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Contents

 

AFRICAN-AMERICAN DENTAL SURGEONS

    AND THE

    U.S. ARMY DENTAL CORPS:

    A STRUGGLE FOR ACCEPTANCE, 1901-1919
 
 
 
 

    JOHN M. HYSON, JR., D.D.S., M.S., M.A.


Director of Curatorial Affairs, Dr. Samuel D. Harris National Museum of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD; School Associate Professor, Oral Health Care Delivery, Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, Dental School, University of Maryland, 31 South Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-1504

Copyright, John M. Hyson, Jr., published with permission by the Office of Medical History.




 



 
 

 

CONTENTS
 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 

CHAPTER I

IN THE BEGINNING: 1898-1901
    Introduction:
    The Army Medical Department's Policy

    The Spanish American War:  1898
    Captain Jefferson as a Military Dentist
 

CHAPTER II

THE CONTRACT DENTAL CORPS:  1901-1911
    The Formation of the Army Dental Corps:  1901
    African-American Applicants

    The 1904 Memorandum:
    "Undesirability of Colored Contract Surgeons"

    African-American Dental Applicants:  1907-1911
    "No Vacancies"
 

CHAPTER III

THE COMMISSIONED DENTAL CORPS:  1911-1917
    End of the Contract System:  1911
    The Commissioned Corps

    African-American Applicants:  1911
    "Physically Disqualified"
 

CHAPTER IV

THE DENTAL RESERVE CORPS:  1917-1918
    The Dental Reserve Corps:  1917
    An Opportunity for African-American Dentists

    Fort Des Moines:  1917
    A "Separate" Training Camp
 

CHAPTER V

THE 92d DIVISION:  1917-1919
    The 92d Division, A.E.F.:  1917-1919
    The Buffalo Division

    Dental Surgeons:  1918
    "The Authorized Number"

    Demobilization of the 92nd Division:  1919
 

CHAPTER VI

THE 93d DIVISION:  1917-1919
    The 93d Division, A.E.F.:  1917-1919
    The Red Hand Division

    Dental Surgeons:  1918
    Both Black & White

    Demobilization of the 93d Division:  1919
 

CHAPTER VII

THE PIONEER INFANTRY:  1918-1919
    The Pioneer Infantry Regiments:  1918-1919
    Pershing's Pioneers

    Reassignment of Dental Officers:  1919
    "Urgently" Needed

    Racial Harmony:  1919
    "Complaints" Taken Care Of

    The Labor Battalions:  1919
 

CHAPTER VIII

AFTERTHOUGHTS
    Conclusion

 

APPENDIX A
    African-American Dental Personnel:  1917-1919
    92d Division, A.E.F.

APPENDIX B
    African-American Dental Personnel:  1917-1919
    93d Division, A.E.F.

APPENDIX C
    African-American Dental Personnel:  1917-1919
    Pioneer Infantry, A.E.F.

APPENDIX D
    African-American Dental Personnel:  1918-1919
    Labor Battalions, A.E.F.

APPENDIX E
    African-American Dental Personnel:  1917-1919
    Other Units or Unknown

APPENDIX F
    Dental Colleges Attended by 1901-1917
    African-American Applicants

FOOTNOTES

BIBLIOGRAPHY
    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
    MANUSCRIPTS
    JOURNALS
    BOOKS
    ILLUSTRATIONS

 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Note:  For photo credits, refer to the Bibliography.

Figure 1    "A Buffalo Soldier"
Figure 2    William A. Birch
Figure 3    Rufus P. Beshears
Figure 4    Roy M. Young
Figure 5    Raymond King
Figure 6    Frank C. Carter
Figure 7    First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps (unidentified)
Figure 8    Fort Des Moines, Iowa (circa 1921)
Figure 9    Dental officers, 92d Division
Figure 10  Alexander C. Browne
Figure 11  George Chester Booth
Figure 12  William R.Russell
Figure 13  Harry E. Bouden
Figure 14  Ernest M. Gould
Figure 15  Samuel H. Rosenburgh
Figure 16  Anthony W. Brooks
Figure 17  Herbert Harris
Figure 18  Craig Morris
 



 

PREFACE


The original research for this book was begun many years ago in the course of the author's research on the history of the U.S. Army Dental Corps.  The author began collecting any data he found on African-American dental officers as a matter of policy.  The material sat dormant until 1992 when a planning grant proposal for a museum exhibition on African-American dentistry was under consideration at the University of Maryland.  With a mad rush, the author dug into his files for the material collected on black dentists, thus was spawned the present manuscript.  Too long for an article, the only possible format seemed to be a book.  If the African-American dentists who served in the Spanish-American War through World War I were not given their just recognition in this manuscript, would they ever receive it?  The author considered it important that their story be documented.

The majority of the dentists mentioned in this work are unknown both to dental and military historians.  However, the contributions of Dr. William T. Jefferson, the first black dentist to treat U.S. Army soldiers in Cuba, and Dr. William A. Birch, the first black hospital steward/dentist to serve unofficially (as a dentist) overseas in the Philippine campaign, deserve recognition.  They were among the early pioneers in the U.S. Army's dental history.

Although the author was unable to establish who was the first black dentist to be commissioned in the U.S. Army, he probably is mentioned in this book.  Hopefully, his name will eventually surface as a result of this publication.  Possibly, Dr. Jefferson was the first black dentist to hold a commission (as a line officer not as a dental officer) in the U.S. Army.

Through the cooperation of many individuals and institutions, a significant number of photographs of black dental officers are being published for the first time.  Regrettably, many other equally deserving dentists' images are missing.

 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author wishes to thank the following individuals for their assistance and encouragement in the production of this work:  Dr. L. Albert Scipio II, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus, Howard University, Washington, DC, a long-time friend and author of many publications on African-American military history, who has always been available as a "sounding board"; Lieutenant Colonel Joseph W.A. Whitehorne, Professor of History, Lord Fairfax Community College, Middletown, VA, a friend and previous coauthor, for his critique of the manuscript with the eye of a former inspector general; Mr. John Slonaker, Chief of Reference Services, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, PA, for reading the initial draft and his encouragement to seek publication of the manuscript; Dr. Clifton O. Dummett, Professor Emeritus of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, Adjunct Professor, Northwestern University Dental School, Chicago, IL, and Visiting Professor, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, for his initial enthusiastic support of the author's grant project in 1992; Colonel James R. Fay, Senior Dental Corps Staff Officer, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, for the information on the dental corps' 1993 strength; Ms. Evelyn Hannigan, Staff Assistant, University Development, Tufts University, School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, for information on Dr. Ernest M. Gould; Dr. Charles J. Vacanti, Dental Historian, Creighton University, School of Dentistry, Omaha, NE, for information on Drs. William W. Peebles and Craig Morris (and photograph); Mr. Glen A. Gildemeister, Director, Regional History Center, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, for information on Dr. William T. Jefferson and research on his photograph (unfortunately unsuccessful); and lastly, Elayne R. Hyson, my patient wife who has suffered through the many hours of research and time devoted to the production of this work.

The author also wishes to thank the following individuals and institutions for permission to publish the photographs of the dentists mentioned in this work: Dr. David O. Moline, Professor and Director, General Practice Residency Program, Division of Family Dentistry, Department of Hospital Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Dr. LaForrest D. Garner, Associate Dean, Office of Minority Student Services, Indiana University, School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN; Mr. Ronald H. Sims, Assistant      Librarian, Northwestern University Dental School Library, Chicago, IL; Ms. Pat Heller, Leon Levy Library, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Ms. Gloria Pitchford, Illinois State Dental Society, Springfield, IL; and Mr. Michael J. Winey, Curator, Chief of Special Collections, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, PA.

 


CHAPTER I

 IN THE BEGINNING: 1898-1901

Introduction:

The Army Medical Department's Policy

There were no dental surgeons in the Medical Department of the United States Army (with one exception) until the formation of the Dental Corps in 1901, and there were no African-American dental surgeons in the army until 1917.  Perhaps, it would have taken even longer had not the country mobilized in 1916 for the war in Europe, causing the formation of the Officers' Reserve Corps and the subsequent commissioning of black officers.1

Similarly, the Medical Department of the United States Army had no African-American physicians on its roster.  In 1898, during the war with Spain, four black contract surgeons were appointed.  However, the army found their services wanting and dispensed with any future appointments.2
 

The Spanish American War:  1898
Captain Jefferson as a Military Dentist

The destruction of the U.S. battleship U.S.S. Maine in Havana harbor on 15 February 1898, and the subsequent declaration of war on Spain on 25 April, had a dramatic effect on the status of army dentistry.  For the first time large contingents of U.S. troops, including the black units, were serving outside the continental limits of the United States.  Official reports of the dental discomforts of the troops in Cuba and the Philippines made the War Department painfully aware that there were no dental surgeons to relieve the suffering.  Hitherto, the army did not wish to bear the cost of dental care for its soldiers, the bulk of whom were usually only temporarily attached through one enlistment.  Increased efforts were now made by the dental profession to induce Congress to pass legislation authorizing the establishment of a corps of dental surgeons.  However, the war ended without any legislation being passed.

In 1898, the War Department even contemplated the advantage of employing African-American troops in Cuba and the Philippines.  It was thought that they had a greater immunity to yellow fever than white troops.  In fact, all four of the regular army's black regiments (24th and 25th Infantry, and the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments)(collectively known as the "Buffalo Soldiers") and three black national guard regiments (8th Illinois, 9th Louisiana, and 23d Kansas Regiments) were eventually deployed to Cuba.  Among the officers of the 8th Regiment, Illinois Infantry, an African-American unit from the Chicago area, was Captain William T. Jefferson, a dentist. 3

Fig. 1.  An unidentified Buffalo Soldier

Dr. William Thomas Jefferson (1864-1925) was born on 4 August 1864 in Washington, D.C.  Later, his family moved to Derby, Connecticut.  In 1886, he began studying dentistry under Dr. Frederick B. Merrill at Bermingham, Connecticut.  In the fall of 1889, he entered Howard University's dental department in Washington, D.C., but, in March 1890, he transferred to the American College of Dental Surgery in Chicago, graduating on 24 March 1891.  He then established a practice in Chicago.  After joining the Knights of Pithias, on 1 April 1895, Dr. Jefferson became a member of Company "D," 9th Battalion.  He was unanimously elected a second lieutenant on 1 May 1895 when the battalion became a part of the Illinois State Militia.  Dr. Jefferson entered the Illinois National Guard  as a first lieutenant on 4 November 1895.  On 28 June 1898, with the onset of the war, the battalion was reorganized into the 8th Illinois Volunteer Infantry.   Dr. Jefferson was appointed the captain of Company "D" on 21 July 1898.  Unfortunately, two months later, on 21 September, he was hospitalized for malaria.  Still, he served with his regiment in Cuba and was stationed at San Luis De Cuba in February 1899.  Dr. Jefferson, in addition to his command responsibilities as a line officer, also found time to provide dental care for his regiment.   He described his wartime dental experience:  "While in the service, seeing the necessity of a dentist, I gave my services free in the hospital to the officers and soldiers of the 8th Illinois, 23rd Kansas and 9th Louisiana, U.S.V."  Possibly, Dr. Jefferson was the first dentist of his race to perform dentistry in the U.S. military.  He was discharged with his regiment at Chicago on 3 April 1899.  Dr. Jefferson continued his military career with the Illinois National Guard and was appointed inspector of rifle practice with rank of first lieutenant, serving on the staff of Colonel John R. Marshall in the 8th Battalion, Illinois National Guard.4

On 3 September 1899, Dr. Jefferson, now back in practice in his office on State Street in Chicago, and advertising "Gold Crowns and Bridge Work A Specialty" on his letterhead, wrote to his senator, William E. Mason, asking endorsement for his application for a commission in a new "Colored Volunteer Regiment" to be formed for service in the Philippines.  The senator endorsed Dr. Jefferson's application and forwarded it to the War Department.  On 2 October 1899, the Secretary of War (1899-1904), Elihu Root, notified Mr. Mason that "every appointment of this character" for the volunteer regiments being formed was already "provided for" and that, therefore, Dr. Jefferson's application could not be considered at that time.  However, he continued to serve in the Illinois Guard until 1916.  Dr. Jefferson died in Chicago on 26 October 1925.5
 

 


CHAPTER II

THE CONTRACT DENTAL CORPS:  1901-1911

The Formation of the Army Dental Corps:  1901
African-American Applicants

Although many previous legislative efforts had failed, on 2 February 1901, the President finally approved and signed the Act (S. 4300) "to increase the efficiency of the military establishment of the United States," which provided for 30 contract dental surgeons attached to the Army Medical Department.  Now, a corps of military dental surgeons was officially part of the U.S. Army.  No other army in history had ever so recognized the dental profession.  Theoretically, black dental surgeons were eligible for appointment.  In fact, three did apply.6

The first African-American dentist to apply for appointment as a Contract Dental Surgeon, U.S. Army, was Dr. Charles Clifford Fry (1871- 19??), a dental practitioner in Washington, D.C.  His application was dated 15 February 1901.7

Dr. Fry was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, on 5 June 1871.  In 1893, he began studying dentistry in the offices of Drs. William S. Lofton and A. J. Gwathney in Washington, D.C.  In May 1899, he received his D.D.S. degree from the dental department of Howard University in Washington.  In 1900, he was one of the founders of the Washington Society of Colored Dentists of the District of Columbia, the first black dental organization in the country.  At the time of his application to the army, he was practicing in Washington.  On 30 January 1901, Congressman Thomas S. Butler contacted The Surgeon General concerning Dr. Fry's interest in the dental corps.  On 5 February, The Surgeon General assured him that Fry would be given "due consideration" when the selections were made.   On 14 February 1901, he was ordered to report to the War Department building (room 332) for examination on 25 February 1901.  He "failed to appear" and was marked absent.  He was rescheduled for 18 March but again "failed to appear."  Later that day, Dr. Fry notified the surgeon general that he wished to withdraw his application.  No reason was given.8

The second African-American dental surgeon to apply for appointment as a contract dental surgeon in the U.S. Army was the aforementioned Spanish-American War veteran, Dr. William T. Jefferson of Chicago.  His letter was dated 8 February 1901 (formal application dated 24 February 1901).  On 20 February 1901, The Surgeon General informed him that a candidate from his state, Illinois, had already been selected and that under the provisions of the act of 2 February 1901, only one candidate from each state could be selected for appointment as a dental surgeon (30 authorized).  If he desired, his application could be kept on file if a vacancy occurred.  On 13 March 1901, Dr. Jefferson was informed by The Surgeon General that the Illinois candidate had passed the examination and had been appointed.  Finally, on 10 January 1905, Dr. Jefferson was notified by The Surgeon General's Office that as he was now over thirty years old, he would no longer be eligible for appointment as a dental surgeon.9

The third African-American dentist to apply in 1901 was Dr. William Anderson Birch (1878-19??), of Indianapolis, Indiana, a hospital corpsman, U.S. Army, serving in the Philippines.  On 11 November 1901, Dr. Birch sent in his formal application.  As a hospital corpsman in the U.S. Army, Dr. Birch, under the provisions of the act of 2 February 1901, was entitled to be appointed a contract dental surgeon "without examination."  All "dental-college graduates" who had been "detailed for a period of not less than twelve months to render dental service to the Army" in a satisfactory manner were eligible. 10

Fig. 2.  Dr. William A. Birch (ISD).

Dr. Birch was born in Madison, Indiana, on 10 May 1878.  In 1895, he began studying dentistry under a Dr. W. A. Heckard in Madison.  He then entered the Indiana Dental College and graduated on 28 April 1900.  On 6 August 1900, at age twenty-two, he enlisted in the Hospital Corps, U.S. Army, as a private, for three years at Indianapolis.  His occupation was listed as a "dentist" with the notation "colored."  He was originally assigned to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, and then sent to the Philippines, stationed at San Jose, Batangas, Philippine Islands.  His application was sent through military channels and was eventually approved by the Chief Surgeon, Department of North Philippines, on 13 January 1902.  His testimonials included a letter from his detachment commander, Thomas F. Miller, Contract Surgeon, U.S. Army.  Dr. Miller stated that he was "a thoroughly good soldier of exemplary habits, industrious and capable," and that, since joining the detachment, he had done "considerable dental work," which had been "entirely satisfactory."  Dr. Birch was one of a small group of dentists who, as enlisted hospital corpsmen, provided their respective regiments with dental care prior to the formation of the official 1901 dental corps.  They were the true pioneers of army dentistry.  His other endorsement came from Examining and Supervising Dental Surgeon Robert T. Oliver (the dental corps' second ranking dental surgeon), who had been Dr. Birch's professor of anesthesia and oral surgery while he was a student at Indiana.  Oliver called him "a close ambitious student with a determination to learn at every opportunity."  His grades had been excellent in Oliver's classes. 11

On 18 January 1902, the Chief Surgeon, Division of the Philippines, returned Birch's application to the Chief Surgeon, Department of North Philippines, asking for a "further expression of opinion" from the officers who had approved the application.  He continued:  "It must be stated that the applicant is a colored man, and this office desires to know whether that fact will make any difference in their present recommendations.  So far as this office is concerned the matter of color will have no weight."  Again, the application went through channels eventually returning to the Chief Surgeon, North Philippines, who, on 29 January 1902, stated that "the original recommendation that Pvt. Birch be allowed to take the examination, is adhered to."  However, the same day, 29 January, the acting adjutant general at Headquarters, Third Separate Brigade, Department of North Philippines, stated that "in view of information contained in 1st endorsement [Birch was colored]," the application was disapproved.  On 4 February 1902, the Chief Surgeon, Headquarters, Department of North Philippines, recommended that Birch be allowed to take the examination but added that if he was appointed a contract dental surgeon "the field of operation would be too small in which to operate."  In other words, he would be allowed to work only on black soldiers.  With these problems, on 7 February 1902 the commanding general of the Department of North Philippines, Major General Loyd Wheaton, disapproved Birch's application "at this time."  Subsequently, on 24 February 1902, the application was sent to The Adjutant General, and then to The Surgeon General in Washington, D.C.   On 8 April 1902, The Surgeon General's Office informed Dr. Birch that his application for examination as a contract dental surgeon was not approved and, therefore, he could not take the examination.  During the same period, several other (white) hospital steward/dentists were directly appointed as contract dental surgeons "without examination."  Obviously, Birch had been singled out for "special" treatment.12

With this setback, Dr. Birch decided to leave the army and, on 29 April 1902, applied for "discharge by purchase."  He said that a "good position" was open for him as a dentist and he wanted to avail himself of the opportunity.  His discharge was approved by The Adjutant General on 29 August and orders were cut on 30 August 1902.13
 

The 1904 Memorandum:
"Undesirability of Colored Contract Surgeons"

In 1904, the official army policy on African-American physicians (and dentists) was spelled out by The Surgeon General (1902-09), Brigadier General Robert M. O'Reilly, in a memorandum for the President dated 24 December, entitled "Undesirability of Colored Contract Surgeons."  The main points that The Surgeon General emphasized were:

(1)   The enlisted personnel of all army posts where black troops were stationed was mixed, both black and white; however, all officers were white.  To the officers and their families the "attendance of a colored physician would be repugnant," especially in the "intimate relations of family practice and in obstetrical cases and the diseases of women."  However, the converse was not true that the "colored population would prefer one of their own color."  On the contrary, they would probably "prefer and have greater confidence in the ability of a white surgeon."

(2)   Contract surgeons had the "official status of officers" and by "military custom" associated socially with officers, not enlisted men.  A black surgeon would be a "social pariah," cut off from the enlisted men of his color and by his color from his fellow officers.

(3)   Contract surgeons were constantly being ordered from post to post; to have a surgeon who could only serve under certain "special conditions" and "special places" would not be for the "good of the service."

(4)   The "superiority" of white officers rather than black officers for black troops was "well known" and recognized by Congress in the organization of the black regiments.  Conversely, however, since the majority of the Hospital Corps personnel were white, to place a black officer over white enlisted men would be "injurious to discipline."  He cited the example of Dr. Arthur M. Brown, a black contract surgeon serving with the 10th Cavalry Regiment in 1899 at Fort McIntosh, Texas.  Dr. Brown was "shot and wounded" in a "personal encounter" with a white hospital steward, Thomas C. Reeds, on 11 February 1899.  Dr. Brown's contract was annulled in March 1899.

(5)   The opposition to the appointment of black military surgeons was not concerned "with any abstract question of the rights of the colored race" but was based on "military efficiency." 14

The same guidelines were applied for black contract dental surgeons.  Therefore, none were appointed when vacancies in the dental corps occurred.

However, on 18 February 1907, The Surgeon General still publicly maintained that there was "nothing either in law or regulation which prohibits the appointment of a colored man in the Medical Corps of the Army, provided he can pass the prescribed physical and professional examination."  In 1907, Dr. G. Jarvis Bowens, an African-American physician practicing in Norfolk, Virginia, expressed his dissatisfaction to The Surgeon General's standard reply of nothing "either in law or regulation" prohibiting the appointment of colored physicians in the U.S. Army.  On 23 February 1907, he admonished the Secretary of War that he was "well aware of the fact that so far as the letter of the law there was nothing barring colored physicians," but he also knew that "the prejudice of those in the service of the U.S.A. Medical Corps is such that unless some special provision was made for the colored physicians that they would be turned down upon one pretext or another."15
 

African-American Dental Applicants:  1907-1911
"No Vacancies"

Apparently, not knowing of the army's official policy towards blacks or wishing to confirm their suspicions, some African-American dentists continued to request information on the dental corps.  On 17 April 1907, Oscar W. Langston, D.D.S. (18??-19??) of Indianapolis, Indiana, wrote to The Surgeon General, stating that as a "Negro Dentist," he desired to know whether there were any vacancies for a "Negro Dental Surgeon" in the "colored regiments."  Dr. Langston was a 1904 graduate of the Indiana Dental College.  On 24 April, The Surgeon General's Office notified him that there were no vacancies in the dental corps. 16

Seibles Remington Green (1884-19??) originally from Columbia, South Carolina, who held an A.B. degree (1907) from Lincoln University, on 20 July 1909, wrote to the Secretary of War asking for information on the chances of a "Colored Dentist" getting a position with one of the army's "colored" regiments.  On 22 July 1909, The Surgeon General's Office replied that army dental surgeons were not assigned to any one regiment for duty, but were ordered from post to post as the demand for their services required.  An application blank and information memorandum was included.  In 1909, Green entered Howard University, Washington, D.C., to study medicine.  Apparently, when he wrote to The Surgeon General in 1909, he was trying to decide whether to pursue dentistry or medicine as a career.  He chose medicine. 17

William A. Rodenberg, a Congressman from Illinois, on 16 July 1910, wrote to the Secretary of War requesting information for one of his constituents, Dr. L.M. Bundy (18??-19??), "a colored dentist," of East St. Louis, Illinois.  Dr. Bundy wanted to know the requirements for appointment as a dental surgeon in a "colored regiment."  On 19 July 1910, The Surgeon General's Office sent the Congressman the necessary forms.  Apparently, Dr. Bundy failed to follow up on his application.18

 


CHAPTER III

THE COMMISSIONED DENTAL CORPS:  1911-1917





End of the Contract System:  1911
The Commissioned Corps

The marked success of the now ten-year-old contract dental surgeon system, despite its inherent problems and detractors, finally fulfilled its original purpose with the creation of the commissioned Dental Corps in 1911.  On 3 March 1911, "A Bill to Improve the Status and Efficiency of the Dental Surgeons in the United States Army" (H.R. 23097, incorporated in H.R. 31327 with slight changes) was passed by the Congress and approved by President William Howard Taft.  Now, dental surgeons would have the rank of first lieutenant.  All the former contract dental surgeons meeting the new laws' requirements were eligible for a commission. However, the new applicants would have to serve three years as an acting dental surgeon prior to being commissioned in the corps.  The law allowed for a maximum of 60 dental surgeons at any given time.  However, the situation for African-American applicants would not change.19
 

African-American Applicants:  1911
"Physically Disqualified"

Rufus Preston Beshears, D.D.S. (1888-19??) of St. Joseph, Missouri, applied for appointment as an Acting Dental Surgeon, U.S. Army, on 16 October 1911.  Dr. Beshears was born on 12 October 1888 at St. Joseph.  In September 1906, he began his dental studies at the State University of Iowa, College of Dentistry, graduating in June 1909.  He was the school's first African-American graduate. At the time of his application to the Dental Corps, he had been in practice for two years and was twenty-three years old.  His original letter requesting an application blank was dated 30 August 1911.  On 18 March 1912, The Surgeon General's Office invited him to appear for examination at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, on 1 April.  The dental examining board, which included one medical officer and two dental officers, met at 9:00 a.m. that day and found Dr. Beshears physically unqualified for appointment to the dental corps.  He was not allowed to take the dental theory  and practical part of the examination.  The reason given for his rejection on his physical was "mitral insufficiency."  On his physical form, his complexion was noted as "colored," and his skin "black (Negro)."  On 7 May 1912, he was formally informed by The Surgeon General's Office that he was "physically disqualified" for appointment. 20

Fig. 3.  Dr. Rufus P. Beshears (ICD).

Andrew Lumas Jackson, D.D.S. (1885-19??), of Providence, Rhode Island, applied for appointment as an Acting Dental Surgeon, U.S. Army, on 12 March 1912.  He was born in Louisa County, Virginia, on 27 April 1885.  He graduated from the dental department of Howard University, Washington, D.C., in May 1910.  At the time of his application he had been in practice fourteen months.  His application was marked "Colored" on the jacket.  On 21 March 1912, he was invited to appear for the examination to be given at West Point, New York, on 1 April 1912.  On his physical form his complexion was listed as "Negro, dark."  He was "rejected" by the examining surgeon on his physical examination for:  "Abnormal breath sounds; roughened systolic heart sound; poor physique; small chest capacity."  On 20 April 1912, he was formally notified by The Surgeon General's Office that he was "physically disqualified." 21

Robert Gibbs Johnson, D.D.S. (1887-19??), of Jackson, Mississippi, applied for appointment as an Acting Dental Surgeon, U.S. Army, on 11 September 1912.  He was born in Brandon, Mississippi, on 5 October 1887.  In 1910, he graduated from the dental department of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee.  He was in practice for over two years when he applied.  On 20 September 1912, he was invited to take the examination to be given at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, on 7 October 1912.  Dr. Johnson was found "not physically qualified" by the dental examining board because of being "underweight" and having a "poor physique."  His complexion was listed as "Very Dark (Negro)."  His weight was 129 pounds, on a 5 foot 10 1/4 inch frame.  On 8 October 1912, The Surgeon General's Office formally notified him that he was "physically disqualified." 22

On 10 August 1915, Dr. Johnson reapplied for appointment as an acting dental surgeon.  He was now practicing in Jackson, Mississippi.  On 12 August 1915, The Surgeon General's Office informed him that by the time the next examination was given on 18 October 1915, he would be over twenty-seven years old and thus beyond the maximum age for appointment.23

Roy Mercer Young, D.D.S. (1886-19??), was born in Springfield, Illinois, on 27 April 1886.  Dr. Young served in the 8th Regiment, Illinois National Guard, for three years from 1903-05.  From 1904 to 1907, he attended the University of Illinois at Urbana and, in 1909, entered the Northwestern University Dental School. On 31 May 1911, he wrote The Surgeon General that he was a "young colored man", who was a senior at the Northwestern Dental School.  He stated that he knew the "aversion that white dentists" had of working on the "colored soldiers."  Therefore, he was interested in applying to the army as a dental surgeon.  On 5 June 1911, The Surgeon General's Office advised him to apply after graduation.24

Fig. 4.  Dr. Roy M. Young (NA).

Again on 26 February 1912, while still a dental student at Northwestern, Young wrote to The Surgeon General stating that he was "colored" and knew that there were a "great many colored soldiers," and he wanted to "take care of their teeth."  On 1 March 1912, The Surgeon General's Office replied that he should apply after he received his dental degree.  After graduating in June 1912, he applied for appointment as an Acting Dental Surgeon, U.S. Army, on 20 September 1912.  On 25 September, he was advised to report to Columbus Barracks, Ohio, for examination on 7 October 1912.  On 6 October, he wrote to The Surgeon General that he was unable to take the examination the next day because he was contracted as an assistant football coach and they were preparing for the Wisconsin game the next Saturday.  He had been denied permission to leave and felt a moral obligation to abide by his contract.  On 8 October, he was informed that the next examination would not be held until 7 April 1913.   On 24 March 1913, he was invited to appear for the examination at Columbus Barracks.  Dr. Young was examined by the board on 7 April and found "not considered generally fitted for appointment" in the Dental Corps.  His theory examination average was 53.4 percent and his clinical work 84 percent.  He passed the physical examination.  On 3 May 1913, he was notified that he failed the examination.25

George Cavenous Strong, D.D.S. (1888-19??), of Norfolk, Virginia, applied for appointment as an Acting Dental Surgeon, U.S. Army, on 15 March 1913.  He was born in Rockingham County, North Carolina, on 4 July 1888.  In 1908, he entered the dental department of Howard University, and graduated in 1911.  On 24 March 1913, he was notified by The Surgeon General's Office to report to West Point, New York, on 7 April 1913.  He reported that date but failed the physical.  On 3 May 1913, he was informed by The Surgeon General's Office that he was "physically disqualified." 26

Raymond King, D.D.S. (1889-19??), of Lebanon, Indiana, applied for appointment as an Acting Dental Surgeon, U.S. Army, on 20 January 1914.  Dr. King (fig. 4) was born in Lebanon on 1 May 1889.  He graduated from Indiana Dental College in 1910.  In his original 17 December 1913 letter to The Surgeon General, he inquired on the "opportunity of being appointed to a colored regiment."   On 8 January 1914, Dr. King's Congressman, Martin A. Morrison, wrote to The Adjutant General asking for information for a "colored constituent," who desired an appointment as a dental surgeon for "colored troops" in the regular army.  On 10 January, The Surgeon General's Office, to whom the matter had been referred, replied that "no reference is made to the race to which applicants belong" in the circular of information for admission to the Dental Corps.  On 23 January 1914, The Surgeon General's Office notified Dr. King that he would be invited to appear before the examining board on 13 April 1914.  On 30 March, he was advised to report to Columbus Barracks, Ohio, on that date.  Unfortunately, Dr. King took sick and was unable to take the examination.  On 15 July 1914, he requested another date.  On 17 July, The Surgeon General's Office informed him that the next examination would not be until the following April.  On 29 March 1915, Dr. King was ordered to report to Columbus Barracks on 12 April 1915.  On that date, he reported, passed the physical, but failed the dental examination.  His average for the theoretical was 68.8 percent and for the practical 75 percent.  The board rejected him because his "aptitude for the service" was "poor," and his "General fitness for appointment in the Dental Corps" was "not desirable."  On his physical form his complexion was listed as "dark."  On 17 May 1915, the surgeon general's office informed him that he "failed to qualify for appointment." 27

Fig. 5.  Dr. Raymond King (NA).

Dr. King notified the surgeon general on 7 June 1915 that he wanted to retake the examination.  On 12 June, The Surgeon General's Office informed him that by the time of the July 1916 examination, he would be over twenty-seven years old and ineligible for appointment according to the regulations. 28

Edward Louis Grant, D.D.S. (1888-19??), of St. Louis, Missouri, applied for appointment as an Acting Dental Surgeon, U.S. Army, on 18 March 1915.  He was born on 8 June 1888 at Louisville, Georgia.  In 1909, he entered the dental department of Meharry Medical College and graduated in April 1913.  He had been in practice one year at the time of his application.  On 29 March 1915, he was ordered to appear for examination at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, on 12 April 1915.  On his physical examination given 12 April his complexion was listed as "Black (Negro)"; however, he passed.  In the professional examinations given that day his averages were:  written and oral theory 68.6 percent; clinical 20 percent.  The board found his "aptitude for the service," was "Poor. (Negro)," and his "General fitness for appointment in the D.C., Poor. (Negro)."  The board recommended rejection.  On 17 May 1915, Dr. Grant was formally notified by The Surgeon General's Office that he "failed to qualify."  On 29 May 1915, Dr. Grant wrote to The Surgeon General requesting his examination grades.29

Edward James Cobb, D.D.S. (1889-19??), on 10 April 1915, requested information from The Surgeon General on the U.S. Army Dental Corps.  Dr. Cobb was born on 20 April 1889.30

Frank Cecil Carter, D.D.S. (1892-19??) of Logansport, Indiana, applied for appointment as a Dental Surgeon, U.S. Army, on 1 September 1916.  Dr. Carter (fig. 5) was born on 4 July 1892 in Logansport.  In October 1913, he entered Indiana Dental College and graduated with a D.D.S. degree on 9 June 1916.  His Congressman, George W. Rauch, sent in his application to The Surgeon General with the recommendation that he be allowed to appear for the examination.  On 27 October 1916, The Surgeon General informed Dr. Carter that he would be notified when the next examination would be given. 31

Fig. 6.  Dr. Frank C. Carter (ISD).

 


CHAPTER IV

THE DENTAL RESERVE CORPS:  1917-1918

The Dental Reserve Corps:  1917
An Opportunity for African-American Dentists

As a result of the European conflict and the need to strengthen the armed forces of the United States, Congress, on 3 June 1916, approved "An Act for making further and more effectual provision for the national defense, and for other purposes" that went into effect on 1 July 1916.  Under this army reorganization bill, there was a provision for an Officers Reserve Corps:  "Said corps shall consist of sections corresponding to the various arms, staff corps, and departments of the Regular Army."  Under this clause, The Surgeon General organized an Officers Reserve Corps, Dental Section, whose members were to be commissioned as first lieutenants, with the understanding that they were to "respond to any call for service in time of war or during any pending National crisis."  Within a year, by 30 June 1917, 494 dentists were recommended for appointment in the reserve corps, of whom 88 already had been accepted.  Twenty of these, who were assigned to Red Cross base hospitals, were already on duty as of that date.  It was projected that approximately 3,000 dentists would be recommended for commissions within the next three-month period.32

Fig. 7.  Unidentified First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps (AC).

The new law and the entrance of the United States into the war against Germany and her allies on 6 April 1917, finally provided an opportunity for African-American dentists to join the expanded wartime dental corps.  However, they would be allowed to serve only in black units.  Many patriotic African-American dentists applied for appointment in the new Dental Reserve Corps.  Included among those that applied, was even one female dentist, Annie E. Yarbueugh, D.D.S. (18??-19??) of Dublin, Georgia.  Dr. Yarbueugh was a 1910 graduate of the dental department of Meharry  Medical College and had practiced in Dublin since 1911.  Her two brothers had served in the 9th and 10th Cavalry during the Spanish-American War.  In her 6 June 1917 application to The Surgeon General, she stated that she was "colored" and was "one of the few women licensed dentists" in her state who had completed a four-year dental course.  On 3 July 1917, The Surgeon General's Office sent her its standard reply to all female applicants that "women dentists" were not eligible for the Dental Reserve Corps. This could change , however, as the war developed.  Her "patriotic offer" was appreciated. 33

In 1917, the commanding generals of the various army departments in the United States were notified by The Adjutant General's Office that "all colored reserve officers and other colored men" in the training camps in their departments should be "excused from all duty" until the preparations for a "separate" or "independent" camp could be completed.  All camp commanders were to be notified of this policy.  When this special camp was ready the black reserve officers and enlisted personnel would be transported to the announced location.34

Finally, in May 1917, the War Department authorized a training camp for black officers to be created at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.  The so called 17th Provisional R.O.T.C. or Training Regiment would train the officers for the black regiments expected to be formed from the influx of black draftees.  It would be June before the camp would be operational.  However, there was still no provision made for training black medical/dental officers. 35

The Surgeon General (1914-18), Major General William C. Gorgas, in a letter dated 19 May to Major James R. White of the 8th Illinois Infantry (colored) stated: "the question of appointment of colored men to the Medical Reserve Corps is being given consideration in this Office and will be decided when the organization of colored regiments is authorized."   On 21 May, The Surgeon General's Office admitted that it was "dodging the issue" as much as possible by using this excuse.36

On 25 May 1917, The Surgeon General's Office stated that as there was no place at present where the "colored officers" could be assigned, "it would be a cause of dissatisfaction and an embarrassment" to them to be assigned with "white troops."37

The Surgeon General's Office stated on 31 May that the question of accepting "colored physicians" for the Medical Reserve Corps would be taken up with the Secretary of War "in the near future."  The Surgeon General preferred that the matter "be held in abeyance" until a decision was reached.  At the same time, The Surgeon General informed his medical examiners to make "note of the fact that he is a colored man" on the examination papers of the candidates for the Medical Reserve Corps.  The same rules were applied for the Dental Reserve Corps.38

On 11 June 1917, The Surgeon General reiterated that the army's policy was to examine and commission "colored men" but not to call them to active duty except with "colored troops."  A few days later, he rephrased his statement to read, "as the exigencies of the service demand."  Again on 27 June, he emphasized that physicians of the "colored race" were eligible for appointment in the Medical Reserve Corps "on the same basis as white physicians."  However, he stressed that the "fact that the applicant is colored should be in every case noted on the record." 39

The tardiness in getting the black dentists and physicians into the Medical Department evoked a response from Dr.Stephen J. Lewis, a 1909 graduate of the dental department of Howard University, the secretary of the Harrisburg branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.), on 10 June 1917.  He addressed the Secretary of War (1916-21), Newton D. Baker, as follows:

       

Thru the experience of a member of the profession of this city who made application for the Med[ical] Reserve Corps and the fact that he was virtually told by the examiner here on presentation of letter from the Surgeon General authorizing examination, that it would be practically useless to take the examination, the impression has gone abroad that no provision is to be made for the use of Colored men in the Med[ical] Reserve Corps.

        If this be true, the hundreds of Negro physicians in Pennsylvania who are filled with the same spirit of national pride and duty as all other Americans, want to know it now.  If they are to be classified as for use only in case of "extreme necessity", it will be likewise gratifying for them to know the real attitude of the War Department towards them.

        If on the other hand this class of public spirited citizenry is to be utilized in accordance with the true national spirit and in the truest sense of national unity and defense, a word from the War Department will do much to offset the impression above mentioned and contrary to the desire for national co-operation.40

Meanwhile, Captain Seibert D. Boak, the dental surgeon at Columbus Barracks, Ohio, on 16 June 1917, contacted The Surgeon General's Office requesting a policy decision on the applications to the Dental Reserve Corps from "negros [sic]."  Several blacks had been approved for the Officers' Reserve Corps with the notation on their papers, "Recommend that applicant be duly assigned to regiments officered by negros [sic]."  Boak wanted to know if blacks should be admitted to the Dental Reserve Corps "with the same proviso."   On 21 June 1917, Major Robert E. Noble of The Surgeon General's Office advised Captain Boak to use "great discretion" in recommending "negro dental surgeons" for commission in the Dental Reserve Corps as many were "deficient in education and technique."41

Another dentist, Captain Robert T. Oliver, the dental surgeon at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, on 20 June, advised The Surgeon General through military channels that several graduate dentists "of the colored race," all of "good moral and professional standing," had applied for appointment in the Dental Reserve Corps.  Oliver asked for the Medical Department's "policy in regard to this class of applicants."  Were they to be assigned to Fort Des Moines for training and then to the "colored" divisions?  On 4 July, The Surgeon General replied to the Department Surgeon, Southern Department, Fort Sam Houston:  "Colored dentists are considered eligible for appointment in the Dental Reserve Corps on the same basis as those of the white race.  They will be put on the inactive list until there is an opportunity of assigning them to duty with colored troops." 42

On 29 June, Dr. Thomas P. Hinman, a civilian dental examiner for the Dental Reserve Corps in Atlanta, Georgia, notified The Surgeon General's Office that he had several applications from "members of the colored race" for commissions in the Dental Reserve Corps.  He stated that he had invited these dentists to appear for their examination.  Obviously, the examiners were still confused in regard to the government's "policy" for black officers. 43
 

Fort Des Moines:  1917
A "Separate" Training Camp

On 21 June 1917, Colonel Edward L. Munson, Medical Corps, then Chief, Training Division, Office of The Surgeon General, made the following recommendations to The Surgeon General:

(1)  A special school for black medical and dental officers should be established as part of the general training camp at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.  Quarters for one-hundred officers were available.

(2)  In addition to the two medical officers already on duty at the Des Moines camp, one more regular medical officer and three non-commissioned officers, "preferably colored," would be required from the Medical Department as instructors.   Two or three of the best medical officers from the "colored" militia regiments could be sent to assist in the training.

(3) One ambulance company and one field hospital unit from the Iowa National Guard should be federalized and ordered to the camp.

(4) As rapidly as they accepted commissions, "colored" medical and dental officers should be ordered to report to Fort Des Moines.  Presently, there were 38 "colored doctors" and 17 "colored dentists" at the general training camp.  These officer candidates were eligible for either line or Medical Department commissions.

(5) It was estimated that 10 complete regimental sanitary detachments of "colored" medical/dental officers and men would be needed for the new "colored" regiments.  If "colored troops" were to be deployed as separate divisions or brigades, then the proper support units needed to be organized.  "Colored" ambulance companies for field hospitals were also available. 44

Fig. 8.  Fort Des Moines, Iowa, ca. 1921 (USAMHI).

Acting on the above recommendations, on 3 July 1917, The Surgeon General sent a memo to The Adjutant General regarding the establishment of a training camp for "colored" medical and dental officers at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.  He listed several points:

(1)  It was understood that the organization of black troops in "considerable strength" was contemplated and that a training camp for "colored line officers" had already been established for 1,250 officer candidates at Fort Des Moines.

(2)  Many "colored" physicians and dentists had applied for appointment in the medical and dental sections of the Officers' Reserve Corps.  Some had qualified and had been commissioned but were still on the "inactive list."  More applications were expected.

(3)  It was considered "not desirable" to send "colored" medical and dental officers to the three medical officers (white) training camps then in operation.  It was preferable that they be trained with the "colored" line officers with whom they would later serve.

(4)  Authority was requested to train the "colored" medical and dental officers at the Fort Des Moines camp.

(5)  Authority was also requested to organize 10 "colored" regimental sanitary detachments for use with the black troops.

(6)  No "extra facilities" would be required to implement this policy.  The post medical officers could take over the training in addition to their other duties.

(7)  "Early decision" was requested.45
 

The Adjutant general informed The Surgeon General on 10 July 1917 that the Secretary of War approved his plan for the training of black medical/dental personnel. Therefore, on 13 July, The Surgeon General notified the commanding officer at Fort Des Moines that "all colored physicians and dentists" currently at the camp as candidates for line commissions, whose record was satisfactory, should be informed that they could apply for commissions in the medical and dental sections of the Officers Reserve Corps.  A school for these candidates was to be established at Fort Des Moines.46
 

On 22 July 1917, Captain William K. Bartlett, the post surgeon at Fort Des Moines, notified The Surgeon General that his 14 July directive on the "nature and scope" of the type of instruction to be given to the "colored" medical/dental officers had been received.  Measures had already been taken to implement his orders.47

The Surgeon General notified the commandant of the medical officers' training camp on 30 July 1917 that the opening of instructions at the camp should be "pushed every possible way."  Finally, a month's course of "progressive instruction" for the medical/dental officers was established beginning on 27 August 1917 and ending on 30 September 1917.  The second course ran from 1 October to 3 November 1917.  The dental officers took the same general course as the medical officers except for subjects wholly medical, for which dental courses were substituted.  The Journal of the Allied Dental Societies noted that the opening of the Des Moines camp marked "a new departure" in the policy of the Army Medical Department toward "colored" medical personnel.48

On 30 August 1917, the National Medical Association requested permission to organize a base hospital unit to be known as the "Colored American or National Medical Association Unit."  Dr. G. Jarvis Bowens of Norfolk, Virginia, was the proposed director of the hospital.  The Surgeon General's Office replied on 15 October that base hospitals were all organized under the direction of the Red Cross and that the 50 authorized had already been accounted for; therefore, no more base hospitals could be authorized.   Another setback for black medical and dental professionals, again too late. 49

Previously, in June 1917, Tuskegee Institute at Tuskegee, Alabama, had offered itself as the national headquarters for an "auxiliary" Red Cross organization, noting that "colored women" throughout the country were "anxious to serve" the government.50

By 18 September 1917, the following dentists were reported in camp at Fort Des Moines "without status":  James R. Brown, William R. Brown, Thomas B. Davis, Burrell B. Dehaven, R. W. Jackson, Edward C. Jones, and Raymond King.  They had been examined for the Dental Reserve Corps and transferred from the line officers training camp over a month ago.  Technically, these officers should have been ordered to duty from the date of the acceptance of their dental commissions -- again, more delay.  Some of the men were without funds.51

Dr. Clarence V. Watts, a civilian preliminary dental examiner, at Des Moines, Iowa, on 8 September 1917, advised Major William H. G. Logan, the chief of the Dental Section in The Surgeon General's Office, that the Dental Reserve Corps' members at both Fort Des Moines and Camp Dodge lacked the proper dental equipment.  On 17 September, The Surgeon General's Office granted the division surgeon authority to purchase five "portable dental outfits" locally. 52

By June 1918, there were approximately 250 black medical and dental officers in the officers reserve corps for the 157,000 African-American soldiers in the army.53

 


CHAPTER V

THE 92d DIVISION:  1917-1919

 The 92d Division, A.E.F.:  1917-1919
 The Buffalo Division

Under the command of Brigadier General Charles C. Ballou, the 92d Division, National Army, was organized beginning on 26 October 1917 from African-American draftees from throughout the United States.  The various units were assembled for training in camps widely scattered geographically across the country, with headquarters at Camp Funston, Kansas.  The division was organized from black troops in training at the following seven cantonments:  Camp Funston, Kansas, (Division Headquarters, Division Trains, 349th Machine Gun Battalion, and 350th and 351st Machine Gun Battalions [companies "D" only]); Camp Grant, Illinois, (183rd Infantry Brigade Headquarters, 350th Machine Gun Battalion [3 companies], and 365th Infantry Regiment); Camp Dodge, Iowa, (366th Infantry Regiment); Camp Sherman, Ohio, (317th Engineer Regiment, and 325th Field Signal Battalion); Camp Dix, New Jersey, (167th Field Artillery Brigade Headquarters, 349th and 350th Field Artillery Regiments, and 317th Trench Mortar Battery); Camp Meade, Maryland, (368th Infantry Regiment, and 351st Field Artillery Regiment); Camp Upton, New York, (184th Infantry Brigade Headquarters, 351st Machine Gun Battalion, and 367th Infantry Regiment).  The division would never be fully mobilized and trained as a division until it was partially assembled at Camp Upton, New York, for embarkation purposes in late May and early June 1918.  The division's commissioned personnel was part white and part black.  All the division's general, field, and staff officers, and captains of the field artillery brigade were white and from the regular army.  Company officers were composed of young black officers from the officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines and former non-commissioned officers from the black regular army regiments.54
 

Dental Surgeons:  1918
"The Authorized Number"

In March 1918, the division was short the required number of dental surgeons.  Thirteen dentists were assigned to the division but it needed 24.  The fact that the various components making up the division were scattered about seven different camps was certainly a problem for the division surgeon, Lieutenant Colonel Perry L. Boyer.  He was concerned about the vacancies and wanted them filled for the following reasons:

(1) To complete the organization of the division.

(2) To provide the enlisted personnel with the necessary dental treatment.

(3) To give the new dental surgeons an opportunity to learn their duties before going overseas.

(4) To eliminate the current situation at several cantonments whereby dental surgeons from other divisions were being detached to perform dental work on the 92d Division.55

By May 1918, the division was still shy its allotted quota of dental officers.  On 6 May, Lieutenant Colonel Boyer from the headquarters of the 92d Division, Camp Funston, Kansas, again complained to the surgeon general that the dental service for the 92d Division troops stationed at Camp Funston was being performed by white dental officers on loan from the 89th Division.  Four dentists had been detached for this work, but within the past month two had been relieved and reassigned.  Therefore, it was imperative that "the authorized number of dental surgeons be assigned permanently" to the division.  Normally, it was the policy of the 92d Division to have "colored" officers when available. 56

Meanwhile, other than the aforementioned dental officers, the division was at full strength.  After the division was finally concentrated at Camp Upton, New York, embarkation for Europe began on 7 June 1918 from Hoboken, New Jersey.  The division landed at Brest and St. Nazaire, France, the last troops arriving on 12 July.  After disembarking in France, the division (less artillery) was assigned to the 11th (Bourbonne-les-Bains) Training Area.  On 12 August 1918, the division (less artillery) was moved to Bruyeres, in the area of the French Seventh Army.57

The first problem confronting the dental surgeons of the division serving with the various units was the lack of dental equipment and supplies.  In July 1918, there were numerous complaints from the dentists that they were unable to perform dental operations because there was "no equipment available," or "dental outfit was not issued to me."  One dental surgeon, First Lieutenant Lucius A. Butler, at the 368th Infantry's regimental infirmary, reported his dental equipment was not set up until 9 September 1918.  Of course, this shortage of dental outfits was not peculiar to the 92d Division as other divisions had similar difficulties.58

The ranking dental officer of the 92d Division was Captain William W. Peebles (a black officer), Dental Reserve Corps , who was the dental surgeon for the 349th Field Artillery Regiment.  However, in September 1918, First Lieutenant Jacob L. Brause, a white regular army dental officer and a 1916 graduate of Georgetown Dental College, became the division dental surgeon, despite the fact that Captain Peebles outranked him (captain, 12 February 1918).  Brause was not promoted to captain until 13 September 1918 (accepted 18 November 1918).  Clearly, this appointment could not have set well with the other black dental officers' morale. Perhaps, this decision to appoint a "white" officer was in keeping with the army's unofficial policy that it was "doubtful whether the colored officers can be trained to properly perform their duties -- it is certain that they are not up to the standard of the white officers." 59

Fig. 9.  Dental officers, 92d Division, A.E.F., 1918 (NLM).

Two graduate dentists even served as dental assistants with the 365th Infantry in 1918.  Private Graham Walker had completed four years at Meharry Medical College, and Private Travis E. Davis was a graduate of the University of West Tennessee.60

On 27 September 1918, Lieutenant Brause, as the dental surgeon for the division, recommended to the division's medical supply officer that, while the division was in combat, all dental equipment except the modified combat outfits be shipped to one of the two dental supply parks.61
 

Demobilization of the 92d Division:  1919

Following the signing of the Armistice on 11 November 1918 and the withdrawal of the A.E.F. personnel, on 1 December 1918, the following dental officers of the 317th Sanitary Train, 92d Division, were selected to accompany the unit back to the United States: First Lieutenants Henry B. Anderson, James E. Bush, William H. Burney, and Alexander C. Browne.62

Fig. 10.  Captain Alexander C. Browne (IHL).

The 92d Division's headquarters and 167th Field Artillery Brigade were demobilized at Camp Meade, Maryland, on 27 February 1919.  On 7 March, the 184th Infantry Brigade was demobilized at  Camp Meade and the 183d Infantry Brigade at Camp Upton, New York.63
 

 


CHAPTER VI

THE 93d DIVISION:  1917-1919

The 93d Division, A.E.F.:  1917-1919
The Red Hand Division

The 93d Division (Provisional) was organized at Camp Stuart, Newport News,  Virginia, in December 1917 from black national guard units from Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Tennessee, the District of Colombia, and draftees from South Carolina.  The principle components of the division were the 369th, 370th, 371st, and 372d Infantry Regiments.  No field artillery brigade, divisional troops, or trains were organized. The division was stationed at Camp Stuart from about 22 December 1917 to 11 February 1918.64

On 28 December 1917, Brigadier General Roy Hoffman, National Army, the division's commanding officer at Camp Stuart, recommended to the adjutant general that two dental surgeons be assigned to the 372d Infantry Regiment which was being organized at the camp.65

Dental Surgeons:  1918
Both Black & White

 Some of the dental officers selected for this assignment were white.  One of this group was Harold Ellsworth Bonney, D.D.S. (1889-19??), of Norfolk, Virginia, a 1912 graduate of the University of Maryland, Dental Department.  He was appointed a first lieutenant in the Virginia National Guard on 30 June 1917.  On 15 January 1918, he was ordered to report to General Hoffman for service as a dental surgeon for the 372nd Infantry Regiment at Camp Stuart. 66

The dental surgeons for the 371st Infantry Regiment, which originally had been organized at Camp Jackson, Colombia, South Carolina, on 31 August 1917, were also white.  They were Lieutenants George N. Abbott (1892-19??) and Aaron L. King (1892-19??)of the Dental Reserve Corps.67

The first divisional units embarked for Europe from Hoboken, New Jersey, on 12 December 1917 and the remainder by April 1918.  Landings were at Brest and St. Nazaire, France.  Headquarters was established at Bar-sur-Seine on 10 March 1918.  Because of the exigency of the French need for replacement troops, the four infantry regiments were immediately assigned to the French Army and remained with it until the cessation of hostilities. 68

By April 1918, General Hoffman had finally received the two dental surgeons that he requested in December 1917 as two dental first lieutenants were listed (on 24 July 1918) among the "colored officers" assigned to the 372d Infantry Regiment.  Lieutenants Plato H. Travis and Robert N. Gardner were listed for April-May 1918.  No other dental officers are listed in the medical/dental officer returns for the division.69

On 13 July 1918, the 370th Infantry Regiment experienced a shortage of dental supplies.  On 16 July, "steps" were taken to have the supplies "promptly" delivered to the regiment.  Presumably, First Lieutenant Park Tancil, described as a "negro" dental officer, was the only black dentist for the regiment.70

Demobilization of the 93d Division:  1919

The four infantry regiments of the 93d Division sailed from Brest, France, on 2-3 February 1919 and arrived back in the United States on 9-12 February and were demobilized in late February and early March at camps in their home states.71


CHAPTER VII

THE PIONEER INFANTRY:  1918-1919

The Pioneer Infantry Regiments:  1918-1919
Pershing's Pioneers

In addition to serving in the two combat divisions, the 92nd and 93rd, blacks also served in other army units.  In fact, the majority of the 404,348 black troops in World War I were in the support units, mainly quartermaster, stevedore, labor, and pioneer infantry regiments.  Dental officers were needed for these men also.72
 

Reassignment of Dental Officers:  1919
"Urgently" Needed

Following the armistice in November 1918, there was a rapid withdrawal of the U.S. overseas forces.  Some black dental officers were reassigned to the pioneer infantry regiments: the 801-809, 811, 813-816 Pioneer Infantry Regiments, but not all the regiments had a dentist.  On 2 January 1919, Major W. I. Mitchell, the surgeon for the 805th Pioneer Infantry Regiment stationed at Chatel-Chehery, France, complained to the Chief Surgeon of the American Expeditionary Forces that his regiment had never been assigned a dental officer since its organization.  He stated that he had "at least a hundred men and officers needing immediate attention to their teeth" and no dentist within 30 kilometers.  Some officers had gone to Paris seeking dental treatment but reported that it was virtually impossible to get an appointment within two weeks.  Major Mitchell "urgently" requested at least one, preferably two, dental officers for the regiment.  In response, on 5 January, the aforementioned Colonel Robert T. Oliver, now the Chief Dental Surgeon for the American Expeditionary Forces, recommended the assignment of two "dental officers (colored)," Lieutenants Raymond King and Alonzo S. Brock, from the 92d Division.  Both men were on duty with the division at the Le Mans embarkation area. They were to report to the 805th Pioneers with their enlisted assistants and dental equipment. 73

Several other dental officers were transferred from the 92d Division to pioneer infantry units in 1919, including:  Lieutenants Henry B. Anderson and Leonard F. Sarjeant to the 803rd Regiment on 19 January; Lieutenants George C. Booth and Theophilus C. Brock to the 815th Regiment in February; Lieutenant John R. French to the 807th Regiment in March; and, Lieutenants Joseph C. Brazier and Crawford B. Dowdell to the 802nd Regiment in June.  Among the other black dental officers serving in the pioneer infantry were Lieutenants William R. Russell, Park Tancil, and Plato H. Travis. 74

Fig. 11.  Dr. George Chester Booth (NDS).

Fig. 12.  Dr. William R. Russell (ISD).

In May 1919, Lieutenants Edward J. Cobb and James L. Crawford (formerly with the 92d Division), stationed with the 816th Pioneer Infantry, had no dental office in which to practice.  They could only render emergency treatment.  After an inspection by the supervising dental surgeon of the Advance Section, Service of Supply, Colonel Robert H. Mills, the regimental adjutant promised to provide them office space.  Of course, at this time, the troops were moving rapidly back out of the Advance Section to the rear areas.  Dental officers were ordered to take their dental equipment with them so that they could continue their work in the base areas. 75
 

Racial Harmony:  1919
"Complaints" Taken Care Of

Lieutenant Colonel Mills, on 13 February 1919, reported to the Chief Dental Surgeon, Colonel Robert T. Oliver, that there had been "some complaints from organizations where the officers and noncomissioned officers were white and were assigned colored dental officers."  He stated that all the "complaints were taken care of and the present organizations that have colored dental officers attached are satisfied so far as this office knows."  Apparently, in some instances, black dental surgeons were attached to white units with no problems.76

However, in 1919, two senior dental lieutenant colonels expressed their dissatisfaction with the black dental officers.  Lieutenant Colonel Rex H. Rhoades, Chief Dental Surgeon of the Second Army, in a report filed on 29 March 1919 regarding the dental officers stated, "They are all excellent officers except the colored ones, and I do not think much of them."  The aforementioned Lieutenant Colonel Mills, the supervising dental surgeon, Advance Section, Service of Supply, on 30 April 1919, in his inspection report criticized a black dental officer as having an office in "very poor and dirty condition." 77
 

The Labor Battalions:  1919

In 1919, some of the black dental officers of the 92nd Division were also reassigned to the labor battalions operating in France.78

 


CHAPTER VIII

AFTERTHOUGHTS

Conclusion

Several conclusions can be drawn from this presentation.  First, the U.S. Army only commissioned black dental officers as the result of a wartime emergency.  Second, the army only commissioned enough black dentists to provide for the black divisions being formed for service in France -- no more, no less.  Third, the black dental officers were allowed to professionally treat only black troops, rarely white troops.  However, the converse was not true; white dental officers did treat black troops.  Fourth, the majority of the World War I African-American dental officers were graduates of the two black dental colleges, Meharry and Howard.  Fifth, this entire policy reflected the old army adage that black troops responded better to white officers.  Nothing had really changed from the days of the Indian Wars; it was the same old army game as far as African-Americans were concerned, even for professional men.

Despite these faults and unfairness in the system, it is still appropriate to honor those black dentists who served in the Spanish-American War and World War I.  Like their white colleagues, they sacrificed time and financial gain in private practice to serve their country.  Perhaps, they did contribute in their own way toward today's integrated dental profession.  Currently, there are 93 African-American dental officers in the U.S. Army Dental Corps out of a total of 1,418, representing 6.55 percent of the corps' strength.79   Hopefully, as a result of this publication more information will surface on those black dentists mentioned and new names will be added to the list.  Also, the author was unable to determine who was the first black dentist to be commissioned in the dental corps.  Perhaps some future researcher will be able to provide his name.
 

 


APPENDIX A

    African-American Dental Personnel:  1917-1919
    92d Division, A.E.F.


Note:  Although all the following listed personnel held dental degrees, the D.D.S. or the D.M.D. degree was only included for those individuals who were known graduates of schools awarding a specific degree.  Same rule used in Appendices B, C, D, and E.

Anderson, Henry Buie, D.D.S. (1893?-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, a 1915 graduate of the dental department of Meharry Medical College, was enroute from Chicago, Illinois, to Camp Funston, Kansas, from 5-6 June 1918.   On 7 June, he was transferred to Camp Upton, New York, and on 14 June sailed overseas with the 92d Division.  He was on duty in France as of 24 June 1918 assigned to the 366th Field Hospital; and, from August-December 1918, on duty with the 365th Field Hospital.  On 19 January 1919, Lieutenant Anderson was transferred to the medical detachment of the 803rd Pioneer Infantry Regiment stationed at Camp Pontanezen, Brest, France.  He served with this unit through April 1919.  [Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 410; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence Infirmary 803 Pioneer Infantry," letters, Major Frank W. Merritt, Surgeon, 803  Pioneer Infantry, to Chief Surgeon, Ninth Corps, A.E.F., 19 January 1919, Merritt to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., 17 April 1919, box 29, NA.]

Bailey, Clarence Carlyle (18??-19??), of Norfolk, Virginia, was recommended for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps on 21 September 1917. His application was marked "colored."  In June 1918, as a First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, he was enroute for duty with the 368th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division, A.E.F., in France.  From July-December 1918, he served as the regimental dental surgeon.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Bailey, box 3, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA.]

Beshears, Rufus Preston, D.D.S. (1888-19??) , originally applied to the Dental Corps in 1911 (see earlier text for details).  On 17 July 1917, Dr. Beshears again applied to the Dental Corps, this time as a Dental Surgeon, Officers' Reserve Corps, U.S. Army.  His application was noted "colored."  Oddly enough, the "mitral insufficiency" that had caused him to fail the 1912 physical was no longer noted, his "chest and contained organs" listed as normal.  His complexion was again noted as "Negro."  He passed the physical given 18 July 1917 at Kansas City, Missouri.  On his examination record, under remarks was noted:  "Intelligent and Proficient, Well suited for Colored Reserve Corps."  He was found qualified and, as a matter of fact, showed "better qualifications than most applicants."  On 10 August 1917, The Surgeon General notified him that he was recommended for a commission as a first lieutenant in the Dental Reserve Corps.  From 3-4 June 1918, he was enroute from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Camp Funston, Kansas; 5-6 June 1918, on duty at Camp Funston with the 317th Sanitary Train, 92d Division;  7-13 June 1918, enroute to and on duty at Camp Upton, New York; 14-22 June 1918, enroute overseas with the 92nd Division; 22 June 1918, arrived in France and officially on duty on 23 June 1918, attached to the 366th Field Hospital; from August-December 1918, assigned to the 350th Machine Gun Battalion.  In February 1919, Lieutenant Beshears served with the 317th Labor Battalion at Is-sur-Tille.  From March-May 1919, he was stationed with the 319th Labor Battalion.  He was promoted to captain sometime after 28 March 1919. [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application, Beshears to Surgeon General, 17 July 1917, examination report, Beshears, 19 July 1917, letter, Surgeon General to Beshears, 10 August 1917, box 985, no. 138983, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Black, John W. (1894-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Corps, National Army, arrived overseas on 3 September 1918.  He joined the 92d Division on 29 September 1918 from the training school for sanitary troops.  Lieutenant Black was assigned for duty with the 317th Headquarters Train & Military Police.  From November-December 1918, he served with the 349th Field Artillery Regiment.  In February-March 1919, Black served with the 305th Labor Battalion.  [RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [September-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Booth, George Chester, D.D.S. (1893-19??) , was born on 7 October 1893 at New Haven, Connecticut.  Dr. Booth (fig. 10) received his A.B. degree from the University of Michigan in 1914 and a D.D.S. degree from the Northwestern University Dental School in 1916.  He was commissioned a first lieutenant in the 8th Regiment, Illinois Infantry, on 5 June 1917.  He was then commissioned a First Lieutenant, Dental Corps, National Guard, to rank from 29 July 1917.  He resigned from the Illinois National Guard on 25 August 1917 in order to be commissioned as a first lieutenant in the Dental Reserve Corps.  He was assigned to active duty on 5 September 1917 and ordered to the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines.  On 2 November 1917, he was transferred to the 77th Division camp at Camp Upton, Yaphank, Long Island, New York, where the 367th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division, was in training.  He was assigned to the regimental sanitary detachment.  On 9 June 1918, he left Hoboken, New Jersey, bound for France with the division.  He arrived in France on 19 June 1918 and was immediately assigned to the 367th Infantry Regiment.  He served as a regimental dental surgeon until December 1918.  From February-May 1919, Lieutenant Booth served with the 815th Regiment, Pioneer Infantry.  He was promoted to captain in March 1919.  [RG 112, E 136, SGO, PHDNG, George C. Booth, NA;  RG 168, E 12A, NG, "211. Illinois Dental Surgeons," telegram, F.S. Dickson, Adjutant General, Illinois, to Brigadier General William A. Mann, Chief, Militia Bureau, 3 August 1917, letter [special orders no. 133a, A.G.O., Illinois], Mann to Dickson, 4 August 1917, box 176, no. 211., NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 367 Infantry," memo, Captain Walter H. Vosburg to Commanding Officer, 367th Infantry Regiment, 6 February 1918, box 25, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 252, par. 134, 1917, p. 29; no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 22; no. 206, par. 212, 1917, p. 42] (Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, box 3137, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp.18, 496.]

Bouden, Harry Elwood, D.D.S. (1891-19??) , of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was born on 23 September 1891.  Dr. Bouden was a graduate of Kittrell College, North Carolina, and a 1916 graduate of the Thomas W. Evans Museum and Dental Institute School of Dentistry, University of Pennsylvania.  He was recommended for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps on 21 June 1917.  His application was marked "Colored."  On 21 July 1917, as a First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, he was recommended for active duty by the surgeon general; however, it was 3 August before he received his war department orders to report to Fort Des Moines, Iowa.  On 2 November 1917, he was transferred to the 77th Division camp at Camp Upton, Yaphank, Long Island, New York, where the 367th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division was in training.  He was assigned to the regimental sanitary detachment.  On 9 June 1918, he embarked from Hoboken, New Jersey, bound for France with the division.  On 19 June, he was on duty as a regimental dental surgeon for the 367th Infantry.  Dr. Bouden served with the regiment until December 1918.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Bouden, box 2, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 20, 604; Thomas W. Evans Museum & Dental Institute School of Dentistry, University of Pennsylvania, The Record (N.p., 1916), p. 64; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Bouden, 21 July 1917, box 280, no. 185959, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917, [special orders no. 179, par. 62, 1917, p. 15; no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 22] (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 367 Infantry," memo, Captain Walter H. Vosburg to Commanding Officer, 367th Infantry Regiment, 6 February 1918, box 25, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA.]

Brazier, Joseph Christopher, D.D.S. (1888-19??), of Washington, D.C., on 23 January 1917, requested information on the Dental Reserve Corps.  Dr. Brazier was a 1916 graduate of the dental department of Howard University.  He applied and his papers (marked "Colored") were sent to the board on 29 June 1917.  On 21 September 1917, he was notified by the surgeon general that he had been recommended for commission as a first lieutenant in the Dental Reserve Corps.  In 1918, he was sent overseas for duty with the 92nd Division.  Dr. Brazier served with the 317th Ammunition Train, 92nd Division, from August-December 1918.  In June 1919, Dr. Brazier, now a captain, was stationed with the 802d Pioneer Infantry Regiment at Brest, France.  After the war, he practiced in Washington, D.C.  In 1944, Dr. Brazier was the chairman of the National Dental Association's military affairs committee.  [RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Brazier, 23 January 1917, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Brazier, 25 September 1917, record card, Brazier, 27 September 1917, box 254, no. 164542, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 183; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Brazier, box 2, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [August-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 802 Pioneer Infantry," "Final Return of Medical Dept. Personnel 802 Pioneer Infantry," 27 June 1919, Brest, France, box 29, NA; Dummett, Afro-Americans in Dentistry, op. cit., p. 42.]

Brock, Alonzo Strother, D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Louisville, Ken-tucky,First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps (application marked "Colored"), was recommended for commission on 9 October 1917.  Dr. Brock was a 1910 graduate of the University of Illinois, College of Dentistry.  He arrived overseas in France on 3 September 1918.  On 29 September 1918, he joined the 92d Division from the training school for sanitary troops.  Lieutenant Brock was assigned to the 349th Machine Gun Battalion.  From November-December 1918, he served with the 317th Headquarters Train & Military Police.  On 5 January 1919, Lieutenant Brock was reassigned to the 805th Pioneer Infantry Regiment stationed at Chatel-Chehery, France.  In March 1919, he was still with the same regiment.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, A. S. Brock, box 2, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 18, 301; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [September-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Venereal & Correspondence ? Infirmary 805 Pioneer Infantry," letter, Major W. I. Mitchell, Surgeon, 805th Pioneer Infantry, to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., S.O.S., 2 January 1919, box 29, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Brock, Theophilus Clay (18??-19??), of Louisville, Kentucky, First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps (application marked "Colored"), was recommended for commission on 12 September 1917.  In 1918, he was assigned to the 366th Field Hospital, 92d Division, prior to its transfer to Camp Upton, New York.  On 5 June 1918, he was reassigned to the 365th Infantry Regiment's infirmary.  From 9-19 June 1918, he was enroute overseas with the division and arrived in France on 19 June 1918.  He reported for duty on 20 June.  He served with the 365th Infantry Regiment as a regimental dental surgeon until December 1918.  From February-May 1919, Brock served with the 815th Regiment, Pioneer Infantry.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, T.C. Brock, box 2, NA;  RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 365 Infantry," letter, Captain Julian Dawson, Surgeon, to Commanding Officer, 365th Infantry, 5 June 1918, box 25, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Browne, Alexander Cecil, D.D.S. (18??-19??) , Captain, Dental Reserve Corps (fig. 9), was recommended for commission on 31 August 1917.  His application was marked "Colored."  Dr. Browne was a 1911 graduate of the University of Illinois, College of Dentistry.  In June 1918, he was on duty at Camp Funston, Kansas, with the 92d Division.  On 7 June 1918, he was reassigned to Camp Upton, New York, for overseas embarkation with the division.  From 19-26 June, he was enroute to France, arriving on 22 June 1918.  On 27 June, he was on duty with the 366th Field Hospital. He was transferred to the 365th Field Hospital and served from November-December 1918.  In February-March 1919, Lieutenant Browne was assigned to the 320th Labor Battalion at Is-sur-Tille, France.  He was promoted to captain in March 1919.  In May 1919, he was stationed at Camp Williams, APO 712.  After the war, he was promoted to Captain, Dental Reserve Corps (inactive status), with rank from 25 September 1919.  Dr. Browne resigned his commission on 27 July 1920.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Browne, box 3, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 18, 218; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Burney, William H. (18??-19??), of Atlanta, Georgia, First Lieu-tenant, Dental Reserve Corps, was recommended for commission on 21 August 1917 (application marked "Colored").  On 15 August 1918, he joined the 92d Division overseas and was assigned to the 367th Ambulance Company.  From September-December 1918, he served with the 367th Field Hospital, 92d Division.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Burney, box 2, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [August-December 1918]," box 4005, NA.]

Bush, James E., D.D.S. (18??-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, in June 1918 was enroute for overseas duty with the 92nd Division.  Dr. Bush was a 1915 graduate of the dental department of Howard University.  In July 1918, he was still unassigned, but in August was attached to the 366th Ambulance Company.  In September 1918, he was transferred to the 368th Field Hospital in which he served through December 1918.  [RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 559.]

Butler, Lucius Armond (18??-19??), of Cumberland, Maryland, was examined on 17 July 1917 and recommended for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps on 4 August 1917.  His application was marked "Colored."  On 6 September 1917, The Surgeon General recommended that he be ordered to active duty to the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, as a First Lieutenant, Dental Corps, National Army.  Orders were issued by the war department on 8 September to that effect.  On 2 November 1917, he was reassigned to the 79th Division camp at Camp Meade, Annapolis Junction, Maryland, where the 368th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division, was in training.  In June 1918, Lieutenant Butler was assigned to overseas service with the regiment, arriving in France on 27 June 1918.  He was immediately assigned as the regimental dental surgeon for the 368th Infantry and served through December 1918.  In February 1919, Butler served with the 331st Labor Battalion.  In March 1919, he was assigned to the 530th and 540th Engineer Service Battalions.  He was promoted to captain sometime after 28 March 1919.  In May 1919, he was stationed at Camp Williams, APO 712.  [RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Adjutant General, 6 September 1917, box 292, no. 197254, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Butler, box 2, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 209, par. 122, 1917, p. 31; no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 22] (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Cardwell, John H., D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Seattle, Washington, a 1912 graduate of the dental department of Howard University, applied to the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917 (his application was marked "Colored").  He was assigned to the 350th Machine Gun Battalion, 92nd Division, in training at Camp Grant, Illinois.  On 3 May 1918, he was recommended for commission as a first lieutenant in the Dental Reserve Corps.  Lieutenant Cardwell arrived in France on 19 June 1918, but apparently did not serve overseas with the 350th Machine Gun Battalion as he is not listed in the divisional medical/dental officers' returns for 1918.  He did serve with the 332d Labor Battalion from February-May 1919.  [Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 446; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Cardwell, box 2, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918], box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, letter, Colonel Robert H. Mills, Supervising Dental Surgeon, Advance Section, S.O.S., to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., 8 May 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Carter, Frank Cecil, D.D.S. (1892-19??) , originally applied to the dental corps in 1916 (see earlier text for details). In 1917, Dr. Carter was serving as a dentist at the Northern Hospital for the Insane in Logansport, Indiana.  On 3 May 1917, Dr. Fred W. Terfeinger, the superintendent at the hospital, stated that "this young chap though colored possesses exceptional ability."  Carter was described as a "young colored man," by his Congressman, Harry S. New.  On 7 May 1917, New recommended him to The Surgeon General "if any colored dentists" were to be appointed.  The same day, 7 May, he was examined at Columbus, Ohio, and rejected, "no reason given."  On 3 July 1917, Dr. Carter withdrew his application for the regular corps and took the examination for the Dental Reserve Corps at Columbus Barracks.  His 2 July physical report was marked: "Colored. Recommended only for service with Colored Regiments who have colored officers"; and, "Colored - If successful in examination recommend duty at Camp at Des Moines or with Colored troops."  Dr. Carter passed the physical and, the next day, 4 July, applied to the reserve corps. On 28 July 1917, the surgeon general informed him that he had been found qualified for a commission as a first lieutenant in the Dental Reserve Corps.  On 28 August 1917, he was assigned to active duty and ordered to report to the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines.  On 2 November 1917, he was reassigned to the 79th Division camp at Camp Meade, Annapolis Junction, Maryland, where the 351st Field Artillery Regiment, 92d Division, was in training.  In June 1918, Dr. Carter was ordered overseas as the dental surgeon for the 351st Field Artillery.  On 21 September 1918, he was reassigned for duty at Base Section No. 2, A.E.F.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letters, New to Surgeon General, 7 May 1917, Terfeinger to Henry A. Barnhart, 3 May 1917, box 736, no. 108763, applications, Carter to Surgeon General, 12 June, 4 July 1917, board proceedings, Carter, 2 July 1917, physical examination, Carter, 2 July 1917, examination record, Carter, 3 July 1917, letter, Surgeon General to Carter, 13 August 1917, box 1155, no. 160410, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Carter, box 2, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 200, par. 133, 1917, p. 23, no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 22] (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918); idem, Special Orders 1918 [special orders no. 264, par. 198, 1918, p. 40] (France:  G.H.Q., A.E.F., [1918]); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-September 1918]," box 4005, NA.]

Cobb, Edward James, D.D.S. (1889-19??), originally requested information on the dental corps in 1915 (see earlier text for details).  On 24 June 1917, while a student at the black line officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, Dr. Cobb wrote to the surgeon general Inquiring about the examinations for army dental surgeons.  On 28 July 1917, he was recommended for commission in the Dental Reserve Corps.  His papers were marked "Colored."  On 28 August 1917, Dr. Cobb was assigned to active duty as a First Lieutenant, Dental Corps, National Army, and transferred to the medical officers' training camp at the same post. On 2 November 1917, he was reassigned to the 83d Division camp at Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio, where the 317th Engineer Regiment, 92d Division, was in training.  From 1-2 June 1918, he was enroute to Camp Upton, New York; from 3-9 June, on duty at Camp Upton; and, from 10-19 June, enroute to France with the 92d Division.  He arrived in France on 19 June 1918, and was assigned to duty with the 317th Engineer Regiment.  He served with it until December 1918.  From February-May 1919, Cobb served at the headquarters of the 816th Regiment, Pioneer Infantry.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Cobb to Surgeon General, 24 June 1917, box 736, no. 108763, NA;  RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Cobb, box 1, NA; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Cobb, 16 August 1917, box 292, no. 197574, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 200, par. 134, 1917, p. 23, no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 22] (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Medical Officers Returns, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, letter, Colonel Robert H. Mills, Supervising Dental Surgeon, Advance Section, S.O.S., to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., 8 May 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Crawford, James L., D.D.S. (18??-19??), of St. Louis, Missouri, graduated from the dental department of Meharry Medical College in 1914.  As a First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, he was assigned to active duty on 28 August 1917 and ordered to report to the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines.  On 2 November 1917, he was assigned to the 83d Division camp at Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio, where the 317th Engineer Regiment, 92d Division, was in training.  In June 1918, he was transferred to Camp Upton, New York, for overseas duty with the division.  He embarked with the division from Hoboken, New Jersey, on 10 June 1918, and arrived in France on 19 June.  He officially reported for duty on 20 June with the 317th Engineers.  He served with the unit until December 1918.  From February-May 1919, Crawford served with the 816th Regiment, Pioneer Infantry.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, op. cit., p. 34; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 411; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 200, par. 133, 1917, p. 23, no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 22] (Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, letter, Colonel Robert H. Mills, Supervising Dental Surgeon, Advance Section, S.O.S., to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., 8 May 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Davis, Thomas B., D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Sumter, South Carolina, graduated from the dental department of Meharry Medical College in 1910.  As a First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, on 19 September 1917, he was ordered to active duty and assigned to the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines.  On 5 October 1917, he was still at Des Moines as a dental reserve officer without status.  On 2 November 1917, he was assigned to the 86th Division camp at Camp Grant, Rockford, Illinois, where the 365th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division, was in training.  On 1 June 1918, Dr. Davis was transferred to Camp Upton, New York, prior to being shipped overseas on 9 June with the 365th Infantry.  On 20 June 1918, he was on duty in France and served with the 365th Infantry through December 1918.  Later, Dr. Davis served as a dental surgeon for the U.S. Veterans' Administration.  In 1923, he was the chief dental surgeon at the Veterans' Bureau Hospital at Tuskegee, Alabama, becoming the first African-American dentist to hold that position in the Veterans' Bureau.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., pp. 34, 35; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, 5 October 1917, box 281, no. 187170-33, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 218, par. 61, 1917, p. 11, no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 23] (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 75; Dummett, Afro-Americans in Dentistry, op. cit., pp. 25, 26.]

DeHaven, Burrell B., D.D.S. (18??-19??), on 19 September 1917, was ordered to active duty at the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines. Dr. DeHaven was a 1912 graduate of the dental department of Howard University.  On 5 October, he was reported in camp as a dental reserve officer without status.  He had been examined for the Dental Reserve Corps and transferred from the line officers' training camp more than a month earlier. On 2 November 1917, Dr. DeHaven was assigned to the 86th Division camp at Camp Grant, Rockford, Illinois, for duty with the 365th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division, which was in training there.  On 1 June 1918, he was transferred to Camp Upton, New York, prior to shipping overseas with the 365th Infantry.  On 20 June, Lieutenant DeHaven was on duty with the 365th Infantry in France and served through December 1918.  [RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, 5 October 1917, box 281, no. 187170-33, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 557; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 218, par. 61, 1917, p. 11, no. 256, par. 103, p. 23](Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005,NA.]

Dowdell, Crawford B. (18??-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, was assigned to active duty on 13 September 1917 and ordered to report to the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines.  On 2 November 1917, he was assigned to the 88th Division camp at Camp Dodge, Des Moines, Iowa, where the 366th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division, was in training.  In June 1918, he shipped overseas with the 92d Division.  He served with the 366th Infantry Regiment until December 1918.  From February-March 1919, Dowdell was assigned to the 334th Labor Battalion.  In June 1919, Lieutenant Dowdell was stationed with the 802d Pioneer Infantry Regiment at Brest, France.  [U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 213, par. 128, 1917, pp. 20-21, no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 23] (Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8 March 1919, box 3137, NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 802 Pioneer Infantry," "Final Return of Medical Dept. Personnel 802 Pioneer Infantry," 27 June 1919, Brest, France, box 29, NA.]

French, John R., D.D.S. (18??-19??), of St.Paul, Minnesota, was recommended for commission as a First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, on 7 September 1917.  Dr. French was a 1913 graduate of the Chicago College of Dental Surgery, Dental Department of Loyola University.  He shipped overseas with the 92nd Division attached to the 366th Field Hospital in June 1918 and was on duty as of 21 June.  He served with the 366th Field Hospital until August 1918 when he was transferred to the 35lst Machine Gun Battalion, 92d Division, in which he served until December 1918.  In February-March 1919, French was assigned to the 326th Labor Battalion at Is-sur-Tille, France.  Later, in March 1919, he was reassigned to the 807th Pioneer Infantry Regiment.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, French, box 1, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 222; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Gould, Ernest Moore, D.M.D. (1889-19??) , First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps (fig. 13), was born at Dedham, Massachusetts, on 5 November 1889. He graduated from Tufts College Dental School in 1917.  He was assigned to active duty on 1 November 1917 and was ordered to Camp Upton, New York, where the 92nd Division was in training.  He was assigned to the 367th Infantry's sanitary detachment.  In June 1918, he was shipped overseas for duty with the 350th Field Artillery Regiment, 92nd Division.  He served with the 350th Field Artillery until December 1918.  [U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 255, par. 90, 1917, p. 16] (Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 367 Infantry," memo, Captain Walter H. Vosburg to Commanding Officer, 367th Infantry Regiment, 6 February 1918, box 25, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 18, 184; Evelyn Hannigan, Staff Assistant, University Development, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, letter (information on Dr. Gould with DenTufts 1917, p. 74) to author, 7 May 1993, PC.]

Hayden, William L., D.D.S. (18??-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, in September 1918, joined the 350th Field Artillery Regiment, 92d Division in France.  Dr. Hayden was a 1912 graduate of the dental department of Meharry Medical College.  From October-December 1918, he served with the 325th Field Signal Battalion, 92d Division.  [RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [September-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 405.]

Henderson, Crispus A. (18??-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, arrived in France on 28 June 1918 and was assigned to the 368th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division.  He served with the regiment through December 1918.  From February-March 1919, he was assigned to the 324th Labor Battalion.  In May 1919, he served with the 20th Engineer Regiment (a white unit).  [RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Howe, William M. (18??-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, on 29 September 1918, joined the 317th Supply Train, 92d Division, from the training school for sanitary troops.  He served with this unit through November 1918.  [RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [September-November 1918]," box 4005, NA.  Lieutenant Howe is not listed on the December 1918 return.]

Jones, Edward Cornelius, D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Sumter, South Carolina, was a 1915 graduate of the dental department of Meharry Medical College.  On 24 August 1917, he was recommended for commission in the Dental Reserve Corps.  On 19 September 1917, he was ordered to active duty and assigned to the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines, Iowa. By 5 October 1917, he was still at Fort Des Moines, as a dental reserve officer without status.  He had been examined for the Dental Reserve Corps and transferred from the line officers' training camp more than a month earlier.  On 2 November 1917, he was assigned to the 88th Division camp at Camp Dodge, Des Moines, Iowa, where the 366th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division, was in training.  In June 1918, he shipped overseas with the 366th Infantry Regiment.  He served with the 366th Infantry through December 1918.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., p. 34; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 638; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Jones, box 2, NA; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, 5 October 1917, box 281, no. 187170-33, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 218, par. 61, 1917, p. 11, no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 23] (Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA.]

King, Raymond, D.D.S. (1889-19??) , originally applied to the dental corps in 1914 (see earlier text for details).  On 3 May 1917, Dr. King again wrote to the surgeon general.  On 5 July 1917, his completed application papers  for the Dental Reserve Corps were returned to the surgeon general.  On 18 September 1917, he was reported in camp at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, without status, although he had been examined for the Dental Reserve Corps and transferred from the line officers' training camp more than a month previously.  Finally, on 21 September 1917, Dr. King was recommended to the adjutant general's office for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps.  In 1918, he was sent overseas as a dental officer, arriving in France on 27 June 1918.  He was assigned to the 349th Field Artillery Regiment, 92d Division.  In October 1918, he was transferred to the 351st Field Artillery Regiment and served with it through December 1918.  On 2 January 1919, Lieutenant King was reassigned to the 805th Pioneer Infantry Regiment stationed at Chatel-Chehery, France.  As of 30 April 1919, he was still with the same regiment.  [RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record cards, King, 3 May, 5 July 1917, box 223, no. 147776, record card, 5 October 1917, box 281, no. 187170-33, NA; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, telegram, Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Noble to Surgeon General, 18 September 1917, box 1322, no. 187170, NA;  RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, King, box 2, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [July-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Venereal & Correspondence ? Infirmary 805 Pioneer Infantry," letter, Major W.I. Mitchell, Surgeon, 805th Pioneer Infantry, to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., S.O.S., 2 January 1919, box 29, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March 1919, letter, Supervising Dental Surgeon, Advance Section, S.O.S., to Chief Dental Surgeon, A.E.F., 30 April 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Myer, Christopher, D.D.S. (1891-19??), was born in New York City on 11 June 1891.  In October 1910, he entered the College of Dental and Oral Surgery of New York and graduated on 2 June 1913.  On 4 July 1916, he applied to the New York State National Guard and served in the 15th Infantry Regiment until discharged on 16 June 1917. He then transferred to the Officers' Reserve Corps.  In July 1917, he was assigned to the 17th Provisional Training Camp (reserve officers' training camp) at Fort Des Moines.  On 9 July, while stationed at Des Moines, he applied to the Dental Reserve Corps.  His 23 July physical examination listed under complexion "colored."  He was accepted for commission on 4 August, but was informed by the surgeon general's office on 16 August that he was ineligible for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps because he was still a member of the National Guard.  Dr. Myer immediately clarified his position by sending the surgeon general a copy of his discharge from the guard.  On 6 October 1917, The Surgeon General's Office notified him that he had been accepted for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps.  In June 1918, Dr. Myer shipped overseas with the 92d Division (unassigned).  In July 1918, Dr. Myer was assigned to duty with the 317th Sanitary Train, 92d Division; from August-December 1918, he was on duty with the 366th Infantry Regiment, 92d Division.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application, Myer to Surgeon General, 9 July 1917, physical examination, Myer, 23 July 1917, board examination, Myer, 4 August 1917, discharge, N.Y.N.G., Myer, 16 June 1917, letters, Surgeon General's Office to Myer, 16 August 1917, Myer to Surgeon General, 9 September 1917, Surgeon General's Office to Myer, 6 October 1917, box 1389, no. 199169, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Myer, box 3, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June -December 1918]," box 4005, NA.]

Peebles, William Warrington, D.D.S. (1883-1958), of Omaha, Nebraska, "a colored dentist," in May 1917, requested his congressman to inquire on the possibility of a dental commission.  Dr. Peebles, born in 1883 in Washington, D.C., was a 1906 graduate of the Chicago College of Dental Surgery, Dental Department of Loyola University.  Dr. Peebles was examined at Des Moines, Iowa, on 17 July 1917, by Dr. J. A. West, the secretary of the Iowa state board of dental examiners.  He was recommended for a commission on 14 August 1917 (application marked "Colored").  On 27 August, now at the officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines, Dr. Peebles wired his acceptance for a dental commission.  On 4 September 1917, he was found qualified for the Dental Reserve Corps.  It was noted that he desired assignment with "colored troops."  Dr. Peebles was assigned to active duty on 12 September 1917 and transferred to the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines.  On 2 November 1917, he was assigned to the 78th Division camp at Camp Dix, Wrightstown, New Jersey, for duty with the 349th Field Artillery Regiment, 92d Division, which was in training there. Promoted to captain on 12 February 1918, he was the ranking dental officer in the division and the only dental captain.  In June 1918, he was ordered overseas with the division.  He served with the 349th Field Artillery through December 1918.  In 1920, Dr. Peebles returned to his Omaha practice at 220 South 13th Street.  He died at age seventy-five in 1958 at Omaha.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, James H. Hanley (clerk) to Surgeon General, 29 May 1917, box 736, no. 108763, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 432; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record cards, Peebles, 17 July, 4 September 1917, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Charles C. Lobeck, 14 August 1917, telegram, Peebles to Surgeon General's Office, 27 August 1917, box 289, no. 194378, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Peebles, box 3, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917[special orders no. 212, par. 141, 1917, p. 23, no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 22] (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; Charles J. Vacanti, Dental Historian, School of Dentistry, Creighton University, letter (information on Dr. Peebles) to author, 1 December 1992, PC.]

Rosenburgh, Samuel Harris (1886-19??) , of Indianapolis, Indiana, applied to the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917 (application marked "Colored").  Dr. Rosenburgh was recommended for a commission on 14 August 1917.  He was assigned to active duty as a first lieutenant on 12 September 1917 and ordered to the medical officers' training camp at Fort Des Moines.  On 2 November 1917, he was assigned to the 78th Division camp at Camp Dix, Wrighstown, New Jersey, for duty with the 92d Division, which was in training there.  He was assigned to the regimental infirmary of the 367th Infantry Regiment.  On 1 June 1918, he was transferred to Camp Upton, New York, with the 367th Infantry.  Lieutenant Rosenburgh shipped overseas with the division on 9 June 1918 and by 19 June was on duty in France.  He served with the 367th Infantry Regiment through December 1918.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Rosenberg [correct name "Rosenburgh" appears on other records], box 3, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 212, par. 142, 1917, p. 23, no. 256, par. 103, 1917, p. 22] (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 367 Infantry," letter, Major Robert Conard, Surgeon, 367th Infantry, to Division Surgeon, 92nd Division, 27 March 1918, box 25, NA; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA.]

Sarjeant, Leonard F., D.D.S. (1887?-19??),   a 1912 graduate of the dental department of Howard University, serving as a private in the medical department with the 368th Infantry Regiment, on 23 September 1918, was assigned to active duty as a First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, with the 351st Field Artillery Regiment, 92d Division.  He served with the unit through December 1918.  On 19 January 1919, Lieutenant Sarjeant was transferred to the medical detachment of the 803d Pioneer Infantry Regiment stationed at Camp Pontanezen, Brest, France.  Promoted to captain, the thirty-two-year-old dentist served with this unit through July 1919 when the regiment returned to the United States and was stationed at the Army Supply Base, Norfolk, Virginia.  [Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 613; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [September-December 1918]," box 4005, NA;  RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 803 Pioneer Infantry," letters, Major Frank W. Merritt, Surgeon, 803 Pioneer Infantry, to Chief Surgeon, Ninth Corps, 19 January 1919, Merritt to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., 17 April 1919, "Roster of Officers, Medical Detachment, 803rd Pioneer Infantry," 18 July 1919, box 29, NA.]

Slowe, William M., D.D.S. (18??-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a 1901 graduate of the College of Dentistry, University of Southern California, in June 1918 was enroute for duty (unassigned) with the 92d Division.  In December 1918, he served with the 317th Supply Train, 92d Division.  [R. L. Polk, Polk's Dental Registry And Directory of the United States and Canada 1914-1915, 11th ed. (Detroit:  R.L. Polk & Co., Publishers, 1914), pp. 43, 883; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA.  Lieutenant Slowe is listed in the July 1918 return as still unassigned. He does not appear in the returns for August-November 1918.]

Swayne, Russell M., D.D.S. (18??-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, in June 1918 was enroute for duty (unassigned) with the 92d Division.  Dr. Swayne was a 1912 graduate of the dental department of Howard University.  He arrived in France on 12 July 1918.  In August 1918, he was assigned to the 317th Ammunition Train in which he served through December 1918.  From February-May 1919, Lieutenant Swayne was assigned to the 327th Labor Battalion.  He was promoted to captain sometime after 28 March 1919.  [RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]" (Lieutenant Swayne is listed as "Wayne" in the July 1918 return), box 4005, NA ; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March, 27 May 1919, box 3137, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 565.]

 


APPENDIX B

    African-American Dental Personnel:  1917-1919
    93d Division, A.E.F.


Gardiner, Robert N. (18??-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, was assigned to the 372d Infantry Regiment, 93d Division, from April-May 1918.  In March 1919, he was the dental surgeon at APO 712.  In May 1919, he was assigned to the 322d Labor Battalion.  [RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 372 Infantry," roster, Captain John S. Blackmar, Senior Medical Officer with Troops, to Surgeon, Base Section No. 1, S.O.R., April 1918, box 25, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 28 March, 27 May 1919; box 3137, NA.]

Tancil, Park, D.D.S. (1886-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Corps, National Guard was born on 16 December 1886 at Alexandria, Virginia.  He received his D.D.S. degree from the dental department of Howard University in 1910.  From 28 June 1916, Dr. Tancil served in the 8th Regiment, Illinois Infantry, National Guard (later 370th Infantry Regiment, 93d Division). He served as a regimental dental surgeon with the medical detachment while the regiment was stationed at Camp Logan, Houston, Texas, in October 1917. He had received his commission on 16 July 1917 and was listed as "colored."  Lieutenant Tancil arrived in France on 22 April 1918.  He served with the 370th Infantry through January 1919.  In February-March 1919, he served with the 807th Regiment, Pioneer Infantry.  [RG 112, E 136, SGO, PHDNG, Park Tancil, NA; RG 168, E 12A, NG, "211. Illinois Dental Surgeons," letter, Chief of Militia Bureau to Adjutant General of Illinois, 2 August 1917, box 176, no. 211., NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 370 Infantry," letter, Major James R. White, Surgeon, 8th Illinois Infantry, to Division Surgeon, 33rd Division, 16 October 1917, roster, Regimental Infirmary, 8th Illinois Infantry, October 1917, letters, White to Post Surgeon, Camp Pontanezen, 13 January 1919, White to Division Surgeon, Provisional Division (colored), 15 January 1919, box 25, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Travis, Plato Harrison, D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Tulsa, Oklahoma, was a 1916 graduate of the dental department of Meharry Medical College.  He applied to the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917.  His application form was marked "Colored."  He was recommended for a commission on 24 November 1917 and appointed a First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps.  In April 1918, Dr. Travis was shipped overseas on the U.S.S. Susquehanna with the medical department of the 372d Infantry, 93d Division.  From February-June 1919, Lieutenant Travis was stationed with the medical detachment of the 807th Pioneer Infantry Regiment at Camp Pontanezen, Base Section No. 5, American Expeditionary Forces, France.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., p. 34; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Travis, box 3, NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 372 Infantry," letter, Captain John S. Blackmar, Senior Medical Officer with Troops, to Surgeon, Base Section No. 1, S.O.R., April 1918, box 25, "Correspondence Infirmary 807 Pioneer Infantry," roster of medical detachment, 807 Pioneer Infantry, 25 June 1919, box 29, NA; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28 March 1919, box 3137, NA.]

 


APPENDIX C

    African-American Dental Personnel:  1917-1919
    Pioneer Infantry, A.E.F.

Anderson, Henry Buie, D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Booth, George C., D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Brazier, Joseph Christopher, D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Brock, Alonzo Strother, D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Brock, Theophilus Clay (see Appendix A).

Cobb, Edward James, D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Crawford, James L., D.D.S. (see Appendix A)

Dowdell, Crawford B. (see Appendix A).

Finkelstein, Nathan H. (18??-19??), of Boston, Massachusetts,  First Lieutenant, Dental Corps, served with the 804th Regiment, Pioneer Infantry from December 1918 to May 1919.  [RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14, 28, 29 March 1919, box 3137, NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence Infirmary 804 Pioneer Infantry, roster, 2 May 1919, box 29, NA.

French, John R., D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

King, Raymond, D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Russell, William Roger, D.D.S. (1875?-19??) , of Topeka, Kansas, and Bowling Green, Kentucky, was a 42-year-old graduate of the Indiana Dental College, who had been in practice for 10 years.  On 2 May 1917, his application papers for the Dental Reserve Corps (marked "colored") were received by the surgeon general.  On 1 June 1917, he was directed to appear for examination.  He was recommended for a commission on 14 July 1917 and was commissioned a first lieutenant in the Dental Reserve Corps on 23 July.  On 8 September 1917, Lieutenant Russell was ordered to active duty at Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, Kentucky.  While stationed at Camp Taylor, on 6 July 1918, he was transferred from the 1st Provisional Infantry (Colored) to the medical detachment of the 801st Pioneer Infantry Regiment.  [RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record cards, Russell, 18 April, 2, 7, 29 May, 7 June, 25 July 1917, box 261, no. 169332, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Russell, box 3, NA; U.S. War Department, Special Orders 1917 [special orders no. 209, par. 136, 1917, pp. 33-34] (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918); RG 120, E 2155, AEF, Records of Infirmaries of Infantry Regiments and Other Units,"Correspondence Infirmary 801 Pioneer Infantry," roster of medical detachment, 801st Pioneer Infantry, Camp Zachary Taylor [memo to camp surgeon], 21 July 1918, box 28, NA.]
Sarjeant, Leonard F., D.D.S. (see appendix A).

Tancil, Park, D.D.S. (see Appendix B).

Travis, Plato Harrison, D.D.S. (see Appendix B).
 

 


APPENDIX D

    African-American Dental Personnel:  1918-1919
    Labor Battalions, A.E.F.

Beshears, Rufus Preston, D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Black, John W. (see Appendix A).

Bowen, Frank L. (18??-19??), First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps, in February-March 1919, served overseas in France as a dental officer with the 322d Labor Battalion, A.E.F.  [RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," rosters, 12 February, 8, 14 March 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Browne, Alexander Cecil, D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Butler, Lucius Armond (see Appendix A).

Cardwell, John H., D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Dowdell, Crawford B. (see Appendix A).

French, John R., D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Gardiner, Robert N. (see Appendix B).

Henderson, Crispus A. (see Appendix A).

Swayne, Russell M., D.D.S. (see Appendix A).

Williamston, Henry Wadsworth, D.D.S. (1894-19??), was born on 2 January 1894 at Oxford, North Carolina.  He graduated from the Dental Department, University of West Tennessee in Memphis, Tennessee, on 1 May 1918 with a D.D.S. degree.  On 2 June 1918, he was drafted into the army as a private and sent to France.  On 21 June 1918, he was assigned to Company "B," 335th Labor Battalion, A.E.F.  For the next four months he served as a supply sergeant.  On 14 November 1918, he applied for a commission in the Dental Corps, U.S. Army.  [RG 120, E 2065, AEF, Headquarters Services of Supply, Technical Staff, 1917-19, Office of the Chief Surgeon, General Correspondence of the Chief Surgeon, 1917-19, "Dental Corps Examination for Temporary," application papers, Henry W. Williamston, 24 October, 14 November 1918, box 4956, folder 10, no. 211.2321-12, NA.]

 


APPENDIX E

African-American Dental Personnel:  1917-1919
Other Units or Unknown





Bowman, Lemuel A., D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Nashville, Tennessee, a 1912 graduate of the dental department of Meharry Medical College, served in the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917-18.  He later practiced in Nashville.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., p. 34; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 650.]
 

Fig. 15.  Dr. Anthony W. Brooks (NDS).

Brooks, Anthony Wayne, D.D.S. (1889-19??),  of Marion, Indiana, described as "a young colored man," applied for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps on 15 June 1917.  Dr. Brooks (fig. 15) was born in Mayersville, Mississippi, in 1889.  In 1915, he graduated from Northwestern University Dental School.  He was recommended by his senator from Indiana, Harry S. New.  Later, Dr. Brooks practiced in Muncie, Indiana.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, New to Major General William C. Gorgas, 11 June 1917, box 736, no. 108763, NA; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Brooks, 15 June 1917, box 279, no. 184814, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 18, 266.]

Brown, James B., D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Atlanta, Georgia, a 1908 graduate of the dental department of Meharry Medical College, served in the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917-18.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., p. 34.]

Brown, James R. (18??-19??), on 18 September 1917, was reported in camp at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, as a dental officer without status.  He had been examined for the Dental Reserve Corps and transferred from the line officers' training camp more than a month earlier, but still had not been ordered to duty.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, telegram, Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Noble to Surgeon General, 18 September 1917, box 1322, no. 187170, NA.]

Brown, William Foster, D.M.D. (1895-19??), of Boston, Massachusetts, applied to the Dental Reserve Corps, on 14 June 1917 (application marked "Colored."  He was born on 29 May 1895 in Boston.  In 1909, he entered Tufts College Dental School and graduated in June 1916.  On 15 June 1917, he took his physical examination at Boston and was accepted.  His complexion was described as "dark (negro)."  He achieved a 91 percent average on his professional oral examination given on 20 June at the Forsyth Dental Infirmary and was found qualified for a commission.  On 4 August 1917, The Surgeon General's Office officially notified him that he was recommended for a commission.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, W.F. Brown, box 3, NA; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application, Brown to Surgeon General, 14 June 1917, letter, Surgeon General to Brown, 4 August 1917, box 1377, no. 197335, NA.]

Brown, William R., D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Birmingham, Alabama, graduated from the dental department of Meharry Medical College in 1908.  On 18 September 1917, he was reported in camp at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, as a dental officer without status.  He had been examined for the Dental Reserve Corps and transferred from the line officers' training camp more than a month earlier, but still had not been ordered to duty.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., p. 34; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 109; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, telegram, Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Noble to Surgeon General, 18 September 1917, box 1322, no. 187170, NA.]

Burnett, James Battish (18??-19??), of Dallas, Texas, applied to the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917 and was recommended for a commission on 21 August 1917.  His application was marked "Colored."[ RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Burnett, box 3, NA.]

Capel, William Garfield, D.D.S., (18??-19??), of Huntington, West Virginia, a 1912 graduate of the Ohio State University, College of Dentistry, applied to the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917 and was recommended for a commission on 28 September 1917. His application was marked "Colored." [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Capel, box 3, NA; Polk, 11th ed., op. cit., pp. 49, 1025.]

Dilworth, Benjamin Harrison, D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Yazoo City, Mississippi, on 26 July 1917, requested information on the dental corps.  In August 1917, he was examined and recommended for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps.  His application was marked "Colored."  On 17 August 1917, he was notified that his papers had been approved for commission as a First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps.  [RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, telegram, Surgeon General to Dilworth, 17 August 1917, box 288, no. 193869, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Dilworth, box 2, NA.]

Hardy, Ernest Maurice, D.D.S. (18??-19??), a 1913 graduate of the dental department of Howard University, was recommended for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps on 21 December 1917 (listed as "colored").  He was assigned to the 368th Infantry Regiment at Camp Meade, Maryland; however, he is not listed on the medical/dental officers returns for the 92d Division, A.E.F.  Apparently, he did not go overseas with the division.  Lieutenant Hardy remained in the reserves (inactive status) after the war, with date of rank 3 May 1920.  [RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Hardy to Surgeon General, 6 February 1917, box 116, no. 82361, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 184; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Hardy, box 2, NA; RG 120, E 2144, SGO, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA.]

Harris, Herbert (18??-19??) served as a First Lieutenant, Dental Reserve Corps (fig. 16), in 1917-18. [Emmett J. Scott, Scott's Official History of the American Negro In The World War (N.p.:  Emmett J. Scott, 1919), photo caption opposite p. 48.]

Haywood, Harold Edward, D.D.S. (18??-19?), of San Antonio, Texas, a 1916 graduate of the dental department of Howard University, wrote to the surgeon general in June 1917 requesting information on the provisions made for "colored professional men" in the army reserve corps.  He was recommended for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps on 22 September 1917.  [Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 663; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Haywood to Surgeon General, undated, box 736, no. 108763, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Haywood, box 2, NA.]

Holder, William Daniel, D.D.S. (1879-19??), of Jackson, Tennessee, was born on 22 August 1879.  He graduated from the dental department of Meharry Medical College in 1903.  In 1917, he applied to the Dental Reserve Corps (application marked "Colored").  He was recommended for a commission on 25 August 1917.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Holder, box 2, NA; Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., p. 34.]

Holland, Theodore Albert (18??-19??), of Chicago, Illinois,  was recommended for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps on 25 August 1917 (application marked "Colored).  [RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Holland, 4 September 1917, box 296, no. 201463, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, box 2, NA.]

Hurd, William V., D.D.S. (18??-19??), of San Antonio, Texas, graduated from the dental department of Meharry Medical College in 1917.  He then entered the Dental Reserve Corps.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., p. 34; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 663.]

Jackson, Andrew Lumas, D.D.S. (1885-19??), originally applied to the dental corps in 1912 (see earlier text for details).  On 8 May 1917, Dr. Jackson applied to the Dental Reserve Corps.  [RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Jackson, 18 May 1917, box 212, no. 141456, NA.]

Jackson, R.W. (18??-19??), on 18 September 1917, was reported in camp at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, as a dental officer without status.  He had been examined for the Dental Reserve Corps and transferred from the line officers' training camp more than a month earlier, but still had not been ordered to duty.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, telegram, Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Noble to Surgeon General, 18 September 1917, box 1322, no. 187170, NA.]

Johnson, Robert Gibbs, D.D.S. (1887-19??), originally applied to the dental corps in 1912 (see earlier text for details).  Again, on 23 April 1917, Dr. Johnson applied for appointment.  He was invited to appear for examination at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, on 2 July 1917.  His physical form listed under complexion, "dark (Negro)."  On 13 July 1917, he was found qualified for commission in the Dental Reserve Corps.  On 7 September 1917, the surgeon general's office advised him that he had been recommended for a commission.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application, Johnson to Surgeon General, 23 April 1917, letters, Surgeon General to Johnson, 20 June 1917, Surgeon General's Office to Johnson, 7 September 1917, box 1022, no. 143169, NA.]

Johnson, Thomas Olin (18??-19??), of Jersey City, New Jersey, applied to the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917.  His application form was marked "Colored."  He was not recommended for a commission until 20 June 1918.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Johnson, box 2, NA.  Presumed to be a 1914 graduate of the College of Dental and Oral Surgery of New York [Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 20, 505].]

Jones, Simon P., D.D.S. (18??-19??), of St.Louis, Missouri, graduated from the dental department of Meharry Medical College in 1915.  He entered the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917-18.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., p. 34; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 412.]

Mitchell, Iverson O., D.D.S. (18??-19??), a 1915 graduate of the dental department of Howard University, applied to the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917.  [Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 185.]

Morris, Craig, D.D.S. (1893-1977) , of Omaha, Nebraska, applied for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps on 26 May 1917 (application marked "Colored").  Dr. Morris (fig. 17) was born on 18 July 1893 at Omaha.  On 2 September 1912, he entered the Creighton University Dental College and received his D.D.S. degree on 30 April 1915.  He was examined for the Dental Reserve Corps on 29 June 1917 and recommended for a commission on 11 August.  By 17 September 1917, he had not yet received his orders so he contacted The Surgeon General's Office on the possibility of being assigned to Fort Des Moines or any other camp.  On 19 September, the surgeon general advised him that there was very little probability of his being ordered to active duty in the near future.  After the war, Dr. Morris practiced in Omaha and became the president of the Nebraska Negro Medical Society.  In 1945, he moved to California.  He retired from dentistry in 1959 and was ordained an Episcopalian minister.  Dr. Morris died at age eighty-three in San Diego, California, on 3 January 1977.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Morris, box 3, NA; Charles J. Vacanti, Dental Historian, Creighton University, School of Dentistry, letter (information on Dr. Morris from alumni records, College of Dentistry Archives) to author, 1 December 1992, PC; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Morris, 26 May 1917, box 273, no. 179213, NA; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, telegram, Morris to Surgeon General's Office, 17 September 1917, letter, Surgeon General to Morris, 19 September 1917, box 1273, no. 179213, NA.]

Roe, Napoleon Bonapart, D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Paris, Texas, a 1914 graduate of the dental department of Meharry Medical College, applied to the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917.  His application form was marked "Colored."  He was recommended for a commission on 9 October 1917.  In May 1919, he served overseas in France with the 527th Engineer Service Company.  [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, 1917-18, Roe, box 3, NA; Polk, 11th ed., op. cit., pp. 50, 969; RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," roster, 27 May 1919, box 3137, NA.]

Scott, Sidney St.Julian, D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Florence, South Carolina, graduated from the dental department of Meharry Medical College in 1914.  He entered the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917-18.  [Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, loc. cit., p. 34; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 21, 636.]

Thomas, Raymond Bell, D.D.S. (1894-19??), of Washington, D.C., applied for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps on 28 July 1917.  His application was marked "Colored."  Dr. Thomas was born on 22 May 1894.  He was a 1915 graduate of the dental department of Howard University, and had served for a year on the faculty as an instructor in operative dentistry.  He was recommended for a commission  on 12 September 1917.  By 6 October 1917, he still had not received his commission.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application, Thomas to Surgeon General, 28 July 1917, box 1367, no. 194909, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Thomas, box 3, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 186; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Thomas, 6 October 1917, box 289, no. 194909, NA.]
Tymony, Joseph Clyde, D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Columbia, Missouri, applied to the Dental Reserve Corps in 1917 (application marked "Colored").  Dr. Tymony was a 1914 graduate of the State University of Iowa, College of Dentistry.  He was recommended for a commission on 4 September 1917. [RG 112, E 134, SGO, PDDRC, Tymony, box 3, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 18, 238.]

Watkins, Thomas, D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Charlotte, North Carolina, on 10 June 1917, wrote to the surgeon general that he was a "colored dentist" with eight years' experience, and wished to apply to the dental corps.  Dr. Watkins was a 1909 graduate of the dental department of Howard University.  His son, Lieutenant (j.g.) Thomas Watkins, Jr., was the first African-American dentist to be commissioned in the Dental Corps, U.S. Naval Reserve.  He was a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, class of 1944, and reported for duty on 1 November 1944.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Watkins to Surgeon General, 10 June 1917, box 736, no. 108763, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 532; Dummett, Afro-Americans in Dentistry, op. cit., p. 42.]

Whitfield, Walter W., Jr., D.D.S. (1888-19??), of Buffalo, New York, on 5 June 1917, wrote to the surgeon general stating that he was "colored" and wished to apply to the Dental Reserve Corps.  He graduated from Hampton Institute in 1909 and from the dental department of Howard University in 1912.  [Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 556; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Whitfield to Surgeon General, 5 June 1917, box 736, no. 108763, NA.]

Whitted, William Hill, D.D.S. (18??-19??), of Selma, Alabama, on 26 May 1917, inquired of Colonel Charles Young, U.S. Army, whether "Negros [sic]" would be admitted to the regular dental corps or the reserve corps.  Dr. Whitted was a 1912 graduate of the dental department of Howard University.  He applied and by August 1917 all his paperwork for a commission in the Dental Reserve Corps had been received by the surgeon general.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Whitted to Young, 26 May 1917, box 736, no. 108763, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 112; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Whitted, 22 August 1917, box 293, no. 198706, NA.]

 


APPENDIX F

 Dental Colleges Attended by 1901-1917
 African-American Applicants



 20    Unknown
 18    Meharry Medical College, Dental Department
 16    Howard University, Dental Department
   5     Indiana University, School of Dentistry
            (Indiana Dental College)
   4    Northwestern University, Dental School
           (American College of Dental Surgery)
   2    Chicago College of Dental Surgery, Dental
            Department of Loyola University
   2    College of Dental and Oral Surgery of New York
   2    State University of Iowa, College of Dentistry
   2    Tufts College Dental School
   2    University of Illinois, College of Dentistry
   2    University of West Tennessee, Dental Department
   1    Creighton University, College of Dentistry
   1    Ohio State University, College of Dentistry
   1    Thomas W. Evans Museum and Dental Institute
   1    School of Dentistry, University of Pennsylvania
   1    University of Southern California, College of  Dentistry

 Total 79
 

 


FOOTNOTES


1.    The only official dentist authorized by the War Department prior to 1901 was Dr. William Saunders (1835-1906), a U.S. Army hospital steward stationed at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York.  In 1872, Dr. Saunders was appointed the official dentist for the Corps of Cadets under the direct orders of the post commander, the Superintendent.  He served in this capacity until his death in 1906.  For details of Saunders' career see, John M. Hyson, Jr., The United States Military Academy Dental Service: A History 1825-1920 (West Point: United States Military Academy, United States Army, 1989), pp. 7-48.

2.   Record Group 112, Entry 242, Surgeon General's Office, Decisions and Opinions of the Judge Advocate General relating to the Medical Department, 1904-9, profiles of 1898 black contract surgeons, box 468, no. 5, National Archives (hereafter cited as RG__, E__, SGO, DJAG, NA).

3.   RG 112, E 26, SGO, General Correspondence, 1894-1917 (hereafter cited as GC), letter, Surgeon General to Adjutant General, 28 May 1898, box 184, no. 39522, NA; Robert E. Greene, Black Defenders of America:  1775-1974 (Chicago:  Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1974), p. 125; RG 94, E 522, Adjutant General's Office, Carded Records, Volunteer Organizations, Spanish-American War, William T. Jefferson, Co. D, 8 Illinois Inf. (Col'd.), NA (hereafter cited as AGO, CRSAW).

4.   RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application, Jefferson to Surgeon General, 24 February 1901, letters, Jefferson to Surgeon General, 8 February 1901, Jefferson to Charles G. Dawes, 1 March 1901, box 519, no. 78832, NA; Greene, op. cit., p. 141; RG 94, E 522, AGO, CRSAW, William T. Jefferson, Co. D, 8 Illinois Inf. (Col'd.), NA; Harry S. McCard, and Henry Turnley, History of the Eighth Illinois United States Volunteers (Chicago:  E.F. Harman, 1889), p. 45.  Unfortunately, there is no photograph of Captain Jefferson in McCard's history [the author].  In 1896, the American College of Dental Surgery was consolidated with the Northwestern University Dental School.  [R.L. Polk & Co., Polk's Dental Register and Directory of the United States and Canada 1902-1903, 5th ed. (Detroit:  R.L. Polk & Co., Publishers, 1902), P. 42.]

5.   RG 94, E 25, AGO, Document File, 1890-1917 (hereafter cited as DF), letters, Jefferson to Mason, 3 September 1899, Root to Mason, 2 October 1899, box 1902, no. 284414, NA; RG 15, Bureau of Pensions and the Veterans Administration, pension record, William T. Jefferson, declaration for pension, 4 January 1924, 31 October 1925, cert. no. 969282, NA.

6.   U.S. Congress, Congressional Record [56th Cong., 2d sess., Sec. 18, Act of Feb. 2, 1901 (31 Stat. 752)], vol. 34 (Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1901), p. 1926.

7.   RG 112, E 101, SGO, Case Files of Persons Examined for Appointment as Dental Surgeons, 1900-17 (hereafter cited as CFADS), application, Fry to Surgeon General, 15 February 1901, box 344, no. 78519, NA.

8.   RG 112, E 101, SGO, CFADS, application, Fry to Surgeon General, 15 February 1901, letter, Surgeon General to Fry, 14 February 1901, report, Dr. John S. Marshall to Surgeon General, 16 March 1901, box 344, no. 78519, NA;  Clifton O. Dummett, and Lois D. Dummett, Afro-Americans in Dentistry:  Sequence And Consequence of Events (Los Angeles:  Clifton O. Dummett, 1978), p. 13; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letters, Surgeon General to Butler, 5 February 1901, Fry to Surgeon General, 18 March 1901, box 516, no. 78519, NA.  Dr. Jefferson could be considered the first black applicant for the 1901 dental corps as his 8 February 1901 letter to The Surgeon General preceded Dr. Fry's 15 February application; however, Jefferson's formal application form was dated 24 February or after Fry's.  Therefore, Dr. Fry was the first applicant [the author].

9.   RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Jefferson to Surgeon General, 8 February 1901, application, Jefferson to Surgeon General, 24 February 1901, letters, Surgeon General to Jefferson, 20 February 1901, 13 March 1901, 10 January 1905, box 519, no. 78832, NA.  In 1915, Dr. Fry was appointed the dental inspector of the District of Columbia Colored Schools. [Dummett, Afro-Americans in Dentistry, op. cit., p. 20.]

10.  RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application with endorsements, Birch to Surgeon General, 11 November 1901, box 476, no. 73579, NA; U.S. War Department, [Raphael P. Thain, comp.], Legislative History of the General Staff of the Army Of The United States (Its Organization, Duties, Pay, and Allowances), from 1775 to 1901 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1901), p. 438.

11. RG 94, E 91, AGO, Enlistment Papers, 1798-Oct. 31, 1912 (hereafter cited as EP), William A. Birch, NA; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application with endorsements, Birch to Surgeon General, 11 November 1901, testimonials, Miller for Birch, 12 November 1901, Oliver for Birch, 10 December 1901, box 476, no. 73579, NA.

12. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application with endorsements, Birch to Surgeon General, 11 November 1901, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Birch, 8 April 1902, box 476, no. 73579, NA.

13. RG 94, E 26, AGO, Record Cards, 1890-1917 (hereafter cited as RC), record card, 29 April 1902, box 816, no. 428651, NA; RG 94, E 25, AGO, DF, special orders no. 205, par. 6, 30 August 1902, box 2990, no. 428651, NA.  Apparently, Dr. Birch either stayed in the Philippines or returned at a later date for in 1912 he was reported as practicing in San Fernando and in 1928 in Iloilo, Philippine Islands.  [R.L.Polk & Co., Polk's Dental Register and Directory of the United States and Dominion of Canada , 10th ed. (Chicago: R.L. Polk & Co., Publishers, 1912), pp. 45, 971; Idem, 14th ed., 1928, pp. 18, 730.]

14. RG 112, E 242, SGO, DJAG, memorandum, Surgeon General to President, 24 December 1904, profiles of 1898 black contract surgeons, box 468, no.5, NA; RG 94, E 91, AGO, EP, enlistment papers, 26 August 1897, Thomas C. Reeds, box 1102, NA; RG 94, E 561, AGO, Personal Papers, Medical Officers And Physicians, prior to 1912, "Medical Officer's File" (hereafter cited as PPMOF), personal report, A.M. Brown, 28 February 1899, box 74, NA.  Dr. Brown was shot in the thigh, scrotum, and pelvis while "carrying out order" of his commanding officer.  He was "sick" in his quarters from 11-28 February 1899.  His contract was annulled on 8 March 1899.  [RG 94, E 561, AGO, PPMOF, personal report, A.M. Brown, February 1899, handwritten notation, undated, box 74, NA.]

15. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letters, Surgeon General's Office to Bowens, 18 February 1907, Bowens to Taft, 23 February 1907, box 736, no. 108763, NA.

16. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letters, Langston to Surgeon General, 17 April 1907, Surgeon General's Office to Langston, 24 April 1907, box 750, no. 110768, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 18, 228.

17. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letters, Green to Secretary of War, 20 July 1909, Surgeon General's Office to Green, 22 July 1909, box 888, no. 128609; application, Green to Surgeon General, 6 June 1917, box 1307, no. 185004, NA.  In 1912, Green transferred to Meharry Medical College and graduated in 1913.  He then began practice in Orangeburg, South Carolina.  On 7 June 1917, Dr.Green took the examination for the Medical Reserve Corps, but failed the professional examination.  [RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, examination record, Green, 7 June 1917, box 1307, no. 185004, NA.]

18. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letters, Rodenberg to Secretary of War, 16 July 1910, Surgeon General's Office to Rodenberg, 19 July 1910, box 751, no. 110768, NA.

19. George H. Torney, "Communication from the Surgeon General, United States Army," Dental Brief, 16 (May 1911), p. 352; U.S. War Department, The Military Laws of the United States 1915 [Act of Mar. 3, 1911 (36 Stat. 1054)], 5th ed. (Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1915), p. 291.

20. RG 112, E 101, SGO, CFADS, application, Beshears to Surgeon General, 16 October 1911, letters, Beshears to Adjutant General, 30 August 1911, Surgeon General's Office to Beshears, 18 March 1912, proceedings of board, Beshears, 1 April 1912, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Beshears, 7 May 1912, box 338, no. 138983, NA; Dummett, Afro-Americans in Dentistry, op. cit., p. 16.  See Appendix A for Beshears' later 1917-18 career as Dental Reserve Corps officer.

21. RG 112, E 101, SGO, CFADS, 1900-17, application, Jackson to Surgeon General, 12 March 1912, letter, Surgeon General to Jackson, 21 March 1912, physical examination, Jackson, undated, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Jackson, 20 April 1912, box 348, no. 141456, NA.  See Appendix D for Jackson's later 1917-18 career as Dental Reserve Corps officer.

22. RG 112, E 101, SGO, CFADS, application, Johnson to Surgeon General, 11 September 1912, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Johnson, 20 September 1912, physical examination, Johnson, undated, board proceedings, Johnson, 7 October 1912, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Johnson, 8 October 1912, box 348, no. 143169, NA; Clifton O. Dummett, and Lois D. Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College:  Origin and Odyssey (Nashville, TN:  Meharry Medical College, 1992), p. 34.

23. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, application, Johnson to Surgeon General, 10 August 1915, letter, Surgeon General to Johnson, 12 August 1915, box 1022, no. 143169, NA.  See Appendix D for Johnson's later 1917-18 career as Dental Reserve Corps officer.

24. RG 112, E 101, SGO, CFADS, application, Young to Surgeon General, 20 September 1912, NA; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letters, Young to Surgeon General, 31 May 1911, Surgeon General's Office to Young, 5 June 1911, box 973, no. 137853, NA.

25. RG 112, E 101, SGO, CFADS, application, Young to Surgeon General, 20 September 1912, letters, Young to Surgeon General, 26 February 1912, Surgeon General's Office to Young, 1 March, 25 September 1912, Young to Surgeon General, 6 October 1912, Surgeon General's Office to Young, 8 October 1912, 24 March, 3 May 1913, box 370, no. 137853, NA.  Dr. Young's examination papers were not found in this file.  They were missing with notation that they were in "Col. Gandy's safe."  Therefore, it is impossible to check his low score; as a graduate of Northwestern, obviously he was well educated.  Also, there was noted, "Papers filed with 2d Invitation Jacket"; these were not located [the author].  RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, dental board proceedings, Young, 7 April 1913, box 973, no. 137853, NA.

26. RG 112, E 101, SGO, CFADS, application, Strong to Surgeon General, 15 March 1913, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Strong, 24 March 1913, physical examination, Strong, 7 April 1913, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Strong, 3 May 1913, box 364, no. 145017, NA; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, endorsement, Lieutenant Colonel Frank R. Keefer to Surgeon General, 14 April 1913, box 1037, no. 145017, NA.  In 1914, Dr. Strong was one of the founders of the Old Dominion State Dental Society of Virginia and served as its treasurer.  [Dummett, Afro-Americans in Dentistry, op. cit., p. 20.]

27. RG 112, E 101, SGO, CFADS, application, King to Surgeon General, 20 January 1914, letters, King to Surgeon General, 17 December 1913, Morrison to Adjutant General, 8 January 1914, Surgeon General's Office to Morrison, 10 January 1914, Surgeon General's Office to King, 23 January, 30 March 1914, King to Surgeon General, 15 July 1914, Surgeon General's Office to King, 17 July 1914, 29 March 1915, board proceedings, King, 12 April 1915, physical examination, King, 12 April 1915, letter, Surgeon General's Office to King, 17 May 1915, box 349, no. 147776, NA.

28. RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, King, 7 June 1915, letter, Surgeon General's Office to King, 12 June 1915, box 223, no. 147776, NA.  See Appendix A for King's later 1917-18 career as Dental Reserve Corps officer.

29. RG 112, E 101, SGO, CFADS, application, Grant to Surgeon General, 18 March 1915, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Grant, 29 March 1915, board proceedings, Grant, 12 April 1915, physical examination, Grant, 12 April 1915, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Grant, 17 May 1915, box 345, no. 152084, NA; RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Grant to Surgeon General, 29 May 1915 [there was no reply in file from The Surgeon General on the grades], box 1089, no. 152084, NA.  In 1950, Dr. Grant became the first African-American to be appointed to the St. Louis Board of Education.  [Dummett, Afro-Americans in Dentistry, op. cit., p. 49.]

30. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, postcard, Cobb to Division of Information, 10 April 1915, box 751, no. 110768, NA; RG 112, E 134, SGO, Personal Data Cards of Candidates Seeking Appointment to the Dental Reserve Corps, 1917-18 (hereafter cited as PDDRC), Cobb, box 2, NA.  See Appendix A for Cobb's later 1917-18 career as Dental Reserve Corps officer.

31. RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Carter, 1 September 1916, letter, Surgeon General to Carter, 27 October 1916, box 248, no. 160410, NA.  See Appendix A for Carter's later 1917-18 career as Dental Reserve Corps officer.

32. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter ["Information Relating to Dental Legislation and Its Application"], Homer C. Brown to Major Robert E. Noble, 7 July 1916, box 712, no.106047, NA; U.S. War Department, Report of the Surgeon General U.S. Army to the Secretary of War 1917, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1917), p. 294.  By contrast, the Medical Reserve Corps was first authorized by Congress in 1908. [RG 112, E 29, SGO, General Correspondence, 1917-46, "The Medical Reserve Corps"[ p. 1], box 179, no. 795131, NA.]

33. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letters, Yarbueugh [as spelled by army] to Surgeon General, 6 June 1917, Surgeon General's Office to Yarbueugh, 3 July 1917, box 1349, no. 191004, NA; Dummett, Dental Education at Meharry Medical College, op. cit. [name spelled "Yarbrough" by Dummett], p. 21. See also Appendices A, B, C, D, and E for other 1917 applicants.

34. RG 94, E 25, AGO, DF, telegram, Henry P. McCain to commanding general, Eastern Department, Governor's Island, New York, undated, box 8870, no. 2598077, NA.

35. L. Albert Scipio II, With The Red Hand Division, 1st ed. (Silver Spring, MD:  Roman Publications, 1985), p. 8.

36. RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, letters, Surgeon General to White, 19 May 1917, Major R. B. Miller to Major Stuart McGuire, 21 May 1917, box 151, no. 108763, NA.

37. RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, letter, Surgeon General's Office to Dr. Benjamin F. Royer, 25 May 1917, box 151, no. 108763, NA.

38. RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, letters, Surgeon General to Major A. T. McCormick, 31 May 1917, Surgeon General to Dr. Benjamin F. Royer, 6 June 1917, box 151, no. 108763, NA.

39. RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, letters, Surgeon General to Major George M. Wells, 11 June 1917, Surgeon General to Captain Edgar W. Loomis, 15 June 1917, Surgeon General to Major John W. Long, 27 June 1917, box 151, no. 108763, NA.

40. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Lewis to Baker, 10 June 1917, box 1132A, no. 157447, NA; Polk, 14th ed., op. cit., pp. 17, 184.

41. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Boak to Noble, 16 June 1917, box 736, no. 108763, NA; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, letter, Noble to Boak, 21 June 1917, box 151, no. 108763, NA.

42. RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, Oliver to Surgeon General, 20 June 1917, endorsement, Surgeon General to Department Surgeon, Southern Department, Fort Sam Houston, 4 July 1917, box 283, no. 188808, NA.

43. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Hinman to Major R. M. Miller, 29 June 1917, box 736, no. 108763, NA.

44. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, telegram, Munson to Surgeon General, 21 June 1917, box 1322, no. 187170, NA.

45. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, memo, Surgeon General to Adjutant General, 3 July 1917, box 1322, no. 187170, NA.

46. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, endorsement, Adjutant General to Surgeon General, 10 July 1917, box 1322, no. 187170, NA; RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, letter, Surgeon General to Commanding Officer, Fort Des Moines, 13 July 1917, box 151, no. 108763, NA.

47. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter,  Bartlett to Surgeon General, 22 July 1917, box 1322, no. 187170, NA.

48. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, telegram, Surgeon General to Commandant, Medical Officers' Training Camp, Fort Des Moines, Iowa, 30 July 1917, "Course of Progressive Instruction Medical Officers Training Camp, Fort Des Moines, Iowa", box 1322, no. 187170, NA; RG 120, E 1241, American Expeditionary Forces (hereafter cited as AEF), Combat Divisions, Records of the 76th - 103d Divisions, 1917-19 (hereafter cited as CDR), 93d Division Headquarters, memorandum, Surgeon General to Department Surgeons, 14 May 1917, box 7, no. 320.2, NA; Leland Barrett, comp., "Our Army and Navy [Colored Medical Officers' Training Camp At Fort Des Moines]," Journal of the Allied Dental Societies, 12 (December 1917), pp. 515-16.

49. RG 112, E 25, SGO, RCGC, record card, D.W. Byrd to Surgeon General, 30 August 1917, endorsement, Surgeon General's Office to Adjutant General, 15 October 1917, box 302, no. 208014, NA.

50. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, telegram, R.R. Moton, Tuskegee Institute, to President Wilson, 22 June 1917, box 1319, no. 186767, NA.

51. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, telegram, Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Noble to Surgeon General, 18 September 1917, box 1322, no. 187170, NA.

52. RG 112, E 26, SGO, GC, letter, Watts to Logan, 8 September 1917, memorandum, Colonel Edwin P. Wolfe to Logan, 17 September 1917, box 1397, no. 200538, NA.

53. Leland Barrett, comp., "Our Army and Navy [157,000 Negroes in Army]," Journal of the Allied Dental Societies, 13 (September 1918), p. 288.

54. American Battle Monuments Commission, 92d Division:  Summary of Operations in the World War (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1944), p. 1; Scipio, op. cit., p.33; U.S. Army War College, The Ninety-Second Division 1917-1918 (Washington Barracks, D.C.:  Historical Section, U.S. Army War College, 1923 [unpublished]), pt. 2, pp. 1, 3-6, 10, 12, 14; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, Records of Chief Surgeons, Sanitary Trains, Field Hospital Companies and Sections, and other Medical Units and Offices of Infantry Divisions Nos. 1-99, 1917-19 (hereafter cited as RCSID), "Correspondence - Dental Surgeon, 92 Division," letter, Lieutenant Colonel Perry L. Boyer to Surgeon General, 7 March 1918, box 4006, NA.

55. RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Correspondence - Dental Surgeon, 92 Division," letter, Boyer to Surgeon General, 7 March 1918, box 4006, NA.

56. RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Correspondence - Dental Surgeon, 92 Division," letter, Boyer to Surgeon General, 6 May 1918, box 4006, "Personnel, Surgeon 92d Division," letter, Boyer to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., 5 August 1918, box 4005, no. 200, NA.  See also Appendix A.

57. American Battle Monuments Commission, 92d Division: Summary of Operations in the World War, op. cit., p. 4.

58. RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Reports Dental Work - Dental Surgeon, 92 Division [July 1918, Field Hospital 366, 317 Sanitary Train]," box 4005, "Correspondence - Dental Surgeon, 92 Division," letter, Major Jackson S. Lawrence, Surgeon 368 Infantry, to Division Dental Surgeon, 92nd Division, 11 September 1918, box 4006, NA.

59. RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Returns Medical Officers, Surgeon 92d Division [June-December 1918]," box 4005, NA; U.S. War Department, Official Army Register December 1, 1918 (Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1919), p. 113; RG 112, E 134, SGO, Personal Data Cards of Candidates Seeking Appointment to the Dental Reserve Corps, 1917-18 (hereafter cited as PDDRC), Peebles, box 3, NA; U.S. Army War College, The Ninety-Second Division 1917-1918, op. cit., pt.2, pp. 7, 8 [quoted from inspection report on Camp Dix, New Jersey, dated 31 January 1918, made 22-29 January 1918 by Inspector General].  See also Appendix A.

60. RG 120, E 2155, AEF, Records of Infirmaries of Infantry Regiments and other Units, 1912-29 (hereafter cited as RIIR), "Correspondence, Infirmary 365 Infantry," letter, Captain Julian Dawson to Division Surgeon, 92d Division, 29 July 1918, box 25, NA.

61. RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Correspondence Medical Supply Unit, 92 Div.," memorandum, Brause to Medical Supply Officer, 92d Division, 27 September 1918, box 4013, NA.

62. RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Rosters Hq. 317 Sanitary Train, 92 Div.," memorandum, Second Lieutenant Burnie L. Peacock, Acting Unit Adjutant, to Personnel Adjutant, 92d Division, 1 December 1918, box 4006, NA 99.  See also Appendix A.

63. RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Schedule 1196, 92nd Division," box 4004, NA; U.S. Army Center of Military History, Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War, Vol. 2: American Expeditionary Forces: Divisions (Washington, DC: 1988), p. 435.

64. American Battle Monuments Commission, 93d Division: Summary of Operations in the World War (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1944), p. 1; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Schedule 1197, 93d Division," box 4013, NA.

65.RG 120, E 1241, AEF, CDR, 93rd Division, Headquarters, letter, Hoffman to Adjutant General, 28 December 1917, box 6, no. 211.22, NA.

66.    RG 112, E 136, SGO, Personal History Cards of Medical and Dental Officers of the National Guard, 1915-17 (hereafter cited as PHDNG), Bonney, NA; RG 168, E 12A, National Guard (hereafter cited as NG), General Correspondence, 1916-23, telegrams, Adjutant General, Virginia, to Adjutant General, Eastern Department, Governor's Island, New York, 11 January 1918, Adjutant General (McCain) to Adjutant General, Virginia, 15 January 1918, box 178, no. 211.25, NA.

67. Chester D. Heywood, Negro Combat Troops in the World War:  The Story of the 371st Infantry, 1928, reprint (New York:  Negro Universities Press, 1969), pp. 1, 5; Percy E. Deckard, M.D., comp., List of Officers who served with The 371st Infantry and Headquarters 186th Infantry Brigade during The World War (Allegany, NY:  Allegany Citizen, 1929), pp. 49, 82.

68. American Battle Monuments Commission, 93d Division:  Summary of Operations in the World War, op. cit., p. 4; RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, "Schedule 1197, 93d Division," box 4013, NA.

69. RG 120, E 6, AEF, General Headquarters, Office of the Commander in Chief, General Correspondence, 1917-19 (hereafter cited as GHGC), letter, Colonel Herschel Tupes to G.H.Q., A.E.F., 24 July 1918, box 361, no. 11440-A92, NA; RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Correspondence, Infirmary 372 Infantry," roster, Captain John S. Blackmar, Senior Medical Officer with Troops, to Surgeon, Base Section No. 1, S.O.R., April 1918, memo, Captain Albert Ridgeley to Mons. le Medicin Principal, 3 May 1918, box 25, NA.  The 93d divisional records under "Returns, Medical [and dental] Officers,"for March - April 1918 [the only months in the file] list no dental officers.  Only two officers are listed, one medical and one veterinary. [RG 120, E 2144, AEF, RCSID, box 4013, NA.] See also Appendix B.

70. RG 120, E 6, AEF, GHGC, memorandum, Brigadier General George V. Moseley to Deputy Chief of Staff, GHQ, A.E.F., 16 July 1918, box 361, no. 11440-A87, NA; W. Allison Sweeney, History of the American Negro in the World War:  His Splendid Record in the Battle Zones of Europe, 1919, reprint (New York:  Negro Universities Press, 1969), p. 176.  See also Appendix B.

71. American Battle Monuments Commission, 93d Division:  Summary of Operations in the World War, op. cit., pp. 23, 24, 34; U.S. Army Center of Military History, Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War, Vol. 2: American Expeditionary Forces: Divisions (Washington, DC: 1988), p. 442.

72.  Scipio, op. cit., p. 115.

73. RG 120, E 2155, AEF, RIIR, "Venereal & Correspondence - Infirmary 805 Pioneer Infantry," letter, Major Mitchell to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., S.O.S., 2 January 1919, box 29, NA.  See also Appendices A and C.

74. See Appendices A, B, and C under individuals' names for source.

75. RG 120, E 2808, AEF, Advance Section, Reports and Returns of the Section Surgeon, 1917-19 (hereafter cited as ASRSS), "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," letter, Colonel Robert H. Mills, Supervising Dental Surgeon, Advance Section, S.O.S., to Chief Surgeon, A.E.F., 8 May 1919, box 3137, NA.

76. RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," letter, Mills to Oliver, 13 February 1919, box 3137, NA.  Lieutenant Colonel Robert H. Mills was not promoted to colonel until 5 May 1919.  [U.S. War Department, Official Army Register January 1, 1920 (Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1920), p. 97.]

77. RG 120, E 2808, AEF, ASRSS, "Dental Officers on Duty Advance Section, Surgeon Neufchateau, Adv. Sec. APO 731," reports, Rhoades to Mills, 29 March 1919, Mills to Chief Dental Surgeon, A.E.F., 30 April 1919, box 3137, NA.

78. See Appendix D for list of dental officers.

79.  James R. Fay, Colonel, Senior Dental Corps Staff Officer, Department of the Army, letter [1993 strength, Dental Corps, U.S.Army] to author, 20 October 1993, PC.  See Appendix F.
 
 

 


BIBLIOGRAPHY


    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

    NA:  National Archives.  The following subheadings are used to describe material in this institution:
    AEF:  American Expeditionary Forces
    AGO:  Adjutant General's Office
    ASRSS:  Advance Section, Reports and Returns of the Section Surgeon, 1917-19 (RG 120, E 2808)
    CDR:  Combat Divisions, Records of the 76th-103d Divisons, 1917-19 (RG 120, E 1241)
    CFADS:  Case Files of Persons Examined for Appointment as Dental Surgeons, 1900-17 (RG 112, E 101)
    CRSAW:  Carded Records, Volunteer Organizations, Spanish-American War (RG 94, E 522)
    DF:  Document File, 1890-1917 (RG 94, E 25)
    DJAG:  Decisions and Opinions of the Judge Advocate General relating to the Medical Department, 1904-09 (RG 112, E 242)
    E:  Entry
    EP:  Enlistment Papers, 1798-October 31, 1912 (RG 94, E 91)
    GC:  General Correspondence, 1894-1917 (RG 112, E 26)
    GHGC:  General Headquarters, Office of the Commander in Chief, General Correspondence, 1917-19 (RG 120, E6)
    NG:  National Guard
    PDDRC:  Personal Data Cards of Candidates Seeking Appointment to the Dental Reserve Corps, 1917-18 (RG 112, E 134)
    PHDNG:  Personal History Cards of Medical and Dental Officers of the National Guard, 1915-17 (RG 112, E 136)
    PPMOF:  Personal Papers, Medical Officers and Physicians, prior to 1912, "Medical Officer's File" (RG 94, E 561)
    RC:  Record Cards, 1890-1917 (RG 94, E 26)
    RCGC:  Record Cards for General Correspondence, 1894-1917 (RG 112, E 25)
    RCSID:  Records of Chief Surgeons, Sanitary Trains, Field Hospital Companies and Sections, and other Medical Units and Offices of Infantry Divisions Nos. 1-99, 1917-19 (RG 120, E 2144)
    RG:  Record Group
    RIIR:  Records of Infirmaries of Infantry Regiments and Other Units, 1912-29 (RG 120, E 2155)
    SGO:  Surgeon General's Office
    PC:  Personal Communications
 

 



MANUSCRIPTS

NATIONAL ARCHIVES (NA)

Record Group 94:  The Adjutant General's Office, entries 25, 26, 91, 522
Record Group 112:  The Office of the Surgeon General, entries 25, 26, 29, 101, 134, 136, 242
Record Group 120:  The American Expeditionary Forces, entries 6, 1241, 2065, 2144, 2155, 2808
Record Group 168:  The National Guard, entry 12A

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS (PC)

Fay, James R.  Colonel, Senior Dental Corps Staff Officer, Department of the Army, Falls Church, VA, letter to author, 20 October 1993

Hannigan, Evelyn.  Staff Assistant, University Development, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, letter to author, 7 May 1993

Vacanti, Charles J.  Dental Historian, Creighton University, School of Dentistry, Omaha, NE, letter to author, 1 December 1992
 

JOURNALS

Barrett, Leland, comp. "Our Army and Navy [Colored Medical Officers' Training Camp At Fort Des Moines],"  Journal of the Allied Dental Societies , 12 (December 1917), pp. 515-16.

___________.  "Our Army and Navy [157,000 Negroes in Army]," Journal of the Allied Dental Societies, 13 (September 1918), p. 288.

Thomas W. Evans Museum & Dental Institute School of Dentistry, University of Pennsylvania.  The Record.  Vol. 13.  N.p. 1916.

Torney, George H.  "Communication from the Surgeon General, United States Army."  Dental Brief, 16 (May 1911), pp. 352-54.
 

BOOKS

American Battle Monuments Commission.  92d Division:  Summary of Operations in the World War.  Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1944.

___________.   93d Division:  Summary of Operations in the World War. Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1944.
 

Deckard, Percy E., M.D., comp.  List of Officers who served with The 371st Infantry and Headquarters 186th Infantry Brigade during The World War.  Allegany, NY:  The Allegany Citizen, 1929.

Dummett, Clifton O., and Lois D. Dummett.  Afro-Americans in Dentistry:  Sequence And Consequence Of Events.  Los Angeles:  Clifton O. Dummett, 1978.

__________.   Dental Education at Meharry Medical College:  Origin  and Odyssey.  Nashville, TN:  Meharry Medical College, 1992.

Greene, Robert E.   Black Defenders of America 1775-1973.      Chicago:  Johnson Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.

Heywood, Chester D.  Negro Combat Troops In the World War:  The Story of the 371st Infantry. 1928. Reprint.  New York:  Negro Universities Press, 1969.

McCard, Harry S., and Henry Turnley.  History of the Eighth Illinois United States Volunteers.  Chicago:  E.F. Harman, 1899.

Polk, R.L. & Co.  Polk's Dental Register and Directory of the United States and Canada 1902-1903.  5th ed.  Detroit:  R.L. Polk & Co., Publishers, 1902.

__________.  Polk's Dental Register and Directory of the United States and Canada 1912-1913.  10th ed.  Detroit:  R.L. Polk & Co., Publishers, 1912.

__________.  Polk's Dental Register and Directory of the United States and Canada 1914-1915.  11th ed.  Detroit:  R.L. Polk & Co., Publishers, 1914.

__________.   Polk's Dental Register and Directory of the United States and Dominion of Canada 1928. 14th ed.  Detroit: R.L. Polk & Co., Publishers, 1928.

Scipio, L. Albert, II.  With The Red Hand Division.  lst ed.  Silver Spring, MD:  Roman Publications, 1985.

Scott, Emmett J.   Scott's Official History of The American Negro In The World War.  N.p.:  Emmett J. Scott, 1919.

Sweeney, W. Allison.  History of the American Negro in the World War:  His Splendid Record in the Battle Zones of Europe. 1919.  Reprint. New York:  Negro Universities Press, 1969.

U.S. Army Center of Military History,  Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War, Vol. 2:  American Expeditionary Forces: Divisions.  Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.

U.S. Army War College.  The Ninety-Second Division 1917-1918.   Washington Barracks, DC:  Historical Section, U.S. Army War College, 1923 [unpublished].

U.S. Congress.  Congressional Record [56th Cong., 2d sess.].  Vol. 34.  Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1901.

U.S. War Department.  The Military Laws of the United States 1915.   5th ed.  Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1915 .

__________.  [Raphael P. Thain, comp.].  Legislative History of the General Staff of the Army of the United States (Its Organization, Duties, Pay, and Allowances), from 1775 to 1901 [56th Cong., 2d sess., S. Doc. No. 229]. Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1901.

__________.  Official Army Register December 1, 1918.  Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1919.

__________.  Official Army Register January 1, 1920.  Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1920.

__________.  Report of The Surgeon General U.S. Army to the Secretary of War 1917.  Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1917.

__________.  Special Orders 1917.  Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1918.

__________.  Special Orders 1918.  France:  G.H.Q., American Expeditionary Forces, 1918.

 



ILLUSTRATIONS

Note:  Abbreviations used in credit lines are noted following the names of repositories.

Author (AC)
Creighton University, School of Dentistry (CSD)
Illinois State Historical Library (IHL)
Indiana University, School of Dentistry (ISD)
Leon Levy Library, School of Dental Medicine, University of  Pennsylvania (DMP)
National Archives (NA)
National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Northwestern University Dental School Library, Picture Archives (NDS)
Scott, Emmett J., Scott's Official History of The American Negro in The World War (SHAN)
University of Iowa, College of Dentistry (ICD)
U.S. Army Military History Institute (USAMHI)