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HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL HISTORY

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Contents

Books and Documents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface
Introduction
     Evolution of the military hospital

SECTION I.-PROCUREMENT

CHAPTER: 

I. Evolution of hospital procurement methods
II. General factors underlying the hospitalization scheme
III. Classification of hospitals constructed

SECTION II.-CONSTRUCTION AND IMPROVEMENT

IV. Construction
V. Hospitals provided and improved

SECTION III.-ORGANIZATION, ADMINISTRATION, AND CONTROL

VI. Differentiation of general, base, and camp hospitals
VII. Personnel
VIII. Supplies and utilities
IX. Coordination of improvement measures
X. Correlated activities
XI. Distribution of overseas patients
XII. Transportation of sick and wounded
XIII. Demobilization

SECTION IV.-TYPES OF HOSPITALS

XIV. The camp base hospital
XV. The general hospital (permanent)
XVI. The general hospital (converted)
XVII. The general hospital (tuberculosis)
XVIII. The general hospital (new)
XIX. Post hospitals
XX. Aviation hospitals
XXI. The airplane ambulance
XXII. Embarkation and debarkation hospitals
XXIII. The debarkation hospital
XXIV. The embarkation hospital

SECTION V.-OTHER GENERAL HOSPITALS

XXV. Army and Navy General Hospital; Hot Springs, Ark., Fort Bayard, N. Mex.; General Hospitals, Nos. 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8  
XXVI. General Hospitals, Nos. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18
XXVII. General Hospitals, Nos. 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 29
XXVIII. General Hospitals, Nos. 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, and 40

SECTION VI.-OTHER BASE HOSPITALS

XXIX. Base Hospitals, Camp Beauregard, La.; Fort Bliss, Tex.; Camps Bowie, Tex.; Cody, N. Mex.; Custer, Mich.; Devens, Mass.; Dix, N. J.; Dodge, Iowa; and Doniphan, Okla.
XXX. Base Hospitals, Camps Eustis, Va.; Fremont, Calif.; Gordon, Ga.; Greene, N. C.; Hancock, Ga.; A. A. Humphreys, Va.; Jackson, S. C.; Jos. E. Johnston, Fla.; Kearny, Calif.; and Lee, Va.
XXXI. Base Hospitals, Camps Lewis, Wash.; Logan, Tex.; MacArthur, Tex.; McClellan, Ala.; Meade, Md.; Pike, Ark.; Fort Riley, Kans.; and Sam Houston,  Tex.
XXXII. Base Hospitals, Camps Sevier, S. C.; Shelby, Miss.; Sheridan, Ala.; Sherman, Ohio; Zachary Taylor, Ky.; Travis, Tex.; Upton, N. Y.; Wadsworth, S. C.; and Wheeler, Ga.

SECTION VII.-OTHER EMBARKATION AND DEBARKATION HOSPITALS

XXXIII. Embarkation Hospitals, Nos. l, 2, 3, and 4; Debarkation Hospitals, Nos. 1, 2, 4, and 5; Base Hospital, Camp Merritt, N. J.; Base Hospital, Camp Mills, N. Y.; and United States Army Auxiliary Hospital No. l, New York City
XXXIV Debarkation Hospitals, Nos. 51 and 52

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIGURE:

l.   Tilton's Log Hut Hospital, New Jersey, 1780
2.  Herbert Hospital, Woolwich, England
3.  Lariboisière Hospital, Paris
4.  Patterson Park Hospital, Baltimore, Md.
5.  Judiciary Square Hospital, Washington, D. C.
6.  Sedgwick Hospital, Greenville, La.
7.  Mower Hospital, Chestnut Hill, Pa.
8.  Satterlee Hospital, West Philadelphia, Pa.
9.  General hospitals superimposed upon Bureau of Census population map, 1910
10. Chart of normal bed capacities in larger hospitals in United States
11.  Chart showing relation of available beds to patients in general hospitals
12.  Chart showing relation of available beds to patients in base hospitals
13.  Types of block plans for hospitals
14. Floor plan of receiving building J-3
15.  Administration building, base hospital
16.  Receiving building, base hospital
17.  Floor plans of administration and receiving buildings B-9
18. Floor plan of administration and receiving building B-13
19.  Floor plans of single wards K-1 and K-20
20.  Floor plans of two-story ward barracks K-5 and K-105
21.  Floor plan of two-story general ward unit K-34
22.  Floor plans of two-story ward units K-117 and K-58
23.  Floor plan of isolation wards M and M-1
24.  Floor plan of isolation wards M-3 and M-6
25.  Floor plan of psychiatric wards R-2 and R-4
26.  Interior of a typical one-story ward of temporary construction
27.  Floor plan of tuberculosis ward K-103
28.  Floor plans of tuberculosis wards K-108 and K-107
29.  Floor plans of laboratory buildings
30.  Floor plans of surgical pavilions
31.  Floor plan of a surgical department for a 1,000-bed hospital
32.  Floor plan of a surgical building for a 2,000-bed hospital
33.  Floor plan of of a surgical and laboratory pavilion for a 300-bed hospital
34.  Floor plan of a physical therapy building
35.  Floor plan of mess and kitchen, I.
36.  Interior of a base hospital general kitchen
37.  Corridor adjacent to patients' mess, showing equipment for transporting prepared food to wards
38.  Floor plan of mess and kitchen I-11
39.  Floor plan of mess and kitchen I-12
40.  Floor plan of mess and kitchen I-34
41.  Floor plan of mess I-43 and kitchen I-39
42.  Cafeteria equipment
43.  Officers' quarters
44.  Officers' dining room
45.  Nurses' quarters
46.  Living room, nurses' quarters
47.  Enlisted men's quarters
48.  Enlisted men's mess hall
49.  Typical Red Cross recreation house for nurses
50.  Typical Red Cross convalescent house
51.  Typical Young Men's Christian Association hut
52.  Interior of Young Men's Christian Association hut
53.  Typical medical supply buildings
54.  Floor plan of laundry building Q-3
55.  Floor plan of laundry building Q-4
56.  Garage and cars at base hospital
57.  Block plan of base hospitals as originally constructed
58.  Inclosed corridor, connecting buildings
59.  Typical one-story ward of temporary construction
60.  Portion of the isolation section of a base hospital
61.  Portion of the psychiatric ward
62.  Exterior of a typical ward-barrack
63.  Floor plans of regimental infirmary and camp dental infirmary
64.  Central heating plant, National Army base hospital
65.   Method of heating National Guard hospitals
66.   Base hospital fire station
67.   Portion of a base hospital farm
68.   Covered, or "umbrella" walk
69.   A post exchange building
70.   Interior of a post exchange
71.   A base hospital bowling alley
72.   A swimming pool at base hospital, Camp MacArthur, Tex.
73.   Semischematic map showing manner of distribution of sick
74.   Distribution of overseas patients to general and base hospitals
75.  Hospital Train No. 1
76.   A 16-section patient car, Train No. 1
77.   Car for sick officers, Train No. 1
78.   A hospital unit car fitted with Glennan adjustable bunks, showing manner of adjustment
79.   Hospital unit car interior
80.   Hospital unit car interior in use
81.   Laundry, Base Hospital, Camp Grant, Ill.
82.   Folders for clinical records, Base Hospital, Camp Grant
83.   Receiving office, Base Hospital, Camp Grant
84.  Ward class in physical reconstruction, Base Hospital, Camp Grant
85.  Cottage used by the hospital personnel for outings, Base Hospital, Camp Grant
86.  Cover design for one of the issues of the Silver Chev', Base Hospital, Camp Grant
87.  Specimen page of the Silver Chev'
88.  Administration building, Walter Reed General Hospital
89. Hospital stewards' quarters, Walter Reed General Hospital
90.  Detachment barracks, Walter Reed General Hospital
91.  Officers' quarters, Walter Reed General Hospital
92.  Nurses' quarters, Walter Reed General Hospital
93.  Isolation building, Walter Reed General Hospital
94.  Aerophotograph, Walter Reed General Hospital
95.  Block plan, Walter Reed General Hospital
96.  A view of temporary buildings, Walter Reed General Hospital
97. Hospital swimming pool, Walter Reed General Hospital
98.  Service Club No. 1, Walter Reed General Hospital
99.  Block plan, General Hospital No. 2, Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Md.
100. Old Post Hospital, Fort McHenry, used as first administration building and officer patients' quarters
101. Panorama of cantonment wards, the first to be erected, at General Hospital No. 2
102. Two-story wards, constructed of tile, General Hospital No. 2
103. Plaster models of maxillofacial patients, General Hospital No. 2
104. Orthopedic shop, General Hospital No. 2
105. Portion of laboratory, General Hospital No. 2
106. Work in basketry, General Hospital No. 2
107. Patients at work in printing shop, General Hospital No. 2
108. Blind patients learning typewriting, General Hospital No. 2
109. Patients' work in jewelry class, General Hospital No. 2
110. Patients' class in photography, General Hospital No. 2
111. A view of Camp Purnell. Patients bathing, General Hospital No. 2
112. Block plan of General Hospital No. 21, Denver, Colo.
113. Wards (under construction) General Hospital No. 21
114. Open-air ward, General Hospital No. 21
115. Officers' apartments, General Hospital No. 21
116. Block plan, General Hospital No. 3, Colonia, N. J.
117. View of front of General Hospital No. 3
118. Convalescent wards, General Hospital No. 3
119. Bakery, General Hospital No. 3
120. Chemical laboratory, General Hospital No. 3
121. East garrison, Fort McDowell Calif.
122. Post hospital, Fort McDowell
123. Hospital at Love Field, showing additional wings
124. Front view of a 50-bed aviation hospital
125. Aviation hospital, Rockwell Field, Calif.
126. A ward, Post Hospital, Eberts Field, Ark.
127. Nurses' quarters, Eberts Field, Ark.
128. Enlisted men's barracks, Post Hospital, Barron Field, Tex.
129. Enlisted men's barracks, Post Hospital, Wilbur Wright Field, Ohio
130. Medical research laboratory, Rockwell Field, Calif.
131. Operating room, aviation hospital
132. Sterilizing room, aviation hospital
133. Dispensary, aviation hospital
134. Physical examining room, aviation hospital
135. X-ray room, aviation hospital
136. Low oxygen tension test room, aviation hospital
137. Kitchen and mess hall, aviation hospital
138. Toilet room, Post Hospital, Rockwell Field, Calif.
139. Ambulance and field equipment
140. Trial flight of the Rhoades-Gosman airplane, January 26, 1910
141. Airplane ambulance, first used at Gerstner Field, La., January 28, 1918
142. JN-4 H airplane ambulance approaching scene of accident, Ellington Field
143. JN-4 H airplane ambulance, top removed from fuselage, litter being removed
144. JN-4 H airplane ambulance, rendering first-aid to patient, Ellington Field
145. JN-4 H airplane ambulance, preparing to load patient, Ellington Field
146. JN-4 H airplane ambulance, placing patient in fuselage, Ellington Field
147. JN-4 H airplane ambulance, Ellington Field, showing empty and loaded litter
148. Winching Stokes litter into place in the Rockwell Field airplane ambulance
149. Final position of litter, Rockwell Field airplane ambulance
150. Stokes litter for a DH-4 airplane ambulance
151. Stokes litter in place in a DH-4 airplane ambulance
152. Chart showing relationship of available beds to patients in past hospitals
153. Map of Port of Embarkation, Newport News, Va.
154. Debarkation Hospital No. 3, Greenhut Building, N. Y.
155. Isometric plan of first floor, Debarkation Hospital No. 3
156. Typical general ward floor, Debarkation Hospital No. 3
157. One of the large wards at Debarkation Hospital No. 3
158. Block plan of Embarkation Hospital, Newport News, Va.
159. Headquarters, Embarkation Hospital, Newport News, Va.
160. General view of Embarkation Hospital, Newport News, Va., showing central heating plant
161. Interior of power and heating plant, Embarkation Hospital, Newport News, Va.
162. Nurses' recreation building, Embarkation Hospital, Newport News, Va.
163. Nurses' wards, Embarkation Hospital, Newport News, Va.
164. Red Cross convalescent house, Embarkation Hospital, Newport News, Va.
165. Army and Navy General Hospital, Hot Springs, Ark.
166. Block plan, General Hospital, Fort Bayard, N. Mex.
167. Block plan, Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco
168. General Hospital No. 1, Williamsbridge, New York City
169. Portion of General Hospital No. 5, Fort Ontario, N. Y.
170. Block plan of General Hospital No. 6, Fort McPherson, Ga.
171. Swimming pool in gymnasium, General Hospital No. 7, Baltimore
172. General Hospital No. 8, Otisville, N. Y.
173. General Hospital No. 9, Lakewood, N. J.
174. Portion of General Hospital No. 10, Boston
175. General Hospital No. 11, Cape May, N.J.
176. General Hospital No. 12, Biltmore, N. C.
177. Block plan of General Hospital No. 14, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga.
178. Open-air tuberculosis ward, General Hospital No. 16, New Haven, Conn.
179. General Hospital No. 17, Markleton, Pa.
180. Block plan of General Hospital No. 19, Oteen (Azalea), N. C.
181. Sun porch, General Hospital No. 20, Whipple Barracks, Ariz.
182. General Hospital No. 22, Philadelphia, Pa.
183. General Hospital No. 24, Park View, Pittsburgh
184. Block plan, General Hospital No. 25, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind.
185. Block plan, General Hospital No. 26, Fort Des Moines, Iowa
186. Block plan, General Hospital No. 28, Fort Sheridan, Ill.
187. Block plan, General Hospital No. 31, Carlisle, Pa.
188. General Hospital No. 32, Chicago, III.
189. Portion of General Hospital No. 34, East Norfolk, Mass.
190. General Hospital No. 35, West Baden, Ind.
191. General Hospital No. 36, Detroit, Mich.
192. General Hospital No. 38, Eastview, N. Y.
193. Recreation room, General Hospital No. 38
194. Block plan, General Hospital No. 40, St. Louis, Mo.
195. General Hospital No. 40, St. Louis, Mo.
196. Plan of Camp Dix, showing relative position of Base Hospital
197. View of Base Hospital, Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio

LIST OF TABLESa

TABLES:

1. Schedule showing new construction (temporary) erected at post hospitals
2. Schedule of hospital buildings erected at the National Army camps (base hospitals). All temporary construction
3. Schedule of hospital buildings erected at the National Guard camps (base hospitals).  All temporary construction
4. Schedule of new hospital construction of the temporary type done at points other than the National Army and National Guard camps
5. Schedule of new construction (temporary except General Hospitals, Nos. 20 and 21) tuberculosis hospitals
6. Schedule of hospital buildings, semipermanent (except General Hospital No. 28), of later design than buildings at hospitals of National Army and National Guard camps
7. Hospital beds available on armistice day
8. Number of enlisted men assigned to different sized hospitals
9. Number of overseas patients arriving at Hoboken, Newport News, and Boston
10. Patients from American Expeditionary Forces transferred to general and base hospitals from ports at Hoboken and Newport News
11. Revised table for ratio capacity, for troops invalided home September 5, 1918, on principal naval transports
12. Influenza and pneumonia statistics, Base Hospital, Camp Grant, Ill.
13. Drugs used in dispensary, Base Hospital, Camp Grant, Ill., during the influenza epidemic, 1918
14. Figures and statistics from the influenza epidemic, compiled by the Quartermaster Department, Base Hospital, Camp Grant, Ill. 
15. Average number of days lost in hospital, Walter Reed General Hospital, 1917
16. Surgical operations performed at Walter Reed General Hospital, 1917
17. Admissions to Walter Reed General Hospital, 1918
18. Surgical operations performed at Walter Reed General Hospital, 1918
19. Admissions and dispositions, Walter Reed General Hospital, 1919
20. Consolidated numerical reports of sick and wounded, and strengths of personnel at United States Army post hospitals
21. Consolidated numerical reports of sick and wounded, and strengths of personnel at United States Army aviation hospitals
22. Consolidated numerical reports of sick and wounded, and strengths of personnel at United States Army camp hospitals

aTables of statistical data concerning individual hospitals have been placed at the end of the history of each hospital considered.