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Bibliographical Note

Table of Contents

Bibliographical Note

For sources the authors relied mainly on records produced by air ambulance units in Vietnam. Those records that have not yet been transferred to the National Archives, Record Group 112, Office of the Surgeon General, are stored in the Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland.

Captain Dorland interviewed fifty-three people who took part in Dust Off operations in Vietnam. Dr. Nanney, in the final stages of preparing the manuscript, especially Chapter 4, interviewed the aviation consultant to the Surgeon General, Lt. Col. Thomas C. Scofield. Tapes of these interviews are available at the Center of Military History.

Most of the authors' sources were official records, but several articles, books, and official studies proved useful.


Binder, James L. "Dean of the Dust-Offers." Army 21 (August 1971): 16-21.

Brady, Patrick H. "Dust Off Operations." Army Logistician 5 (July-August 1973): 18-23.

_______. "Instruments and Flares." United States Army Aviation Digest 15 (January 1969): 12-13.

_______. "Solo Missions." United States Army Aviation Digest 12 (July 1966): 2-6.

Breese, J. E. "Rotors over the Jungle: No. 848 Naval Air Squadron in Malaya." Flight, 12 March 1954, pp. 291-92.

Clark, D.M. "Helicopter in Air Evacuation." The Air Surgeon's Bulletin.

Cooling, B. Franklin. "A History of U.S. Army Aviation." Aerospace Historian 21 (June 1974): 102-09.

Decker, Bill. "Medic." Army Digest 22 (July 1967): 27-29.

Eiseman, B. "The Next War: A Prescription." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 101 (January 1975): 33-40.

Farrell, Robert. "Special Report from Algeria, Part I: French Meet Guerrillas with Helicopters." Aviation Week, 17 September 1956, pp. 28-31.

_______. "Special Report from Algeria, Part II: Algerian Terrain Challenges Helicopters." Aviation Week, 24 September 1956, pp. 88-92.


Goodrich, Isaac. "Emergency Medical Evacuation in an Infantry Battalion in South Vietnam." Military Medicine 132 (October 1967): 796-98.

Haldeman, Steve. "Jungle Medevac." Army Digest 24 (August 1969): 44-45.

Harvey, E. Bruce. "Casualty Evacuation by Helicopter in Malaya." British Medical Journal, 1 September 1951, pp. 542-44.

Hasskarl, Robert A., Jr. "Early Military Use of Rotary Wing Aircraft." Airpower Historian 12 (July 1965): 75-77.

Hessman, James D. "U.S. Combat Deaths Drop 90 Percent as Vietnamization Takes Hold." Armed Forces Journal 109 (April 1972). 42-44.

Lam, David M. "From Balloon to Black Hawk." A four-part series. United States Army Aviation Digest 27 (June-September 1981).

Lawrence, G.P. "The Use of Autogiros in the Evacuation of Wounded." The Military Surgeon, December 1933, pp. 314-21.

"Missile! Missile! Missile!" United States Army Aviation Digest 21 (April 1975): 30.

Modica, Stephen F. "Medevac Meadow." United States Army Aviation Digest 21 (June 1975): 4-5.

______. Letter to the Editor. United States Army Aviation Digest 21 (June 1975): 22-23.

Monnier, R., and G. Wernert. "Etat actuel de évacuations sanitaires par helicoptéres - Indochine." Société de Médecine Militaire, no. 4 (April 1956), pp. 116-23.

Neel, Spurgeon H. "Aeromedical Evacuation." Army 6 (April 1956): 30-33.

______. and Roland H. Shamburek. "The Army Aviation Story: Part IX, Medical Evacuation." United States Army Aviation Digest 9 (February 1963): 33-41.

______. "Dustoff: When I Have Your Wounded." United States Army Aviation Digest 20 (May 1974): 6-9.

______. "Helicopter Evacuation in Korea." United States Armed Forces Medical Journal 6 (May 1955): 691-702.

______. "Medical Considerations in Helicopter Evacuation." United States Armed Forces Medical Journal 5 (February 1954): 220-27.

Page, Thomas N., and Spurgeon H. Neel, Jr., "Army Aeromedical Evacuation." United States Armed Forces Medical Journal 8 (August 1957): 1195-1200.

Riley, David. "French Helicopter Operations in Algeria." Marine Corps Gazette, February 1958, pp. 21-26.

"Safety for Combat Readiness." United States Army Aviation Digest 15 (August 1969): 37-44.

Salvagniac, Surgeon General. "Les Evacuations Sanitaires Aériennes." Revue Historique De L'Armée, no. 1 (1972): 230-53.


Scoles, Peter S. "Forward Medical Service of the Future." Military Review 41 (April 1961): 64-70.

Scotti, Michael J. "Out of the Valley of Death." United States Army Aviation Digest 16 (May 1970): 12-14.

Smith, Allen D. "Air Evacuation - Medical Obligation and Military Necessity." The United States Air Force Air University Quarterly Review 6 (Summer 1953): 98-111.

______. "Medical Air Evacuation in Korea and Its Influence on the Future." The Military Surgeon 110 (May 1952): 323-32.

Smith, William H. "Honor Times 29." United States Army Aviation Digest 20 (January 1974): 3-5.

"Treetop Whirlybird Nest." Army 15 (November 1965): 20-22.

"Up and Out." United States Army Aviation Digest 9 (September 1963): 13-16.

Wiegman, Curtis M. "To Save a Life." United States Army Aviation Digest 18 (August 1972): 56-59.

Williams, Charles. "Operations of the 1st Helicopter Ambulance Company." American Helicopter 32 (November 1953): 8.

Williams, Robert C. "Survivor Wishes to Meet Helicopter - Object: Survival." United States Army Aviation Digest 14 (May 1968): 55-59.

Books and Studies

Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Journal of Defense Research: Series B (Tactical Warfare). Vol. 7B, No. 3 (Fall 1975): Tactical Warfare Analysis of Vietnam Data. Especially Chapter XI: "United States Casualties Analyzed."

Bonds, Ray, ed. The Vietnam War: The Illustrated History of the Conflict in Southeast Asia. New York: Crown, 1979.

Collins, James L., Jr., Brig. Gen. The Development and Training of the South Vietnamese Army, 1950-1972. Department of the Army: Vietnam Studies. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1975.

Department of Defense. "Report on Selected Air and Ground Operations in Cambodia and Laos." 10 September 1973. Army War College Library. Carlisle Barracks, Pa.

Kahin, George M., and John W. Lewis. The United States in Vietnam, New York: Delta, 1967.

Link, Mae Mills, and Hubert A. Coleman. Medical Support of the Army Air Forces in World War II. Office of the Surgeon General, United States Air Force. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1955. Especially Chapter V: "Air Evacuation Missions," pp. 352-412.


Littauer, Raphael, and Norman Uphoff, eds. The Air War in Indochina. Air War Study Group, Cornell University. Revised edition. Boston: Beacon, 1972.

Neel, Spurgeon, Maj, Gen. Medical Support of the U.S. Army in Vietnam, 1965-1970. Department of the Army: Vietnam Studies. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1973.

Politella, Dario. Operation Grasshopper: The Story of Army Aviation in Korea from Aggression to Armistice. Wichita, Kansas: Robert Longto, 1958.

Stewart, Miller J. Moving the Wounded: Litters, Cacolets, and Ambulance Wagons, U.S. Army, 1776-1876. Ft. Collins, Co.: Old Army Press , 1979.

Tierney, Richard, and Fred Montgomery. The Army Aviation Story. Northport, Alabama: Colonial Press, 1963. Especially Chapter VI: "Medical Evacuation."

Tolson, John J., Lt. Gen. Airmobility, 1961-1971. Department of the Army: Vietnam Studies. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1973.

Weinert, Richard P. A History of Army Aviation, 1950-1962. Phase I: 1950-1954. Fort Monroe, Virginia: U.S. Continental Army Command Historical Office, 1971.

Westmoreland, William C., General. A Soldier Reports. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976.