other side criticized and vice versa.

The following schedule of one week's work in the basic course shows the method of assignment of hours and instructors: 225

HEADQUARTERS MEDICAL OFFICERS TRAINING CAMP, FORT RILEY, KANS.

Schedule of instruction for the week ending May 25, 1918 - -Company No. 26

Monday, May 20:

7.30 to 7.50 a.m.............................................Physical drill.
8 to 9.20 a.m..................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m...........................................War psychoses, neuroses, shell shock, etc.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m.........................................Orthopedics.
1 to 1.50 p.m..................................................Medical Department in Campaign
2 to 2.50 p.m..................................................Poison gases and liquid! fire, etc.
3 to 3.50 p.m..................................................Ambulance company equipment, use and internal administration. .
4 to 4.50 p.m...................................................Ambulance company equipment, use and internal administration.

Tuesday, May 21:

7.30 to 7.50 a.m...............................................Physical drill
8 to 9.20 a.m....................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m.............................................Poison gases and liquid fire, etc.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m...........................................Orthopedics.
1 to 1.50 p.m.....................................................Medical Department I Campaign (Assembly Hall C-4).
2 to 2.50 p.m.....................................................Manual for Courts-Martial and Military Law.
3 to 3.50 p.m.....................................................Ambulance company equipment, use and internal administration.
4 to 4.50 p.m.....................................................Ambulance company equipment, use and internal administration.

Wednesday, May 22:

7.30 to 7.50 a.m.................................................Physical drill.
8 to 9.20 a.m......................................................Camp gymnasium.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m................................................Manual for Courts-Martial and Military Law.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m..............................................Medical Department in Campaign (Assembly Hall C-4).
1 to 1.50 p.m.......................................................Principles sanitary tactics (Assembly Hall C-4).
2 to 2.50 p.m.......................................................Principles sanitary tactics (Assembly Hall C-4).
3 to 3.50 p.m.......................................................Military surgery.
4 to 4.50 p.m........................................................Orthopedics.

Thursday, May 23:

7.30 to 7.50 a.m.................................................Physical thrill.
8 to 9.20 a.m.....................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m..............................................Manual for Courts--Martial and Military Law.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m............................................Orthopedics.
1 to 1.50 p.m.....................................................Military surgery.
2 to 2.50 p.m.....................................................Civil sanitary function Medical Department in occupied territory.
3 to 3.50 p.m.................................................... Principles sanitary tactics (Assembly Hail C-4).
4 to 4.50 p.m..................................................... Principles sanitary tactics (Assembly Hall C-4).


210

Friday, May 24:

7.30 to 7.50 a. m.............................................Physical drill
8 to 9.20 a. m..................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a. m...........................................Manual for Courts-Martial and Military Law.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m.........................................Orthopedics.
1 to 1.50 p.m.................................................. Military surgery.
2 to 2.50 p.m...................................................Civil sanitary function Medical Department in occupied territory.
3 to 3.50 p.m...................................................Principles sanitary tactics (Assembly Hall C-4).
4 to 4.50 p.m..................................................Principles sanitary tactics (Assembly Hall C-4).

Saturday, Mary 25:

7.30 to 7.50 a.m............................................Physical drill.
8 to 9.20 a.m.................................................Inspection, followed by drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m..........................................Manual for Courts-Martial and Military Law.
10.30 to 11.20 a.m........................................Field hospital equipment, use and internal administration.

WEEKLY AIRDROME AND ASSEMBLY HALL ASSIGNMENT

Classroom work, Company 26, held at airdrome No. 3, except as noted above, unless otherwise directed by an instructor for his subject.

During inclement weather inside classroom work held at Assembly Hall C-1.

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FOR OFFICERS

In December, 1917, instructions were received to establish schools in military roentgenology226and military orthopedics.227 The officers ordered to take these courses were designated by the chiefs of these departments in the Office of the Surgeon General. Each course consisted of four weeks basic training and four weeks training in the special subject covered.

SCHOOL OF MILITARY ROENTGENOLOGY

The following letter of instructions from the Surgeon General gave the outline for the establishment of this school:228

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL,
Washington, December 6, 1917.

From: The Surgeon General, United States Army.
To: Commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Riley, Kans.

Subject: School in military roentgenology.

1. A school in military roentgenology will be established as a special course for selected student officers, as part of the general scheme of instruction carried out in your medical officers' training camp.
2. The purpose of this school is to conduct training in roentgenology along military lines, from the military viewpoint, and in the military environment; and coincidently to develop its officers physically and train them in subjects which they should know under the conditions in which they would practice their specialty, including regulations, paper work, handling of men, and functions of medical officers other than those with fighting troops. By operating it as part of the training plan, much mileage can be saved and the presence of a large number of officers from whom to select will improve personnel.  
   3. About 60 roentgenologists will be required monthly. Classes should he arranged for on the following basis: At Medical Officers--Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, 35; at Medical Officers--Training Camp, Fort Riley, 25.
   4. The instructor in roentgenology detailed by this office on the staff of instructors of the training camp will, under the supervision of the commandant thereof, be in direct charge of the course.


211

In addition to his educational duties, he will continuously investigate the qualifications and availability of medical officers under general training relative to detail for training as Roent-genologists.
5. Roentgenologist on duty at the hospital will serve as assistant instructor, and his routine work at the hospital will as far as possible be arranged to that end. It is important that such routine duties should be demonstrated and utilized as part of the subjects of instruction.
6. To prevent duplication of apparatus, and to take full advantage of existing facilities and the many opportunities for clinical work, the course in military Roentgenology will be conducted in connection with the Roentgen laboratories of the base hospitals at Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., and Fort Riley, Kans.
7. The commanding officer of each of the above base hospitals will take measures to provide the necessary apparatus and equipment and will facilitate the work of training in every way.
8. The general instruction to be given will relate to the handling of apparatus, general methiods of work, and normal X-ray anatomy.
Detailed information as to the general nature and scope of the work to be done will be furnished by the X-ray division of this office.
The course of instruction in Roentgenologv, based thereon, will be prescribed by the commandant of the training camp after conference with the instructor in Roentgenology.
9. The course in general training and Roentgenology will cover a minimum of two months. In addition to instruction in other subjects, the course in Roentgenology comprises a total of 80 hours, covering 4 hours daily for 5 days each week of the second months.
10. No officer will be detailed for special training in Roentgenology until he shall have completed one month's course of general instruction in the training camp as prescribed in this letter.
Officers who qualify in this course, and are otherwise satisfactory, will be recommended for detail for the final course in New York City or elsewhere.
11. Student officers who, after one week's instruction, do not give evidence of proper aptitude for the work, will be returned to the general instruction in the training camps and other officers assigned in their places.
12. Officers under training as specialists in military Roentgenology will be quartered. and subsisted in the medical officers' training camp and subject to its discipline at all times.
13. Hours of instruction in Roentgenology will be arranged by agreement between the commandant of the training camp and the commanding officer, base hospital.
14. The schedule for the first month is as follows: b

*    *    *    *    *    *

15. The schedule for the second month is as follows: b

*    *    *    *    *    *

16. The receipt of this letter to be acknowledged.

By direction of the Surgeon General:
E. L. MUNSON, Colonel, Medical Corps.

The first course began January 28, 1918.228 All officers reserved by the Surgeon General's Office and all others desiring this type of work were first examined by the director of the school, and those qualified to take the course were detailed for instruction.228At this examination, if any officers were formed qualified to take the advanced course they were reported to the Surgeon General's Office. The first four weeks as contemplated by instructions issued by the Surgeon General consisted of essentially the same subjects as those taught in the basic course, but with the difference that fewer hours were devoted to some subjects and others of importance to these officers introduced. In the second month 100 hours, including drill periods, were devoted to more or less military instruction of a general nature, and the remaining time (80 hours) was

bSee pp. 78. 79.


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taken up by special instruction in Roentgenology. This time for X-ray instruction was afterwards increased to 108 hours.

The training given consisted of instruction in the fundamental physics of the X-ray, normal and pathological anatomy, common injuries and dislocations, lesions of the lungs and heart, the common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the principles involved in the localization of foreign bodies, familiarity in the use of the base hospital equipment and dark-room technique.228

  Some of the trained Roentgenologists who were qualified to take charge of a Roentgenology department, desired to have more training along diagnostic lines.229To help these officers the director gave a series of three lectures a week, using evening hours. These lectures were well attended.

In this work the X-ray department at the base hospital, Fort Riley, was utilized and several adjoining rooms were used as classrooms.228

In addition to the regular classes in the school, 60 officers who were reported as trained Roentgenologists and assigned to this camp for military training were examined and those found not proficient were given further instruction in this branch. 229

The school was closed May 9, 1918. 219

The following is a copy of the schedule provided for this school for one six-day period: 230

Schedule of instructions for week ending March 16, 1918, fifth week.

THIRD SCHOOL FOR MILITARY ORTHOPEDICS AND ROENTGENOLOGY

(Designated Student Officers Companies Nos. 19 to 23, inclusive)

MONDAY, MARCH 11

7.30 to 7.50 a.m...................................................................................Physical drill.
8 to 9.20 a.m........................................................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m.................................................................................Military hygiene and sanitation.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m...............................................................................Military hygiene and sanitation.
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Orthopedics (School for Military Orthopedics, south end mess hall, F. H. 16).
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Roentgenology (School for Military Roentgenology, section F, base hospital).

TUESDAY, MARCH 12

7.30 to 7.50 a.m...................................................................................Physical drill.
8 to 9.20 a.m........................................................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m.................................................................................Military hygiene and sanitation.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m...............................................................................Principles sanitary tactics (assembly hall C-4).
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Orthopedics (School for Military Orthopedics, south end mess hall, F. II. 16).
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Roentgenology (School for Military Roentgenology, section E, base hospital).

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 13

7.30 to 7.50 a.m...................................................................................Physical drill.
8 to 9.20 a.m........................................................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m.................................................................................Military hygienic and sanitation.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m...............................................................................Principles sanitary tactics (assembly hall C-4 ).
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Orthopedics (School for Military Orthopedics, south end mess hall, F. H. 16).
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Roentgenology (School for Military Roentgenology, section E, base hospital).


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THURSDAY, MARCH 14

7.30 to 7.50 a.m...................................................................................Physical drill.
8 to 9.20 am.........................................................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m. ...............................................................................Military hygiene and sanitation.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m...............................................................................Principles sanitary tactics (assembly hall C-4).
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Orthopedics (School for Military Orthopedics, south end mess hall, F. H. 16).
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Roentgenology (School for Military Roentgenology, section E, base hospital).

FRIDAY, MARCH 15

7.30 to 7.50 a.m...................................................................................Physical drill.
8 to 9.20 a.m........................................................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20........................................................................................Principles sanitary tactics (assembly hall C-4).
10.30 to11.30 a.m................................................................................Military hygiene and sanitation..
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Orthopedics (School for Military Orthopedics, south end mess hall, F. H. 16).
1 to 4.50 p.m........................................................................................Roentgenology (School for Military Roentgenology, section F, base hospital).

SATURDAY, MARCH 16

7.30 to 7.50 a.m...................................................................................Physical drill.
8 to 9.20 a.m........................................................................................Drill.
9.30 to 10.20 a.m.................................................................................War psychoses, neuroses, shell shock, etc.
10.30 to 11.30 a.m...............................................................................Military hygiene and sanitation.

WEEKLY ASSEMBLY HALL ASSIGNMENT

Inside classroom work held in north end of barracks No. 1, except as noted above, unless otherwise directed by an instructor for his subject.

SCHOOL OF MILITARY ORTHOPEDICS

The School of Military Orthopedics was established in accordance with instructions from the Surgeon General.227 The first course began in January, 1918.231When this course started, quarters for instruction were furnished at the base hospital, Fort Riley. A four weeks'course covering intensive instruction in this work was the basis for the school, but especially qualified men were kept on longer to round out such special lines of work for which they were best suited.231