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Section II, Chapter XX

Contents

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SECTION II.

CHAPTER XX.

DIVISION OF PHYSICAL RECONSTRUCTION.

ORGANIZATION.

The Division of Special Hospitals and Physical Reconstruction was organized on August 22, 1917, with the assignment to duty of a commissioned medical officer as chief, 1 and with the division of the work into the following special sections: (1) Education (general, technical, agricultural, and psychological); (2) physiotherapy; special hospitals (cooperating with the Hospital Division in the selection of hospital sites, buildings and grounds for the same, designing typical buildings for schools and shops, physiotherapy, gymnastics and other reconstruction purposes); (3) clinical (cooperating with all clinical divisions, particularly with those of general surgery, orthopedic surgery, surgery of the head, and neuropsychiatry, each of which assigned an officer to duty in the division); (4) publicity (or information for) with the analysis and compilation of all available literature on reconstruction and rehabilitation of disabled soldiers, sailors, and marines. Specifications were made of minimum and maximum equipment for schools, workshops, gymnasia and physiotherapy, including electrotherapy, and for horticulture, agriculture, dairying, and the like.

In the earlier days, many sites and buildings were inspected and approved or rejected as available for special hospitals for physical reconstruction. Experts were detailed to make a study of the industrial plants and technical schools of the country with a view to possible cooperative utilization in the program of physical reconstruction. The War Department, in December, 1917, approved the employment of women and men as reconstruction aides. 2 These were designated "employees at large" of the Medical Department. Through this division, cooperating with the Division of Orthopedic Surgery, schools of arts and crafts were encouraged to give intensive training to women teachers, graduates of colleges and universities, to qualify them as reconstruction aides in occupational therapy; physical culture schools and university hospitals were encouraged to give intensive training to women to qualify them as reconstruction aides in physiotherapy.

Meanwhile, the functions of the Division of Physical Reconstruction were not well defined. The program was at first too elaborate, embracing, as it did, plans for the vocational training of the disabled man and his placement in a suitable occupation after his discharge from the Army. This extensive program did not receive the approval of the War Department or of Congress. At there quest of the Secretary of War, the Surgeon General called a conference with the governmental and civilian organizations interested in reconstruction and rehabilitation problems with the idea of defining the extent of authority to be exercised by the Army and other organizations in this work and the best ways and means for the administration of its separate phases. 3 This conference met


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in the Office of the Surgeon General on Monday, January 4, 1918, with representatives from the Medical Departmnents of the Army and Navy, the United States Public Health Service, the Medical Section of the Council of National Defense, the Treasury Department, the Department of Labor, the Department of the Interior, the Federal Board for Vocational Education, the American Red Cross, the United States Chamber of Commerce, the National Manufacturers' Association, the American Federation of Labor, and the civilian medical profession. As a result of the conference, a committee of 15 was appointed to prepare a report of recommendations, which was submitted to the Secretary of War with a tentative draft of a proposed bill. 3 This report outlined, defined, and separated the functions of the Medical Departments of the Army and Navy and those of civilian agencies in carrying on the work of physical reconstruction and rehabilitation. It was recommended that all reconstruction and reeducational activities relating to members of the military and naval forces of the United States be directly under the control of the Surgeon Generals of the two services until the disabled soldier or sailor, as the case might be, was ready for discharge, if unfit for further military service, when he would pass under the control of such agencies for his rehabilitation as the Government might provide. It was recommended that a board having executive control over continued educational training, placement in employment, and economic and social supervision be created to take charge of this work at the point where it was relinquished by the Army or Navy. A tentative draft of a bill covering these points was sent to the Secretary of War, but was never introduced into Congress.

Early in the year 1918 a medical officer was assigned to duty in this division as director of the section on the reconstruction of the blind and nearly blind; 4 another, as director of the section on the reconstruction of the soldiers, sailors, and marines disabled by deafness and speech defects. 5 In April, 1918, the Educational Section was organized.

POLICIES AND PROGRAM.

In the meantime the policies and program adopted by the division were not being satisfactorily put into practice. The War Department was urgently requested, therefore, to sanction the proposed work. On May 6, 1918, the Secretary of War defined the reconstructive functions of the Medical Department in the following language: 3

You are authorized to proceed with the scheme for reconstruction of officers and enlisted men of the Army alone without consideration of the other bureaus of the Government involved. This reconstruction to be clearly understood to end at the point where the medical reconstruction ceases; that is, the reconstruction to take place in such cases of officers and enlisted men as come under proper medical treatment by the War Department, leaving for other reconstruction pur-poses the subsequent treatment after discharge from the care of the Medical Department.

This understanding of the field of work in reconstruction assigned to the Medical Department of the Army did not entirely clarify the situation, as memoranda prepared for the War Department requesting approval of needed hospital construction, equipment for physiotherapy, for occupational therapy, and for a qualified personnel to administer physiotherapy and curative work in military hospitals were disapproved wholly or in part, or were returned by the General Staff for additional information.6


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In spite of the delay incident to this confusion, very creditable application of all the measures included under physical reconstruction was begun early in 1918 at United States General Hospital No. 2, Fort McHenry; at Walter Reed General Hospital, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C.; and at United States Gen eral Hospital No. 6, Fort McPherson, Atlanta, Ga.

The Secretary of the Navy requested the War Department to admit disabled sailors and marines to military hospitals for physical reconstruction, and arrangements were made with the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Navy Department, on May 10, 1918, whereby the Surgeon General of the Army was given charge of sailors and marines, as requested. 7 This authority was confirmed by the Secretary of War on May 27.

In May, 1918, the functions of this division in relation to the clinical divisions were more clearly defined. The Section of Orthopedic Aides, was transferred from the Orthopedic Division to the Reconstruction Division, 8 and the name was changed to the Division of Physical Reconstruction, 9 (See Chart XXI.) All officers on duty in this division as representatives of clinical divisions returned to their proper divisions. The interest which it was necessary for this division to maintain in hospital sites, special buildings for schools, shops, physiotherapeutics, and gymnastics was better secured by the organization therein of a section on architecture and by cordial cooperative relations with the Hospital Division. In the Surgeon General's Office it was understood that the Division of Physical Reconstruction would furnish to the hospitals which were to function in physical reconstruction the required personnel of officers, noncommissioned and enlisted men, and reconstruction aides, for efficiently carrying on occupational therapy, physiotherapy, gymnastics, sports and pastimes, and social service. In the hospitals it was agreed that the clinical officers would prescribe types of occupational and physiotherapy play and drill required to aid in the physical and functional restoration of the disabled men, leaving to the educational and physiotherapeutic officers the efficient application of the recon- structive measures prescribed. The division was reorganized to accord with the plan, and was so continued until June 20, 1919, when it ceased to exist as a separate division, becoming the Section on Physical Reconstruction of the Hospital Division.10 As reorganized in July, 1918, it embraced sections on education (including general, technical, agricultural, psychological, social service, publicity, and sports and pastimes); physiotherapy; rehabilitation of the blind; rehabilitation of those disabled by deafness and defects of speech; architecture; and. after the armistice, convalescent centers. The responsibility for efficiency in each section was placed upon a section director and on subdirectors of subsections.

On June 27, 1918, the President signed the Smith-Sears bill, known as the vocational rehabilitation act.11 This act provided for the vocational education of compensable disabled soldiers, sailors, and marines after their discharge from the Army and Navy under the jurisdiction of the Federal Board for Vocational Education. The jurisdiction of the War and Navy Departments over disabled men of the military and naval forces was expressed in section 6 of this vocational rehabilitation act:

That all medical and surgical work or other treatment necessary to give functional and mental restoration to disabled persons prior to their discharge from the military or naval forces of the


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Chart XXI –Division of Physical Reconstruction, Surgeon General’s Office, June, 1918.


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United States shall be tinder the control of the War Department and the Navy Department, respectively. Whenever training is employed as a therapeutic measure by the War Department or the Navy Department, a plan may be established between these agencies and the board, acting in an advisory capacity, to insure, in so far as medical requirements permit, a proper process of training and the proper preparation of instructors for such training. A plan may also be established between the War and Navy Departments and the board, whereby these departments shall act in an advisory capacity with the board in the care of the health of the soldier and sailor after his discharge.

The board shall, in establishing its plans and rules and regulations for vocational training, cooperate with the War Department and the Navy Department in so far as may be necessary to effect a continuous process of vocational training.

On July 11, 1918, the War Department promulgated the full text of the vocational rehabilitation act, and also the early expressed policy of the Division of Physical Reconstruction:11

(a) Physical reconstruction is defined as complete medical and surgical treatment, carried to the point where maximum functional restoration, mental and physical, has been secured. In securing this result the use of work, mental and manual, will often be required during the conva-lescent period.

(b) Hereafter no member of the military service disabled in line of duty, even though not expected to return to duty, will be discharged from service until he has attained complete

recovery, or as complete recovery as is expected that he will attain when the nature of his disability is considered. When the degree of recovery described in this paragraph has been attained, members of the military service who remain unfit for further duty should be discharged in the manner provided in the Army Regulations.

The War Department on July 31, 1918, approved the final plan of the Surgeon General for physical reconstruction in the following language: 12

The general policy of physical reconstruction as proposed by the Surgeon General's Office for the purpose, primarily, of effecting the maximum restoration of disabled soldiers using manual and mental work as a curative agent, and incidentally of training and educating them for further useful work in the Military Establishment, is approved with the understanding that such incidental training will not involve the Government in large expenditures and elaborate installations of shops and apparatus, and provided that all existing facilities, both military and civilian, for training and educating the soldier toward the end in view shall be used to the fullest possible extent.

Accordingly, in August, 1918, the Surgeon General announced the completion of plans for physical reconstruction of disabled soldiers, sailors, and marines in the general military hospitals in agreement with the approved policies.13 These plans were formulated with a view to close cooperation with the War Department Committee on Education and Special Service in the work of restoring men to full or limited military service, and with the Federal Board for Vocational Education, which was authorized by vocational rehabilitation act to provide vocational training for compensable disabled men after their discharge from the Army and the Navy. They embraced the equipment of general and base hospitals which functioned in physical reconstruction with curative workshops and educational buildings equipped to carry on curative work, physiotherapy buildings, including gymnasia, designed and equipped to utilize every physical means of cure.

RECONSTRUCTION HOSPITALS.

The plan approved on July 31, 1918, embraced authority to commission in the Sanitary Corps of the Medical Department the necessary personnel of educational officers to administer the work in the Office of the Surgeon General and in each of the designated hospitals.14 In the department of physiotherapy,the personnel of administrative officers was obtained from the Medical Reserve Corps. In both the educational and the physiotherapeutic departments an enlisted personnel was assigned.


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On July 31, 1918, the Surgeon General designated the following general hospitals to function in physical reconstruction:" Walter Reed, Takoma Park, D. C.; Letterman, San Francisco, Calif.; Fort Bayard, N. Mex.; No. 2, Fort McHenry, Md.; No. 3, Colonia (Rahway), N. J.; No. 6, Fort McPherson, Ga.;No. 7, Roland Park, Md.; No. 8, Otisville, N. Y.; No. 9, Lakewood, N. J.;No. 10, Boston, Mass.; No. 11, Cape May, N. J.; No. 12, Biltmore, N. C.; No. 16,New Haven, Conn.; No. 19, Oteen, N. C.; No. 20, Whipple Barracks, Ariz.;No. 21, Denver, Colo.; No. 24, Parkview, Pa.; No. 26, Fort Des Moines, Iowa;No. 28, Fort Sheridan, Ill.; No. 29, Fort Snelling, Minn.; No. 30, Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y.; No. 31, Carlisle, Pa.; No. 36, Detroit, Mich.; No. 38, Eastview, N. Y.; No. 41, Fox Hills, Staten Island, N. Y., No. 42, Spartanburg, S. C.;No. 43, Hampton, Va.

At this date the organization for reconstruction in each hospital was as follows:

1. An educational personnel consisting of:

   (a) Chief educational officer, with assistants in technical and agricultural training and psychologists.

   (b) Instructors in academic, commercial, trade, and agricultural occupations.

   (e) Civilian women (reconstruction aides) qualified by previous experience as teachers and by intensive training to teach the sick and wounded in the arts and handicrafts and in academic and commercial studies in the wards.

2. A director and qualified personnel of enlisted men to apply to various types of physio-therapy, assisted by-

   (a) Civilian women employees (reconstruction aides) qualified by education, experience, and intensive training to apply massage, thermo- electron-, and local hydrotherapy.

3. A director of recreation in sports, games, gymnastics, and military drill with a qualified personnel of assistants, in cooperation with the Commission on Training Camp Activities of the War Department, the American Red Cross, the Y. M. C. A., the K. of C., the Jewish Welfare Board, and the Salvation Army.

4. Construction of buildings or alteration of existing buildings for use as shops for academic and commercial study, for horticulture and floraculture, for the physiotherapy, for gymnasia, and for farm pursuits. Available gardens and fields have been utilized to train the convalescents in the work of gardening, farming, and the like.

5. Equipment for shops, schools, and for physiotherapy, including the gymnasia. Practically all needed books are furnished each hospital by the American Library Association.

In addition to textbooks, there were used as guides for the patients and teachers approximately 50 courses of outline studies in academic, commercial, trade, agricultural, and allied subjects, which were prepared by the educational officers of the Division of Physical Reconstruction, in cooperation with representatives of the Federal Board for Vocational Education and qualified civilian volunteers.

Special facilities were provided for training the blind and nearly blind soldiers, sailors, and marines at United States Army General Hospital No. 7, at Roland Park, Baltimore, Md. The blind were trained to dress, to feed themselves, to get about independently, to read Braille, and to use a typewriter. Coincidently, occupations suitable for the blind were taught by a corps of competent instructors, selected by the division. The disabled service men who suffered from speech defects and from deafness were trained to talk and to understand by lip reading at United States Army General Hospital No. 11, Cape May, N. J., and at General Hospital No. 41, Fox Hills, Staten Island, N. Y. Curative work modified to meet the needs of the tuberculous was applied at seven military tuberculosis sanitaria.


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The educational personnel from October, 1918, to June, 1919, with the number of hospitals devoted to physical reconstruction during this period, is given in the following table: 16

[table]

The number of patients who took manual curative work, with the number of hospitals operating from month to month, are given in the following table: 16

[table]

The personnel in the department of physiotherapy of each hospital, the number of patients treated, and the total number of treatments given from October 1, 1918, to May 31, 1919, is indicated in the following table:16

[table]

Up to May 31, 1919, 48,988 patients were treated and 1,037,457 treatments were given.16

The number of patients registered and dismissed in December, 1918, and January, February, March, and April, 1919, from the hospitals submitting education service reports follows: 16

[table]


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Of the total number of reconstruction patients discharged for disability up to April 1, 1919 (5,070), approximately 41 were designated as hopeless or institutional cases, 510 were reported as in need of further training, while 4,519 were able to resume their old occupations or were not in need of training.


Ward work
.-Work in the wards was divided into ward handicrafts and ward academic work. The figures for the number of enrollments in all educational work comprised the number of enrollments on the first of the month plus admissions during the month. This method aimed to give full credit to the hospital for its educational work. The enrollments for ward handi crafts were as follows. 15

[table]

The subjects and enrollments in ward academic for March are listed.16

[table]

Shop and school work.-The work in the shop and school was divided into three divisions, according to the Educational Officers' Handbook, namely: (I) General courses, which include academic and professional subjects; (2) technical courses, which include (a) shop and trade courses (electrician, machinist, etc.), (b) commercial courses (typewriting, shorthand, etc.), (c) agriculture (gardening, crop study, etc.); (3) recreational courses, which include drill and physical culture, prescribed by the ward surgeon.


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The enrollment in shop and school subjects, as classified above, for seven months is as follows: 16

[table]

Not all patients in the various reconstruction hospitals were eligible to the educational service for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Short-time patients (seven days or less)-these patients simply passed through the hospitals as a part of the process of demobilization; (2) patients in contagious wards in which workers were excluded; (3) patients severely ill and secondary surgical patients who were unable and too weak to work; (4) patients with psychopathic conditions of a character which made work impossible; (5)patients on furlough, absent from hospital, and absent without leave, but carried on hospital population.

For administrative reasons it was not deemed worth while to develop elaborate accounting systems to separate these patients from the hospital population. It is probable that in general these classes of ineligibles in base hospitals were extremely large. Therefore, conservatively estimated, from 50per cent to 60 per cent of available or eligible patients were reached.

Type of cases reached by the education service.16

Before the armistice was signed approximately 13,000 disabled soldiers had been returned from the American Expeditionary Forces to the United States.17 These were cared for in 16 general military hospitals, and those who needed it were given the benefit of the continued treatment in accordance with the plans for physical reconstruction. Following the armistice, the return of the sick and injured from overseas was expedited. From November 11, 1918,to May 1, 1919, approximately 110,000 disabled soldiers from the American


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Expeditionary Forces returned to America. The Medical Department of the Army, therefore, secured facilities for the application of measures of physical reconstruction in the following additional hospitals: 18 Fort Sam Houston,Tex.; Fort Riley, Kans.; Camp Custer, Mich.: Camp Devens, Mass.; Camp Dodge, Iowa; Camp Gordon, Ga.; Camp Grant, Ill.; Camp Jackson, S. C.;Camp Kearney, Calif.; Camp Dix, N. J.; Camp Lee, Va.; Camp Lewis, Wash.;Camp Meade, Md.; Camp Mills, Long Island, N. Y.; Camp Sherman, Ohio; Camp Travis, Tex.; Camp Upton, Long Island, N. Y.; Camp Taylor, Ky.;Camp Pike, Ark. During the maximum of hospitalization 46 hospitals functioned in physical reconstruction. The peak in reconstruction work was reached in May, 1919, after which date there was a gradual decline in the numbers under-going treatment.

SECTION OF CONVALESCENT CEN'TERS.

Following the signing of the armistice convalescent disabled soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces were returned to the United States as convalescent detachments on a duty status. 19 These disabled soldiers were sent to convalescent centers nearest their homes in 19 designated training camps. This division was given advisory and administrative authority in the program of rehabilitation of the soldiers in convalescent centers. To properly administer the program of the application of active and passive exercise, curative work, and play, 14 medical officers were assigned to duty in the field as consultants by the authority granted to this division by the Surgeon General. From the time of the establishment of the convalescent centers in January, 1919, to their abolition on April 28, 1919, 47,858 convalescent soldiers received final hardening by educational training and physical exercises under the supervisory administration of this division.

SECTION OF PUBLICITY.

In addition to the compilation of various Government documents, setting forth the provision made for the benefit of disabled soldiers, sailors, and marines before and after their discharge, the Section of Publicity distributed other literature of a cheering character through the home service division of the American Red Cross, and in this way reached the families of the soldiers and the general public. Four mimeographed and illustrated bulletins 20 giving the complete account of the rehabilitation of soldiers in all the belligerent countries were prepared and distributed chiefly to medical officers of the Army. With the issue for May, 1918, these bulletins were discontinued and their place was taken by Carry On, 21 a monthly magazine edited by a board created by the Surgeon General. About 125,000 copies of each issue were published and distributed.

An indexed and annotated library was prepared for the officers of this division, containing the principal textbooks, periodicals, and other literature, in several languages, devoted to reconstruction. It formed a basis for smaller libraries sent to each hospital doing reconstruction work.

After the armistice the program of physical reconstruction was much modified by the Surgeon General. In the first place, the War Department


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amended its policy with regard to the Division of Physical Reconstruction, as outlined above 12 in the following manner: 22

Subparagraph (a) is intended to provide for the complete cure of maximum restoration of men incapacitated because of military service. Subparagraph (b) is intended to provide for the retention in the service of such disabled men until such time as their maximum restoration has been obtained. There will be many cases that will not be benefited by further sojourn in hospitals, convalescent centers, or development battalions. These should be promptly discharged. The surgeon who has the case in hand must be the judge as to whether or not maximum restoration has been secured, or if, after treatment in the hospital in which the client is located is completed, the case will be further benefited by transfer to another hospital, convalescent center, or development battalion, cases which in the opinion of the surgeon will be further benefited should be promptly transferred. There will, furthermore, be many cases of disabled men who either possess funds or who have relatives or friends in position to afford them specialized care after discharge. In these cases disabled men may be discharged, but not until the responsible commanding officer has fully determined that continued treatment and cure are assured. The provisions of paragraph 2, Bulletin 36, as interpreted above, will govern until further instructions both for officers and enlisted or drafted men. In this connection convalescent centers and development battalions are intended for enlisted or drafted men only.

Class (a) and class (b) disabled soldiers were to be disposed of as follows:

Men who entered the service since April, 1917, who after hospital treatment are fit to return for full duty, will be sent for discharge to the demobilization center nearest their place of entrance into service, as indicated in Circular 106, War Department, December 3, 1918, amended by Circular 126, War Department, December 9, 1918.

Men, without regard to date of entry into the service, who have become disabled while in the service, or who had disabilities prior to their entrance which have been aggravated or made worse by service, said disabilities not being due to their own misconduct, will be transferred to convalescent centers, per Circular 90, War Department, November 25, 1918, providing further benefit can be expected by additional treatment, training, and hardening processes.

This modified regulation restricted the use of prevocational or vocational training as a therapeutic measure of remediable disabled men to the period of the curative treatment, often too short to be of any practical utility. And yet in May, 1919, it was found that 75,000 disabled men in the military hospitals had been enrolled in some form of educational or training service.23 They had 25 to 35 days of technical training or educational instruction. Many had regained control of partially paralyzed muscles, stiffened joints were limbered up, unsteady nerves were steadied, and physical tone was secured through controlled diverting exercises.

COOPERATION WITH THE FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION.

Immediately after the President had signed the vocational rehabilitation act, the Surgeon General directed the Division of Physical Reconstruction to hold conference with the Federal Board for Vocational Education for the consideration of cooperation in the application of prevocational or vocational training as a curative measure. As a result of these conferences agreement was secured upon many points which it was believed would result in great benefit to the disabled soldier, both before and after his discharge from the Army. Among the articles agreed upon for cooperative aid of the disabled men a few are worthy of mention. 24

In July, 1918, the Surgeon General directed the commanding officer of each hospital functioning in physical reconstruction to receive, give office space to, and facilitate the work of designated agents of the Federal board in affording vocational guidance and information as to their privileges under the Government in relation to convalescent disabled soldiers about to be discharged from the hospital. The Federal board had difficulty at times securing vocational guidance agents for all hospitals. Upon the request of the board the Surgeon General directed the chief educational officer of the hospital


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to act temporarily, in so far as his regular duties permitted, as the vocational adviser of the disabled soldier for the Federal board. 25

It was found that Army Regulations 25 prevented Army officers from giving the full information concerning the disability of a soldier desired by the Federal Board and the Bureau of War Risk Insurance in the fulfillment of their respective duties intended to be of benefit to the soldier. The Surgeon General suggested a change, and in consequence, in December, 1918, the War Department amended paragraph concerned. The last sentence of the order of amendment reads:

Nothing contained in this paragraph shall be construed as prohibiting the furnishing to the Federal Board for Vocational Education such information concerning a disabled soldier's medical history as may be considered valuable in his vocational training.

A committee composed of officers of the Division of Physical Reconstruction and representatives of the Federal board compiled approximately 50pamphlets, designated Joint Series of Educational Guides, upon academic, technical, and general subjects, as guides for teachers and disabled men, both before and after discharge from the Army. Joint circulars were issued containing information for the disabled soldier upon his responsibilities and his priv-ileges as provided by the Government for hospital treatment, for insurance and pension, and for vocational training. So far as possible these circulars were distributed to the disabled men at ports of debarkation, in hospitals, and in convalescent centers. Circular letters 27 were sent by the Surgeon General to the commanding officers and to the chief educational officers of all hospitals, directing them to inform all disabled men, personally or by bulletins, of the privileges and benefits provided for them by the Government and to emphasize the great benefits to be derived from vocational training in the hospital and after discharge under the jurisdiction of the Federal board.

PERSONNEL.a

(April, 1917, to December, 1919.)

Billings, Frank, Col., M. C., chief.

King, Edger M., Lieut. Col., M. C., chief.

Richardson, C. W., Lieut. Col., M. C., chief.

Mock, Harry E., Col., M. C.

Salmon, Thomas W., Col., M. C.

Bordley, James, Lieut. Col., M. C.

Evans, H. M., Lieut. Col., M. C.

Greene, Charles L., Lieut. Col., M. C.

Miller, Joseph L., Lieut. Col., M. C.

Wood, Casey A., Lieut. Col., M. C.

Woodson, Thomas D., Lieut. Col., M. C.

Baldwin, Bird T., Maj., S. C.

Bryant, John, Maj., M. C.

Craig, C. B., Maj., M. C.

Crane, A. G., Maj., S. C.

a In this list have been included the names of those who at one time or another were assigned to the division during the period, April 6, 1917, to December 31,1919.

There are two primary groups-the chiefs of the division and the assistants. In each group names have beeen arranged alphabetically, by grades, irrespective of chronological sequence of service.


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Erving, William C., Maj., M. C.

Granger, Frank B., M. C.

Haggerty, M. E., Maj., S. C.

Henderson, W. H., Maj., S. C.

Hunter, F. W., Maj., M. C.

Hutchings, R. H., Maj., M. C.

Johnson, F. W., Maj., S. C.

Keene, C. H., Maj., M. C.

McDill, John R., Maj., M. C.

Magnuson, P. D., Maj., M. C.

Monohan, A. C., Maj., M. C.

Murray, M. W., Maj., S. C.

Price, H. B., Maj., S. C.

Rinehart, Stanley M., Maj., M. C.

Rothschild, Marcus, Maj., M. C.

Amthor, F. R., Capt., Signal Corps.

Austin, Homer M., Capt., M. C.

Berry, Charles, Capt., S. C.

Brown, E. W., Capt., M. C.

Cason, T. Z., Capt., M. C.

Crummer, Leroy, Capt., M. C.

Ezickson, W. J., Capt., M. C.

Harlan, C. L., Capt., S. C.

Johnson, J. B. A., Cap,., M. C.

Oliver, E. A., Capt., M. C.

Samuels, A. H., Capt., S. C.

Steele, G. H., Capt., S. C.

Stone, Calvin P., Capt., S. C.

Taylor, G. G., Capt., M. C.

Van Houton, Lyman H., Capt., S. C.

Boyd, J. T., First Lieut., S. C.

Stewart, Harry A., First Lieut., M. C.

Vaughn, S. J., First Lieut., S. C.

Whitley, W. R., First Lieut., M. C.

Willing, Charles, First Lieut., S. C.

Woodruff, Wm. H., Second Lieut., S. C.

REFERENCES.

(1) Letter from Surgeon General to Maj. Edgar King, M. C., August 22, 1917, subject: Assignment as Chief of Division of Special Hospitals and Physical Reconstruction. On file, S. G. O., 1157AS11 (Old System).

(2) Correspondence, etc., on file, Record Room, S. G. O., Correspondence Files, 231 (Recon struction Aides); 322.3 (Women's Aux. Med. Aides).

(3) Correspondence, etc. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.91-1 (Physical Reconstruction).

(4) S. O., No. 297. W. D., September 29, 1917, par. 92, assigned Maj. James Bordley to duty in Washington. On file, Personal Report File, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.

(5) S. O. No. 249, W. D., October 25,1917, par. 81, assigned Maj. Charles W. Richardson to duty in Washington. On file. Personal Report File, Commissioned Personnel Division, S. G. O.

(6) Memo. for Secretary of War, November 7, 1917, subject: Plan for Physical Reconstruction and Vocational Training. Weekly Report, March 29, 1918, Division of Special Hospitals and Physical Reconstruction, par. 1. On file, 353.91-1 (General).


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(7) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, United States Army, 1918, 398.

(8) Memo. S. G. O., May 6, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 024 (Division of Special Hospitals and Physical Reconstruction).

(9) Office order, No. 36, S. G. O., May 13, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 024.7.

(10) Office order, No. 325, S. G. O., June 20, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 024.7.

(11) Vocational rehabilitation act (Smith-Sears bill). Bull. No. 36, W. D., July 11, 1918.

(12) First indorsement, from The Adjutant General to the Surgeon General, United States Army. July 31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O. 353.91.1 (General).

(13) Official Bull., August 1, 1918. (Published daily by Committee on Public Information, George Creel, chairman, Washington, D. C., 1918.) On file, Record Room, S. G. O.

(14) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, United States Army, 1919, Vol. II, 1172.

(15) Circular Letter, July 31, 1918, S. G. 0. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 356.

(16) Educational service reports (statistical). On file, Weekly Report File, Record Room, S. G. O.

(17) Card file (statistical reports). On file, Hospital Division, S. G. O.

(18) Annual Report of the Surgeon General, United States Army, 1919, Vol. II, 1176.

(19) Memo. for the General Staff, attention of the Opr. Div. C. S. 5137, December 10, 1918.

Subject: Modified Program for the Physical Reconstruction of Disabled Soldiers, par. 9; reply of The Adjutant General of the Army to the Surgeon General, December 19,1918; circular letter No. 29, S. G. O., January 14, 1919, par. 10;circular letter No. 33, S. G. O., January 18, 1919. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.91-1.

(20) Reconstruction Bulletin (Nos. I-IV, January, March, April, May, 1918). On file, Journal Reprint Section, S. G. O.

(21) Carry on. A magazine on the Reconstruction of Disabled Soldiers and Sailors. Vol. 1, Nos. 1-10 (June to December, 1918, inclusive, and January to March, 1919, inclusive.) Published for the Surgeon General by the Red Cross Institute for Crippled, New York City.

(22) Circular No. 188, W. D., December31, 1918. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., Document File.

(23) Educational Service report, statistical summary. Weekly Report File, Record Room, S. G. O.

(24) Report of conference, January 14, 1918, of S. G. O., with representation of 15 organizations, including Bureau of War Risk Insurance and Federal Board for Vocational Education. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.91-1.

(25) Circular letter, No. 29, S. G. O., January 29, 1919, par. 8. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.91-1.

(26) Army Regulations, 1916, par. 824; circular No. 132, W. D., December 11, 1918.

(27) Circular letters. On file, Record Room, S. G. O., 353.91-1.