U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History
Skip Navigation, go to content

ACCESS TO CARE External Link, Opens in New Window

HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL HISTORYPDF document

ANC HISTORY

AMEDD BIOGRAPHIES

AMEDD CORPS HISTORY

BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS

HISTORICAL ART WORK & IMAGES

MEDICAL MEMOIRS

AMEDD MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS

ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORIES

THE SURGEONS GENERAL

ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

AMEDD UNIT PATCHES AND LINEAGE

THE AMEDD HISTORIAN NEWSLETTER

The Army Medical Department 1865-1917

Books and Documents

ARMY HISTORICAL SERIES

THE
ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
1865-1917

by
Mary C. Gillett

CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY
UNITED STATES ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1995

ARMY HISTORICAL SERIES
Jeffrey J. Clarke, General Editor

Advisory Committee
(As of October 1994)

John W. Shy (Chairman)
University of Michigan

Ira D. Gruber
Rice University

Joseph T. Glatthaar
University of Houston

William A. Walker
Archivist of the Army

Brig. Gen. Gerald E. Galloway, Jr.
U.S. Military Academy

Col. John F. Connolly
U.S. Army War College

Brig. Gen. Randall L. Rigby, Jr.
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

Maj. Gen. John P. Herrling
U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command

Carlo W. D’Este
New Seabury, Mass.

D. Clayton James
Virginia Military Institute

Rose L. Greaves
University of Kansas

Carol A. Reardon
Pennsylvania State University

Michael J. Kurtz
National Archives and Records Administration

U.S. Army Center of Military History
Brig. Gen. John W. Mountcastle, Chief of Military History

Chief Historian
Chief, Histories Division
Editor in Chief

Jeffrey J. Clarke
Col. William T. Bowers
John W. Elsberg

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Gillett, Mary C.
    The Army Medical Department, 1865-1917 / by Mary C. Gillett.
    p. cm. - (Army historical series)
    Includes bibliographical references and index.
    1. United States. Army Medical Dept.-History-19th century.
    2. United States. Army Medical Dept.-History-20th century.
    3. Medicine, Military-United States-History-19th century.
    4. Medicine, Military-United States-History-20th century.
    5. World War, 1914-1918-Medical care. I. Title II. Series.
    UA223.G544 1995
    355.3'45'0973-dc20

94-13147
CIP

First Printing-CMH Pub 30-9

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402


Contents

FORWARD

THE AUTHOR

PREFACE

PROLOGUE: THE RETURN OF PEACE

1. VIEW FROM THE TOP

    The Surgeon Generals
    Demobilization
    The Peacetime Organization
    Creation of the Hospital Corps
    Problems of Victims of War
    State of the Art

2. SUPPORTING THE ARMY

    Preventive Medicine
    Surgery
    Hospitals
    Above and Beyond Health Care
    Off-duty Pursuits

3. THE INDIAN WARS

    Fighting an Unorthodox Enemy
    Supporting a Major Expedition
    Surgeons and Their Work
    Care of Reservation Indians
    The Last Battle

4. A NEW DIRECTION

    The New Surgeon General
    Personnel and Training
    Preventive Medicine
    Surgery
    Domestic Conflict

5. PREPARATIONS FOR CONQUESTS OVERSEAS

    The Medical Buildup
    Readying Supply
    Organizing a Hospital System
    Launching the Cuban Expedition
    Launching the Philippine Expedition

6. SUPPORTING THE INVASION FORCES

    In Cuba
    In Puerto Rico
    In the Philippines

7. DISEASE AND DEATH IN U.S. CAMPS

    Camp Thomas
    Camps in Florida
    Camp Alger
    Retreat From Disease: New Camps
    Camp Wikoff
    The Typhoid Board
    The Dodge Commission Investigation

8. CAMPAIGNS OF THE NEW EMPIRE

    The Philippine Insurrection
    Hospitals and Evacuation
    Medical Personnel
    Health of the Troops
    Supply and Diet
    The China Relief Expedition

9. PUBLIC HEALTH IN CUBA

    Health of the Troops
    Improving Sanitation
    Fighting Yellow Fever
    The Yellow Fever Board
    A Time of Trial and Triumph

10. PUBLIC HEALTH IN OTHER CARIBBEAN AREAS

    Puerto Rico
    Panama Canal Zone
    Gorgas and the Opposition
    Fighting Disease
    The Hospital System
    A Worthy Rivalry

11. PUBLIC HEALTH IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Research and Disease Boards
    Organizing the Campaign
    The Campaign
    The Most Dangerous Threats
    Other Health Problems

12. THE ORGANIZATIONAL REVOLUTION

    The Surgeon Generals
    The Surgeon General's Office
    Medical Officers
    Dentists
    Nurses
    The Hospital Corps
    Preparing Medical Personnel for War
    General Hospitals
    Supply

13. THE MEDICAL SERVICE IN ACTION

    Fighting Disease and Disability
    Hospitals and Laboratories
    Evacuation
    Practice for War
    Disaster Relief

14. IN THE SHADOW OF WAR

    The Surgeon General
    Medical Department Personnel
    National Guard Medical Personnel
    Supply
    Hospitals and Laboratories
    Training Along the Mexican Border
    Lessons Learned From Europe

EPILOGUE: THE YEARS OF CHANGE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Table

Philippine Tropical Disease Board Members

Maps

No.
1. Bighorn-Yellowstone Expedition, 1876
2. Cuba, 1898

3. The Caribbean, 1898
4. The Philippines, 1899

Illustrations

Joseph K. Barnes
Charles H. Crane
Robert Murray
John Moore
Jedediah H. Baxter
Charles Sutherland
William H. Arthur's Caricature
John van R. Hoff
Fred C. Ainsworth
George M. Sternberg
Post Hospital at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri
Alfred Alexander Woodhull
Daniel Smith Lamb
Joseph J. Woodward
Elliott Coues
Mule Pulling a Travois
Holmes O. Paulding
James P. Kimball
George E. Lord
Bennett A. Clements
Curtis E. Munn
Julius H. Patzki
Junius L. Powell
Leonard Wood
Bernard Semig
Peter J. A. Cleary
Surgeon General Sternberg
Army Medical Museum Classroom
John Shaw Billings
Charles Smart
Daniel G. Caldwell
Nicholas Senn
Charles R. Greenleaf
Dallas Bache
Nurses at Josiah Simpson General Hospital near Fort Monroe
General Hospital at Fort Monroe
Henry Lippincott
Benjamin F. Pope
Aaron H. Appel
Marshall W. Wood
George McCreery
Valery Havard
Francis J. Ives
Louis A. LaGarde
Albert Hartsuff
Louis M. Maus
Medical Care at Jacksonville
Alfred C. Girard
Victor C. Vaughan
Second Reserve Hospital, Manila, Philippines
Ward on Hospital Ship Relief
Converted Hospital Facilities at Angeles and Dagupan
Medical Officer Caring for a Wounded Filipino Insurgent
William B. Banister
Walter Reed
Aristides Agramonte
Jesse W. Lazear
James Carroll
Carlos Juan Finlay
Clara L. Maass
Bailey K. Ashford
Jefferson R. Kean
William C. Gorgas
Cartoon by Gorgas
Street in Colon, Panama
Theodore C. Lyster
Richard P. Strong
Charles F. Craig
Percy M. Ashburn
Edward B. Vedder
Weston P. Chamberlain
Franklin A. Meacham
A Sewage-clogged Drainage Ditch
William H. Forwood
Robert M. O'Reilly
George H. Torney
Paul F. Straub
Jane A. Delano
Company of Instruction Training at Washington Barracks
Henry L. Gilchrist
Chief Surgeon Girard
Letterman General Hospital, Presidio, San Francisco
Frederick F. Russell
Carl R. Darnall
William J. L. Lyster
Edward L. Munson
San Francisco, April 1906
Torney as a Young Officer
Robert U. Patterson
Surgeon General Gorgas
Base Hospital at Fort Sam Houston
Field Hospital No. 7 En Route to Mexico
Henry P. Birmingham
Field Hospital and Its Surgical Ward
Animal-drawn and Motor Ambulances


Illustrations courtesy of the following sources: pp. 44, 98, 211 (top/bottom), 215, 358, and 359, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; pp. 153 and 188, Harper's Weekly, August 1898 and September 1898; p. 366 (top/bottom), Library of Congress; p. 316, National Archives and Records Administration; and pp. 65, 126, 269, 298, and 330, U.S. Army Center of Military History. All other illustrations are from the files of the National Library of Medicine. Because most of the photographs from the latter collection are undated and without identification beyond the names of the subjects, the captions for the illustrations in this volume do not specify rank.

The work of Charles Johnson Post (1873-1956) depicted on the paperback cover-Field Hospital Back of the Lines, Cuba, 1898, watercolor, 143/4" x 183/4" - is from the Army Art Collection.