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Table of Contents

Notes

CHAPTER 1

1. Unless otherwise indicated, this chapter is based on these secondary sources: Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht, A Short History of Medicine (New York: Ronald Press Co., 1955); Stanhope Bayne-Jones, The Evolution of Preventive Medicine in the United States Army, 1607-1939 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968); John B. Beck, Medicine in the American Colonies: An Historical Sketch of the State of Medicine in the American Colonies, From Their First Settlement to the Period of the Revolution (orig. printed Albany, N.Y., 1850; Albuquerque, N. Mex.: Horn & Wallace Publishers, 1966); Whitfield Jenks Bell, Jr., "Medical Practice in Colonial America," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 31 (1957): 442-53: Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1914); Maurice B. Gordon, Aesculapius Comes to the Colonies (Ventor, N.J.: Ventor Publishers, 1949); L. S. King, The Medical World of the Eighteenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958); R. H. Major, A History of Medicine (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, 1954); Richard Harrison Shryock, The Development of Modern Medicine: An Interpretation of the Social and Scientific Factors Involved (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947); Richard Harrison Shryock, Eighteenth Century Medicine in America (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1950); Richard Harrison Shryock, Medicine and Society in America, 1660-1860 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1960); Richard Harrison Shryock, "Public Relations of the Medical Profession in Great Britain and the United States: 1600-1870," Annals of Medical History, n.s. 2 (1930): 308-39; Allen O. Whipple, The Evolution of Surgery in the United States (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, 1963).

Also consulted for the preceding paragraph were: Michael Kraus, "American and European Medicine in the Eighteenth Century," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 8 (1940): 683-84; Lyman H. Butterfield, "Benjamin Rush: A Physician As Seen in His Letters," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 20 (1946): 150; George W. Corner, ed., The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush: His "Travels Through Life" Together With His "Commonplace Book" for 1789-1813 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1948), p. 362.

2. Quoted in Joseph Carson, A History of the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, From Its Foundation in 1765 (Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1869), p. 85; Corner, Rush, pp. 81-82, 362-64; Benjamin Waterhouse, The Rise, Progress, and Present State of Medicine (Boston: Thomas and John Fleet, 1792), pp. 15-16, 17; Samuel Miller, A Brief Retrospect of the Eighteenth Century, 2 vols. (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1803), 1:264-66.

3. Quoted in Shryock, Eighteenth Century Medicine, p. 17; O. H. Perry Pepper, "Benjamin Rush's Theories on Blood Letting After One Hundred and Fifty Years," Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 4th ser. 14 (1946): 122, 123; Nathan Smith Davis, History of Medical Education and Institutions in the United States From the First Settlement of the British Colonies to the Year 1850 (Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co., 1851), p. 70; Corner, Rush, pp. 364-65.

4. Many authors, including Bayne-Jones, erroneously refer to Pringle as Surgeon-General. John Pringle, Observations on the Diseases in the Army, in Camp and Garrison (London: A. Millar, D. Wilson, and T. Payne, 1752), pp. 96-98, 101-2, quote from pp. 101-2; Robert Thomas, The Modern Practice of Physic, 3d American ed. (New York: Collin & Co., 1815), p. 275; Charles-Edward Amory Winslow, "The Colonial Era and the First Years of the Republic (1607-1799)-The Pestilence That Walketh in Darkness," in


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C.-E. A. Winslow, Wilson G. Smillie, James A. Doull, and John E. Gordon, The History of American Epidemiology, ed. Franklin H. Top (St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1952), pp. 21-23; David Hosack, Observations on the Laws Governing the Communication of Contagious Diseases and the Means of Arresting Their Progress (New York: Van Winkle and Wiley, 1815), pp. 2, 31, 34, 41; Wilson G. Smillie, Public Health: Its Promise for the Future: A Chronicle of the Development of Public Health in the United States, 1607-1914 (New York: Macmillan Co., 1955), p. 37; Miller, Brief Retrospect, p. 273; John Pringle, Six Discourses, Delivered by Sir John Pringle, Bart. . . . , To Which Is Prefixed the Life of the Author by Andrew Kippis, D. D. F. R. S. and S. A. (London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1783), p. xii.

5. D'Arcy Power, Selected Writings: 1877-1930 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931), pp. 4-5; Silas Weir Mitchell, The Early History of Instrumental Precision in Medicine (New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1892), pp. 15-16, 21-23; Logan Clendening, ed., Source Book of Medical History (New York: Dover Publications, 1942), p. 306; Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht, Malaria in the Upper Mississippi Valley, 1760-1900 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1945), pp. 7, 54; Smillie, Public Health, pp. 50-51; Richard Brocklesby, Oeconomical and Medical Observations, in Two Parts, From the Year 1758 to the Year 1763, Inclusive . . . (London: T. Becket and P. A. De Hondt, 1764), p. 212; Donald Monro, An Account of the Diseases Which Were Most Frequent in the British Military Hospitals in Germany, From January 1761 to the Return of the Troops to England in March 1763 . . . (London: A Millar, D. Wilson, T. Durham, and T. Payne, 1764), p. 8.

6. Pringle, Observations, p. 95; James Lind, An Essay on Diseases Incidental in Europeans in Hot Climates
. . . (London: T. Becket & P. A. De Hondt, 1768), pp. 36-38; Gerhard van Swieten, The Diseases Incident to Armies, With the Method of Cure . . . To Which Are Added: The Nature and Treatment of Gunshot Wounds, By John Ranby, Esquire, Surgeon General to the British Army . . .(Philadelphia: R. Bell, 1776), p. 5; John Ballard Blake, "Diseases and Medical Practice in Colonial America," in "Symposium on the History of American Medicine," International Record of Medicine 171 (1958): 351-53; Smillie, Public Health, p. 43; Monro, An Account, pp. 265-67; Reuben Friedman, "Scabies in Colonial America," Annals of Medical History, 3d ser. 2 (1940): 401-2; Alfred Hess, Scurvy, Past and Present (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1920), p. 3.

7. Blake, "Diseases," p. 356; Smillie, Public Health, pp. 35, 67; Mark F. Boyd, "An Historical Sketch of the Prevalence of Malaria in North America," American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 21 (1941): 229; Richard Harrison Shryock, "Medical Practice in the Old South," South Atlantic Quarterly 29 (1930): 160-61; A. W. Ratcliffe, "The Historical Background of Malaria--a Reconsideration," Journal of the Indiana State Medical Association 39 (1946): 339; Robert Hamilton, Observations on the Marsh Remittent Fever . . . (London: T. Gillet, 1801), p. 23; Thomas, Modern Practice, pp. 4-6.

8. Such authors as John Duffy, Philip Cash, and Wyndham B. Blanton maintain that physicians at the time of the American Revolution could not distinguish between the two diseases, but Fielding H. Garrison and John B. Blake have noted that the disease described as "putrid, malignant" fever may have been typhus and "slow, nervous" fevers typhoid. Neil Cantlie maintains that typhus was at this time already beginning to be recognized "as a specific entity," but Lester S. King explains that although Pringle described jail or hospital fever so well that we can recognize it today as typhus, the great British military physician did not consider this illness to be a specific entity but rather believed that any putrid disease could lead to what he called jail or hospital fever. John Duffy, Epidemics in Colonial America (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1953), p. 232; Philip Cash, Medical Men at the Siege of Boston, April 1775-April 1776. . . (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1973), p. 53; Wyndham Bolling Blanton, Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century (Richmond: Garrett & Massie, 1931), p. 258; Garrison, History of


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Medicine, pp. 292-93; Blake, "Diseases," p. 353; Neil Cantlie, A History of the Army Medical Department, 2 vols. (Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1974), 1: 57; King, Medical World, pp. 136-37.

9. Quoted in Duffy, Epidemics, p. 232; Brocklesby, Observations, p. 212; Medical Department, United States Army, Infectious Diseases, Internal Medicine in World War II, vol. 2 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963), p. 217; Monro, An Account, p. 8; Van Swieten, Diseases, p. 86.

10. Monro, An Account, pp. 57-58.

11. Van Swieten, Diseases, p. 68.

12. Monro, An Account, p. 57.

13. Van Swieten, Diseases, pp. 67-73, quotes from p. 69; John Hunter, Observations on the Diseases of the Army in Jamaica . . . , 3d ed. (London: T. Payne, 1808), p. 176; Thomas, Modern Practice, pp. 278-80; Smillie, Public Health, p. 43.

14. John Hunter, A Treatise on the Venereal Disease, abridged by William Currie (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1787), p. 59, quote from p. 5; Howard Lewis Applegate, "Remedial Medicine in the American Revolutionary Army," Military Medicine 126 (1961): 450; Smillie, Public Health, pp. 48-49.

15. Quoted in Brocklesby, Observations, pp. 286-97; Van Swieten, Diseases, p. 95; Thomas, Modern Practice, p. 502.

16. Monro, An Account, p. 265.

17. Quoted in van Swieten, Diseases, p. 100; Monro, An Account, pp. 266-67; Brocklesby, Observations, pp. 285-86; Van Swieten, Diseases, pp. 100-1; Ltr, Col Robert J. T. Joy, MC, to author, 25 Mar 76.

18. Van Swieten, Diseases, pp. 14, 19-31, quote from p. 28.

19. David Ramsay, A Review of the Improvements, Progress and State of Medicine in the XVIIIth Century (Charleston: W. P. Young, 1801), pp. 18-19; Lind, An Essay, p. 233; John Hunter, Hunterian Reminiscences; Being the Substance of a Course of Lectures on the Principles and Practice of Surgery, Delivered by the Late Mr. John Hunter, in the Year 1785, ed. by J. W. K. Parkinson (London: Sherwood, Gilbert, and Pepir, 1833), p. 66; Corner, Rush, pp. 364-65; David Harris, "Medicine in Colonial America," California and Western Medicine 51 (1939): 38.

20. Quoted in Beck, Medicine, p. 30; Francis R. Packard, "How London and Edinburgh Influenced Medicine in Philadelphia in the Eighteenth Century," Annals of Medical History, n.s. 4 (1932): 227-28; Theodore Diller, Franklin's Contribution to Medicine (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Albert T. Huntington, 1912), pp. 9-10, 20, 25, 52, 56-57; William Pepper, The Medical Side of Benjamin Franklin (Philadelphia: William J. Campbell, 1911), pp. 9-10, 12, 63, 72; William Buchan, Observations Concerning the Prevention and Cure of the Venereal Disease . . . (Dublin: P. Wogan, J. Millikin, W. Sleater, J. Rice, P. Moore, 1796), pp. 71-72; James Thacher, American Medical Biography . . . (Boston: Richardson & Lord and Cottons & Barnard, 1828), pp. 27-28; John Warren, A View of the Mercurial Practice in Febrile Diseases (Boston: T. B. Wait and Co., 1813), pp. vi-viii, 1, 4; Ramsay, Review, pp. 16, 19; Miller, Brief Retrospect, pp. 31-34.

21. Ramsay, Review, p. 19.

22. John Hunter, Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation, and Gunshot Wounds (London: John Richardson, 1794), p. 3.

23. Warren, Mercurial Practice, pp. 12-16.

24. Warren, Mercurial Practice, pp. 5, 7-8, quote from p. 42; Thacher, Biography, pp. 27-28; Buchan, Venereal Disease, pp. 68, 70.

25. Salvatore P. Lucia, A History of Wine as Therapy (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1963), pp. 155-56; Brocklesby, Observavations, pp. 195, 196, 223-24; Monro, An Account, pp. 16, 17n; Thomas, Modern Practice, p. 47.

26. Ramsay, Review, pp. 18-19.

27. Hugues Ravaton, Chirurgie d'armée ou traité des plaies d'armées à feu (Paris: Didot le jeune, 1768), pp. 635-36.

28. Pringle, Observations, pp. 128, 131-32; Monro, An Account, pp. 357-60; Albert A. Gore, The Story of Our Services Under the Crown. A Historical Sketch of the Army Medical Staff (London: Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, 1879), p. 107; Cantlie, History, 1: 45, 145; Van Swieten, Diseases, p. 13.

29. Monro, An Account, pp. 357-59, 361-64, 382-85, 403-6, quote from p. 395;


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Brocklesby, Observations, pp. 27-28, 52-53; Lind, An Essay, p. 165; Pringle, Observations, pp. 131-32.

30. Ramsay, Review, p. 22, quote from p. 23; Pringle, Observations, pp. 128-32, 133-35; Lind, An Essay, p. 165; John Aiken, Thoughts on Hospitals (London: Joseph Johnson, 1771), p. 20; Stephen Hales, A Treatise on Ventilators (London: Manby, 1758), pp. 1-3, 14; Thomas, Modern Practice, pp. 283-84; Edward Cutbush, Observations on the Means of Preserving the Health of Soldiers and Sailors . . . (Philadelphia: Fry and Kammerer, 1808), pp. 182-84, 190-91; Robert P. Multhauf, A Catalogue of Instruments and Models in the Possession of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1961), p. 32; Monro, An Account, pp. 359-65, 368-69.

31. Monro, An Account, pp. 365-401, quote from p. 400; Peter Middleton, A Medical Discourse, or an Historical Inquiry into the Ancient and Present State of Medicine . . . (New York: Hugh Gaine, 1769), p. 219.

32. John Jones, The Surgical Works of the Late John Jones, M.D., 3d ed., edited by James Mease (Philadelphia: Wrigley and Berriman, 1795), pp. 161-63, first quote from p. 157; Monro, An Account, pp. 338-39, 344-45; Cutbush, Observations, pp. 3-4, 55-57, 62-64; Van Swieten, Diseases, pp. 7, 9, second quote from p. 9; General Committee of Defense, Observations Relative to the Means of Preserving Health in Armies, 7 Sep 1814; Howard Lewis Applegate, "Preventive Medicine in the American Revolutionary Army," Military Medicine 126 (1961): 379, 381.

33. Cutbush, Observations, pp. 12, 14-16; Monro, An Account, pp. 317-18; Jones, Works, pp. 158, 159; Pringle, Observations, pp. 116-18; Applegate, "Preventive Medicine," p. 379.

34. Quoted in Jones, Works, p. 163; Applegate, "Preventive Medicine," pp. 380-81; Van Swieten, Diseases, pp. 10-11; Pringle, Observations, p. 113; Ramsay, Review, p. 33; Cutbush, Observations, pp. 8-11.

35. Pringle, Observations, p. 112; Jones, Works, pp. 157, 170-71.

36. Cutbush became better known after he joined the U.S. Navy as a surgeon in 1799. Jones, Works, pp. 168-69; Monro, An Account, p. 319; Cutbush, Observations, pp. 22-23, 24-25, 26-27, 29, 32; Van Swieten, Diseases, p. 8; Pringle, Observations, pp. 137-38.

37. Jones, Works, pp. 157, 167; Pringle, Observations, pp. 105-9; William Buchan, Observations Concerning the Diet of the Common People . . . (London: A. Steahan, T. Cadell, Jr., and W. Davies, J. Balfour and W. Creich, 1797), p. 7; Applegate, "Preventive Medicine," pp. 379-80; Ramsay, Review, pp. 31-33; Middleton, Medical Discourse, pp. 9-13; Monro, An Account, pp. 377-79; Cutbush, Observations, p. 38.

38. James Lind, A Treatise of the Scurvy . . . (Edinburgh: Sands, Murray, and Cochran for A. Kincaid & A. Donaldson, 1753), pp. 192-95, 197-202, quotes from pp. 180, 181; Blake, "Diseases," pp. 351-53; Hess, Scurvy, p. 3; Van Swieten, Diseases, p. 7.

39. Van Swieten, Diseases, p. 90; William Buchan, Domestic Medicine; or, the Family Physician . . . , 2d American ed. (Philadelphia: Joseph Crukshank, 1774), p. 299; Miller, Brief Retrospect, p. 289; Ramsay, Review, pp. 28-30.

40. Lind, Scurvy, p. 182; Cutbush, Observations, pp. 30-31; Blanton, Medicine, p. 260.

41. John Morgan, A Recommendation of Inoculation, According to Baron Dimsdale's Method (Boston: J. Gill, 1776), pp. 3, 7, 11-12, quote from p. 11; Cantlie, History, 1: 140, 281; Arnold C. Klebs, "The Historic Evolution of Variolation," Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 24 (1913): 71-72; Reginald H. Fitz, "Zabdiel Boylston, Inoculator, and the Epidemic of Smallpox in Boston in 1721," Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 22 (1911): 316-20; Winslow, "Colonial Era," pp. 19-20; John Ballard Blake, Public Health in the Town of Boston, 1630-1822 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), pp. 112, 114; Thacher, Biography, p. 27; Lyman H. Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush: Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 30, parts 1 and 2, 2 vols. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951), 1: 66-67; Morris C. Leikind, "Vaccination in Europe," Ciba Symposia 3 (1942): 1101; Maurice B. Gordon, "Medicine in Colonial New Jersey


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and Adjacent Areas," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 17 (1945): 45-47; Benjamin Gale, "Historical Memoirs, Relating to the Practice of Inoculation for the Smallpox, in the British American Provinces, Particularly in New England," Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions 55 (1765): 194-95.

42. John Warren, A. Dexter, James Jackson, and John C. Warren, Report on Vaccination, n.p., 1 Jun 1808, pp. 136-38; U.S. War Department, Subject Index, 1809-1860, General Orders, Adjutant General's Department, Subject Index of the General Orders of the War Department From 1 Jan. 1809 to 31 Dec. 1860, comp. under direction of Brig Gen Richard C. Drum, by Jeremiah C. Allen (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1886), p. 177; Bayne-Jones, Preventive Medicine, p. 75; John B. Blake, Benjamin Waterhouse and the Introduction of Vaccination, a Reappraisal (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957), p. 62; Anthony Wayne, "General Wayne's Orderly Book," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society 34 (1904): 350; Howard Dittrick, "Medical Agents and Equipment Used in the Northwest Territory," in Jonathan Forman, comp., Physicians and the Indian Wars (Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Medical Association, 1953).

43. Quoted in Owsei Temkin, "The Role of Surgery in the Rise of Modern Medical Thought," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 25 (1951): 259.

44. Jones, Works, pp. 7-8, 111-13, quote from p. 11; Power, Writings, p. 270; Harvey Graham, The Story of Surgery (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1939), p. 214; Josiah Bartlett, A Dissertation on the Progress of Medical Science in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (Boston: T. B. Wait and Co., 1810), p. 15.

45. Ramsay, Review, pp. 10-11; Allen O. Whipple, The Story of Wound Healing and Wound Repair (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, 1963), p. 68; Jones, Works, pp. 10-11, 33-34, 40-41; Benjamin Gooch, A Practical Treatise on Wounds and Other Chirurgical Subjects . . . , 2 vols. (Norwich: W. Chase, 1767), 1: 193; Henri François Le Dran, The Operations in Surgery of Mons. Le Dran, trans. Thomas Gataker (London: C. Hitch and R. Dodsby, 1749), p. 79; "The Medical History of Louis XIV (Editorial)," Annals of Medical History, 1st ser. 8 (1926): 203.

46. Hunter, Treatise on the Blood, pp. 207-8; Jones, Works, pp. 36-38, 40-41; Hunter, Reminiscences, p. 131; Lloyd Allan Wells, "Aneurysm and Physiologic Surgery," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 44 (1970): 411-24; Gooch, Treatise, 1: 102-3.

47. Jones, Works, p. 33.

48. Quote from John Ranby, "The Nature and Treatment of Gunshot Wounds," in van Swieten, Diseases, p. 121; Hunter, Reminiscences, p. 65.

49. Ranby, "Gunshot Wounds," in van Swieten, Diseases, pp. 125, 126; Jones, Works, p. 140.

50. Jones, Works, pp. 141, 142; Van Swieten, Diseases, p. 94.

51. Jones, Works, pp. 16-17, quote from p. 30; John S. Billings, "The History and Literature of Surgery," in Frederic Shepard Dennis, ed., System of Surgery (Philadelphia: Lea Brothers & Co., 1895), 1: 72. Billings has termed the Petit tourniquet "an appliance of almost as much importance as the ligature"; Owen H. Wangensteen, Jacqueline Smith, and Sarah D. Wangensteen, "Some Highlights in the History of Amputation Reflecting Lessons in Wound Healing," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 41 (1967): 101-2, 103; Miller, Brief Retrospect, pp. 299-300; Samuel Clark Harvey, The History of Hemostasis (New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1929), pp. 63-64; Cantlie, History, 1: 59; Theodor Billroth, "Historical Studies on the Nature and Treatment of Gunshot Wounds From the Fifteenth Century to the Present Time," trans. C. P. Rhoads, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 4 (1931-1932): 235; Hunter, Treatise on the Blood, pp. 209-10, 211; Gooch, Treatise, 1: 150-51, 154; Ramsay, Review, p. 11; Graham, Surgery, p. 213. When the edges of a wound have been brought together and held in this position before the healing process has begun, the wound is said to be healing by the first intention.

52. Hunter, Treatise on the Blood, pp. 204, 211, quote from p. 204.

53. Wangensteen, "Amputation," pp. 103,


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105; Hunter, Reminiscences, pp. 79, 132; Jones, Works, pp. 21-22.

54. Jones, Works, pp. 19-20, quote from p. 20; Hunter, Reminiscences, p. 69.

55. Hunter, Treatise on the Blood, pp. 496-97, 499.

56. Quote from Gooch, Treatise, 1: 71; Wangensteen, "Amputation," p. 106.

57. Thomas, Modern Practice, pp. 332-33; Benjamin Rush, Observations on the Cause and Cure of the Tetanus (Philadelphia, 1787), pp. 461-62.

58. Jones, Works, pp. 67, 134, 135-37; Hunter, Treatise on the Blood, pp. 530, 532, 535-36; Hunter, Reminiscences, p. 104; Ramsay, Review, p. 11; Ravaton, Chirurgie, pp. 86-87.

59. Wangensteen, "Amputation," pp. 105-6; Louis C. Duncan, Medical Men in the American Revolution, 1775-1783, Army Medical Bulletin No. 25 (Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: Medical Field Service School, 1931 ), p. 11; C. M. B. Gilman, "Military Surgery in the American Revolution," Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey 57 (1960): 493-94; Temkin, "Surgery," pp. 252-53; Buchan, Domestic Medicine, p. 439; Miller, Brief Retrospect, p. 301; Hunter, Reminiscences, p. 84; Jones, Works, pp. 43-54, 59-60, 63-66, 70, 151, 154-55; Aiken. Thoughts, pp. 24-25.

60. Gooch, Treatise, 1: 78-79, 98-118; Jones, Works, pp. 35, 63-66.

61. Temkin, "Surgery," p. 251; Richard Harrison Shryock, Medical Licensing in America, 1650-1965 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1967), pp. 4-5, 8-9; Henry Woodhouse, "Colonial Medical Practice," Ciba Symposia 1 (1940): 383; Shryock, "Public Relations," pp. 310, 312; William Shainline Middleton, "John Morgan, Father of Medical Education in North America," Annals of Medical History, 1st ser. 9 (1927): 18; Claude Edwin Heaton, "Medicine in New York During the English Colonial Period, 1664-1775," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 17 (1945): 36-37; Duncan, Medical Men, p. 38; Henry R. Viets, A Brief History of Medicine in Massachusetts (New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1930), p. 81.

62. William Frederick Norwood, Medical Education in the United States Before the Civil War (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1944), pp. 9, 58; R. H. Dalton, "A Glance at the American Medical Profession Since the Beginning of the Present Century," Journal of the American Medical Association 21 (1893): 953; Winslow, "Colonial Era," pp. 18-19.

63. Whitfield Jenks Bell, Jr., "Philadelphia Medical Students in Europe, 1750-1800," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 67 (1943): 4; Norwood, Medical Education, pp. 32-35.

64. Bell, "Students," pp. 3, 13, 14, 18, 19; Ramsay, Review, pp. 8, 9-10; Kraus, "Medicine," pp. 680-81; Edgar M. Bick, "French Influences on Early American Medicine and Surgery," Journal of the Mount Sinai Hospital 24 (1957): 500, 502, 503; James Joseph Walsh, History of Medicine in New York . . . , 5 vols. (New York: National Americana Society, 1919), 1: 40-41, 44; William Frederick Norwood, "Medicine in the Era of the American Revolution," International Record of Medicine 171 (1958): 395; Packard, "London and Edinburgh," p. 222; William Henry Welch, "Influence of English Medicine Upon American Medicine in Its Formative Period," in Papers and Addresses, ed. Walter C. Burket (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1920), 3: 445, 446, 447; Genevieve Miller, "Medical Schools in the Colonies," Ciba Symposia 8 (1947): 524; William Shainline Middleton, "William Shippen, Junior," Annals of Medical History, n.s. 4 (1932): 442; Jones, Works, pp. 4-8; James Gregory Mumford, A Narrative of Medicine in America (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1903), p. 96.

65. Richard Harrison Shryock, American Medical Research: Past and Present (New York: Commonwealth Fund, 1947), p. 20; Jules Calvin Ladenheim, "The Doctors' Mob of 1788," Journal of the History of Medicine 5 (1950): 23, 24-25, 29-35; William Dosite Postell, "Medical Education and Medical Schools in Colonial America," International Record of Medicine 171 (1958): 366-67; Norwood, Medical Education, pp. 6, 37, 38, 39, 42, 46; Walsh, Medicine in New York, p. 47; D. J. D'Elia, "Dr. Benjamin Rush and the American Medical Revolution," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society


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110 (1966): 227; Nathan Smith Davis, Contributions to the History of Medical Education and Medical Institutions in the United States of America 1776-1876 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1877), p. 12; Richard Hingston Fox, Dr. John Fothergill and His Friends, Chapters in Eighteenth Century Life (London: Macmillan and Co., 1919), pp. 367-68.

66. John Morgan, "A Discourse Upon the Institution of Medical Schools in America," in Publications of the Institute of the History of Medicine (orig. printed in Philadelphia by William Bradford, 1765, reprinted facsimile from first ed. with introduction by Abraham Flexner; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1937), 2: 16-17, 30-32; Norwood, Medical Education, pp. 43-44, 67, 69-70.

67. Middleton, Medical Discourse, p. 68; Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 31n; Brooke Hindle, The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1956), pp. 61, 111-12; Stephen Wickes, History of Medicine in New Jersey, and of Its Medical Men From the Settlement of the Province to A.D. 1800 (Newark: Dennis, 1879), p. 53; John D. Comrie, History of Scottish Medicine, 2d ed., 2 vols. (London: Baillière, Tindall, & Cox, 1932), 2: 441; Bick, "French Influence," pp. 508-9.

68. Davis, History of Medical Education, pp. 20-21; Norwood, Medical Education, pp. 57, 58; Miller, "Medical Schools," p. 523; Duncan, Medical Men, pp. 17-18; Middleton, "Morgan," p. 14; James E. Gibson, Dr. Bodo Otto and the Medical Background of the American Revolution (Baltimore: Charles C Thomas, 1937), pp. 48-49; Jones, Works, pp. 11-12; Hindle, Science, p. 110; Corner, Rush, p. 131.

69. Duncan, Medical Men, pp. 18-19; Courtney Robert Hall, "The Beginnings of American Military Medicine," Annals of Medical History, 3d ser. 4 (1942): 122-23; Cantlie, History, 1: 102, 145, 147; Gore, Story, pp. 94-95, 104, 105; Pringle, Observations, pp. 131-32; Monro, An Account, pp. 361-64; Lind, An Essay, p. 165; Nicholas Senn, "The Evolution of the Military Surgeon," Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 8 (1909): 394; Whitfield Jenks Bell, Jr., John Morgan, Continental Doctor (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1965), pp. 31-32, 42; Billroth, "Gunshot Wounds," pp. 239-40.

CHAPTER 2

1. Unless otherwise indicated, this chapter is based on these secondary sources: P. M. Ashburn, A History of the Medical Department of the United States Army (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1929); Harvey E. Brown, The Medical Department of the United States Army From 1775 to 1873 (Washington: The Surgeon General's Office, 1873); Duncan, Medical Men; Fielding H. Garrison, "Notes on the History of Military Medicine," reprinted from Military Surgeon, vols. 49-51, 1921-22 (Washington: Association of Military Surgeons, 1922); Gibson, Otto; Louis Clinton Hatch, The Administration of the American Revolutionary Army, Harvard Historical Studies, vol. 10 (New York: Lenox Hill Publ. & Dist. Co., 1904); Edgar Erskine Hume, Victories of Army Medicine: Scientific Accomplishments of the Medical Department of the United States Army (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1943); James M. Phalen, Chiefs of the Medical Department, United States Army, 1775-1940, Army Medical Bulletin No. 52 (Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: Medical Field Service School, April 1940); Erna Risch, Quartermaster Support of the Army: A History of the Corps, 1775-1939 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1962); Charles Smart, "Medical Department, U.S. Army," Journal of Military Service Institute 14 (May 1893): 692-708; Oliver Lyman Spaulding, The United States Army in War and Peace (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1937); Russell F. Weigley, History of the United States Army (New York: Macmillan Co., 1967).

2. Washington to the President of Congress, 20 Jul 1775, in John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington From the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799, 39 vols. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1931-44), 3: 350.

3. Worthington Chauncey Ford, Gaillard Hunt, and others, eds., Journals of the Conti-


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nental Congress, 34 vols. (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904-37), 2: 209.

4. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 2: 191, quote from p. 250; 4: 344; 5: 636, 673; 6: 1006, 1065; 7: 13, 44; Medical Committee to George Washington, 13 Feb 1777, in Edmund Cody Burnett, ed., Letters of Members of the Continental Congress, 8 vols. (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1921-36), 2: 249; Gibson, Otto, p. 109; Jennings Bryan Sanders, Evolution of Executive Departments of the Continental Congress (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1971 reprint of 1935 edition), p. 7.

5. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 193. A number of other committees of the Continental Congress became directly or indirectly involved in the affairs of the Hospital Department. Among them were the so-called Secret Committee and two appointed at different times to hear John Morgan's defense of his own conduct as the second director and his charges against his successor, William Shippen, and another formed in February 1778 after Rush attacked Shippen. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 206, 219, 225; 8: 626; Bell, Morgan, pp. 211-12, 219; Corner, Rush, p. 136.

6. George B. Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies in the American Revolution, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 225 (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1961), pp. 121-22; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 3: 261; 5: 528; 6: 990; 17: 708; Claude Halstead Van Tyne, The War of Independence, 2 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1929), 2: 284.

7. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 2: 211.

8. William Frederick Norwood, "The Enigma of Dr. Benjamin Church, A High-Level Scandal in the American Colonial Army Medical Service," Medical Arts and Sciences 10 (1956): 82; Church to Samuel Adams, 23 Aug 1775 in Allen French, General Gage's Informers (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1932), pp. 173-75; John Sullivan to John Langdon and Josiah Bartlett, 4 Sep 1775, in John Sullivan, Letters and Papers of Major General John Sullivan, 1771-1777, 3 vols., Collections of New Hampshire Historical Society (Concord: New Hampshire Historical Society, 1930), 1: 82-83.

9. Norwood, "Church," p. 82; Howard Lewis Applegate, "The American Revolutionary War Hospital Department," Military Medicine 126 (1961): 296; Robert Jackson, A System of Arrangement and Discipline for the Medical Department of Armies (London: John Murray, 1805), p. 59; Edwin P. Wolfe, "The Genesis of the Medical Department of the United States Army," Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 2d ser. 5 (1929): 829-30.

10. General Orders, 7 Sep 1775, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 3: 480-81, quote from p. 481; Church to Samuel Adams, 23 Aug 1775, French, Gage, pp. 174-75.

11. General Orders, 7 Sep 1775, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 3: 481.

12. Quote from Sullivan to John Langdon and Josiah Bartlett, Sullivan, Letters, 1: 82; Petition to Sullivan, 1775, Sullivan, Letters, 1: 84.

13. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 2: 249-50, quote from p. 249.

14. Washington's Orders, 14 and 18 Sep 1775, and Horatio Gates to Church, 24 Sep 1775, in Peter Force, ed., American Archives: Fourth and Fifth Series, Containing a Documentary History of the United States of America From March 7, 1774, to the Definitive Treaty of Peace With Great Britain, September 3, 1783, 9 vols. (Washington: M. St. Clair Clarke and Peter Force, 1848-53), 3: 769, 770, quote from Washington's Orders, 30 Sep 1775, pp. 857-58; General Orders, 28 Sep 1775, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 3: 524.

15. Quote from James Warren to John Adams, 1 Oct 1775, in Warren-Adams Letters, Being Chiefly a Correspondence Among John Adams, Samuel Adams, and James Warren, 2 vols., Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 5th ser. 72 (1917), 73 (1925), vol. 1, p. 121; Henry Ward to Gen Nathanael Greene, 26 Sep 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 3: 809; Washington to the President of Congress, 5 Oct 1775, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 9-11; Norwood, "Church." pp. 83-84.

16. Quote from John Adams to James Warren, 18 Oct 1775, Burnett, Letters, 1: 234;


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Carl Van Doren, Secret History of the American Revolution . . . (New York: Viking Press, 1941), pp. 19, 21; John Adams to Abigail Adams, 13 Oct 1775, in John Adams, Letters of John Adams Addressed to His Wife, ed. by Charles Francis Adams, 2 vols. (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1841), 1: 65-66; Council of War, Cambridge, 4 Oct 1775, and Massachusetts House of Representatives, 28 Oct 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 3: 958, 1479n-83n, 1485-86; Samuel Adams to James Warren, 13 Oct 1775, and James Warren to Samuel Adams, 26 Oct 1775, Warren-Adams Letters, 1: 141-42; 2: 424.

17. Quote from Council of War, 4 Oct 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 3: 958, 1159-60; General Orders, 3 Oct 1775, and Washington to the President of Congress, 5 Oct 1775, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 2, 9-11; Norwood, "Church," pp. 85-86, 87.

18. Quote from John Adams to Benjamin Kent, 22 Jun 1776, Burnett, Letters, 1: 502; Norwood, "Church," pp, 85-86, 88-89; Edward Alfred Jones, The Loyalists of Massachusetts: Their Memorials, Petitions, and Claims (Baltimore: Genealogical Publ. Co., 1969), p. 87; Washington to Jonathan Trumbull, 15 Nov 1775, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 91; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 3: 294-95, 4: 352; Massachusetts House of Representatives, 16 Oct 1775, 26 Oct 1775, and 11 Nov 1775, and Connecticut Committee of Safety, 22 Nov 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 3: 1464, 1477, 1517-18, 1636-37; John Hancock to Massachusetts Council, 3 Oct 1777, Burnett, Letters, 2: 506; James Warren to John Adams, 5 Jun 1776, Warren-Adams Letters, 1: 254-55.

19. Washington to Richard Henry Lee, 8 Nov 1775, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 76; John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Diaries of George Washington, 1748-1799, 4 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1925), 2: 195; John Adams to James Warren, 18 Oct 1775, Burnett, Letters, 1: 234.

20. John Adams to James Warren, 25 Oct 1775, Warren-Adams Letters, 1: 165.

21. Bell, Morgan, p. 77.

22. Barnabas Binney to Solomon Drowne, quoted in Gibson, Otto, p. 261.

23. Bell, Morgan, pp. 143, 179.

24. Quote from Washington to Joseph Reed, 20 Nov 1775, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 104-5; James E. Gibson, "The Role of Disease in the 70,000 Casualties in the American Revolutionary Army," Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 4th ser. 17 (1949): 122; Bell, Morgan, pp. 180-81, 214; Solomon Drowne, "Original Letters," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 5 (1881): 112.

25. John Morgan to Washington, quoted in Gibson, Otto, pp. 117-18; Francis R. Packard, "Editorial: Washington and the Medical Affairs of the Revolution," Annals of Medical History, n.s. 4 (1932): 307-8; Frederick E. Brasch, "The Royal Society of London and Its Influence Upon Scientific Thought in the American Colonies," Scientific Monthly 33 (1931): 459.

26. Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 113; Washington to the President of Congress, 31 Dec 1775, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 199; Bell, Morgan, pp. 183, 214-15; Packard, "Editorial," p. 310.

27. Quote from Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 1714n-15n; Packard, "Editorial," pp. 307-8; Bell, Morgan, pp. 184-85, 192.

28. General Orders, 3 Jul 1776, Regulations Agreed Upon Betwixt the Director-General of the American Hospital and the Regimental Surgeons and Mates at New-York, and Morgan to Washington, 18 Jul 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 1271; 5th ser. 1: 108-9, 416; Bell, Morgan, pp. 192, 194; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 4: 188, 243, 332; 5: 568, 569; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, pp. 112-13.

29. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 5: 568, 569, 570; Bell, Morgan, p. 199.

30. Quote from Col W. Smallwood to Maryland Council of Safety, Oct 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 2: 1100; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 5: 857, 858; Bell, Morgan, p. 185.

31. General Orders, 2 Aug 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 5: 366, quote from Washington to the President of Congress, 24 Sep 1776, 6: 113; John Morgan, A Vindication of His Public Character . . . (Boston: Powars and Willis, 1777), xviii; Gen Na-


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thanael Greene to John Hancock, 10 Oct 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 2: 974.

32. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 4: 242-43; 5: 837.

33. Washington to the President of Congress, 26 Apr 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 521; Stringer to Washington, 10 May 1776, and Washington to Congress, 15 May 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 4: 418; 6: 469.

34. Morgan to Samuel Adams, 25 Jun 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 1069-70, quote from 1069; Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 1714n.

35. Horatio Gates to Egbert Benson, 22 Aug 1776, with copy to Morgan, and General Orders, General Gates, 31 Aug 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 1: 1114, 1271, quote from Morgan to the President of Congress, 12 Aug 1776, 1: 921; Bell, Morgan, p. 193; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 5: 673, 843.

36. Virginia Convention, 21 May 1776, Virginia Convention, 15 Jun 1776, and Continental Congress, 18 May 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 1533, 1572-73, 1673.

37. Thomas Heyward, Jr., to Morgan, 4 Sep 1776, Burnett, Letters, 2: 69, quote from Oliver Wolcott to Matthew Griswold, 18 Nov 1776, 2: 158.

38. Quote from Congress to Shippen, 16 Jul 1776, quoted in Gibson, Otto, p. 195; Bell, Morgan, p. 220; Caspar Wistar, Eulogium on Dr. William Shippen (Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson and Son, 1818), pp. 9-12, 15-16; Bell, "Students," p. 3; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 5: 562; Middleton, "Shippen," p. 539.

39. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 6: 857-58, 989, quote from 857-58; Shippen to Washington, 20 Oct 1776, and Shippen to the President of Congress, 9 Nov 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 2: 1280; 3: 618; Washington to Shippen, 3 Nov 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 239.

40. Washington to John Morgan, 6 Jan 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 13: 482; Morgan, Vindication, xvii-xviii; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 6: 991; Gen Nathanael Greene to the President of Congress, 16 Dec 1776, Shippen to Lee, 17 Dec 1776, and Council of Safety to the President of Congress, 22 Dec 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 3: 1246, 1259, 1358.

41. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 24.

42. Washington to Morgan, 6 Jan 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 13: 481, quotes from Washington to Morgan, 18 Jan 1777, and to President of Congress, 26 Jan 1777, 7: 28, 64.

43. Samuel Adams to John Adams, 9 Jan 1777, Burnett, Letters, 2: 211, 212.

44. Morgan, Vindication, pp. v, xviii, quote from pp. xxv-xxvi; Bell, Morgan, pp. 207, 214-15, 216, 217-18; Pennsylvania Packet, 1 Jul 1779.

45. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 14: 724, quote from 8: 626; Statement of Henry Laurens, 3 Jun 1779, Burnett, Letters, 4: 247-48; Bell, Morgan, pp. 213-14, 219.

46. Rush to Lee, 14 Jan 1777, Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 129; Corner, Rush, p. 131.

47. Washington to Cochran, 20 Jan 1777, to the President of Congress, 14 Feb 1777 and 14 Mar 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 7: 45, 149-50, 287-88, Washington to Shippen, 27 Jan 1777, quoted in Gibson, Otto, p. 134; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 162.

48. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 178, 193, 199-200, 206, 219, 225; Washington to John Warren, 23 Feb 1777, quoted in Gibson, Otto, p. 139.

49. See Appendix D for the complete text of the law of 7-8 April and also Corner, Rush, p. 131; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 162, 198-99.

50. Adams, Letters to His Wife, 1: 209; Roger Sherman to Jonathan Trumbull, 17 Apr 1777, Burnett, Letters, 2: 329; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 178; Matthew Thornton to Jonathan Potts, 12 Apr 1777, Burnett, Letters, 2: 320n-21n; John Hancock to Washington, 9 Apr 1777, in Jared Sparks, ed., Correspondence of the American Revolution: Being Letters of Eminent Men to George Washington, From the Time of His Taking Command of the Army to the End of His Presidency, 4 vols. (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1853), 1: 364.


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51. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 162, 257; 18: 878; William Shippen, "Text of William Shippen's First Draft of a Plan for the Organization of the Military Hospital During the Revolution," Annals of Medical History 1 (1917-18): 176.

52. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 289-90.

53. Quoted in Gibson, Otto, p. 138; Letter of 13 Apr 1777, Adams, Letters to His Wife, 1: 213; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 253-54; Washington to the President of Congress, 14 Feb 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 7: 149; Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 121n.

54. Wistar, Shippen, pp. 9-13, 28, 31, quotes from pp. 15-16, 36; Bell, Morgan, p. 220; Whipple, Evolution, p. 11; Bell, "Students," p. 3; Betsy Copping Corner, William Shippen, Jr.: Pioneer in American Medical Education (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1951), pp. 117-18, 122, 123.

55. Bell, Morgan, p. 220; Benedict Arnold, The Present State of the American Rebel Army, Navy and Finances, Transmitted to the British Government, October 1780, ed. by Paul Leicester Ford (Brooklyn: Historical Printing Club, 1891), p. 10; Corner, Shippen, p. 112; Wistar, Shippen, p. 29.

56. Washington to John Augustine Washington, 10 Jun 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 12: 43.

57. Quote from letter of 13 Apr 1777, Adams, Letters to His Wife, 1: 212-13.

58. Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, pp. 121-22.

59. Washington to the President of Congress, 17 Nov 1777, and Washington to Gov William Livingston, 31 Dec 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 76, 233; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 8: 608-9; 10: 941; John W. Jordan, "The Military Hospitals at Bethlehem and Lititz During the Revolution," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 20 (1896): 147.

60. Washington to Gov William Livingston, 31 Dec 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 233.

61. Corner, Rush, p. 133, quote from p. 135; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 10: 23.

62. John Witherspoon to William Churchill Houston, 27 Jan 1778, James Lovell to John Langdon, 8 Feb 1778, and Henry Laurens to the Governor of Rhode Island, 3 Jan 1778, Burnett, Letters 3: 59, 97; 13: 11; Rush to John Adams, 21 Oct 1777, Rush to John Adams, 31 Oct 1777, and Rush to William Duer, 8 Dec 1777, Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 159-62, 165, 171, 172-73; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 10: 9, 23, 93, 128, 129; Applegate, "Hospital Department," pp. 301-2; Van Tyne, War, 2: 284; Potts to Medical Committee, 10 Apr 1779, in Washington, Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Papers of Jonathan Potts.

63. Burnett, Letters, 5: 287-88, quote from Committee at Headquarters to President of Congress, 10 May 1780, 5: 134.

64. Cochran to Jonathan Potts, 18 Mar 1780, in Thornton Chard, "Excerpts From the Private Journal of Doctor John Cochran," New York History 42 (1944): 375.

65. General Orders of 2 Jan, 20 Aug 1778, 26 Mar, 6 May, 16 Jun, 23 Dec 1780, Washington to Committee of Conference, 8 Jan 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 248; 12: 338; 13: 490; 18: 160, 337-38; 19: 17-18; 21: 9, quote from Washington to Committee of Congress, 29 Jan 1778, 10: 394.

66. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 8: 626. It is difficult to be precise about the position of Rickman in the years 1776-80. He functioned independently of the Director of the Hospital Department and his principal "territory" during this period was Virginia. It appears that he was never officially designated Deputy Director General for the Southern Department. Nevertheless, in July 1780, Gen. Horatio Gates referred to Rickman as the "Director of the Hospitals in the Southern Department" (Gates to Director of the Hospitals in the Southern Department, 19 Jul 1780, in Horatio Gates, "Letters of General Gates on the Southern Campaign," Magazine of American History 5 [1880]: 284) and as "Director to the General Hospital of the Southern Army," (Gates to President of the Board of War, Gates, "Letters," p. 288), which suggests that General Gates considered Rickman's authority to extend beyond Virginia. In February 1781, furthermore, in a


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communication from the Continental Congress to Thomas Bond, Rickman was referred to as the "late deputy director" (Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 19: 118). One can only conclude that in this instance, as in others, titles were used casually and the limits of the authority of the individual officer not always clearly marked.

67. The terms used in the legislation and other documents of the period are often confusing to the modern reader. It should be borne in mind that although Army physicians were repeatedly referred to as "medical officers" in legislation concerning the Hospital Department, they had no rank in the period 1775-1818.

68. Washington to Maj Gen Alexander McDougall, 5 Apr 1779, and Washington to Dr. Isaac Foster, 28 Mar 1780, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 14: 339; 18: 174; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 15: 1214, 1216, 1294-96; 18: 887.

69. Burnett, Letters, 5: 112n, also Nathaniel Scudder to Nathaniel Peabody, 6 Dee 1779, and Committee at Headquarters to President of Congress, 18 Jul 1780, 4: 533; 5: 275; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 16: 10-12; 19: 68-69; Washington to John Cochran, 6 Nov 1780, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 20: 307; William T. R. Saffell, Records of the Revolutionary War . . . (New York: Pudney & Russell, 1859), pp. 402-3.

70. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 10: 101; 14: 1, 733; Washington to Morgan, 5 Jan 1779, to Committee of Conference, 8 Jan 1779, and to Council of General Officers, 26 Jul 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 13: 479, 489; 15: 488-89; James Lovell to John Langdon, 8 Feb 1777, Richard Henry Lee to Shippen, 18 Apr 1779, and John Fell Diary, entry for 16 Apr 1779, Burnett, Letters, 3: 77; 4: 159, 163; Rush to John Adams, 8 Feb 1778, Rush to Daniel Roberdeau, 9 Mar 1778, and Rush to John Adams, 12 Feb 1812, Butterfield, Letters, 1: 199-200, 204-7; 2: 1122.

71. Shippen to Lee, 16 Apr 1780, and Cochran to Jonathan Potts, 18 Mar 1780, quoted in Gibson, Otto, pp. 253-54, 256.

72. Quoted in Gibson, Otto, p. 275; Bell, Morgan, p. 227.

73. Quoted in Bell, "Students," p. 7; Rush to John Adams, 8 Aug 1777, and Richard Peters to Secretary of State Pickering, 7 Oct 1797, Butterfield, Letters, 1: 153; 2: 1210.

74. Pennsylvania Packet, 9 Dec 1780.

75. Bell, Morgan, pp. 229, 230, 233.

76. Quotes from Verdict of Court-Martial, 27 Jun 1780, quoted in Gibson, Otto, pp. 263-64; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 17: 744-45.

77. Pennsylvania Packet, 26 Jun 1779, 18 Nov 1780, 25 Nov 1780, 6 Dec 1780, 9 Dec 1780; Rush to John Adams, 8 Aug 1777, Rush to William Duer, 8 Dec 1777, Rush to Morgan, Jan 1778, and Rush to John Adams, 12 Feb 1812, Butterfield, Letters, 1: 153, 173, 226; 2: 1121.

78. Quoted in Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 17: 638; Washington to President of Congress, 15 Jul 1780, quoted in Gibson, Otto, p. 264.

79. Corner, Rush, p. 137.

80. John Mathews to Washington, 15 Sep 1780, Burnett, Letters, 5: 372-73; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 16: 708; 17: 879-88, 908.

81. John Mathews to Washington, 15 Sep 1780, Burnett, Letters, 5: 372-73; Joseph Jones to Washington, 2 Oct 1780, in Joseph Jones, Letters of Joseph Jones of Virginia, 1777-1787, ed. by Worthington Chauncey Ford (New York: New York Times, 1971 reprint of 1889 edition, 1971), pp. 32-33; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 18: 878, 885, 887-88.

82. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 18: 908-10; Washington to Joseph Jones, 9 Sep 1780, and General Orders, 19 Oct 1780, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 20: 18-19, 218; Jones to Washington, 2 Oct 1780, and to Madison, 17 Oct 1780, Jones, Letters, pp. 32-33, 36.

83. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 19: 15, quote from 18: 1126; William Shippen to General Washington, 4 Jan 1781, in Washington, Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Papers of George Washington.

84. Quoted in James Thacher, A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, From 1775 to 1783 . . . , 2d ed. (Boston: Cottons & Barnard, 1827), p. 252; Ford,


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Journals of the Continental Congress, 19: 48, 56, 65; John Cochrane, "Medical Department of the Revolutionary Army," Magazine of American History 12 (1884): 258.

85. Quote from Cochran to Dr. Peter Turner, 25 Mar 1781, and Cochran to James Craik, 26 Mar 1781, Cochrane, "Medical Department," pp. 245, 246.

86. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 19: 68-69.

87. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 19: 292-94; 20: 506.

88. Proceedings of the Board of War, Burnett, Letters, 6: 146-47; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 20: 570.

89. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 21: 1093; 22: 4-6.

90. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 23: 408-12, 645; General Orders of 6 Aug 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 24: 479.

91. Cochrane, "Medical Department," p. 252, quote from Cochran to the President of Congress, 24 May 1781, p. 248; John Cochran to Thomas Bond, 1781, in Morristown, N.J., Morristown Historical Park, John Cochran Letter Book, microfilm 5168; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 21: 103; Cochran to Abraham Clark, 28 Feb 1781 and Apr 1781, Chard, "Cochran," pp. 366-67, 369; Washington to Cochran, 12 Feb 1781, and to James and Horace Hooker, 25 Feb 1781, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 21: 217, 292-93.

92. Fitzpatrick, Washington, 24: 489n; Washington to President of Congress, 15 Dec 1781, 23: 392, quote from Washington to Gov John Hancock, 14 Jul 1781, 22: 380; Cochran to John Warren, 30 Jun 1781, Chard, "Cochran," p. 370; Victor Leroy Johnson, "Robert Morris and the Provisioning of the American Army During the Campaign of 1781," Pennsylvania History 5 (1939): 11; Pennsylvania Packet, 14 Nov 1780, p. 2.

93. Ltrs, Robert Morris to Thomas Bond, 19 Feb 1782 and 19 Jun 1783, Xeroxes of letters held by Library of Congress, obtained from Miss Elizabeth Thomson.

94. Cochrane, "Medical Department," p. 251.

95. Cochran to George Campbell and to Abraham Clark, 2 and 30 Apr, 8 May 1781, quote from Cochran to Robert Morris, 26 Jul 1781, Chard, "Cochran," pp. 368-69, 372; Cochrane, "Medical Department," p. 252; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 21: 1072-73; John Cochran to Peter Turner, 25 Mar 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

96. Cochrane, "Medical Department," p. 254; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 21: 81-82; John Cochran to Samuel Huntington, 24 May 1782, Cochran Letter Book.

97. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 29: 208; Saffell, Records, pp. 406-7.

98. Quote from Cochran to Hagen, 8 May 1781, Chard, "Cochran," p. 370.

99. Quote from Cochran to Hagen, 8 May 1781, Chard, "Cochran," p. 370; John Cochran to Board of War, 4 Jul 1781, and to Robert Morris, 26 Jul 1781, Cochran Letter Book; Washington to Maj Gen William Heath, 1 Aug 1781, and Washington to the Board of War, 5 Aug 1781, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 22: 441, 463; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 20: 625; 21: 979.

100. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 21: 980.

101. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 22: 7; The President of Congress to Cochran, 25 Sep 1781, Burnett, Letters, 6: 225.

102. Washington's letters to Secretary of War, 16 Aug 1782, to Sir Guy Carleton, 18 Aug 1782, to Heath and Knox, 23 Sep 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 25: 26, 38, 196.

103. Richard Peters, by order to John Cochran, 10 Oct 1781, Cochran Letter Book, with quote from Cochran to Binney, 22 Oct 1781; Cochran to President of Congress, 10 Oct 1781, to James Craik, 10 Oct 1781, and Cochran to John Warren, 10 Oct 1781, Chard, "Cochran," pp. 363-64, 365, 372; Cochran to Barnabas Binney, 22 Oct 1781, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 5 (1881): 230.

104. John Cochran to Barnabas Binney, 22 Oct 1781, and Cochran to John Warren, 22 Feb 1781, Cochran Letter Book; Cochran to Warren, 10 Oct 1781, Chard, "Cochran," p. 372.

105. Report of Nov 1782, Cochran to Binney, 22 Oct 1781, and Cochran to Richard


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Peters, 20 Oct 1781, Cochran Letter Book; Cochran to Warren, 10 Oct 1781, Chard, "Cochran," p. 372.

106. Quoted in Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 25: 740; John C. Fitzpatrick, The Spirit of the Revolution (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1924), p. 211.

107. Jones, Works, pp. 152-54.

CHAPTER 3

1. For the location of towns in the vicinity of Boston mentioned in the text, see Map 1. Unless otherwise indicated, the account of the Boston area is based upon these sources: Bell, Morgan; Brown, Medical Department; Cash, Medical Men; and Duncan, Medical Men. Except where otherwise indicated, statistics throughout this and subsequent chapters are based on Charles H. Lesser, ed., The Sinews of Independence: Monthly Strength Reports of the Continental Army (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976). It should be noted, however, that, as Lesser himself points out, there are many serious difficulties involved in any attempt to rely upon statistics concerning the rate of sickness in the Continental Army during the Revolution. Despite Washington's concern for the keeping of accurate records, care and precision with statistics were not generally characteristic of those submitting returns in this period, particularly before the winter of 1778-79, and the gathering of accurate figures was often impossible. Statistics obtained from different reports apparently covering the same units for the same period of time may, therefore, vary. A return of 29 June 1776 in Lesser, for example, lists strength and sickness statistics at variance with those cited in a strength report for the preceding day by Washington, as published in Fitzpatrick, Washington, 5: 194n, but the Fitzpatrick citation may not include all of the units included in the Lesser return. Attempts to use the returns published in Lesser in analyzing the work of the Hospital Department are complicated by the fact that the pertinent column headings appear somewhat ambiguous to the modern researcher; "sick present," used in the official army monthly reports, may or may not include the figures for regimental and flying hospitals, while "sick absent" may include those in general hospitals, those sick or convalescent at home or in the care of civilians outside camp, and those who deserted after their discharge from these facilities but before returning to their units (see Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 526-27, for example). Hospital Department returns, on the other hand, often use another ambiguous category, "sick in camp," or a similar term which, because of the manner in which it is used, clearly includes regimental and flying hospitals but may or may not include the sick of units stationed at some distance from the main body of the army. Figures given by the department's report are, with some exceptions, significantly smaller than those cited by Lesser, a situation which may reflect those inaccuracies in regimental returns sent directly to the Adjutant General which moved General Washington to angry comment in May 1778 (Fitzpatrick, Washington, 11: 454-55). The number of officers sick, when available, is listed separately in Lesser, but even when given, the figure is often partial, limited in many instances to the officers of the artillery. Percentages in this and following chapters concerning the Revolution have, therefore, been calculated from figures for the rank and file alone to establish a uniform basis for comparisons.

Also consulted for the preceding paragraph were: Gibson, "Role of Disease"; and James Stevens, "Revolutionary Journal," Essex Institute Historical Collections 48 (1912): 53.

2. Church to Samuel Adams, 23 Aug 1775, French, Gage, pp. 175-76.

3. Quote from Morgan to Washington, 12 Dec 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 4: 263; Church to Samuel Adams, 23 Aug 1775, French, Gage, pp. 175-76. Most of the papers of the Board of War from the period of the American Revolution were destroyed in a fire on 8 November 1800 and the surviving records sustained further serious losses when the British looted the fireproof room which contained them in 1814. Washington, National Archives, Preliminary Inventories: War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records (Washington:


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National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1970), p. 1.

4. Church to Samuel Adams, 23 Aug 1775, French, Gage, pp. 176-77; Norwood, "Church," p. 82; John Warren to John Hancock, Oct 1775, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 67; Return of the Sick & Wounded in the General Hospital at Cambridge & Roxbury, 25 Nov-2 Dec 1775, in Washington, National Archives, War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 93, Revolutionary War Rolls 1775-83, Microfilm Publication M246, Miscellaneous, Hospital Department, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 15.

5. Quote from General Orders, 29 Aug 1775, in Washington, National Archives, War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 93, Miscellaneous Numbered Records, 1775-84, series 6, Microfilm Publication M859, roll 2, frame 154; Fitzpatrick, Washington, 3: 439-40.

6. Gordon, Aesculapius, p. 241; Returns of 26 Nov-2 Dec 1775, RG 93, M246, folder 3-1, item 15.

7. Morgan to Washington, 12 Dec 1775, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 80.

8. Morgan to Washington, 12 Dec 1775, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 80; Returns of 16 Dec 1775-30 Mar 1776, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 17-27.

9. Returns of 16 Dec 1775-30 Mar 1776, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 17-27.

10. Quote from Morgan to Washington, 12 Dec 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 4: 263; Washington's letters during the period, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 118, 145-62; Robert H. Harrison to Council of Massachusetts, 3 Dec 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 168; Massachusetts Provincial Congress, quoted in Duncan, Medical Men, p. 53.

11. Thacher, Journal, p. 35; Morgan, Vindication, p. 3; Returns of 13 Jan, 30 Mar 1776, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 20-27.

12. Thacher, Journal, pp. 45-46; Gibson, Otto, pp. 90, 93; General Orders, 25 Mar 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 430; Morgan, Recommendation.

13. Morgan to a Committee of the Massachusetts Assembly, 11 Apr 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 5: 859; 6: 176n; Ephraim Eliot, "Account of the Physicians of Boston," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 6 (1863-64): 178; Morgan to Washington, 22 Apr 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 5: 1025; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, pp. 114, 115, 121-22; Deposition of Dr. John Warren, 9 Apr 1776, in Henry Barton Dawson, Battles of the United States, 2 vols. (New York: Johnson, Fry and Co., 1858), 2: 97.

14. Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, pp. 112-13, 115; Washington to Morgan, 3 Apr 1776, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 114; Morgan to Washington, 22 Apr 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 5: 1024; Gibson, Otto, p. 93; Morgan, Vindication, p. 4.

15. General Orders, 4 Mar 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 368-69; Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 122.

16. Morgan, Vindication, pp. 3-4; Charles Lee to President of Congress, 9 Feb 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 4: 965; Washington to Morgan, 3 Apr 1776, and Morgan to Washington, 22 Apr 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 5: 783-84, 1024.

17. Unless otherwise indicated, the section on the Northern Department is based on the following sources: Brown, Medical Department; Duncan, Medical Men; Gibson, Otto; and Henry B. Carrington, Battles of the American Revolution, 1775-1781: Historical and Military Criticism With Topographical Illustration, 6th ed., revised (New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1968). The preceding paragraph is also based on Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 122; and Schuyler to Samuel Stringer, 27 Aug 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 3: 443.

18. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 2: 249-50; Schuyler to Stringer, 27 Aug 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 3: 443.

19. Arnold to Washington, 27 Feb 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 4: 1513; Lewis Beebe, Journal of Dr. Lewis Beebe (New York Times & Arno Press, 1971), pp. 325-27; Kenneth Lewis Roberts, ed., March to Quebec: Journals of the Members of Arnold's Expedition (New York: Doubleday,


232

Doran & Co., 1938), pp. 121, 195; John Codman, Arnold's Expedition to Quebec (New York: Macmillan Co., 1902), pp. 163, 186.

20. Arnold to Schuyler, 10 May 1776, and Washington's General Orders, 20 May 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 452, 525; Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 123; Beebe, Journal, p. 328; Arnold to Washington, 8 May 1776, Maj Gen John Thomas to Washington, 8 May 1776, and Arnold to commissioners in Canada, 15 May 1776, Sparks, Correspondence, 1: 194, 197-99, 516; Timothy Bedel to Brig Gen Arnold, 10 May 1776, RG 93, M859, roll 101, frame 168.

21. Stringer to Washington, 10 May 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 417-18; Washington to Congress, 15 May 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 5: 46; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 4: 378.

22. Quote from Beebe, Journal, p. 330; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 4: 344; Potts to Continental Congress, 29 Apr 1776, Gibson, Otto, p. 105; Washington to President of Congress, 26 Apr 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 520-21.

23. Schuyler to Washington, 22 May 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 586.

24. Arnold to Schuyler, 13 Jun 1776, Morgan to Samuel Adams, 25 Jun 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 1039, 1069, quote from extract of letter from John Adams, 26 Jun 1776, 6: 1083; Gates to John Adams, 24 Jun 1776, in Bernard Knollenberg, ed., "The Correspondence of John Adams and Horatio Gates," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 67 (1941-44): 145; Arnold to Washington, 25 Jun 1776, and Arnold to Schuyler, 6 Jun 1776, Sparks, Correspondence, 1: 237-38, 526; Bell, Morgan, p. 189.

25. Quotes from Beebe, Journal, pp. 333, 334, 335-36.

26. Stringer to Potts, 7 Jul 1776, in Philadelphia, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Manuscript Department, Papers of Jonathan Potts, 1766-80, 1: 70; Morgan to Samuel Adams, 26 Jun 1776, and Gates to Moses Morse, 12 Jul 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 1069-70; 5th ser. 1: 238; Beebe, Journal, p. 343; John Trumbull, Autobiography, Reminiscenses and Letters of John Trumbull, From 1756 to 1841 (New Haven: B. L. Hamlen, 1841), p. 28; Ltr, Dr. Meyrich, 1835, and John Trumbull to Governor of Connecticut, Trumbull, Autobiography, pp. 300, 304; Morgan, Vindication, pp. 50, 52; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 5: 424; Washington to President of Congress, 9 Jun 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 5: 111-12; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 118; Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 124.

27. Quote from Stringer to Gates, 24 Jul 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 1: 651; Beebe, Journal, p. 344; John Trumbull to Governor of Connecticut, 12 Jul 1776, Trumbull, Autobiography, p. 302; Ltr, Lt Col. Israel Shreve to Mary Shreve, 18 Jul 1776, Shreve copybook in the family collection of Mr. and Mrs. Charles J. Simpson, Potomac, Maryland.

28. Quote from Stringer to Potts, 7 Jul 1776, Potts Papers, 1: 70; Stringer to Gates, 24 Jul 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 1: 651-52; Return of the Sick of the General Hospital at Fort George From the 12th to the 26th July 1776 Inclusive, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 53.

29. Stringer to Gates, 24 Jul 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 1: 652.

30. Morgan to Potts, 28 Jul 1776, Potts Papers, 1: 77; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, pp. 118-19; Morgan, Vindication, p. 20.

31. Stringer to Potts, 2 Aug 1776, Potts to Morgan, 10 Aug 1776, and Stringer to Potts, 7 Sep 1776, Potts Papers, 1: 84, 87, 98, quote from McHenry to Potts, 21 Aug 1776, 1: 90; Gates to Congress, 29 Jul 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 1: 649; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, pp. 118-19; McHenry to Potts, 21 Aug 1776, Gibson, Otto, p. 110.

32. Quote from Potts to Samuel Adams, 10 Aug 1776, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 101; Potts to Morgan, 10 Aug 1776, and Stringer to Potts, 17 Aug 1776, Gibson, Otto, pp. 107, 109.

33. Stringer to Potts, 17 Aug 1776, and Gates to Washington, 28 Aug 1776, Gibson, Otto, p. 109, quote from p. 103; James W. Gibson, "Smallpox and the American Revolution," Genealogical Magazine and Historiographical Chronicle 51 (1948): 56; Ltr, Richard Blanco to author, 22 Apr 1975, p. 2; S.


233

Adams to J. Adams, 16 Aug 1776, in Samuel Adams, The Writings of Samuel Adams, ed. Harry Alonzo Cushing, 4 vols. (New York: Octagon Books, 1968), 3: 310-11.

34. Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 1: 1271, quote and data from Gates to Egbert Benson, 22 Aug 1776, 1: 1114; Gates to President of Congress, 2 Sep 1776, Gibson, Otto, pp. 101-2.

35. Schuyler to New York Committee of Safety, 9 Sep 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 2: 685; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 120; Beebe, Journal, pp. 345-46, 350, 356; Report of meeting of regimental surgeons of 31 Aug 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 1: 226.

36. Quote from Beebe, Journal, p. 358; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 119.

37. Trumbull to Schuyler, 10 Sep 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 2: 279-80.

38. Dr. Samuel Wigglesworth to New Hampshire Committee of Safety, 27 Sep 1776, and Resolve of Continental Congress, 25 Sep 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 2: 574, 1378; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 5: 622, 812; William Williams to Joseph Trumbull, 26 Sep 1776, Burnett, Letters, 2: 104.

39. Quote from Elbridge Gerry to John Wendell, 11 Nov 1776, Burnett, Letters, 2: 149; Beebe, Journal, p. 357; Craigie to Potts, 3 Oct 1776, and Stringer to Potts, 15 Oct 1776, Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 120; Stringer to Gates, 6 Oct 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 2: 923.

40. Stringer to Potts, 29 Oct 1776 and 3 Nov 1776, Potts Papers, 2: 134, 135-38; Thacher, Journal, 5 Aug 1776, p. 53.

41. Stringer to Gates, 3 Nov 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 3: 506; John Trumbull to Potts, 8 Aug 1776, Potts Papers, 1: 86.

42. Quote from Report of 27 Nov 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 3: 1584; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 6: 990; Pennsylvania Infantry, 5th Regiment Orderly Book of the Northern Army at Ticonderoga and Mt. Independence From October 17th 1776, to January 8th, 1777, With Biographical and Explanatory Notes and an Appendix (Albany: J. Munsell, 1859), pp. 19-20, 22.

43. Council of Safety to Potts, 6 Dec 1776, Thomas Tillotson to Potts, 18 Feb 1777, and Schuyler to Potts, 22 Mar 1777, Potts Papers, 2: 132, 148, 154; Jordan, "Hospitals," p. 143; Pennsylvania Infantry, Orderly Book, pp. 111n-12n; Anthony Wayne to Horatio Gates, 1 Dec 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 3: 1031; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 34.

44. Schuyler to Potts, 22 Mar 1777, Potts to Gates, 3 Apr 1777, and Potts to Medical Committee, 3 Apr 1777, Potts Papers, 2: 154, 157, 158; Report of 27 Nov 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 3: 1584; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 6: 990.

45. Return of Stringer, 1 Apr 1777, and Potts to Gates, 3 Apr 1777, Potts Papers, 2: 156, 157.

46. Shippen's handwriting is difficult to decipher, but this physician may have been Forgue.

47. Quote from Shippen to Potts, 18 Apr 1777, Potts Papers, 2: 162; Return of the officers of the General Hospital Northern Department, no date, Potts Papers, 1: 12. This document must date after April 1777, when the position of Assistant Director was first created, and before the end of the year, when Potts left the Northern Department (Duncan, Medical Men, p. 108). The use of the term "Commissary General" is another example of the casual use of terminology characteristic of the period; Potts was referring to the chief commissary of the Hospital Department, not the Army's Commissary General.

48. Potts announcement of 7 May 1777, Return of the Sick in the General Hospital at Mount Independence, 21 May 1777, and Potts to Committee of Schenectady, 6 May 1777, Potts Papers, 2: 180, 182, 196.

49. Unless otherwise indicated, the section on New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania is based on Duncan, Medical Men, and Gibson, Otto. Also consulted for the preceding paragraph was Risch, Quartermaster Support, p. 11.

50. Bell, Morgan, p. 189; Morgan to New York Convention, 13 Aug 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 1: 499; Morgan,


234

Vindication, pp. 19, 96; Byron Polk Stookey, A History of Colonial Medical Education: In the Province of New York, With Its Subsequent Development (1767-1830) (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, 1962), p. 74; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 116.

51. For the location of sites mentioned in this section, see Map 3. Morgan, Vindication, pp. 55, 116; W. R. Bett, "John Warren (1753-1815), Soldier, Anatomist and Surgeon," Medical Press 230 (1953): 137.

52. Morgan, Vindication, pp. 108-9, 117.

53. Morgan, Vindication, pp. 116-17, quote from p. 118.

54. Morgan, Vindication, p. 18; Carrington, Battles, pp. 211-12.

55. Morgan, Vindication, pp. xxxi-xxxii, 12, 20, 128; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 117; Washington to New York Legislature, 8 Sep 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 35-36.

56. Morgan, Vindication, p. 93, quote from p. 124; Washington to New York Legislature, 12 Sep 1776, and Washington to President of Congress, 14 Sep 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 48, 54-55.

57. General Orders, 18 Sep 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 71.

58. Morgan, Vindication, pp. xxxi-xxxii; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 117; Washington to Shippen, 3 Nov 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 239.

59. Morgan, Vindication, pp. xxii-xxiv, xxx, 16, 46-47, 142-43, quote from Morgan to Rush, 20 Oct 1776, p. 142; Bell, Morgan, p. 200; Washington's General Orders, 2 Sep 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 8.

60. Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser, 17 Jul 1776; Gordon, Aesculapius, p. 401; Bell, Morgan, p. 197; Van Swieten, Diseases, p. 7; Butterfield, Letters of Rush 1: 104n. Apparently fewer than 6,000 men ever reported to the flying camp. See also Chapter 2.

61. Data and quote from Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 5: 808; Mercer to Washington, 16 Jul 1776, and Shippen to Congress, 19 Sep 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 1: 371; 3: 1298.

62. Shippen Report, 1 Nov 1776, William Paca to Maryland Council of Safety, 7 Dec 1776, and Shippen to Washington, 8 Dec 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 3: 463-64, 1094, 1119; Washington to Board of War, 4 Dec 1776, and Washington to Shippen, 12 Dec 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 327-28, 362; Bell, Morgan, p. 195; David Freeman Hawke, Benjamin Rush: Revolutionary Gadfly (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1971), p. 174; Gibson, "Role of Disease," pp. 124-25; Gibson, Otto, pp. 120, 123, 199; Rush to Shippen, 28 Nov 1776, Pennsylvania Packet, 18 Nov 1780.

63. Gibson does not cite his source for this figure but it would appear to be a weekly report. Gibson, "Role of Disease," pp. 124-25; Morgan, Vindication, pp. 19-20; Hawke, Rush, p. 174; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 51, 70, 143.

64. Thomas Wharton to Richard Peters, 6 Dec 1776, and Shippen to Lee, 17 Dec 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 3: 1094, 1258; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 6: 1006; Jordan, "Hospitals," p. 141.

65. Jordan, "Hospitals," pp. 135-41.

66. Jordan, "Hospitals," pp. 135-41, 143; Gibson, Otto, p. 140.

67. Jordan, "Hospitals," p. 142; General Orders, 29 Dec 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 453-54.

68. Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 121n, 2: 1198; Rush to Lee, 14 Jan 1777, 1: 125, 129; Bell, Morgan, p. 208; Corner, Rush, pp. 128, 130; Hawke, Rush, pp. 178-79.

69. Morgan, Vindication, pp. 16, 17, 160; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 117; Morgan to Rush, 20 Oct 1776, Morgan, Vindication, pp. 142-43.

70. Morgan, Vindication, pp. 17, 18; General Orders, 31 Oct 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 235.

71. Morgan, Vindication, pp. xxxvi-xxxvii, 19.

72. Morgan, Vindication, pp. 136, 137; William Eustis to General Heath, 10 Dec 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 3: 1161-62.

73. Morgan, Vindication, pp. xxiv, 133-34, 136, 137; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 116.

74. Quote from James Tilton, Economical Observations on Military Hospitals and the Prevention and Cure of Diseases Incident to an Army . . . (Wilmington, Del.: J. Wilson.


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1813), p. 33; Morgan, Vindication, pp. 45, 129; Col Isaac Nicoll to John McKesson, 29 Sep 1776, and Gen Nathanael Greene to President of Congress, 10 Oct 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 2: 597, 973.

75. Morgan, Vindication, pp. xxxvii, 22, 121-23; General Orders, 5 Nov 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 241; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 5: 568 (see also Appendix C in this volume); Heath to Morgan, 19 Nov 1776, and Morgan to Heath, 20 Nov 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th ser. 5: 769, 781; William Heath, Heath's Memoirs of the American War, ed. Rufus Rockwell Wilson (New York: A. Wessels Co., 1904), pp. 94-95.

76. General Orders, 14 Apr 1776, 19 Apr 1776, 20 May 1776, 26 May 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 4: 477, 492; 5: 63, 82-83, quote from p. 63; New York Provincial Council Resolution, 26 May 1776, and New York Provincial Congress, 24 May 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 635, 1330-31; Heath, Memoirs, pp. 55, 74.

77. Council of Massachusetts to General Artemas Ward, 9 Jul 1776, and Gov Jonathan Trumbull to Washington, 4 Jul 1776, Gibson, Otto, pp. 91-92, 99; Brig Gen William Thompson to Washington, 2 Jun 1776, Sparks, Correspondence, 1: 209; Maryland Council of Safety to Lieutenant Bracco, 29 Jun 1776 Force, American Archives, 4th ser. 6: 1130-31.

78. Lee to Washington, 27 Feb 1777, James Curtis Ballagh, ed., The Letters of Richard Henry Lee, 2 vols. (New York: Da Capo Press, 1970 reprint of 1911-14 ed.), 1: 266; William Williams to Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 6 Nov 1776, Burnett, Letters, 2: 142; Washington to Ward, 11 Jul 1776, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 5: 256.

79. Washington to Lt Col Robert Hanson Harrison, and to Cochran, 20 Jan 1777, to New York Legislature, and to Gov Nicholas Cooke, 10 Feb 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 7: 38, 44-45, 129-30, 131-32, quote from Washington to Shippen, 28 Jan 1777, pp. 75-76; Lee to Patrick Henry, 7 Apr 1777 and 22 Apr 1777, Ballagh, Letters, 1: 269, 283; Medical Committee to Washington, 13 Feb 1777, Burnett, Letters, 1: 250.

80. Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 125; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 139-40; Washington to Shippen, 6 Jan 1777, and to President of Congress, 5 Feb 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 6: 473; 7: 105.

81. Washington to Shippen, 1 Mar 1777, and to Foster, 18 Apr 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 7: 220, 432.

82. Washington to Henry, 13 Apr 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 7: 409.

83. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 317, quote from 292; Nathan G. Goodman, Benjamin Rush, Physician and Citizen, 1746-1813 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934), p. 86.

84. Richard Henry Lee to Arthur Lee, 20 Apr 1777, Ballagh, Letters, 1: 279; Lynn Montross, Rag, Tag and Bobtail: The Story of the Continental Army, 1775-1783 (New York: Harper & Bros., 1952), p. 184.

85. Corner, Rush, p. 131; Victor Leroy Johnson, The Administraton of the American Commissariat During the Revolutionary War (Philadelphia, 1941), p. 69.

CHAPTER 4

1. Peter Shindel, 20 Oct 1845, in C. H. Martin, "The Military Hospital at the Cloister (Ephrata, Pa., 1777)," Lancaster County (Pa.) Historical Society Papers 51 (1947): 127.

2. Gibson, Otto, p. 140; Isaac Foster to Mary Foster, 31 Jul 1777, in Washington, Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Papers of Isaac Foster, folder 1.

3. Duncan, Medical Men, p. 212. Duncan also refers to an army report for 5 August 1777 and maintains that while it records 14,204 fit for duty from a total of 17,949, it also lists 4,745 sick. It is not clear from the text whether the faulty arithmetic should be laid at the foot of the author or of his source. Lesser contains no report for August 1777 for Washington's army.

4. General Orders, 2, 3, 9, 16, 17 Jun, 19 Oct 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 8: 171, 175, 210, 255, 256; 9: 404, quote from Washington to Philip Livingston, Elbridge Gerry, and George Clymer, 19 Jul 1777, 8: 441. A


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rather casual attitude was taken at this time toward official designations. General Washington used here the term "Surgeon General," by which he obviously meant the Physician and Surgeon General of the Army, Dr. John Cochran, who supervised the work of the regimental surgeons.

5. General Orders, 1, 9 Jul 1777, Washington to Maj Gen John Sullivan, 7 Jul 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 8: 328, 364, 365, 374; Sullivan, Letters, 1: 404-5.

6. General Orders, 15, 16, 17 Jun, 4 Sep 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 8: 251, 255, 256; 9: 178.

7. Quote from Rush to John Adams, 8 Aug 1777, Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 153; J. P. Muhlenberg, "Orderly Book of Gen. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, March 26-December 20, 1777," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 34 (1910): 449.

8. Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements & Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), pp. 40, 41; John W. Jordan, "Continental Hospital Returns," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 23 (1899): 36-38.

9. Unless otherwise indicated, material in the balance of this chapter is based on Brown, Medical Department; Duncan, Medical Men; and Gibson, Otto. Also consulted for the preceding paragraph were: quote from Tilton, Observations, p. 56; James E. Gibson, "John Augustus Otto," Historical Review of Berks County 13 (1947): 15; Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 125; General Orders, 12 Sep 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 9: 209.

10. Corner, Rush, pp. 132-33; Washington to William Howe, 13 Sep 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 9: 217; Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 157n; William Shippen, "Just Account of Dr. Alison's Services to the Best of My Remembrance, 15 Dec 1780," in Philadelphia, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Manuscript Department, Society Miscellaneous Collection, case 19, box 2.

11. Washington to Maj Gen Nathanael Greene, 25 Nov 1777, to William Shippen, 12 Dec 1777, and to Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 4 Apr 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 105, 150; 11: 208; Shippen, Just Account; Shippen to John Ettwein, 19 Sep 1777, Jordan, "Hospitals," pp. 144-45, 148; Joseph Mortimer Levering, A History of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1741-1892, With Some Account of Its Founders and Their Early Activity in America (Bethlehem, Pa.: Times Publishing Co., 1903), p. 475; John Morgan, Gibson, Otto, p. 283; Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10; George L. Heiges, "Letters Relating to Colonial Military Hospitals in Lancaster County," Lancaster County (Pa.) Historical Society Papers 52 (1948): 74. See Appendix G for data on many of the hospitals not discussed in detail in the text.

12. General Orders, 9 Dec 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 141-42; William Shippen to Jonathan Potts, 14 Dec 1777, Potts Papers 3: 383; Thomas Bond, Jr., to Col John Patten, 13 Dec 1777, in Philadelphia, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Manuscript Department, Autograph Collection, case 19, box 15; Helen Burr Smith, "Surgeon Jonathan Potts Planned Innoculation [sic] at the Winter Camp," Picket Post, April 1947, p. 20.

13. Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 125; Benjamin Rush to William Shippen, 2 Dec 1777, Maj Gen Nathanael Greene, 2 Dec 1777, William Duer, 13 Dec 1777, and Washington, 26 Dec 1777, Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 168-69, 170, 175, 176, 180.

14. Jordan, "Hospitals," pp. 145, 146-47, 150, quote from Shippen to John Ettwein, 19 Sep 1777, pp. 144-45; James A. Beck, Bethlehem and Its Military Hospital, An Address Delivered at the Unveiling of a Tablet Erected by the Pennsylvania Society of the Sons of the Revolution June 19, 1897 . . . (printed by the Society), pp. 9, 11, 13.

15. Quote from message of 22 Sep 1777, Ballagh, Letters, 1: 324; Jordan, "Hospitals," pp. 146-47; Beck, Bethlehem, p. 13; Levering, Bethlehem, pp. 465, 466, 474, 475.

16. William Shippen to Congress, Oct 1777, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 220; Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 27 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 11.

17. Samuel Stringer, report of 1 Apr 1777, Shippen to Potts, 7 Jul 1777, Cutting to Potts, 16 Mar 1778, and Thomas Bond, Jr., to Jonathan Potts, 17 May 1778, Potts Papers, 2: 156, 235; 4: 421, 468; General Orders, 14 Apr 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 11: 260; Grif-


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fenhagen, Drug Supplies, pp. 122, 127; Washington, National Archives, War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 93, Numbered Record Books, 1775-98, series 5, Microfilm Publication M853, roll 12, pp. 18, 36; Nellie Protsman Waldenmaier, Some of the Earliest Oaths of Allegiance to the United States of America (Lancaster, 1944), pp. 22, 23; Bayne-Jones, Preventive Medicine, pp. 43-44. The relationship and status of the two apothecaries at this time are not clear. General Washington referred to Cutting as the Apothecary General of the Middle Department and Cutting signed two oaths of allegiance in this capacity in May 1778, but other records of later origin list Cutting as Apothecary General of the Eastern Department during this period.

18. Quote from James Craik to Jonathan Potts, 26 Apr 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 164; Hatch, Administration, pp. 92-93.

19. General Orders, 12 Nov 1777, 28 Feb 1778, Washington to the Officers Visiting Hospitals, January 1778, Washington to Col George Gibson, 21 Feb 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 47-48, 406, 495-96, 526; George Weedon, Valley Forge Orderly Book of General George Weedon of the Continental Army Under Command of Gen. George Washington, in the Campaign of 1777-8 (New York: New York Times & Arno Press, 1971 reprint of 1902 edition), p. 128; William Shippen to President of Congress, 24 Nov 1777, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 240; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 10: 23.

20. General Orders, 15 Jan, 22 Feb, 17 Apr, 29 Apr, and 12 Jun 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 306, 499; 11: 270, 271, 319; 12: 50; William Bradford Reed, ed., Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed, 2 vols. (Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1847), 1: 361; Johnson, American Commissariat, pp. 107-8; Risch, Quartermaster Support, p. 41; Ephraim Blaine to Jonathan Potts, 2 May 1778, and James Craik to Jonathan Potts, 24 May 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 461, 471.

21. Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, pp. 127, 128; Invoice of Medicines Delivered to John Cochran, Esq., Surgeon and Physician General, for the Use of the Middle Department, 6 Feb 1778, Shippen to Potts, 24 Feb, Cutting to Potts, 25 Mar, Craigie to Potts, 27 Mar, 4 Apr, 1 May 1778, Potts Papers, 3: 400; 4: 411, 428, 429, 437, 458.

22. William Browne to Potts, 11 Mar, and Craigie to Potts, 1 May 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 419, 458; John D. Kendig, A Legendary and Factual Review of the Times of Henry William Stiegel and the Early Days of Manheim (n.p., 1957), p. 12; William Shainline Middleton, "Medicine at Valley Forge," Annals of Medical History 3d ser. 3 (1941); 481; James Hutchinson, "Notes: Valley Forge," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 39 (1915): 221.

23. Quote from James Craik (to Jonathan Potts?), 15 May 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 177; J. B. Cutting to Jonathan Potts, 16 Apr 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 166; General Orders, 14 Apr 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 11: 261.

24. Quote from Andrew Craigie to Jonathan Potts, 1 May 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 458; James Craik to Jonathan Potts, 26 Apr 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 164.

25. General Orders, 6 and 8 Jan 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 272, quote from p. 276; Hatch, Administration, pp. 92-93; Baron de Kalb to Count de Broglio, 21 Dec 1777, and James Craik to Jonathan Potts, 26 Apr 1778, Gibson, Otto, pp. 150, 164; Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 125; Reed, Joseph Reed, 1: 362; Alfred Hoyt Bill, Valley Forge: The Making of an Army (New York: Harper & Bros., 1952), p. 102.

26. Quote from John Laurens, The Army Correspondence of Colonel John Laurens in the Years 1777-8 . . . (New York: Bradford Club, 1867), p. 135; William Bell to Jonathan Potts, 22 Apr 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 447; General Washington to Gov George Clinton, 12 Mar 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 11: 68; Worthington Chauncey Ford, ed., General Orders Issued by Major-General Israel Putnam When in Command of the Highlands in the Summer and Fall of 1777 (Boston: Gregg Press, 1972 reprint of 1893 edition), p. 28; Richard Henry Lee to Arthur Lee, 30 Jun 1777, Ballagh, Letters, 1: 306; "A Whitemarsh Orderly Book," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 45 (1921): 217-18; Reed, Joseph Reed, 1: 361, 362; Weedon, Valley Forge, pp. 263-64; Albigence Waldo, "Valley Forge, 1777-1778. Diary of Surgeon Albigence Waldo, of the Connecticut Line," Pennsyl-


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vania Magazine of History and Biography 21 (1897): 321.

27. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 10: 1016; Blanton, Medicine, p. 252.

28. James Craik to Jonathan Potts, 22 Mar 1778, 26 Apr 1778, and Tilton to Potts, 8 May 1778, Gibson, Otto, pp. 164, 169-70, quote from p. 162; Washington to Officer Commanding at Alexandria, Virginia, 20 Mar 1778, and General Orders, 17 Apr 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 11: 116, 271; John Cochran to Jonathan Potts, 22 Mar 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 162; Francis Lightfoot Lee to George Weedon, 31 Mar 1778, Burnett, Letters, 3: 147; James Tilton to Jonathan Potts, 22 Apr 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 446.

29. Weedon, Valley Forge, p. 294; Fraser Lewis, "Medicine in the Continental Army of the Revolutionary War: 1775-1783," Philadelphia Medicine 55 (1959): 257-58; Norwood, "Medicine," p. 399; Shippen, "Plan," pp. 174n, 176; Tilton, Observations, p. 16.

30. Waldo, "Valley Forge," p. 316; General Orders, 9, 13 Jan 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 284, 300; Edward W. Hocker, "Medical Men Deserve Tribute for Care of Washington's Men at Valley Forge Encampment," Picket Post 16 (January 1947): 8; Edward Hand, "Orderly Book of General Edward Hand, Valley Forge, January 1778," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 41 (1917): 223.

31. James Craik to Potts, 26 Apr 1778, and James Fallon to Potts, 22 Apr 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 450, 462, quote from p. 450; Waldo, "Valley Forge," p. 316; General Orders, 21 Jan 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 333; Weedon, Valley Forge, p. 204.

32. Hand, "Orderly Book," p. 464; General Orders, 29 Jan and 20 Apr 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 403; 11: 281; Hocker, "Medical Men," p. 9; Waldo, "Valley Forge," p. 316.

33. General Orders, 26 Dec 1777, 22 Feb 1778, Washington's Instructions to Officers Sent to the Hospital, 28 Feb 1778, General Orders, 25 and 26 May 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 207, 499, 526-27; 11: 453, 455; Hand, "Orderly Book," p. 200.

34. James Craik to Potts, 7 Apr and 2 May 1778, Gibson, Otto, pp. 162, 173, quote from p. 173; General Orders, 12 Jun 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 12: 50.

35. James Craik to Potts, 26 Apr 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 164; Middleton, "Valley Forge," p. 472.

36. Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 125; James Sproat, "Extracts From the Journal of Rev. James Sproat, Hospital Chaplain of the Middle Department, 1778," ed. John W. Jordan, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 27 (1903): 442; Cyrus T. Fox, ed., Reading and Berks County Pennsylvania, A History, 3 vols. (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1925), 1: 166; Oaths of Allegiance, RG 93, M853, roll 12, book 165, pp. 52, 78.

37. Sproat, "Extracts," p. 442.

38. James Craik to Potts, 15 May 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 467.

39. Samuel Kennedy to Potts, 27 Apr 1778, and James Fallon to Potts, 27 Apr 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 165, quote from Fallon to Potts: Sproat, "Extracts," pp. 443, 444; Samuel Kennedy to Potts, 22 Apr 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 454.

40. Quote from Bethlehem Diarist in Beck, Bethlehem, p. 13; Levering, Bethlehem, p. 475; Jordan, "Hospitals," pp. 147-48, 149, 150; John Ettwein, quoted in Raymond Walters, Bethlehem Long Ago and To-Day (Bethlehem, Pa.: Carey Printing Co., 1923), p. 52; John Ettwein, quoted in Levering, Bethlehem, p. 474; John Ettwein, "A Short Account of the Disturbances in America and of the Brethren's Conduct and Suffering in This Connection," in Kenneth Gardiner Hamilton, John Ettwein and the Moravian Church During the Revolutionary Period (Bethlehem, Pa.: Times Publishing Co., 1940), p. 180.

41. Hamilton, Ettwein, pp. 180, 181.

42. Various authors chose differing points during the course of the dispersal of the patients of the Bethlehem hospital as the official date of its closing. James Sproat, Journal of James Sproat D.D., 1753, 1757, 1778, 1779, 1780, 1782, 1783, 1784, 1786, held by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, AM1597, 1778, pp. 1-2, 3-14; Walters, Bethlehem, p. 48; John Hill Martin, Historical Sketch of Bethlehem in Pennsylvania (New York: AMS Press, 1971 reprint of 1872 edition), p. 31; Bethlehem of Pennsylvania: The First One Hundred Years, 1741 to 1841 (Bethlehem, Pa., 1968), p. 100; Levering, Bethlehem, p. 482; Jordan,


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"Hospitals," pp. 150, 151; John Taylor Hamilton, A History of the Church Known as the Moravian Church, or the Unitas Fratrum or the Unity of the Brethren During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society, vol. 6 (Bethlehem, Pa.: Times Publishing Co., 1900), p. 252.

43. Specific information on the origins of the Lititz pharmacopoeia is sparse. It is usually credited to Brown, who was probably aided by others. The first edition, dated 1778, was unsigned and apparently written in the winter and early spring of 1778, too late to have been used at Valley Forge, although most of the medicines mentioned therein were undoubtedly familiar to the physicians caring for General Washington's men there. Hamilton, Ettwein, pp. 184-85; Jordan, "Hospitals," pp. 153-54; Middleton, "Valley Forge," pp. 480-81; Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, pp. 126-27; Lyman F. Kebler, "Andrew Craigie, the First Apothecary General of the United States," Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 17 (1928): 171; Heiges, "Letters," p. 78; Champe C. McCulloch, "The Scientific and Administrative Achievement of the Medical Corps of the United States Army," Scientific Monthly 1 (May 1917): 412; Herbert H. Beck, "The Military Hospital at Lititz, 1777-1778," Lancaster County Historical Society Papers 23 (1919): 57.

44. Sisters' House Diary, Beck, "Lititz," pp. 7, 8, quote from p. 8; Jordan, "Hospitals," pp. 154, 155; Jordan, "Returns," p. 41; Return of the Sick and Wounded at Lititz Hospital From Jan. 12 to 22, 1778, in Philadelphia, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Manuscript Department, Alison Papers, Continental Hospital Returns 1777-78; Samuel X. Radbill, "Francis Alison Jr., a Surgeon of the Revolution," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 9 (1941): 247-48; Middleton, "Valley Forge," p. 470.

45. Middleton, "Valley Forge," p. 471; Martin, "Ephrata," pp. 127, 128, 132; Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10; "Monument at Ephrata to Brandywine Battle Victims," Magazine of American History 30 (1902): 75.

46. Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10; Rev Peter Miller to William Shippen, 15 Jul 1779, Gibson, Otto, p. 287; Martin, "Ephrata," p. 130.

47. Quote from report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10; Sproat, 21 Jun 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 329; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 11.

48. Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10; A Return of the Soldiers in the General Hospital at Reading March 30th 1778, Potts Papers 4: 433; Jordan, "Returns," pp. 38-39; Radbill, "Alison," p. 249; Gibson, "John Augustus," p. 16; "Elijah Fisher's Journal While in the War for Independence and Continued for Two Years After He Came to Maine, 1775-1784," Magazine of History, Extra No. 6, entry for 19 Dec 1777, p. 17.

49. Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10; Gibson, Otto, pp. 159-61; William Shippen to Potts, 24 Mar 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 426; Sproat, "Extracts," p. 441.

50. Jordan, "Hospitals," pp. 155, 156, 157; John Ettwein to George Washington, 25 Mar 1778, Sparks, Correspondence, 2: 92; Hamilton, Ettwein, pp. 187-89; William Shippen to Potts, 20 and 24 Mar 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 422, 426; Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10; Washington to McIntosh, 4 Apr 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 11: 206-8.

51. James Tilton to Potts, 8 May 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 170; Tilton to Potts, 22 Apr 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 446; Washington to Brig Gen William Smallwood, 25 Feb 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 511, 513; Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10.

52. James Craik to Potts, 10 May 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 176.

53. General Orders, 14 and 27 May 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 11: 387, 463; Asa B. Gardner, "The New York Continental Line" Magazine of American History 7 (1881): 409-10.

54. General Orders, 30, 31 May, 1 and 29 Jun 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 11: 487-88, 497; 12: 4, 131.


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55. William Shippen to Potts, 16 Jun 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 477.

56. Quote from Samuel Adams to Richard Henry Lee, 22 Jul 1777, in Richard H. Lee, Memoir of the Life of Richard Henry Lee and His Correspondence With the Most Distinguished Men in America and Europe . . . , 2 vols. (Philadelphia: H. C. Carey and I. Lea, 1825), 2: 123; Samuel MacKenzie to Potts, 24 Aug 1777, Potts Papers, 3: 290; Col John Banister to Col Theodorick Bland, Jr., 10 Jun 1777, in Theodorick Bland, The Bland Papers, Being a Selection From the Manuscripts of Colonel Theodorick Bland, Jr. . . . , ed. Charles Campbell, 2 vols. (Petersburg, Va.: E. & J. C. Ruffin, 1840-43), 1: 55; Henry Sewall, "Letters," Historical Magazine, 2d ser. 2 (1867): 7, 8.

57. Maj Gen Philip Schuyler to Congress, 25 June 1777, in Philip John Schuyler, "Proceedings of a General Court
Martial . . . ," Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1879, p. 115.

58. Quote from Sewall, "Letters," p. 7; Gen Philip Schuyler to Congress, 25 Jun 1777, Schuyler, "Court Martial," p. 115; Lesser, Sinews, pp. 48, 49. Lesser gives no figures for June 1777 and no breakdown of figures for Ticonderoga and Mount Independence.

59. Thacher, Journal, pp. 83-84, 86-87; Walter Steiner, "Dr. James Thacher of Plymouth, Mass., an Erudite Physician of Revolutionary and Post-Revolutionary Fame," Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine 1 (1933): 160.

60. Francis Hagan to Potts, 19, 21, 22 Aug and 21 Sep 1777, Nicholas Scull to Potts, 22 Aug 1777, Potts Papers, 3: 281, 285, 286, 287.

61. Samuel MacKenzie to Potts, 27 Aug 1777, Potts Papers, 3: 298.

62. John Bartlett to Potts, 18, 19, 21, 22 Aug 1777, and A Return of the Number of Sick in the Hospital Belonging to the Several Regiments and Companies on the Ground at New York City, 22 Aug 1777, Potts Papers, 3: 278, 280, 284, 288, 289.

63. Maj Gen Philip Schuyler to General Washington, 14 and 28 Jul 1777, Schuyler, "Court Martial," pp. 167, 179; James Wilkinson, Memoirs of My Own Times, 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Abraham Small, 1816), 1: 265; Return of the Men Who Died Since March the lst 1777, General Hospital Northern Department, 29 Aug 1777, Potts Papers, 3: 304.

64. Brig Gen Simon Fraser to Maj Gen Horatio Gates, 1 Sep 1777, Sparks, Correspondence, 2: 522-23, quote from Maj Gen Horatio Gates to Brig Gen Simon Fraser, 2 Sep 1777, p. 523; Wilkinson, Memoirs, 1: 230; James E. Gibson, "Captured Medical Men and Army Hospitals of the American Revolution," Annals of Medical History, n.s. 10 (1938): 385; Return of 15 Aug 1777, Return of the Men Who Died Since March the 1st 1777, General Hospital, Northern Department, 29 Aug 1777, a List of the Sick and Wounded of His Majesty's Troops Left in the Hospital Near Stillwater October the 19th 1777, and a General Return of the Persons of Different Regts Dead in the General Hospl Since the lst of March 1777 to the 12th Day Nov.r 1777, Potts Papers, 3: 273, 304, 355, 373; Thacher, Journal, pp. 103, 112; John McNamara Hayes to Potts, 12 and 15 Oct 1777, Gibson, "Captured," p. 385; Gibson, Otto, p. 230.

The report in Lesser for October 1777 for Gates's forces, dated 16 October, indicates that the sick rate in Gates's army was 9 percent as of that date. The accuracy of this figure, however, must be questioned. In Gates's army of the summer of 1777, which was much smaller than that of mid-October, the percentage of the total number of rank and file which was under the care of physicians averaged more than 23 percent, according to the monthly reports for July and August in Lesser. Since during the Revolution the number of patients in the autumn tended to be essentially identical to or greater than that in the summer, a drop of 14 percentage points from summer to fall would have been most unusual; nevertheless, even the sickness rate among the men of the five brigades which were with General Gates during the entire period in question actually dropped almost 15 points, according to the Lesser figures. In absolute terms, furthermore, the number of men sick, despite marked increases in size for three of the five brigades in question, dropped by as much as half or more from August to October, as reported in Lesser. Thus, for example, while Nixon's


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brigade grew from 1,454 rank and file in August 1777 to 1,481 in October, the number of sick among the rank and file fell from 306 to 142.

A figure of 9 percent sick and wounded for 16 October, furthermore, for units which had very recently seen action is not compatible with a figure of 11 percent (see figures in text) confined to the general hospital alone only twelve days earlier, at which time it might be estimated that another 11 percent might have been under the care of regimental surgeons. The number of sick and wounded in Gates's army on 4 October, therefore, might easily have been as high as 22 percent of the total number of rank and file. It would seem highly unlikely that only 9 percent remained under the care of surgeons less than two weeks later.

65. John McNamara Hayes to Potts, 12, 15 Oct 1777, 10 Feb 1778, Potts Papers, 3; 360, 363, 402; Thacher, Journal, p. 110.

66. Thacher, Journal, p. 103, quote from p 103; Wilkinson, Memoirs, 1: 323; James Ripley Jacobs, Tarnished Warrior, Major-General James Wilkinson (New York: Macmillan Co., 1938), pp. 70-276 passim, 296.

67. Thacher, Journal, pp. 112, 113-14, quote from p. 112.

68. Malachi Treat to Potts, 20 Oct 1777, A Return of the Patients Now in the Gen. Hosp.l Who Have Been Examined by the Prescribing Physicians and Recommended for Furlows Albany November 13th 1777, A General Return of the Wounded in the Gen. Hospital at Albany in the Service of the United States, 14 Nov 1777, A Return of the Sick in Gen. Hospital Albany Novr 14th 1777, A General Return of the Sick and Wounded in the General Hospitals at Albany and Schenectady December 16th 1777, and Andrew Downe to Potts, 27 Dec 1777, Potts Papers, 3: 357, 374, 379, 380, 384, 389.

69. Dirk Van Ingen to Potts, 16 Aug 1777, A Return of the Sick and Wounded Gen. Hosp.l Schenactady [sic] Nov 10 1777, A General Return of the Sick and Wounded in the General Hospitals at Albany and Schenectady December 16th 1777, A General Return of the Sick and Wounded in the General Hospital Northern Department Albany Febry 16th 1778, and Robert Johnston to Potts, 23 Feb 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 276, 371, 384, 407, 410.

70. A General Return of the Sick and Wounded in the General Hospitals at Albany and Schenectady December 16th 1777, Robert Johnston to Potts, 22 Dec 1777, Malachi Treat to Potts, 23 Dec 1777, A Return of the Present State of the Generl Hospital N. Department at Albany & Schenectady January 1778, and Robert Johnston to Potts, 15 Jan 1778, Potts Papers, 3: 384, 386, 387, 391, 394.

71. Thacher, Journal, p. 120; Shippen report of 24 Nov 1777, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 239; Smith, "Potts," p. 19; Robert Johnston, Memorial to Congress, 31 May 1786, and Malachi Treat, Statement, 30 May 1786, in Washington, National Archives, Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention, Record Group 360, Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, Microfilm Publication M247, roll 38, items 129, 137.

72. Thacher, Journal, pp. 130-31, quote from p. 121; Malachi Treat to Potts, 16 Feb 1778, A General Return of Sick, Wounded, etc., in the General Hospital Northern Department Albany March 16th 1778, Robert Johnston to Potts, 19 Apr 1778, Samuel Stringer to Potts, 20 Apr 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 405, 420, 442, 443, 470.

73. Thacher, Biography, p. 153; Joseph Meredith Toner, The Medical Men of the Revolution With a Brief History of the Medical Department of the Continental Army (Philadelphia: Collins, 1876), p. 128; Gordon, Aesculapius, p. 127; Ford, Putnam, p. 22; Washington, National Archives, List of Officers of the Medical Department U.S. Army 1775 to Present Date, Record Group 112, entry 84, room 201. Shippen's report of 24 Nov 1777, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 239.

74. Charles B. Graves, "Dr. Philip Turner of Norwich, Connecticut," Annals of Medical History 10 (1928): 5, 7, 8; Ford, Putnam, pp. 55-56.

75. Quote from Isaac Foster, 2 Oct 1777, Gibson, Otto, p. 286; Benjamin Rush to William Shippen, 2 Dec 1777, Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 170.

76. Quote from Isaac Foster to Mr. Bartlet, 21 Mar 1778, Foster Papers, folder 1; Ford,


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Putnam, p. 21; S. Tenney to Peter Turner, 22 Mar 1778, in Washington, Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Papers of Peter Turner, 1778-1812.

CHAPTER 5

1. Unless otherwise indicated, passages concerning military operations in this chapter are based on the following: Maurice Matloff, ed., American Military History (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1969); Spaulding, Army; Christopher Ward, The War of the Revolution, ed. John R. Alden, 2 vols. (New York: Macmillan Co., 1952; and Weigley, Army.)

2. Unless otherwise indicated, material concerning the Hospital Department in this chapter is based on Brown, Medical Department; Duncan, Medical Men; and Gibson, Otto. The preceding paragraph is also based on the following volumes: Quote from Henry Dearborn, Journals of Henry Dearborn 1776-1783 (Cambridge: John Wilson and Son, 1887), p. 18; Charles Albert Moré, Chevalier de Pontgibaud, A French Volunteer of the War of Independence, trans. and ed. Robert B. Douglas (New York: Benjamin Bloom, 1972), p. 56; George Otto Trevelyan, Saratoga and Brandywine, Valley Forge, England and France at War, The American Revolution, vol. 4 (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1929), p. 379; General Orders, 6 and 12 Jul 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 12: 160-61, 172; James Craik to Jonathan Potts, 29 Jul 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 479.

3. James Craik to Jonathan Potts, 29 Jul 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 479; General Orders, 7 Aug 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 12: 289; A Return of the Sick and Wounded in the Army of the United States Commanded by His Excellency General Washington on September 7, 1778, and Weekly Return of the Sick of the Army of the United States, Commanded by His Excellency General Washington-White Plains August 24, 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folders 3-3, items 54, 55.

4. General Orders, 12 and 13 Sep 1778, and Washington to President of Congress, 4 Dec 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 12: 430, 447; 13: 361; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-3, items 54, 55.

5. Quote from Washington to Dr. James Tillotson, 26 Jul 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 12: 235, James Craik to Jonathan Potts, 29 Jul 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 479.

6. Peter Angelakos, "The Army at Middlebrook 1778-1779," New Jersey Historical Society Proceedings 70 (1952): 98, 99-100, 112, 116-17, and Barnabas Binney to Gen Nathanael Greene, 18 May 1779, p. 117; General Orders, 10 Mar and 8 Apr 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 14: 223, 347.

7. General Orders, 11 Feb 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 14: 100-101, quote from p. 101; Angelakos, "Middlebrook," pp. 105, 107; Bayne-Jones, Preventive Medicine, pp. 53-54, 58-59.

8. Returns of the Sick in Camp Commanded by His Excellency General Washington, 13 Jul 1779, 2 Aug 1779, 10 Aug 1779, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 30, 31, 32; Weekly Return of the Sick in the Army of the United States, Comanded [sic] by His Excelly Genrl Washington, 4 Oct 1779, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-3, item 61; Angelakos, "Middlebrook," p. 96; General Washington to General Knox, Jun 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 15: 214n.

9. Theodore G. Thayer, "The War in New Jersey; Battles, Alarums, and the Men of the Revolution," New Jersey Historical Society Proceedings, n. s. 71 (1953): 106; Ricardo Torres-Reyes, Morristown National Historical Park: 1779-1780 Encampment: A Study of Medical Services (Washington: Office of History and Historic Architecture, Eastern Service Center, April 1971), pp. 4-5; Don Higginbotham, The War of American Independence, Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763-1789 (New York: Macmillan Co., 1971), p. 356.

10. Unless otherwise indicated, the section concerning Morristown is based on Torres-Reyes, Study. The preceding paragraph also contains material from Thayer, "New Jersey," pp. 99, 106; Thacher, Journal, pp. 176-77; Journal of Lt Charles Nukerck, in Frederick Cook, ed., Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 With Records of Centennial Celebrations (Auburn, N.Y.: Knapp, Peck & Thompson, 1887), p. 221.

11. Journal of Rudolphus Van Hovenburgh, Cook, Journals, p. 284; S. Sydney Bradford,


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"Hunger Menaces the Revolution . . . ," Maryland Historical Magazine 61 (1966): 5-6; Risch, Quartermaster Support, p. 57; Thacher, Journal, p. 181; Reed, Joseph Reed, 2: 191.

12. Lesser, Sinews, pp. 152-53; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 2; Torres-Reyes, Study, pp. 8-9, 28-30, 81, 82-84. The figures given by Lesser do not entirely agree with those of Torres-Reyes. The reader should also note that Torres-Reyes concludes that only 416 men at Morristown were sick in February on the basis of a return which, he states, deals with the number of men sick in hospitals and therefore, of course, does not deal with those sick in their own tents. The nature of the returns from this period makes this type of error all too easy. Torres-Reyes also uses the fit-for-duty figure as if it constituted the total enrollment and on this basis gives 3.7 percent as the proportion of the army at Morristown which was sick.

Torres-Reyes does point out that although a reconstruction of a Tilton hut was erected at Jockey Hollow in the 1930's, later investigation has revealed that there was no evidence that as large a building as a Tilton hospital was ever erected there. Tilton himself was stationed at Basking Ridge in the winter of 1779-80, and a reference dated February 1780 has been located which mentions that a hospital was built there for Tilton.

13. Journal of Lt William McKendry, Cook, Journals, p. 211; Heath, Memoirs, p. 240.

14. James Craik, "A Letter Written by Jas. Craik to Andrew Craigie, Esq., Apy. Genl., August 1780, Relating to the Condition of the Army, Communicated by Nathaniel Paine," Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, 2d ser. 15 (1901-2): 363.

15. Dr. William Eustis called the unit at Robinson's House a flying hospital (Eustis to Benedict Arnold, 7 Aug 1780, Washington Papers, 4: 69). John Mathews to Medical Committee, 10 Aug 1780, Burnett, Letters, 5: 320-21.

16. Shippen to Washington, 4 Jan 1781, Washington Papers, 4: 73.

17. Reports of Mar, May, and Jun 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

18. General Orders, 20 Jun 1781, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 22: 238.

19. Reports of Jul, Aug, and Oct 1781, quote from Aug 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

20. Thomas Coffin Amory, The Military Services and Public Life of Major-General John Sullivan of the American Revolutionary Army (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1968 reprint of 1868 ed.), p. 152; R. W. Vail, ed., The Revolutionary Diary of Lieut. Obadiah Gore, Jr. (New York: The New York Public Library, 1929), p. 20n; Order Book of Lt Col Francis Barber, pp. 7, 8, in Louise Wells Murray, ed., Notes From Craft Collection in Tioga Point Museum on the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 and Its Centennial Celebration of 1879, . . . (Athens, Pa.: 1929).

21. Quote from Orderly Book, 19 Jun-30 Jul 1779, Pennsylvania Archives, 6th ser. 14: 33; Shippen, Just Account; Journal of Lt John L. Hardenburg, Cook, Journals, p. 122; Order Book of Lt Col Francis Barber, p. 25, Murray, Notes.

22. Journal of Lt William McKendry, Cook, Journals, p. 200.

23. Quote from Journal of Rudolphus Van Hovenburgh, Cook, Journals, p. 276; "Order of March of Hand's Brigade From Wyoming to Tioga," Pennsylvania Archives, 6th ser. 14: 112, 115, 116.

24. Orderly Book, 19 Jun 1779, p. 52; "Order of March," p. 76; Order Book of Lt Col Francis Barber, p. 63, Murray, Notes.

25. Order Book of Lt Col Francis Barber, p. 78, Murray, Notes; Journal of Sgt Maj George Grant, Cook, Journals, p. 110; Jabez Campfield, "Diary of Dr. Jabez Campfield, Surgeon in 'Spencer's Regiment,' While Attached to Sullivan's Expedition Against the Indians From May 23d to Oct 2d, 1779," New Jersey Historical Society Proceedings, 2d ser. 3 (1873): 121.

26. James Clinton to George Clinton, 30 Aug 1779, in Henry Steele Commager and Richard B. Morris, eds., The Spirit of Seventy-Six: The Story of the American Revolution As Told by Participants (New York: Harper & Row, 1967), p. 1016; Journals of James Norris, George Grant, Moses Fellows, Gookin, Van Hovenburgh, McKendry, Adam Hubley, Burrowes, and Erkuries Beatty, Cook, Journals, pp. 30, 34, 43, 47, 89, 106, 110, 160, 166, 233-34, 270; Journal of Lt Robert Parker, in New York (State) University, Divi-


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sion of Archives and History, The Sullivan-Clinton Campaign in 1779. Chronology and Selected Documents (Albany: The University of the State of New York, 1929), p. 202; "Order of March," p. 100.

27. "Order of March," pp. 112, 115, 116.

28. Journal of James Norris, Cook, Journals, p. 237; Albert Hazen Wright, The Sullivan Expedition of 1779, The Losses, Studies in History No. 33 of New York Historical Source Studies (1965), pp. 2-21, 28-29.

29. Quote from Dr. James Fallon to Dr. Thomas Burke, 1 Apr 1779, in North Carolina, The State Records of North Carolina, 26 vols. (Goldsboro, N.C.: Nash Brothers, 1886-1907), 14: 50; William Shippen to General Washington, 5 Oct 1778, Washington Papers, 4: 32.

30. Sproat, "Extracts," pp. 444, 445; Jordan, "Hospitals," p. 157; Hamilton, Moravian Church, p. 252; Hamilton, Ettwein, p. 185; Sisters' House Diary, Beck, Medicine, p. 12; Return of Stores on Hand in Reading General Hospital the First Day of May 1779, and Thomas Bond, Jr., to Potts, 16 Aug. 1781, Potts Papers, 4: 504, 517.

31. Bodo Otto to Medical Committee, 19 May 1780, Gibson, Otto, pp. 181, 182, 183, quote from Journal of the Rev. Dr. James Sproat, p. 333; Bodo Otto to Charles Pickering, 26 Aug 1780, RG 93, M859, roll 80; John Cochran to Thomas Bond, 1 Oct 1781, Cochran Letter Book; William Brown to General Washington, 3 Jul 1780, Washington Papers, 4: 67; Gibson, "John Augustus," p. 16; Sproat, "Extracts," p. 445.

32. Quotes from William Brown to General Washington, 3 Jul 1780, Washington Papers, 4: 67; Reports of Aug and Sep 1782, Cochran Letter Book.

33. Sproat, "Extracts," p. 445; Thomas George Morton and Frank Woodbury, History of the Pennsylvania Hospital 1751-1895 (New York: Arno Press, 1973 reprint of 1895 edition), pp. 60, 61; Francis Randolph Packard, Some Account of the Pennsylvania Hospital, From Its First Rise to the Beginning of the Year 1938 (Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1938), pp. 72, 73; Francis Randolph Packard, History of Medicine in the United States (New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1931), pp. 570, 572, 573.

34. Minutes of Board Meeting, Morton and Woodbury, History, pp. 61-62.

35. Quote from Minutes of Board Meeting, Packard, History, pp. 574-75; Morton and Woodbury, History, p. 62; Packard, Hospital, pp. 74-75; A General Return of the Sick & Wounded in G. Hospitals of the United States, 6 Oct 1779, A General Return of the Sick and Wounded in the Several Hospitals, Belonging to the Army, Commanded by His Excellency General Washington From March 1 to April 1 1780, and A General Return of the Sick and Wounded in the General Hospital Belonging to the Army Under Command of His Excellency General Washington From April 1 to May 1 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 2, 3, 12; Shippen Report of 31 Dec 1779, Gibson, Otto, p. 180; Chard, "Cochran," p. 374; Thornton Chard, "Illustrations Pertaining to the Medical Life of Doctor John Cochran," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 20 (1946): 83; Reports of Feb and Mar 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

36. Reports of Jul, Sep, Oct 1781, Cochran Letter Book; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 14: 99.

37. C. Weisenthal to Potts, 6 Sep 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 486.

38. Gibbes, R. W., ed., Reminiscences, Documentary History of the American Revolution . . . , 3 vols. (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1853-57), 2: 259-60, 263; Angelakos, "Middlebrook," pp. 116-17; General Orders, 10 Mar 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 14: 223; Shippen Report of 31 Dec 1779, Gibson, Otto, p. 180; A General Return of the Sick and Wounded in the Several Hospitals, Belonging to the Army, Commanded by His Excellency General Washington From March 1 to April 1 1780, and From April 1 to May 1780, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 2, 3.

39. A Return of the Sick and Wounded in the Gen Hospital at Sunbury From the 31 July to the 22 of Sept 1779, Weekly Returns of 1 Oct, 11-18 Oct, 1-7 Nov, 7-13 Dec 1779, 7 Feb-13 Mar, 17 Apr 1780, Alison Papers; "Order of March," p. 112; Beatty, Cook, Journals, p. 35; Weekly Returns of 10-17 Jan, 24-31 Jan, 7-14 Feb, 21-28 Feb, 28 Feb-6 Mar, 6-13 Mar 1780, Jordan, "Returns," pp. 217-19.


245

40. Quote from Jordan, "Returns," p. 210; Returns of 11-18 Oct, 1-7 Nov 1779, Alison Papers.

41. Report of 17 Apr 1780, Alison Papers; "Order of March," p. 115.

42. Angelakos, "Middlebrook," pp. 102-3, 104-5; General Washington to Director of the Military Hospitals, 3 Jun 1779, and to James Craik, 25 Jun 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 15: 220-21, 318; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 12.

43. RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 2, 3; Shippen Report, 31 Dec 1779, Gibson, Otto, p. 180; Eliza Susan Quincy, "Basking Ridge in Revolutionary Days. Reprinted From Her Memoirs," The Somerset County Historical Quarterly 1 (1912): 35. There is some question about the location of the hospital, since Quincy gives the date of this hospital as 1776, a year when there is no other evidence to indicate that there was a hospital at Basking Ridge. She was, however, by her own account, an infant when the Revolution began and for this part of her story was relying upon the recollections of her mother, who was in her eighties at the time of the writing. The author describes Dr. James Tilton as "director of the medical department" when the hospital was located at Basking Ridge, but in 1776, Tilton was a regimental surgeon in New York; Trenton, New Jersey; and Wilmington, Delaware. (Eliza Susan Morton Quincy, Memoirs [Boston: John Wilson and Son, 1861], introduction and p. 17; Phalen, Chiefs, pp. 22-23.) Thus it seems likely that the older woman's memory had misled her concerning the date.

44. General Washington through Harrison to Capt William Reily, 21 May 1780, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 18: 401n.

45. Quotations from Malachi Treat to General Washington, 27 Jan 1781, Washington Papers, 4: 74; Reports of Mar, May, and Jun 1781, Cochran Letter Book; James Tilton to Timothy Pickering, 3 Oct 1780, RG 93, M859, roll 88, item 25616; General Greene to James Tilton, 27 Sep 1780, in George Washington Greene, The Life of Nathanael Greene, 3 vols. (New York: G. P. Putnam and Son, 1867-1871), 2: 229-30.

46. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 11: 787-88; Burnett, Letters, 4: 249n; General Washington to Philip Turner, 24 Feb 1780, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 18: 49-50; Jabez Hatch to Timothy Pickering, 21 Dec 1780, and Isaac Foster to Timothy Pickering, 21 Dec 1780, RG 93, M859, rolls 82, 85, items 23733, 24798; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 1, 2, 3.

47. RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 1, 2, 3, and A Return of the Sick and Wounded in the Military Hospital Eastern Department, item 14; Isaac Foster to Mr. Peabody, 11 Mar 1780, RG 93, M859, roll 11, item 3610; General Washington to James Wilkinson, 6 Dec 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 17: 221; Thacher, Journal, p. 152.

48. Reports of Mar, May, and Jun 1781, and John Cochran to Thomas Bond, 5 Jul 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

49. Thacher, Journal, p. 131; Shippen, Just Account; Radbill, "Alison," p. 249; General Washington to trustees of church at New Windsor, 31 Jul 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 16: 25; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 12; A Return of the Sick Sent From Robinson's House to New Windsor, 20 Oct 1778, Alison Papers.

50. A flying hospital and a general hospital could, of course, have shared the same facilities, but this confusion is, perhaps, more likely the result of the casual use of terms common at this time. William Eustis to Benedict Arnold, 7 Aug 1780, Washington Papers 4: 69; Chard, "Cochran," p. 374.

51. Return of 20 Oct 1778, Alison Papers; Chard, "Cochran," p. 374; William Eustis to Benedict Arnold, 7 Aug 1780, Washington Papers, 4: 69; Fisher, "Journal," pp. 38-39.

52. John Cochran to Colonel Hay, 10 Jul 1781, and to Thomas Bond, 5 Jul 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

53. Reports of May-Oct 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

54. RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 12; The American Revolution 1775-1783: An Atlas of 18th Century Maps and Charts: Theaters of Operations (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1972), 139D.

55. General Washington to Dr. William Shippen, 9 Sep 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 12: 418; Graves, "Turner," pp. 8, 11; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 14.


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56. Isaac Foster to Mr. Peabody, 4 Mar 1780, RG 93, M859, roll 11, item 3610; RG 93, M246, roll 135, items 1, 2, 3, 13; Cochrane, "Medical Department," pp. 250-51; General Washington to John Berrien, 25 Feb 1781, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 21: 292.

57. While no state was mentioned in this return, General Washington ordered Bedford patients moved east to Danbury, which rules out Bedford, Massachusetts, east of Danbury; Bedford, Pennsylvania, is too far away and in the Middle Department (General Washington to Dr. William Shippen, 9 Sep 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 12: 418). William Eustis, 26 Aug 1780, in Edward Warren, The Life of John Warren, M.D. . . . (Boston: Noyes, Holmes, & Co., 1874), pp. 187-88 (Edward Warren's assumption that Eustis's hospital was in Pennsylvania is obviously incorrect. The context of the letter makes it clear that the hospital was in the Eastern Department). RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 14.

58. RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 14; General Washington to Dr. William Shippen, 9 Sep 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 12: 418.

59. Turner to Dr. Timothy Hosmer, 16 Nov 1778, and to William Shippen, 15 Mar 1779, Graves, "Turner," pp. 7, 11; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 14; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 17: 447; Philip Turner to Hooker, 29 Aug 1780, RG 93, M859, roll 121, item 034827; John Cochran to Peter Turner, 25 Mar 1781, Cochran Letter Book; Thacher, Journal, p. 163.

60. Packard, History, p. 600; Norwood, Medical Education, p. 43; John Warren to Governor and Council of Massachusetts, n.d., Warren, John Warren, pp. 193-94; John Cochran to Robert Morris, 26 Jul 1781, Chard, "Cochran," p. 372; John Cochran to Samuel Huntington, 24 May 1781, Cochrane, "Medical Department," p. 248; John Cochran to Thomas Bond, 1 Oct 1781, Reports of Mar and May 1781, Cochran Letter Book; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 1, 2, 3, 12, 14.

61. Malachi Treat to Jonathan Potts, 7 May 1778 and 28 Jan 1779, Potts Papers, 4: 442, 498, quote from 498; Washington to Brig Gen James Clinton, 19 Jan 1779, to Malachi Treat, 19 Jan 1779, and to Lord Stirling, 26 Jan 1779, General Orders, 2 Feb 1779, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 14: 23, 24, 25, 47, 67; Angelakos, "Middlebrook," p. 117; Thacher, Journal, p. 130; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 254.

62. General Clinton to Mrs. Clinton, 13 Jun 1779, New York University, Documents, p. 96.

63. RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, items 2, 7, 12; William Brown to General Washington, 3 Jul 1780, Washington Papers, 4: 67; John Mathews to Medical Committee, 10 Aug 1780, Burnett, Letters, 5: 320-21.

64. Malachi Treat to Medical Committee, 21 Aug 1780, Potts Papers, 6: 519.

65. Reports of May-Oct 1781, Cochran Letter Book, quote from May 1781.

66. Quote from John Cochran to Samuel Huntington, 24 May 1781, Cochrane, "Medical Department," p. 248; Return of Medical Department, 23 Jul 1781, Duncan, Medical Men, pp. 344-45.

67. Sproat Journal, Gibson, Otto, p. 332; General Washington to Malachi Treat, 19 Jan 1779, Washington Papers, 4: 55; Washington to Brig Gen James Clinton, 19 Jan 1779, and General Orders, 3 Feb 1781, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 14: 23; 21: 174; Major Wylls to Samuel Blachley Webb, 4 Apr 1781, in James Watson Webb, ed., Reminiscences of Gen'l Samuel B. Webb . . . , 2 vols. (New York: privately printed, 1882), 2: 333; Heath, Memoirs, p. 296; General Orders, Washington, 8 Jan 1782, RG 93, M853, roll 9, book 57, pp. 111-12; Thacher, Journal, pp. 250-51, 298.

68. General Washington to James Craik, 24 May 1780, Washington Papers, 4: 66; Packard, History, pp. 590-91, 594; Lafayette to Le Comte de Rochambeau, 19 May 1780, in Marie Joseph Paul Yves Lafayette, Mémoires, correspondance, et manuscrits du général Lafayette publiées par sa famille, 2 vols. (Brussels: Société belge de Librairie, 1837), 1: 117; Phalen, Chiefs, p. 19.

69. Hall, "Beginnings," p. 123; William Heath to Governor of Rhode Island, 18 Jun 1780, Packard, History, pp. 592-93; Maurice Bouvet, Le Service de santé français pendant la guerre d'indépendance des Etats-Unis (Paris: Hippocrate, 1933), pp. 31-32, 56, 58-60, 91; Craik to Washington, 21 Jun


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1780, Washington Papers, 4: 67; Ludwig von Closen, The Revolutionary Journal of Baron Ludwig von Closen, 1780-1783, ed. Evelyn M. Acomb (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1958), pp. 28, 28n, 37; John E. Lane, "Jean-François Coste, Chief Physician of the French Expeditionary Forces in the American Revolution," Americana 22 (1928): 54-55; Packard, History, p. 594.

70. Unless otherwise indicated, material in this chapter concerning the care of military patients south of Virginia is based on Chalmers Gaston Davidson, Friend of the People: The Life of Peter Fayssoux of Charleston (Columbia, S.C.: South Carolina Medical Association, 1950). The preceding paragraph is also based on Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 19: 292-94.

71. Quote from David Oliphant to Gen William Moultrie, 18 Jul 1778, Davidson, Fayssoux, p. 25; Benjamin Mather of the Office of Accounts, Hospital Department, 12 Oct 1786, RG 360, M247, roll 38, item 153.

72. Henry Lee, Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United States, 3d ed., 2 vols. (Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1812), 1: 139; Gibson, "Role of Disease," p. 126; Hugh Williamson to Dr. Hay, 24 Aug 1780, to Major England, 30 Aug 1780, to Hon Thomas Benbury, Aug and 1 Dec 1780, and Maj William R. Davie to Governor Caswell, 29 Aug 1780, North Carolina, State Records, 15: 61-62, 166-67, 370; Gibson, "Captured," pp. 388-89; Banastre Tarleton, A History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in the Southern Provinces of North America (London: T. Cadell, 1787), pp. 31-32; David Hosack, A Biographical Memoir of Hugh Williamson, M.D., LL.D. (New York: C. S. Van Winkle, 1820), pp. 56, 57-60; Henry Laurens to Benjamin Lincoln, 9 Oct 1779, Burnett, Letters, 4: 479-80; Col Charles C. Pinckney to Moultrie, 1 Jul 1778, Council of War at Camp at Fort Tonyn, 11 Jul 1778, Moultrie to Lieutenant Colonel Balfour, 22 Nov 1780, David Oliphant to Moultrie, 14 Nov 1780, and Peter Fayssoux to David Ramsay, 26 Mar 1785, in William Moultrie, Memoirs of the American Revolution . . . , 2 vols. (New York: New York Times & Arno Press, 1968 reprint of 1802 ed.), 1: 229, 235-36; 2: 112, 114, 142, 143, 398.

73. Quote from Horatio Gates to Director of the Hospitals in the Southern Department, Gates, "Letters," p. 284, and Gates to President of Board of War, 20 Jul 1781, p. 288; Lyman C. Draper, King's Mountain and Its Heroes: History of the Battle of King's Mountain, October 7th 1780, and the Events Which Led to It (Cincinnati: P. G. Thomson, 1881), p. 306; Joseph Graham, "Narrative of the Revolutionary War in North Carolina in 1780 and 1781," in Papers of Archibald D. Murphey, ed. W. H. Hoyt, 3 vols. (Raleigh, 1914), 2: 231n; Surgeon Browne to Major General Gates, 20 Aug 1780, and Gen R. Caswell to Gov Abner Nash, 31 Jul 1780, North Carolina, State Records, 14: 562; 15: 11. See also Table 1.

74. Quote from Nathanael Greene to Continental Congress, 28 Dec 1780, in Allen Bowman, Morale of the American Revolutionary Army (Washington: American Council on Public Affairs, 1943); Graham, "Narrative," 2: 233, 234; Proceedings of the Board of War, Hillsboro, N.C., 17 Nov 1780, North Carolina, State Records, 14: 452.

75. Gen Nathanael Greene to Colonel Marbury, 16 Dec 1780, North Carolina, State Records, 15: 181; Theodore Thayer, Nathanael Greene, Strategist of the American Revolution (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1960), p. 294; Gibbes, Reminiscences, p. 274.

76. General Moultrie to Lieutenant Colonel Balfour, 12 Feb 1781, Moultrie, Memoirs, 1: 159.

77. Maj John Armstrong to General Sumter, 1 Jul 1781, and General Sumter to Lt Col John B. Ashe, 14 Jul 1781, North Carolina, State Records, 15: 505, 533; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 19: 292-94; Norwood, "Medicine," p. 399.

78. Quote from Dr. Robert Wharry to Dr. Reading Beatty, 27 Jul 1781, in Joseph M. Beatty, Jr., "Letters From Continental Officers to Doctor Reading Beatty, 1781-1788," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 54 (1930): 161; Maj John Armstrong to Gen Nathanael Greene, 1781, Greene, Greene, 3: 347; Lee, Memoirs of the War, 2: 145.

79. Gen Stephen Drayton to General Sumter, 29 Jun 1781, North Carolina, State Records, 15: 497.


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80. RG 360, M247, roll 30, item 22; Lee, Memoirs of the War, 1: 94n; Gibbes, Reminiscences, pp. 279, 281.

81. Greene, Greene, 3: 407, 408, quote from Greene to President of Congress, n.d., 3: 407; Nathanael Greene, "Report on the 'Battle of Eutaw Springs,'" Magazine of History, Extra No. 3, pp. 8-10; Bowman, Morale, p. 23.

82. Resolve of the Continental Congress, 25 May 1781, RG 360, M247, roll 30, item 22; David Oliphant to General Moultrie, 7 May 1781, in David Ramsay, The History of the Revolution in South-Carolina . . . , 2 vols. (Trenton: Isaac Collins, 1785), 2: 526-27; 2: 288.

83. Blanton, Medicine, p. 273; Robert B. Munford, Jr., "Military Hospital in Williamsburg, 1777," Virginia Magazine of History 30 (1922): 389-90.

84. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 7: 292, 317; 9: 1016; Blanton, Medicine, pp. 252, 274; Goodman, Rush, p. 86.

85. A Return of the Sick & in Camp and Fredericksburg and the Vicinity Under the Command of His Excellency George Washington, Oct 25 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 29.

86. Quote from General Washington to William Shippen, 10 Oct 1779, Washington Papers, 4: 61; William Shippen to T. Bland, 27 Nov 1780, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 322; General Washington to General Scott, 27 Jul 1779, and to William Brown, 22 Apr 1780, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 15: 492-93; 18: 291.

87. Report of Mar 1781, Cochran Letter Book; William Rickman to Brig Gen John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, 16 May 1780, and William Brown to Washington, 3 Jul 1780, Washington Papers, 4: 66, 67; Bowman, Morale, p. 22.

88. Blanton, Medicine, pp. 248, 276; William O. Owen, ed., The Medical Department of the United States Army. Legislative and Administrative History . . . (New York: P. B. Hoeber, 1920), pp. 164, 165; Commager and Morris, Seventy-Six, p. 1230.

89. Blanton, Medicine, p. 8; Davidson, Fayssoux, pp. 52, 53; Thomas. Tudor Tucker to Saint George Tucker, 27 Jul 1781, in Williamsburg, Va., The College of William and Mary in Virginia, Earl Gregg Swem Library, Special Collections Division, Tucker-Coleman Papers, 1780-82, microfilm roll M-13.

90. Quote from John Davis, "The Yorktown Campaign: Journal of Captain John Davis, of the Pennsylvania Line," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 5 (1881): 293; Josiah Atkins, Diary and Letters in Joseph Anderson, ed., The Town and City of Waterbury, Connecticut, From the Aboriginal Period to the Year Eighteen Hundred and Ninety-Five, 2 vols. (New Haven: Price & Lee Co., (1896), 1: 476; William Feltman, "The Journal of Lieut. William Feltman, of the First Pennsylvania Regiment, From May 26, 1781, to April 25, 1782, Embracing the Siege of Yorktown and the Southern Campaign," Pennsylvania Historical Society Collection 1 (1853): 303-5.

91. Davis, Journal, p. 295; William McDowell, "Journal of Lieut William McDowell of the First Penna Regiment, in the Southern Campaign 1781-1782," Pennsylvania Archives, 2d ser. 15: 301.

92. Atkins, Diary, Anderson, Waterbury, pp. 476, 477, 478, 479; Bouvet, Service de santé, pp. 83, 85; Feltman, "Journal," p. 309.

93. Reports of Sep and Oct 1781, Cochran Letter Book; Blanton, Medicine, pp. 275-76; Bouvet, Service de santé, p. 88; Thacher, Journal, pp. 281-82.

94. Bouvet, Service de santé, p. 94, and Jean-François Coste to Dr. Cornette, 3 Feb 1786, p. 95; Ebenezer Denny, Military Journal of Major Ebenezer Denny . . . (Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1859), p. 39.

95. General Orders, 2 Oct 1781, and Washington to Jean-François Coste, 7 Oct 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 23: 168; 25: 244; Bouvet, Service de santé, pp. 51, 96-97; Packard, History, p. 590; Hall, "Beginnings," p. 123; General Gregory to Governor Burke, 22 Aug 1781, North Carolina, State Records, 15: 618, Blanton, Medicine, pp. 259, 275-76.

96. Blanton, Medicine, p. 275; Report of Oct 1781, Cochran Letter Book; Thacher, Journal, pp. 286, 293; Bouvet, Service de santé, p. 97; James Craik to General Washington, 21 Sep 1781, Washington Papers, 4: 81.

97. Moré, French Volunteer, pp. 88-89.

98. General Washington to Col Stephen


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Moylan, 31 Oct 1781, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 23: 312; General Washington to Gen Arthur St. Clair, 29 Oct 1781, in William Henry Smith, ed., The St. Clair Papers. The Life and Public Services of Arthur St. Clair . . . , 2 vols. (Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co., 1882), 1: 562; General Washington to James Craik, 23 Oct 1781, Washington Papers 4: 81; Denny, Journal, p. 45; Blanton, Medicine, p. 276; Heath, Memoirs, p. 340.

99. Reports for Nov and Dec, 1781, Cochran Letter Book. Duncan suggests that Tilton preceded Treat and that Tilton's term of service was quite brief (Duncan, Medical Men, p. 355), but on 2 January 1782, General Washington referred to Tilton as Treat's successor (General Washington to Lt Col Francis Mentges, 2 Jan 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 23: 423-24). A letter from Tilton to a friend from Williamsburg is dated 16 December 1781 (Tilton, 16 Dec 1781, Thacher, Biography, 2: 140), but one of General Washington's correspondents wrote in a letter dated 29 November 1781 as if Treat were in charge at Williamsburg at that time (Colonel Mentges to General Washington, 29 Nov 1781, Chard, "Cochran," pp. 372-73). A logical assumption would seem to be that Treat directed the hospital at Williamsburg until some time in early December 1781, at which time be was succeeded by Tilton.

100. Washington to Rochambeau, 8 Jan 1782, and to Colonel Mentges, 1 Mar 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 23: 435; 24: 34; Colonel Mentges to Washington, 29 Nov 1781, Cochran to Tilton, 1 Jan 1782, and Report of Jan 1782, Cochran Letter Book; Blanton, Medicine, pp. 277, 283; Closen, Journal, p. 169; Quartermaster General Pickering to Virginia Governor Nelson, 8 Nov 1781, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 355.

101. General Greene to General Washington, 25 Oct 1781, Sparks, Correspondence, 3: 430.

102. Quotes from Feltman, "Journal," pp. 325, 326, 334; William Addleman Ganoe, The History of the United States Army (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1924), p. 19.

103. Quote from Denny, Journal, p. 46; John Bell Tilden, "Extracts From the Journal of Lieutenant John Bell Tilden, Second Pennsylvania Line, 1781-82," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 19 (1895): 226; Doctor Wharry to Dr. Reading Beatty, 12 Mar 1782, Beatty, "Letters," p. 166; McDowell, "Journal," pp. 312-20.

104. McDowell, "Journal," p. 323.

105. McDowell, "Journal," pp. 326-31, quote from p. 328; Tilden, "Journal," p. 227; Greene, Greene, 3: 456; Denny, Journal, p. 47.

106. McDowell, "Journal," pp. 329-31, 332, quote from p. 331.

107. Quote from General Wayne to Benjamin Rush, 24 Dec 1782, in Charles J. Stille, Major-General Anthony Wayne and the Pennsylvania Line in the Continental Army (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1893), p. 301; General Harmar to St. Clair, 29 Sep 1782, Smith, St. Clair, 1: 569; Feltman, "Journals," p. 334.

108. Edward McGrady, The History of South Carolina in the Revolution 1780-1783, 2 vols. (New York: Russell & Russell, 1969 reissue of 1902 publication), pp. 676, 701, 702; William Seymour, "Journal of the Southern Expedition, 1780-1783, by William Seymour, Sergeant-Major of the Delaware Regiment," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 7 (1883): 394.

109. Quote from Thacher, Journal, p. 281; Heath, Memoirs, pp. 341-42, 343, 361; Reports of Feb, May, and Jun, 1782, and Cochran to Thomas Bond, 4 Dec 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

110. General Washington to Pres John Dickinson, 3 Dec 1781, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 23: 368-69; Report of Dec 1781 and Cochran to Bond, 4 Dec 1781, Cochran Letter Book; Ltr, Robert Morris to Thomas Bond, 19 Feb 1782, Library of Congress; Daniel Shute, "The Journal of Dr. Daniel Shute, Surgeon in the Revolution 1781-1782," New England Genealogical Register 84 (1930): 387, 388.

111. General Orders, 6 Sep and 14 Nov 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 25: 132, 345; Samuel Adams to General Heath, 9 Dec 1781, RG 93, M859, roll 101, item 29275.

112. Reports of Dec 1781-Jul 1782, Cochran Letter Book.

113. Reports of Aug, Sep, Nov, Dec 1782, Cochran Letter Book.


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114. Reports of Nov 1781, Feb and Mar 1782, Cochran Letter Book; General Washington to William Duer and Daniel Parker, 29 May 1783, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 26: 460; Lists of Officers in the Mil. Hostls of the U.S. Exclusive of the Southern Department, 12 Nov 1783, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-3, item 59.

115. Reports of May-Jul, Sep, Nov, Dec 1782, Cochran Letter Book.

116. Quote from James Craik to Timothy Pickering, 1 May 1782, RG 93, M859, roll 95, item 27685; General Washington to Secretary at War, 18 May 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 24: 263.

117. Quote from General Washington to Maj Gen Henry Knox, 11 Nov 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 25: 330; William Eustis to Timothy Pickering, 3 Oct and 11 Dec 1782, RG 93, M859, roll 81, items 23505, 23506; Bouvet, Service de santé, p. 84; Thacher, Journal, pp. 307, 324.

118. General Washington to Maj Gen Henry Knox, 11 Nov 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 25: 330; Reports of Aug-Dec 1782, Cochran Letter Book.

119. Reports of Nov and Dec 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

120. Packard, History, p. 575; Reports of Nov, Dec 1781, Jan-May 1782, and Cochran to Bond, 4 Dec 1781, Cochran Letter Book.

121. Packard, History, p. 575; Reports of Aug, Oct, Nov 1781, Jan, Feb, Jun-Sep, Nov, Dec 1782, Cochran Letter Book.

122. Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 25: 740; RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-3, item 59; Reports of Feb, Mar, Nov 1781, May-Sep, Nov 1782, Cochran Letter Book; Cochran to James Craik and to John Warren, 10 Oct 1781, Chard, "Cochran," pp. 365, 372; Gibson, Otto, p. 314; Cochran, Letters to Binney, 22 Oct 1781, p. 230.

123. General Washington to John Cochran, 18 Jun 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 24: 357.

124. Quote from General Orders, 18 May 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 24: 265; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 25: 740.

125. General Orders, 4 Aug 1782, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 24: 464.

CHAPTER 6

1. Unless otherwise indicated, the sections of this chapter concerning the U.S. Army's strength and organization are based on John F. Callan, The Military Laws of the United States Relating to the Army, Volunteers, Militia, and to Bounty Lands and Pensions, From the Foundation of the Government to the Year 1863 (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1863); and Weigley, Army. Also consulted for the preceding paragraph was Leonard D. White, The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History, 1789-1801 (New York: Macmillan Co., 1948), p. 236.

2. Harry M. Ward, The Department of War, 1781-1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1962), p. 187.

3. Unless otherwise indicated, material in this chapter relating to military campaigns is based on Ganoe, U.S. Army; Spaulding, Army; and Weigley, Army; while material describing the work of Army surgeons is based on Brown, Medical Department. The preceding paragraph also contains material from Lurton Dunham Ingersoll, A History of the War Department of the United States, With Biographical Sketches of the Secretaries (Washington: Francis D. Mohun, 1880), p. 212.

4. U.S. Congress, American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive of the Congress of the United States. Class V: Military Affairs, 7 vols. (Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1832-61), 1: 147-51.

5. Quote from J. W. Daniels to Secretary of War, 12 Feb 1810, in Washington, National Archives, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, Record Group 107, Letters Received by the Secretary of War, Main Series, 1801-1870, Microfilm Publication M221, roll 36; American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 209, and Henry Dearborn to House of Representatives, 9 Dec 1807, 1: 225; Bernard Devoto, ed., The Journals of Lewis and Clark (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), pp. 489-91.

6. Washington to John Cochran, 10 Aug and 4 Nov 1783, and Washington to Secretary of War, 4 Nov 1783, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 27: 95, 230-31; Orderly Book RG 93, M853, roll 9, book 60, pp. 112-15; Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress, 25: 740; List of


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Officers in the Mil Hostls of the U.S. Exclusive of the Southern Department, 12 Nov 1783, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-3, item 59.

7. Quote from Oliver Spencer, quoted by Virginius Hall, Forman, Physicians; U.S. Congress, Senate, Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States, 1789-1901, 32 vols. (Washington: Govenment Printing Office, 1828-1909), 1: 46-47.

8. Quote from Richard Allison to Brig Gen J. Harmar, 16 Apr 1789, quoted by Virginius C. Hall, "Richard Allison-Surgeon to the Legion," Foreman, Physicians; U.S. Congress, Senate, Executive Proceedings, 1: 46-47; Josiah Harmar, The Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry, Held at the Special Request of Brigadier General Josiah Harmar . . . (Philadelphia, 1791), p. 12.

9. U.S. Congress, Senate, Executive Proceedings, 1: 84, 87; Winthrop Sargent, "Winthrop Sargent's Diary While With General Arthur St. Clair's Expedition Against the Indians," Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 33 (1924): 264, 268; Richard C. Knopf, "Biographical Data," Forman, Physicians; Smith, St. Clair, 2: 200n, and Arthur St. Clair to Secretary of War, 17 Nov 1791, 2: 267n; Frazer E. Wilson, Arthur St. Clair (Richmond, Va.: Garrett and Massie, 1944), p. 4. There is some confusion concerning the position of Victor Grasson. Brown and both Tobey and Ashburn, who appear to lean heavily on Brown, classify Grasson as a Regular Army surgeon's mate, one of those whom the President could assign as he saw fit. Grasson is not mentioned in Heitman, however, and contemporary records do not specify his status. It should be noted that volunteer units did, at least on occasion, provide their own surgeons. Brown, Medical Department, pp. 73, 271; James Abner Tobey, The Medical Department of the Army (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1927), p. 8; Ashburn, Medical Department, p. 24; and Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army From Its Organization, September 29, 1789, to March 2, 1903, 2 vols. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903).

10. Sargent, "Diary," pp. 237, 254, quote from p. 242; Cyrus Townsend Brady, American Fights and Fighters: Stories of the First Five Wars of the United States From the War of the Revolution to the War of 1812 (New York: McClure, Phillips & Co., 1900), pp: 166-67; Extract from the Diary of Maj Ebenezer Denny, 26 Oct 1791, Smith, St. Clair, 2: 255.

11. St. Clair Journal, Wilson, St. Clair, p. 71; Frazer E. Wilson, ed., Journal of Capt. Daniel Bradley: An Epic of the Ohio Frontier (Greenville, Ohio: Frank H. Jobes & Son, 1935), p. 26; Testimony of Major Zeigler in House Committee Investigation, Smith, St. Clair, 2: 290n.

12. Quote from Michael McDonough to Patrick McDonough, 10 Nov 1791, in Washington, Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Peter Force Collection, Arthur St. Clair Papers, series 7E, box 60, folders 1782, Ag24-1793, Ju16; Sargent, "Diary," pp. 253, 264, 268; Knopf, "Biographical Data," Forman, Physicians; Randolph Greenfield Adams and Howard H. Peckham, eds., Lexington to Fallen Timbers 1775-1794 (Ann Arbor; University of Michigan Press, 1942), p. 37; Wilson, Bradley, p. 24.

13. Quote from Michael McDonough to Patrick McDonough, 10 Nov 1791, St. Clair Papers; Wilson, St. Clair, p. 82; Extract from the Diary of Maj Ebenezer Denny, Smith, St. Clair, 2: 261; Wilson, Bradley, p. 34.

14. Wilson, Bradley, p. 34.

15. Sargent, "Diary," p. 265, quote from p. 254.

16. Anthony Wayne to Henry Knox, 3 Aug 1792, in Richard C. Knopf, ed., A Campaign Into the Wilderness: The Wayne-Knox-Pickering-McHenry Correspondence, 5 vols. (Columbus, Ohio: Anthony Wayne Parkway Board, 1955), 1: 45; U.S. Congress, Senate, Executive Proceedings, 1: 117; Harmar, Inquiry, pp. 9, 23; Louis Smith, American Democracy and Military Power: A Study of Civil Control of Military Power in the United States (Chicago: Unversity of Chicago Press, 1951), p. 177; White, Federalists, p. 148. (See also Table 7.)

17. Wayne, "Orderly Book," p. 350, quote from p. 361.

18. Quote from Anthony Wayne to Henry Knox, 3 Aug 1792, Knopf, Campaign, 1: 45; Wayne, "Orderly Book," p. 350.

19. Wayne, "Orderly Book," p. 390, quote


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from p. 363; Henry Knox to Anthony Wayne, 27 Jul and 7 Sep 1792, Knopf, Campaign, 1: 38, 76-77.

20. Quote from Wayne, "Orderly Book," p. 403; Richard C. Knopf, ed., "A Surgeon's Mate at Fort Defiance: The Journal of Joseph Gardner Andrews for the Year 1795," Ohio Historical Quarterly 66 (1957): 37; Thomas Taylor Underwood, Journal March 26, 1792, to March 18, 1800. An Old Soldier in Wayne's Army (Cincinnati, Ohio: Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Ohio, 1945), p. 3n.

21. Underwood, Journal, p. 5; Anthony Wayne to Henry Knox, 2 Jul 1793, and Knox to Wayne, 27 Jul 1793, Knopf, Campaign, 2: 105-6, 114-15; U.S. Congress, Senate, Executive Proceedings, 1: 117, Knopf, "Andrews," pp. 61, 170, 170n; John Boyer, "Daily Journal of Wayne's Campaign," American Pioneer 1 (1842): 320.

22. Quotes from Boyer, "Journal," p. 320; Dwight L. Smith, ed., "From Greene Ville to Fallen Timbers," Indiana Historical Society Publications 16 (1951-52): 307; Return of the Killed, Wounded and Missing of the Federal Army Commanded by Major General Wayne . . . , in Washington, National Archives, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, Record Group 107, Copies of War Department Correspondence and Reports, 1791-96, Microfilm Publication T982, p. 454; Richard C. Knopf, ed., "Two Journals of the Kentucky Volunteers, 1793 and 1794," Filson Club Historical Quarterly 27 (1953): 266. (See also Table 7 on organization of the Legion.)

23. Quote from Smith, "Greene Ville," p. 278; Richard Allison to Anthony Wayne, 23 Jun 1794, cited by Virginius Hall, "Richard Allison-Surgeon to the Legion," Forman, Physicians.

24. Boyer, "Journal," pp. 351, 352.

25. Quote from William Clark, "William Clark's Journal of General Wayne's Campaign," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 1 (1914-15): 431; Wayne to Knox, 17 Oct 1794, and Wayne to Timothy Pickering, 2 Sep 1795, Knopf, Campaign, 3: 73-74; 4: 88.

26. Anthony Wayne to Timothy Pickering, 18 Nov 1795, Knopf, Campaign, 4: 88-89, 107, quotes from p. 88, and from Wayne to Timothy Pickering, 5 Oct 1795, p. 106; Wayne, "Orderly Book," p. 619; Charles Whittlesey, "General Wadsworth's Division, War of 1812," Western Reserve and Northern Ohio Historical Society Tracts 2 (1879): 119.

27. James McHenry to Anthony Wayne, 16 Jul 1796, and Wayne to McHenry, 28 Aug and 28 Oct 1796, Knopf, Campaign, 5: 26, 45, 71, 72.

28. Francis F. Beirne, War of 1812 (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1949), pp. 60-61; David A. Durfee, ed., William Henry Harrison 1773-1841. John Tyler 1790-1862. Chronology-Documents-Bibliographical Aids (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1970), p. 7.

29. William Henry Harrison to Secretary of War, 10 Jul 1811, General Orders, 20 Sep 1811, Harrison to Secretary of War, 13 Oct and 18 Nov 1811, Log of the Army to Tippecanoe, 18 Nov 1811, Report of the Sick, Wounded and Invalids
. . . , n.d., in William Henry Harrison, Governors' Messages and Letters, Messages and Letters of William Henry Harrison, ed. Logan Esarey, 4 vols. (Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Commission, 1922), 1: 532, 532n, 586, 602, 629, 634, 642-43; Certificates signed by Josiah D. Foster and Hosea Blood, 1811, in Richard C. Knopf, ed., Document Transcriptions of the War of 1812 in the Northwest, 8 vols. (Columbus, Ohio: Anthony Wayne Parkway Board, 1957-62), 5: part 1, p. 47.

30. Josiah D. Foster to George Cheyne Shattuck, Jan 1812, Shattuck Papers, 3, Massachusetts Historical Society, quoted in Leonard K. Eaton, "Military Surgery in the Battle of Tippecanoe," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 25 (1951): 460.

31. Quote from Adam Walker, A Journal of Two Campaigns of the Fourth Regiment of U.S. Infantry . . . 1811-1812 (Keene, N.H.: privately printed, 1816), p. 11; General Orders 20 Sep 1811, Harrison to Secretary of War, 25 Sep 1811, and Report of 17 Dec 1811, Harrison, Messages, 1: 586, 589, 641.

32. Field Report, Harrison's Army, 12 Oct 1811, and Harrison to Secretary of War, 29 Oct 1811, Harrison, Messages, 1: 597-98, 605; Marvin A. Kreidberg and Merton G. Henry, History of Military Mobilization in the United States Army 1775-1945, Department of the Army Pamphlet 20-212, June


253

1955, p. 42; John K. Mahon, The War of 1812 (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1972), pp. 20, 21; Walker, Journal, p. 18.

33. Harrison to Secretary of War, 18 Nov 1811, Harrison, Messages, 1: 630, 631; Beirne, War of 1812, p. 62; Walker Journal, p. 85; Eaton, "Tippecanoe," p. 461.

34. Harrison to Secretary of War, 18 Nov 1811, and Log of the Army to Tippecanoe, 13 Nov 1811, Harrison, Messages, 1:630, 633, 634, quote from Harrison to Secretary of War, 4 Dec 1811; Walker, Journal, pp. 36-37; James Ripley Jacobs, The Beginning of the U.S. Army 1783-1812 (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1947, reissued 1970), p. 362.

35. Henry Knox to Speaker of the House, 28 Nov 1794, RG 107, T982, pp. 505-15.

36. Francis Paul Prucha, A Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895 (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1964), p. 81; Henry Dearborn to Lyman Spaulding, 9 Apr 1802, in Washington, National Archives, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, Record Group 107, Letters Sent by the Secretary of War Relating to Military Affairs, 1800-89, Microfilm Publication M6, roll 1, p. 188; Testimony of Capt Christie, Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 414.

37. Henry Dearborn to Thomas Cushing, 23 Feb 1803, and Dearborn to John Carmichael, 31 Aug 1803, RG 107, M6, roll 1, pp. 373-74; roll 2, p. 54; quote from Dearborn to James Wilkinson, 7 Mar 1803, roll 1, p. 380; Capt John Bowyer and other officers to Secretary of War, 13 May 1804, RG 107, M221, roll 1; U.S. Congress, Senate, Executive Proceedings, 1: 414; Knopf, "Biographical Data," Forman, Physicians; Thomas H. S. Hamersly, Complete Army and Navy Register of the United States Of America, From 1776 to 1887 (New York: T. H. S. Hamersly, 1888), p. 51; Disposition of Dr. J. F. Carmichael, Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: app. 21.

38. Wilson, St. Clair, p. 71; American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 67; Wilson, Bradley, p. 76n; Frazer Ells Wilson, Fort Jefferson: The Frontier Post of the Upper Miami Valley: A Fascinating Tale of Border Life Gleaned From Authentic Sources and Retold by Frazer Ells Wilson (Lancaster, Pa., 1950), p. 7; John Heckwelder, "Narrative of His Journey to the Wabash in 1792," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 12 (1888): 12, 42.

39. Prucha, Guide, p. 71; Knopf, "Andrews," pp. 57, 60, 69, 75; Henry Dearborn to Jonathan Sparhawk, 18 Oct 1803, RG 107, M6, roll 2, p. 83; Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 30 Sep 1810, RG 107, M221, roll 38.

40. All material on Andrews, unless otherwise indicated, is based on Knopf, "Andrews," pp. 60-262, and the quotes in the following paragraphs are from pp. 176, 241, 244, 248, 260, 261, and 262.

41. Unless otherwise indicated, the section on Wilkinson is based on Jacobs, Wilkinson. General Wilkinson later wrote a lengthy defense of his conduct at this time, but his memoirs must be considered in the light of the author's reputation for "deviousness" (Weigley, Army, p. 107).

42. James Wilkinson to William Eustis, 19 Aug 1809, Report of William Upshaw, Surgeon 5th Infantry, 20 Jul 1809, and Report of Alfred Thruston, Surgeon 7th Infantry, 29 Jul 1809, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 270, 292-93; Hamersly, Register, p. 55; Kreidberg and Henry, Mobilization, p. 41; "Sickness in the Army at New Orleans, in 1809," Medical Repository 14 (1811): 85-87; Deposition of Dr. Theodore Elmer, Orders to Brig Gen James Wilkinson from H. Dearborn, 2 Dec 1808, and William Eustis to Dr. Oliver Spencer, Surgeon, Aug 1809, Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 342, 450-510, app. 109. See also other material, 2: 414, 431, 506, and app. 109.

43. Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 408-9, 410, 414, 425, and Testimony of Col Electus Backus, app. 108; Hamersly, Register, p. 55.

44. Wilkinson, Memoirs 2: 346-47, 506, Testimony of Col Electus Backus, app. 108, Deposition of Lieutenant-Colonel Beall, app. 111, and James Wilkinson to Secretary of War, 19 Apr 1809, 2: 349, quote from p. 350; William Eustis to James Wilkinson, 30 Apr 1809, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 2: 269.

45. Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 371, 375-76; William Eustis to James Wilkinson, 30 Apr 1809, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 269; "Sickness in the Army," p. 86.


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46. Jacobs, The Beginning, pp. 346, 347; James Wilkinson to Secretary of War, 20 May 1809, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 269; Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 367-68, 390; "Sickness in the Army," p. 85; Jabez W. Heustis, "Observations on the Disease Which Prevailed in the Army at Camp Terre-aux-Boeufs, in June, July, and August of the Year 1809," Medical Repository, 2d ser. 3 (1817): 38.

47. Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 372.

48. "Sickness in the Army," p. 87; James Wilkinson to William Eustis, 19 Aug 1809, and William Upshaw Report, 20 Jul 1809, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 220, 292-93; Heustis, "Observations," p. 38; Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: app. 108.

49. Jacobs, The Beginning, pp. 349, 352-53; Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 430, 483-84, 485, Eustis to Spencer, Aug 1809, pp. 450-51; Eustis to Dr. John M. Daniel, 1809, p. 479.

50. Wilkinson to Eustis, 18 Jun 1809, and Eustis to Wilkinson, 22 Jun 1809, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 269; Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 386.

51. Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 406, 407, 417; Jacobs, The Beginning, p. 351; Report of Alfred Thruston, 29 Jul 1809, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 293.

52. Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 417, Testimony of Col Electus Backus, app. 108, and Deposition of Captain Dale, app. 111.

53. Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 480 and app. 108.

54. William Eustis to James Wilkinson, 10 Sep 1809, Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: app. 110, data and quote from Deposition of Doctor Dow, app. 109.

55. Quote from William Upshaw Report, 20 Jul 1809, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 292-93; Heustis, "Observations," pp. 34, 36; "Sickness of the Army," pp. 86-87; Deposition of Lieutenant-Colonel Beall, Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: app. 111.

56. Medical Department, United States Army, Communicable Diseases, Preventive Medicine in World War II, vol. 6 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963), chart 1, p. 14, and table 9, p. 112; Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 427.

57. Wilkinson, Memoirs, 2: 347; Depositions of Captain Dale and Lieutenant-Colonel Beall, app. 111; data and quote from John Smith, for Secretary of War, to Abraham D. Abrahams, 20 Aug. 1808, 2: 435.

58. Heustis, " Observations," pp. 33, 37, quote from pp. 33-34.

59. Heustis, "Observations," pp. 35, 36.

60. Heustis, "Observations," pp. 35, 36, 39, quotes from pp. 37, 38, 41.

61. Heustis, "Observations," pp. 36, 40, 41, quote from p. 40. After studying contemporary accounts of the condition of Wilkinson's men at this time, Col. Robert J. T. Joy, MC, in 1976 Director of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Washington, D.C., commented that "these troops were the victims of a combination of events-any one or two of which would have been enough to cripple a force; in combination, the force was destroyed." Colonel Joy believed that their condition resulted from "A combination of vitamin deficiency, starvation, and malaria as the common substrate upon which diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis, typhoid, and pneumonia were laid, all being helped along by poor housing, poor clothing, and demands for hard physical labor, with a shortage of moderately effective medicine and the overuse of a useless, or dangerous therapy. Any one man didn't have to have everything-just a few would kill him." The only effective medicines available to these men were opium for diarrhea and bark for malaria. The oral lesions, Colonel Joy noted, resulted from the overuse of mercury and possibly from scurvy as well. (Letter to the author, 11 Jun 1976.)

62. Risch, Quartermaster Support, pp. 76-84; General Orders, Harrison, Messages, 1: 586; Clark, "Journal," p. 431; White, Federalists, p. 148; Boyer, "Journal," p. 351; Wayne to Henry Knox, 2 Jul 1793, Timothy Pickering, 2 Sep and 5 Oct 1795, and James McHenry, 28 Oct 1796, Knopf, Campaign, 2: 105-6; 4: 88, 106, 107; 5: 71; Dittrick, "Medical Agents," Forman, Physicians; Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 20 Jun 1802, 30 Sep 1810, and Will Stewart to Secretary of War, 30 Mar 1812, RG 107, M221, rolls 38 and 40; Dearborn to Maj Constant Freeman, 27 Jun 1801, Wilkinson, 17 Jul 1801, Thomas Cushing, 20 Mar 1802, Israel Whelen, 27 Mar 1802, and Secretary of War to Smith Cutler, 14 Jan 1809, RG 107, M6, roll 1, pp. 91, 95, 165-66, 171-75; roll 4, p. 12.


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63. William Eustis to Benjamin Rush, 2 Jan 1810, 31 May 1810, Eustis to Dr. James Mease, 31 May 1810, RG 107, M6, roll 4, pp. 254, 363, quote from Secretary of War to Smith Cutler, 14 Jan 1809, p. 12; Dittrick, "Medical Agents," Forman, Physicians; James Mease to Secretary of War, 28 Jan and 28 May 1810, RG 107, M221, roll 38.

64. Quote from Secretary of War to Tench Coxe, 12 Feb 1812, RG 107, M6, roll 5, p. 273; Francis LeBaron to Adjutant General, 30 Jun and 4 Dec 1812, in Washington, National Archives, Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1780s-1917, Record Group 94, Letters Received by the Adjutant General 1805-21, Microfilm Publication M566, roll 12; Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 26 Feb 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 46.

65. Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 13 Feb and Apr 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 46.

66. Secretary of War to Francis LeBaron, 14 Jul and 24 Aug 1812, quote from Secretary of War to Francis LeBaron, 20 Aug 1812, RG 107, M6, roll 6, pp. 25, 95, 96, 100; LeBaron to Secretary of War, 26 Feb 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 46.

67. William Atherton, Narrative of the Suffering & Defeat of the Northwestern Army Under General Winchester
. . . (Frankfort, Ky., 1842), p. 39.

CHAPTER 7

1. Unless otherwise indicated, the material in this chapter is based on Beirne, War of 1812; Brown, Medical Department, pp. 81-100; James Ripley Jacobs and Glenn Tucker, The War of 1812: A Compact History (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1969); Weigley, Army, pp. 97-133, 566; and Charles Maurice Wiltse, The New Nation, 1800-1845 (London: Macmillan, 1965).

2. Secretary of War to Henry Dearborn, 26 Aug 1812, RG 107, M6, roll 6, p. 100, quote from Secretary of War to Francis LeBaron, 24 Aug 1812, p. 95.

3. Secretary of War to Francis LeBaron, 29 Aug 1812, RG 107, M6, roll 6, p. 104.

4. LeBaron to Secretary of War, 17 Oct 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 46; Secretary of War to LeBaron, 25 Aug 1812, RG 107, M6, roll 6, p. 96.

5. Secretary of War to Francis LeBaron, 4 and 9 Oct 1812, RG 107, M6, roll 6, pp. 181, 188; Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 17 Oct 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 46.

6. Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 13 Nov 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 46; Secretary of War to Francis LeBaron, 16 Oct 1812 and 12 May 1813, RG 107, M6, roll 6, pp. 195, 413-14.

7. Francis LeBaron to Adjutant and Inspector, Washington City, 8 Dec 1812, RG 94, M566, roll 12, quotes from Francis LeBaron to Adjutant General, 5 Oct 1812.

8. Unless otherwise indicated, Callan, Military Laws has formed the basis of discussions of the laws governing the activities of the Medical Department.

9. American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 428, 432-33, 435, quote from p. 434; Thomas H. Palmer, ed., Historical Register of the United States, 4 vols. (Philadelphia, 1814-16), 3: 7; Marguerite McKee, "Service of Supply in the War of 1812," Quartermaster Review 6 (1927): 51.

10. Niles' Weekly Register (Baltimore) 6: 36; American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 384-85; Wolfe, "Genesis," pp. 842-43.

11. James Mann, Medical Sketches of the Campaigns of 1812, 13, 14 . . . (Dedham, Mass.: H. Mann and Co., 1816), p. 75; Secretary of War to Francis LeBaron, 6 Aug 1813 and 6 Jul 1814, RG 107, M6, roll 7, pp. 31, 252.

12. Regulations for the Medical Department, Dec 1814, Brown, Medical Department, pp. 94-98; Palmer, Historical Register, 3: 709; Tilton to Assistant Inspector General, 4 Jun 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 59.

13. Quote from T. R. Adams, "The Medical and Political Activities of Dr. James Tilton," Annual Report of the John Carter Brown Library (Providence, R.I.: The John Carter Brown Library, Brown University and the Colonial Society of Massachusetts) 7 (1972): 30; Tilton, Observations.

14. Quote from James Tilton to Secretary of War, 23 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66; Benjamin Waterhouse to Secretary of War, 12 Jul 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 67.

15. Quote from James Tilton to Secretary of War, 19 Sep 1814, in Washington, National


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Archives, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, Record Group 107, Letters Received by the Secretary of War, Unregistered Series, 1789-1861, Microfilm Publication M222, roll 10. Brown states that the leg was amputated in 1814 but Phalen maintains that the operation was performed 7 December 1815 (Chiefs, p. 25). Neither his letters nor those of his colleagues in late 1814 and 1815 refer even obliquely to his having undergone major surgery (see letters of Tilton for this period in RG 94, M566, rolls 59 and 82; RG 107, M221, rolls 66 and 67; and RG 107, M222, roll 10; as well as Benjamin Waterhouse to Secretary of War, 12 Jul 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 67). Thus it seems safe to assume that Brown was mistaken as to the date of the amputation (see p. 98 in Medical Department). Tilton's frequent presence in Wilmington is established by the many letters he sent from that city (see James Tilton to Adjutant General, 5 Feb, 4, 7, 9, 30 Jun, 15 Aug, 19 Sep, 4, 15 Oct, 3, 8 Nov, and 5 Dec 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 59).

16. American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 591; Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 17 Jun 1813, and to Adjutant General, 20 Dec 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 12; Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 2 June 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 63; McKee, "Service of Supply," p. 51.

17. Office of Adjutant General to James Tilton, 29 May 1814, in Washington, National Archives, Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1780s-1917, Record Group 94, Letters Sent by the Office of the Adjutant General, Main Series, 1800-1890, Microfilm Publication M565, roll 4, vol. 3, p. 547.

18. Quote from James Tilton to Assistant Inspector General, 4 Jun 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 59.

19. James Tilton to Secretary of War, 10 Feb 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

20. Quote from James Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66; Statement of Dr. Catlett, 1814, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 584; William M. Marine, The British Invasion of Maryland, 1812-1815 (Baltimore: Society of the War of 1812 in Maryland, 1913), p. 174; Office of Adjutant General to Dr. John R. Martin, 26 Jun 1813, 21 and 23 Feb, 15 Mar, and 26 Jun 1814, RG 94, M565, roll 4, 3: 216, 373, 379, 412, 543.

21. James Ewell, The Medical Companion . . . , 3d ed. (Philadelphia: privately printed, 1817), pp. 690-91.

22. Tilton to Secretary of War, 27 Oct 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66, quotes from roll 59; Mann, Sketches, pp. 255-56.

23. James Mann to James Tilton, 14 Feb 1814, Brown, Medical Department, p. 93.

24. Benjamin Waterhouse to Tilton, 13 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 82, quotes from Waterhouse to Secretary of War, 13 Aug 1814, roll 67; A. Hays to James Tilton, 2 Oct 1814 and 2 Jan 1815, RG 94, M566, rolls 59, 82; Tilton to Secretary of War, 19 Sep 1814, RG 107, M222, roll 10. A black cockade, worn on the hat, was a part of the Army's uniform (American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 434).

25. Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814 and 10 Feb 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 66; Charles Smart, The Connection of the Army Medical Department With the Development of Meteorology in the United States, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, Report of the International Meteorological Congress held at Chicago, Ill., 21-24 Aug 1893, Bulletin No. 11, part 2 (1895): 208; Palmer, Historical Register, 3: 8.

26. Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66; Palmer, Historical Register, 3: 7-8.

27. Tilton to Secretary of War, 10 Feb 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

28. McKee, "Service of Supply," p. 51; Kreidberg and Henry, Mobilization, pp. 58-59; Jabez W. Heustis, Physical Observations and Medical Tracts and Researches on the Topography and Diseases of Louisiana (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1817), pp. 105n-106n; Brereton Greenhous, "A Note on Western Logistics in the War of 1812," Military Affairs 34 (1970): 43.

29. Office of Adjutant General to Members of the General Staff, 29 Oct 1814, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 31/2; Secretary of War to LeBaron, 21 Jun 1813, RG 107, M6, roll 6, pp. 468-69; LeBaron to Secretary of War, 28 Jul 1813, RG 107, M221, roll 54.


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30. Secretary of War to LeBaron, 24 Mar 1813, RG 107, M6, roll 6, p. 336.

31. Quotes and data from Secretary of War to LeBaron, 16 Oct 1813, RG 107, M6, roll 7, pp. 93, 94; LeBaron to Secretary of War, 29 Jun 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 12; LeBaron to Secretary of War, 18 Sep 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 63.

32. LeBaron to Secretary of War, 30 Mar 1813, RG 107, M221, roll 54, quote from Dr. Shaw to Secretary of War, 21 Apr 1813, roll 57; Secretary of War to LeBaron, 24 May 1813, RG 107, M6, roll 6, p. 336.

33. Joseph Lovell to Secretary of War, 18 May 1813, LeBaron to Secretary of War, 30 Mar and 9 Jun 1813, RG 107, M221, roll 54; Secretary of War to Francis LeBaron, 12 May and 25 Jun 1813, RG 107, M6, roll 6, pp. 413-14, 474.

34. LeBaron to Secretary of War, Dec and 30 Mar 1813, 21 Mar 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 54, quote from Dec 1813; James Mann to LeBaron, n.d., Mann, Sketches, p. 259; Secretary of War to LeBaron, 12 May 1813 and 11 Apr 1814, RG 107, M6, roll 6, pp. 413-14; roll 7, p. 160.

35. James Cutbush to Adjutant General, 31 Dec 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 4.

CHAPTER 8

1. Except where otherwise noted, all military and political material is based on Beirne, War of 1812; Harry L. Coles, The War of 1812 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965); Jacobs and Tucker, The War of 1812; Kreidberg and Henry, Mobilization; and Mahon, The War of 1812.

2. James Mann to Secretary of War, 17 Aug 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 47; Mann, Sketches, p. vi.

3. Mann, Sketches, pp. vi, 12, 45-46; James Mann to Secretary of War, 17 Aug and 5 Oct 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 47; William Beaumont, William Beaumont's Formative Years: Two Early Notebooks, 1811-1821, ed. Genevieve Miller (New York: Henry Schuman, 1946), p. 10.

4. Mann, Sketches, p. vi; James Mann to Secretary of War, 17 Aug and 5 Oct 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 47.

5. James Mann to Secretary of War, 5 Oct 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 47.

6. Mann, Sketches, pp. 13, 14, 15, 19, 20; James Mann to Secretary of War, 5 Oct 1812, RG 107, M221, roll 47.

7. Mann, Sketches, pp. 15-16.

8. Mann, Sketches, pp. 13-14, 20, 34, quotes from p. 13.

9. Mann, Sketches, pp. 15, 19, quote from p. 14.

10. Beaumont, Notebooks, pp. xii, 11, quotes from p. 11; Secretary of War to Mr. Leib, 27 Nov 1812, in Washington, Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, William Eustis Papers, II-33-N.H.; Ashburn, Medical Department, pp. 50-53.

11. Mann, Sketches, pp. 4, 14, quotes from pp. 14, 35-36.

12. Mann, Sketches, pp. 25, 44, quote from p. 44.

13. Mann, Sketches, pp. 43, 45; Brown, Medical Department, p. 83; Phalen, Chiefs, p. 27.

14. Mann, Sketches, pp. 45, 47, quote from p. 45.

15. Louis L. Babcock, The War of 1812 on the Niagara Frontier (Buffalo, N.Y.: Buffalo Historical Society, 1927), pp. 64-65, letter of 11 Nov 1812, published in the New York Evening Post of 25 Nov 1812, quote from letter of 8 Nov 1812, published in the New York Evening Post of 25 Nov 1812; John Brannan, Official Letters of the Military and Naval Officers of the United States During the War With Great Britain (Washington: Way & Gideon, 1823), p. 100.

16. Report of the State of the 14th Regiment of Infantry, Babcock, Niagara, pp. 62-63; Amos Stoddard, Maj 1st Regt. Artillery, to Secretary of War, 16 Sep 1812, Knopf, Documents, 6, part 3: 160; Brannan, Letters, p. 95.

17. Elijah D. Efner, "The Adventures and Enterprises of Elijah D. Efner," Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society 4 (1896): 44; John C. Parish, ed., The Robert Lucas Journal of the War of 1812 (Iowa City, Iowa: The State Historical Society of Iowa, 1906), p. 18; Extract of letter of Dr. James Reynolds from Detroit, 7 Jul 1812, Knopf, Documents, 5, part 1: 112; William Stanley Hatch, A Chapter of the History of the War of 1812 in


258

the Northwest . . . (Cincinnati: Miami Printing and Publishing Co., 1872), p. 25.

18. William Hull, Memoirs of the Campaign of the Northwestern Army of the United States, 1812 (Boston: True & Greene, 1824), pp. 3, 10; Parish, Lucas Journal, p. 19; Walker, Journal, p. 48; Samuel R. Brown, An Authentic History of the Second War for Independence . . . , 2 vols. (Auburn, N.Y.: J. G. Hathaway, 1815), 1: 37n; Efner, "Adventures," p. 44.

19. Parish, Lucas Journal, pp. 19, 63-64; Walker, Journal, p. 48; Brown, Authentic History, 1: 37n; John Miller to Gen Thomas Worthington, 24 Nov 1812, Knopf, Documents, 3: 123; William Kennedy Beall, "Journal of William K. Beall, July-August 1812," reprinted from American Historical Review 17 (1912): 785-86; Clarence Stewart Peterson, Known Military Dead During the War of 1812 (Baltimore, April 1955), p. 55; G. M. Fairchild, Jr., ed., Journal of an American Prisoner at Fort Malden and Quebec in the War of 1812 (Quebec: privately printed, 1909), p. 304.

20. William Hull to Secretary of War, 26 Aug 1812, Brannan, Letters; Fanny J. Anderson, "Medical Practices During the War of 1812," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 16 (1944): 268; Brown, Authentic History, 1: 68; U.S. Congress, Senate, Executive Proceedings, 1: 473; Orders, Brig Gen William Hull, 7 Aug 1812, in Milo Milton Quaife, ed., War on the Detroit, The Chronicles of Thomas Verchères de Boucherville and the Capitulation by an Ohio Volunteer (Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1940), pp. 195n-196n, 275-76; Abraham W. Beth to Gen Thomas Worthington, 8 Jan 1812, H. Johnson to Secretary of War, 16 and 18 Aug 1812, and A. Edwards to Secretary of War, 17 Sep 1812, Knopf, Documents, 3: 37; 6, part 3: 36, 39, 162; Fairchild, Journal, p. 7.

21. Coles, 1812, p. 55.

22. Letter from Captain Heald, 23 Oct 1812, and T. Forsythe to Governor Howard, 7 Sep 1812, Knopf, Documents, 5: part 1: 269; 6, 118; Peterson, Dead, p. 68; William Jay, "Table of the Killed and Wounded in the War of 1812. Compiled During the War," Collections of the New York Historical Society, 2d ser. 2 (1849): 449; John Kinzie, "Narrative of the Ft. Dearborn Massacre," Illinois State Historical Society 46 (1953): 349.

23. Brown, Authentic History, 2: 85, 87-88; Atherton, Narrative, pp. 18-19; Samuel Hopkins to Governor Shelby, 27 Nov 1812, and Lt Col John B. Campbell to Gen W. H. Harrison, 25 Dec 1812, Brannan, Letters, pp. 97, 115-16.

24. Elias Darnell, "A Journal Containing an Accurate and Interesting Account of the Hardships, Sufferings, Battles, Defeat, and Captivity of Those Heroic Kentucky Volunteers and Regulars, Commanded by General Winchester, in the Years
1812-13 . . . ," Magazine of History, Extra No. 31 (New York: W. Abbatt, 1914 reprint of 1854 ed.), p. 203, quote from p. 210; Winchester's General Orders, Camp Defiance, 1 and 9 Oct 1812, James Winchester, "Papers and Orderly Book of Brigadier General J. Winchester," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society Collections 31 (1901): 259, 264-65; Harrison's Orders, 3 Oct 1812, in Washington, Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, microfilm of William Henry Harrison Papers, roll 1, series 1; Charles E. Slocum, "Some Errors Corrected: Fort Winchester, at Defiance, Ohio," Ohio Archeological and Historical Quarterly 10 (1901-2): 483; Atherton, Narrative, pp. 18-19.

25. Atherton, Narrative, p. 19.

26. Hull, Memoirs, p. 3; William Henry Harrison to James Winchester, 4 Oct 1812, and to Secretary of War, 20 Jan 1813, Harrison, Messages, 2: 162, 316.

27. Brown, Authentic History, 1: 89-90; Thomas P. Dudley, "Battle and Massacre at Frenchtown, Michigan, January 1813, by Rev. Thomas P. Dudley, One of the Survivors," Western Reserve and Northern Ohio Historical Society Publications No. 1 (1870): 1-2, 3; James Winchester to William Henry Harrison, 17 and 19 Jan 1813, William Lewis to James Winchester, 20 Jan 1813, and McClanahan to William Henry Harrison, 26 Jan 1813, Harrison, Messages, 2: 314, 315, 321, 339; Atherton, Narrative, p. 39; Statement of Capt. R. Matson of 13 Feb 1813, and Statement of James Garrard, Jr., Brigade Inspector, 11 Mar 1813, Knopf, Documents, 5: part 2: 27, 40; Garrett Glenn Clift, Remember the Raisin:


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Kentucky and Kentuckians in the Battles and Massacre at Frenchtown, Michigan Territory, in the War of 1812 (Frankfort: Kentucky Historical Soc., 1961), pp. 127, 128, 129, 131-32, 134-35.

28. Atherton, Narrative, pp. 53-54, 61; Darnell, "Journal," pp. 220, 222, 223; Brown, Authentic History, 1: 92.

29. William Henry Harrison to Governor Meigs, 24 Jan 1813; Harrison, Messages, 2: 329-30.

30. Register of the Army for 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 391.

31. William Henry Harrison to Secretary of War, 9 Jul 1813, Harrison, Messages, 2: 485, quote from p. 486.

32. Jay, "Table," p. 452; Eleazer D. Wood, "Journal of the Northwestern Campaign of 1812-13 Under Major-General William Harrison," in G. W. Cullum, ed., Campaigns of the War of 1812-15 (New York: Miller, 1879), p. 402, quotes from pp. 402, 403.

33. Cullum, Campaigns, p. 403, quote from p. 401; William Henry Harrison to Secretary of War, 5 May 1813, Brannan, Letters, p. 158.

34. William Henry Harrison to Secretary of War, 5 May 1813, Brannan, Letters, p. 158.

35. Cullum, Campaigns, p. 402.

36. Robert Yost, "His Book," Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 23 (1914): 154-55; Duncan McArthur to Secretary of War, 6 Oct 1813, Brannan, Letters, p. 230.

37. Yost, "Book," pp. 156-57, quote from p. 157; Anderson, "Medical Practices," p. 269; William Henry Harrison to Secretary of War, 9 Oct 1813, Brannan, Letters, p. 238.

38. James Wilkinson to Secretary of War, 16 Nov 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 476; Wilkins Report, 3 Nov 1813, and Major Birdsall Statement, 6 Nov 1813, in John Armstrong, Notices of the War of 1812, 2 vols. (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1840), 2: 9, 211-12.

39. Register, Rules and Regulations of the Army for 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 384-85; James Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

40. Mann, Sketches, pp. 64-65, 248, 249, quote from p. 248.

41. Jesse S. Myer, Life of William Beaumont (St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1939), pp. 44-45, 53-54; Mann, Sketches, pp. 94, 95, 126, quote from p. 250; Beaumont, Notebooks, pp. 16, 47, 48; W. E. Horner, quoted in Brown, Medical Department, p. 92; Greenhous, "Logistics," p. 43.

42. Winfield Scott, Memoirs of Lieut.-General Scott, LL.D., 2 vols. (New York: Sheldon & Co., 1864), 1: 145.

43. Mann, Sketches, pp. 241, 242, 246-47; Brown, Medical Department, p. 89.

44. Register of the Army for 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 391; Mann, Sketches, p. 45.

45. Quote from Beaumont, Notebooks, p. 44; Mann, Sketches, p. 117; Secretary of War to Major General Hampton, 25 Sep 1813, in Ernest A. Cruikshank, Documentary History of the Campaign Upon the Niagara Frontier, 4 vols. (Welland, Ont.: Arno Press & New York Times, 1971 reprint of 1896-1908 edition), 2: 107.

46. Beaumont, Notebooks, pp. 15, 43, 44; Mann, Sketches, p. 58, quote from p. 57.

47. Beaumont, Notebooks, p. 15.

48. Mann, Sketches, pp. 57, 58; Lewis Potter Bush, The Delaware State Medical Society and Its Founders in the Eighteenth Century (New York, 1886), p. 9.

49. Secretary of War to Dr. Ross, 22 Jun 1813, RG 107, M6, roll 6, p. 472; Wilkinson, Memoirs, 3: app. 9 #2 and 26, and Remarks on the Weekly Sick Report Made by Order of Brigadier General Brown, Commanding at Sackett's Harbor, Saturday, September 18, 1813, app. 9 #2 (there are two appendixes 9 in this volume); American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 387; Jay, "Table," p. 452.

50. Mann, Sketches, pp. 62-63, 89; Armstrong, War of 1812, 2: 22.

51. Mann, Sketches, p. 70, Joseph Lovell quoted in Mann, p. 67, quotes from pp. 65-66, 71; Colonel Scott to Wilkinson, 11 Oct 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 483.

52. Colonel Scott to James Wilkinson, 11 Oct 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 483; Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 12 Sep 1813, RG 107, M221, roll 54; Mann, Sketches, pp. 62-63, 66.

53. Mann, Sketches, pp. 62-63, 64-65, 252; Beaumont, Notebooks, p. 51; Francis LeBaron


260

to Secretary of War, 6 May 1813, RG 107, M221, roll 54.

54. Mann, Sketches, pp. 64-65, 93-94, 241, quote from p. 64; Scott, Memoirs, 1: 136.

55. Mann, Sketches, p. 63, quote from p. 89.

56. Colonel Scott to James Wilkinson, 11 Oct 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 483; Mann, Sketches, pp. 94, 95, quote from p. 94.

57. Secretary of War to Major General Hampton, 25 Sep 1813, Cruikshank, Documents, 2: 107; Mann, Sketches, pp. 95, 96-97, 117, quote from pp. 96-97. Joseph Lovell's report of the summer of 1814 states that a hospital was established at Williamsville on 1 August 1814, implying that for some time before that date, there was no hospital in operation there (Lovell report, Mann, Sketches, p. 162).

58. Beaumont, Notebooks, pp. 16, 46, 47, quotes from pp. 16, 46; Stephen H. Moore to his brother, 5 May 1813, Brannan, Letters, p. 151.

59. Beaumont, Notebooks, pp. 16, 47, 48, 51.

60. Quote from Colonel Purdy's Report, fall 1813, Brannan, Letters, 277-78; Mann, Sketches, p. 119; Dr. Ross to Inspector General, 8 Dec 1813, Wilkinson, Memoirs, 3: app. 9 #1.

61. Dr. Ross to Inspector General, 8 Dec 1813, Wilkinson, Memoirs, 3: app. 9 #1.

62. Joseph Lovell quoted in Mann, Sketches, p. 119.

CHAPTER 9

1. Unless otherwise indicated, material concerning military activities in this chapter is based upon Beirne, War of 1812; Coles, 1812; Mahon, The War of 1812; Matloff, Military History; and Spaulding, Army.

2. Unless otherwise indicated, material concerning the Medical Department in this chapter is based on Brown, Medical Department. The preceding paragraph is also based on Henry Huntt, "An Abstract Account of the Diseases Which Prevailed Among the Soldiers, Received into the General Hospital, at Burlington, Vermont, During the Summer and Autumn of 1814," Medical Recorder 1 (1818): 179; Register of the Army for 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 391; Mann, Sketches, pp. 127, 144, 246-47, 256-57.

3. Mann, Sketches, p. 261, Mann to General Smith, Apr 1814, and to Colonel Smith, 21 Apr 1814, quote from Mann to Brigadier General Smith, 28 Apr 1818, pp. 261, 265-66, 267; George Izard to Secretary of War, 19 Jul 1814, in George Izard, Official Correspondence With the Department of War Relative to the Military Operations of the American Army Under the Command of Major General Izard on the Northern Frontier of the United States in the Years 1814 and 1815 (Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson, 1816), pp. 54-55.

4. Data and quote from Huntt, "Burlington," p. 177; Purcell report, Mann, Sketches, p. 153. Comments by Mann, in an essay written several years before the war, suggested that in the early nineteenth century physicians believed that the difference between diarrhea and dysentery lay in the fact that the latter was characterized by cramps and tenesmus, even though the "evacuations are small," while the former involved copious bowel movements without tenesmus (Mann, Sketches, p. 280, quote from p. 279).

5. Data and quote from Huntt, "Burlington," pp. 177-78; Report of the Killed, Wounded and Missing at Plattsburgh, From the 6th to the 11th of September 1814, Brannan, Letters, p. 419; Mann, Sketches, p. 153.

6. Quote from George Izard to Secretary of War, 25 Jun 1814, Izard, Correspondence, p. 38; Mann, Sketches, pp. 116, 267, 270, and James Mann to Adjutant General, 17 Aug 1814, p. 267.

7. Mann, Sketches, pp. 145, 271.

8. James Mann to James Tilton, Nov 1814, Brown, Medical Department, pp. 99-100, quote from p. 100.

9. James Mann to Elbridge Gerry, 6 Nov 1814, Mann, Sketches, p. 272; James Tilton to Secretary of War, 10 Feb 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

10. Mann, Sketches, pp. 125, 262-63, James Mann to Major General Brown, 1 Feb 1814, p. 266.

11. Mann, Sketches, p. 126; James M. Phalen, "Surgeon James Mann's Observations on


261

Battlefield Amputations," Military Surgeon 87 (1940): 464.

12. Mann, Sketches, pp. 125, 144, quote from p. 125.

13. James Tilton to Secretary of War, 7 Jun 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 59; Report of a Case of Amputation, by J. B. Whitridge, M.D., Hospital Surgeon's Mate, 28 Jun 1814, Mann, Sketches, p. 215; LeBaron to Secretary of War, 8 Jan 1814, and Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, rolls 54 and 66; A List of Deaths . . . at Sackett's Harbor From 23d October 1813 to the 20th January 1814 and at Brownville From the Last to the Present Date, in Washington, National Archives, Post Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 98, book 566.

14. Tilton to Dr. William M. Ross, 7 Jun 1814, and to the Secretary of War, 10 Feb 1815, RG 94, M566, rolls 59, 66; Mann, Sketches, p. 56; RG 98, book 566.

15. A. Hays to Tilton, 7 Mar 1814, and Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814 and 10 Feb 1815, RG 107, M221, rolls 59 and 66; Mann, Sketches, pp. 94, 179; U.S. War Department, Subject Index, General Orders, p. 99.

16. Major General Izard to Secretary of War, 8 Nov 1814, Cruikshank, Documents, 4: 298.

17. Quote from Major General Izard to Secretary of War, 26 Nov 1814, Izard, Correspondence, p. 121; Major General Izard to Secretary of War, 8 Nov 1814, Cruikshank, Documents, 4: 298.

18. Quote from Eber D. Howe, "Recollections of a Pioneer Printer," Buffalo Historical Society Publications 9 (1906): 398; Clayton Tiffin to Major General Izard, 6 Dec 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 59; Scott, Memoirs, 1: 147, 148; Report of Hospital Surgeon Lovell, 1 Aug 1814, Cruikshank, Documents, 4: 452-53; Louis L. Babcock, The Siege of Fort Erie, An Episode of the War of 1812 (Buffalo: Peter Paul Book Co., 1899), p. 44n; W. E. Horner, "Surgical Sketches," Medical Examiner and Record of Medical Science, new ser. 8 (1952): 761, 764, 768, 791; Jacob Brown to Secretary of War, 6 Jul 1814, in Herman Allen Fay, Collection of the Official Accounts, in Detail, of All the Battles Fought by Sea and Land Between the Navy and Army of the United States and the Navy and Army of Great Britain During the Years 1812, 13, 14, & 15 (New York, 1817), p. 210.

19. James Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66; Major General Jacob Brown reported that 249 were wounded at the Battle of Chippewa ("Report of the Killed and Wounded of the Left Division Commanded by Major General Brown in the Action of 5th July 1814, on the Plains of Chippewa, Upper Canada," Brannan, Letters, p. 372).

20. Effner, "Adventures," pp. 51-52, quote from p. 52; E. P. Gaines to Secretary of War, 7 and 23 Aug 1814, Brannan, Letters, pp. 384, 399; Mann, Sketches, pp. 70, 111.

21. E. W. Ripley to Brigadier General Gaines, 17 Aug 1814, Brannan, Letters, p. 392.

22. James Tilton to Secretary of War, 10 Feb 1815, RG 107, M211, roll 66.

23. Nathan Boulden to James Tilton, 9 Oct 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 59.

24. A. Hays to Tilton, 11 Dec 1814 and 2 Jan 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 82, quote from 11 Dec 1814.

25. Tilton to Secretary of War, 17 Jan 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 82.

26. Mann, Sketches, p. 111.

27. Report of Hospital Surgeon Lovell on the State of Diseases Among the Troops on the Niagara Frontier During the Campaign of 1814, Cruikshank, Documents, 4: 452.

28. Tilton to Secretary of War, 10 Feb 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

29. Hamersly, Register, pp. 133-34; Register, and Rules and Regulations of the Army for 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 386-87.

30. Emory Upton, Military Policy of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904), p. 126; Albert Kimberley Hadel, "The Battle of Bladensburg," Maryland Historical Magazine 1 (1906): 157, 160, 167; Marine, British Invasion, p. 76, and Report of Lieutenant Colonel Armistead to Secretary of War, pp. 167, 169; Statement of General Walter Smith, in John S. Williams, The Invasion and Capture of Washington (New York: Harper & Bros., 1857), p. 346; William H. Winder to Secretary of War, 27 Aug 1814, Brannan, Letters, p. 402; Statement


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of Dr. Catlett, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 584; John M. Stahl, The Invasion of the City of Washington, A Disagreeable Study in and of Military Unpreparedness (Argos, Ind.: Van Trump Co., 1918), p. 224; Jay, "Table," p. 456.

31. Tilton to Secretary of War, 23 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66; Office of Adjutant General to W. N. Miner, Esq, 24 Nov 1814, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 31/2, p. 208; A Requisition of Medicine Instruments &c Wanting for the Military Post & Hospital at Washington, City, 6 Nov 1813, RG 107, M222, roll 7; James Blake to Tilton, 5 Nov 1814, and J. O. Tyler to Secretary of War, 19 Oct 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 48, frame 0619, and roll 54, frame 0166; Office of Adjutant General to Dr. W. Jones, 19 Jul 1814, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 31/2, p. 85; Constance McLaughlin Green, Washington, Village and Capital, 1800-1878 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1962), p. 3; Register, and Rules and Regulations of the Army for 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 386.

32. Register, and Rules and Regulations of the Army for 1813, and Statement of Dr. Catlett, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 396, 585, quote from Report of R. M. Johnson to the House of Representatives, 1: 530; Hamersly, Register, pp. 95, 147.

33. Statement of Dr. Catlett, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 583. Catlett's status at this time is not clear. He wished to resign as surgeon of the lst Infantry and, although his resignation appears to have been rejected initially, it was accepted in mid-June 1814. By early August, however, Catlett had not yet been notified of this fact and by the time he received the notice, he had begun to believe that his reputation had been blackened and asked to be kept in the Army until he could clear his name. In September he accepted another appointment with the Army. Hanson Catlett to Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas, 4 Jun 1814, to Secretary of War, 9 Aug 1814, and to Acting Secretary of War, 9 Sep 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 39, frames 0634-0635, 0638, 0640-0642, 0648; Office of Adjutant General to Catlett, 15 Jun 1814, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 31/2, p. 35.

34. Catlett to Adjutant and Inspector General, 2 Sep 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 60; Catlett Statement, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 584; Marine, British Invasion, p. 174; Catlett to Secretary of War, 30 Aug 1814, RG 94, M566, roll 39, frame 0646; Statement of Dr. Catlett, Armstrong, War of 1812, 2: 226; Hadel, "Bladensburg," p. 167; Office of Adjutant General to Catlett, 12 Sep 1814, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 31/2, p. 145.

35. Green, Washington, p. 51; Albert Alleman, "Experiences of an American Physician at the Capture of Washington by the British in 1814," Medical Library and Historical Journal 4 (1906): 187; Ewell, Medical Companion, pp. 690-91.

36. Office of Adjutant General to Dr. A. Elzy, 17 Jan 1815, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 31/2, p. 295, quote from Office of Adjutant General to H. Huntt, 13 Jan 1815, p. 292; Tilton to Secretary of War, 10 Feb 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

37. Register, and Rules and Regulations of the Army for 1813, and A Report of the Army, Its Strength and Distribution, Previous to the 1st of July 1814, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 387, 535; Nathaniel Claiborne, Notes on the War in the South (New York: Arno Press & The New York Times, 1971 reprint of 1819 edition), p. 47.

38. Andrew Jackson to Secretary James Monroe, 27 Dec 1814, in John S. Bassett, ed., Correspondence of Andrew Jackson, 7 vols. (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1926-35), 2: 127; Stanley Clisby Arthur, The Story of the Battle of New Orleans (New Orleans: Louisiana Historical Society, 1915), p. 248; William McCarty, History of the American War of 1812, From the Commencement Until the Final Termination . . . , 2d ed. (Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970 reprint of 1816 edition), p. 229; A. S. Colyar, Life and Times of Andrew Jackson, Soldier, Statesman, President, 2 vols. (Nashville, Tenn.: Marshall & Bruce Co., 1904), 1: 239; Arsène Lacarrière Latour, Historical Memoir of the War in West Florida and Louisiana in 1814-15, trans. H. P. Nugent (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1964 version of 1816 original), p. 45.

39. Latour, Memoir, p. 148; Andrew Jackson to Secretary of War, 19 Jan 1815, Bassett, Jackson, 2: 148.


263

Reports on American casualties vary, but from 55 to 62 were killed and from 175 to 185 wounded. Report of the American Loss in Several Actions Below New Orleans, Brannan, Letters, p. 461; Bassett, Jackson, 2: 143n; Arthur, New Orleans, p. 247; Latour, Memoir, pp. lix, 122-23, 135; Howell Tatum, Major Howell Tatum's Journal . . . , ed. John Spencer Bassett (Northampton, Mass.: Smith College Studies in History, 1922), pp. 117-18, 122, 130.

40. Hamersly, Register, pp. 84, 133, 134; Register, and Rules and Regulations of the Army for 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 387, 391.

41. Register, and Rules and Regulations of the Army for 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 418.

42. Quotes from A. G. Goodlet to Secretary of War, Jun 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 61; O. H. Spencer to Secretary of War, 10 May 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

43. Secretary of War to Commanding Officers at New Orleans, 17 Jun 1815, RG 107, M6, roll 8, p. 166.

44. Quote from Statement of David C. Kerr, Hosp. Surgeon, Bassett, Jackson 2: 203; James Parton, Life of Andrew Jackson, 3 vols. (Boston: Fields, Osgood & Co., 1870), 2: 121; American State Papers: Claims, 5 Feb 1790-3 Mar 1823, p. 752; Arthur, New Orleans, pp. 81, 240-41; Alcée Fortier, A History of Louisiana, 4 vols. (New York: Manzi, Joyant, & Co., 1904), 3: 167.

45. Bassett, Jackson, 2: 163n; Office of Adjutant General to Dr. David C. Kerr, 4 Feb 1813, RG 94, M565, roll 4, vol. 3, p. 93; Tilton to Secretary of War, 10 Feb 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

46. Quote from Stephen Simpson to George Simpson, 9 Jan 1815, American Historical Review 2 (1896): 268; Daniel Patterson to Secretary of Navy, 27 Jan 1815, and General Orders, 21 Jan 1815, Brannan, Letters, pp. 462-63, 480; Andrew Jackson to Secretary Monroe, 27 Dec 1814, Bassett, Jackson, 128; Colonel Bartholomew Shaumburg to William C. C. Claiborne, 30 Oct 1815, in W. C. C. Claiborne, Official Letter Books of W. C. C. Claiborne, 1801-1816, ed. Dunbar Rowland, 6 vols. (Jackson, Miss.: State Dept. of Archives and History, 1917), 6: 380; Eron Opha Rowland, Andrew Jackson's Campaign Against the British, or the Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812 . . . (Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971 reprint of 1926 edition), pp. 81, 81n; Latour, Memoir, p. 184; Office of Adjutant General to Dr. O. H. Spencer, 10 Jul 1814, and Francis LeBaron to Adjutant and Inspector General, 20 Dec 1814, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol 31/2, p. 82; M566, roll 12; Hamersly, Register, p. 272; Jane Lucas de Grummond, The Baratarians and the Battle of New Orleans (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1961), p. 100.

47. Latour, Memoir, pp. 163, 177, 225, quote from p. 225; Parton, Jackson, 2: 221, 229-30; L'Ami des Lois, 16 Jan 1815, in Reed Adams, "New Orleans and the War of 1812," Louisiana Historical Quarterly 17 (1934): 362; Arthur, New Orleans, pp. 219-20; Alexander Walker, Jackson and New Orleans . . . (New York: J. C. Derby, 1856), p. 347; John Henry Cooke, A Narrative of Events in the South of France and of the Attack on New Orleans, in 1814 and 1815 (London: T. & W. Boone, 1835), pp. 263-64; Resolution of the Legislature of Louisiana, Fortier, Louisiana, 3: 167.

48. Andrew Jackson to Major-General Lambert, 8 Jan 1815, Bassett, Jackson, 2: 134.

49. Quote from Andrew Jackson to Col Robert Hays, 17 Feb 1815, Bassett, Jackson 2: 172; Parton, Jackson 2: 226; General Orders, D. Parker, Adjutant and Inspector General, 6 Jan 1815, Niles' Weekly Register (Baltimore) 7: 317.

50. General Orders, Headquarters 7th Military District, 21 Jan 1815, Brannan, Letters, p. 480.

51. Prucha, Guide, p. 94; Hamersly, Register, p. 134; Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

52. Quote from Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66; Joseph Wheaton, Appeal to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America (District of Columbia, 1820), p. 29.

53. Wheaton, Appeal, pp. 19-20, 21-22, quote from p. 19.

54. Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66; Register, Rules and Regulations of the Army for 1813, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 386.


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CHAPTER 10

1. William Eustis to Secretary of War, 21 Mar 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 12.

2. Quote and data from Crawford to Chairman of Military Committee, 27 Dec 1815, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 636; Army Register for 1816, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 628, 635; Ingersoll, War Department, p. 216; Henry C. Corbin and Raphael P. Thian, eds., Legislative History of the General Staff of the Army of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1901), p. 409; Francis LeBaron to William Eustis, 16 Mar 1815, Eustis Papers; James Mann to James Tilton, 18 Mar 1815, Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 18 Mar 1815, James Tilton to Secretary of War, 28 Apr 1815, James Mann to President Madison, 7 Sep 1815, and James Mann to Colonel Conner, 14 Dec 1815, RG 94, M566, rolls 75, 82.

3. Unless otherwise indicated, all material in this section is based on Ganoe, U.S. Army; Spaulding, Army; and Weigley, Army. Also consulted for the preceding paragraph were John Caldwell Calhoun, The Papers of John C. Calhoun, ed. W. Edwin Hemphill, 2 vols. to date (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press for the South Carolina Society, 1963), 2: lxi; Corbin and Thian, Legislative History, p. 409; Army Register for 1816, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 635.

4. Quote from "Review of Circular Letter of Benjamin Waterhouse to His Surgeons in the 2nd Military District, September 1817," Medical Repository 19 (1818): 395-96; Corbin and Thian, Legislative History, p. 410; Bayne-Jones, Preventive Medicine, pp. 79-80.

5. Tilton to Secretary of War, 28 Apr and 8 May 1815, quote from Joseph Eaton to James Tilton, 22 Apr 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 82; Office of the Adjutant General to J. H. Sackett, 13 Jan 1816, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 31/2, pp. 491-92; Register for 1816, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 627-28, 631-32, 633, 634, 635.

6. Quote from James Tilton to Secretary of War, 28 Apr 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 82; James Mann to President Madison, 7 Sep 1815, Mann to Secretary of War, 14 Apr 1815, Mann to Colonel Conner, 14 Dec 1815 , Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 18 Mar 1815, Morgan Lewis and Jabez C. [illegible] to Secretary of War, 21 Mar 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 75; Office of Adjutant General to T. Watkins, 11 May 1816, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 4, p. 30.

7. Francis LeBaron to Adjutant and Inspector General, 18 Apr 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 12; Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 5 and 10 Feb, 3 Apr, and 6 Jun 1815, RG 107, M221, rolls 63, 64; George Graham to Francis LeBaron, 27 Jul 1815, RG 107, M6, roll 8, pp. 243-44.

8. Quotes from Francis LeBaron to Adjutant and Inspector General, 28 May 1816, RG 94, M566, roll 12; and to Secretary of War, 8 May 1817, RG 107, M221, roll 74.

9. Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 7 Mar 1815, and Benjamin Waterhouse to Secretary of War, 12 Jul 1815, RG 107, M221, rolls 63, 67; Joseph Lovell to Adjutant General, 30 Oct 1817, RG 94, M566, roll 98; Office of Adjutant General to Henry Huntt, 15 Jun 1815, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 31/2, p. 386.

10. Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 13 Jan 1816, to Adjutant and Inspector General, 31 Mar 1817, and to Inspector General, 19 Jun 1817, RG 94, M566, roll 12; LeBaron to Secretary of War, 26 Jul 1816, RG 107, M221, roll 70.

11. Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 28 May and 26 Jul 1816, RG 107, M221, roll 70; Secretary of War to Dr. W. P. Jones, 14 Jan 1815, RG 107, M6, roll 8, pp. 25-26.

12. Quote from Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 14 Sep 1816, RG 107, M221, roll 70; LeBaron to Secretary of War, 6 Jun 1815, and to Adjutant and Inspector General, 28 May 1816, RG 107, M221, rolls 12, 64; James Cutbush to Adjutant General, 5 Jun 1816, RG 94, M566, roll 41.

13. Quote from Francis LeBaron to Adjutant and Inspector General, 7 Nov 1816, RG 94, M566, roll 12; LeBaron to Secretary of War, 26 Jul and 14 Sep 1816, RG 107, M221, roll 70.

14. Secretary of War to LeBaron, 5 Feb 1817, RG 107, M6, roll 8, p. 243.

15. Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 7 Mar 1815, RG 107, M221, roll 63, quote


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from James Tilton to Secretary of War, 10 Feb 1815, roll 66; Office of Adjutant General to Dr. J. H. Sackett, 23 Oct 1817, and to Dr. F. Swift, 22 Oct 1817, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 4, p. 262.

16. James Tilton to Secretary of War, 17 Jan 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 82, quote from James Mann to Secretary of War, 14 Apr 1815, roll 75; Office of Adjutant General to Henry Huntt, 7 Feb and 15 Jun 1815, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 31/2, pp. 318, 386.

17. Remarks on the Sick Report of the Northern Division for the Year Ending 30 Jun 1817, Brown, Medical Department, p. 102.

18. I. M. McKay to Maj Perrin Willis, 30 Oct 1817, RG 94, M566, roll 98.

19. Remarks on the Sick Report of the Northern Division for the Year Ending 30 Jun 1817, Brown, Medical Department, p. 102.

20. Francis LeBaron to Secretary of War, 25 Apr and 4 May 1813, RG 107, M221, roll 54.

21. Quote from George Izard to Secretary of War, 1 Jun 1814, Izard, Correspondence, pp. 21-22; James Tilton to Secretary of War, 12 Jul 1813, RG 107, M221, roll 57.

22. General Committee of Defense, Observations; Heustis, Diseases of Louisiana, pp. 130-31; James Mann to Secretary of War, 14 Apr 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 75; Brown, Medical Department, p. 105.

23. Brown, Medical Department, p. 104.

24. James Tilton to Secretary of War, 20 Aug 1814, RG 107, M221, roll 66.

25. Mann, Sketches, pp. 122, 124.

26. Quote from RG 98, vol. 683, lst and 9th Regiments; Brown, Medical Department, p. 102; RG 98, vols. 680, 683; Samuel Akerly, "Medical Topography of the Military Positions in the Third United States Military District: Together With a Summary Report on the Diseases of the Army . . . ," Medical Repository, 2d ser. 3 (1817): 294.

27. Heustis, Diseases of Louisiana, p. 138.

28. Brown, Medical Department, pp. 88, 102, 103, quote from p. 88; Mann, Sketches, p. 76; Heustis, Diseases of Louisiana, p. 136; Benjamin Waterhouse, Circular Letter From Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse to the Surgeons of the Different Posts in the Second Military Department (Cambridge, Mass., 1817), pp. 12-13.

29. Waterhouse, Letter, pp. 8-9, 10, 15, quotes from pp. 10, 15; Heustis, Diseases of Louisiana, pp. 136, 137.

30. Mann, Sketches, pp. 130-31.

31. Waterhouse, Letter, p. 16.

32. Quote from Waterhouse, Letter, p. 14; Heustis, Diseases of Louisiana, p. 136.

33. Heustis, Diseases of Louisiana, pp. 138, 139, quote from p. 139 (Heustis's preferences in fruit may seem exotic, but, of course, he was writing of his experience in Louisiana); Waterhouse, Letter, pp. 12, 17, 19-20.

34. Mann, Sketches, p. 76.

35. Quote from Heustis, Diseases of Louisiana, p. 114; Warren, Mercurial Practice, pp. 45-46, 92. The term typhoid has apparently often been used to mean "resembling typhus" [see first definition of typhoid in Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 24th ed. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1965), p. 1640] and the two diseases were not clearly distinguished until 1837. [See Hume, Victories, pp. 99-100; and Leonard G. Wilson, "The Clinical Definition of Scurvy and the Discovery of Vitamin C," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 30 (1975): 59.]

36. Purcell Report, Mann, Sketches, p. 153. Sordes is "The dark-brown, foul matter which collects on the lips and teeth in low fevers" (Dorland, p. 1406).

37. Data and quote from Waterhouse, Letter, p. 5; Brown, Medical Department, p. 105; James Thacher, American Modern Practice; Or, a Simple Method of Prevention and Cure of Diseases . . . (Boston: Ezra Read, 1817), p. 173.

38. Joseph Lovell Report, Mann, Sketches, pp. 163-64.

39. Quote from Joseph Lovell Report, Mann, Sketches, p. 103; Warren, Mercurial Practice, p. 98.

40. Thomas, Modern Practice, p. 43.

41. Mann, Sketches, pp. 68, 128, 160-61, quote from p. 90.

42. Brown, Medical Department, pp. 102, 104-5, quote from p. 102; Army Register for 1816, American State Papers: Military Affairs, 1: 635.

43. Mann, Sketches, p. 129.

44. Hanson Catlett to Major McClelland, 17 Jan 1815, RG 94, M566, roll 67.

45. Waterhouse, Letter, p. 22.


266

46. Mann, Sketches, pp. 186-98.

47. Waterhouse, Letter, pp. 14, 15.

48. Mann, Sketches, pp. 130-31, 134, 136, quotes from pp. 134, 136.

49. Mann, Sketches, pp. 80-81.

50. Quotes from Waterhouse, Letter, pp. 6-7; Mann, Sketches, pp. 88-89.

51. Mann, Sketches, p. 206; "Diseases of the Army of the Third United States Military District," Medical Repository, new ser. 3 (1817): 407; John Shaw, "Narrative of John Shaw: Dictated to Lyman C. Draper," Wisconsin State Historical Society Publications 2 (1855): 217.

52. Horner, "Surgical Sketches," 9: 1, 2.

53. Horner, "Surgical Sketches," 9: 3, 71, quote from p. 71.

54. Horner, "Surgical Sketches," 9: 78.

55. Horner, "Surgical Sketches," 9: 7.

56. Barton became the first Surgeon-General of the Navy in 1842. William Paul Crillon Barton, A Treatise Containing a Plan for the Internal Organization and Government of Marine Hospitals in the United States; Together With Observations on Military and Flying Hospitals . . . , 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 1817), pp. 131, 132, quotes from pp. 131, 132; Mann, Sketches, pp. 240-41.

57. Mann, Sketches, p. 240.

58. Mann, Sketches, pp. 238-39, 243, quote from p. 238.

59. Mann, Sketches, p. 250.

60. Mann, Sketches, pp. 244, 246; Brown, Medical Department, p. 106.

61. Mann, Sketches, pp. 235-36; Office of the Adjutant General to James Mann, 16 Jul, 14 Nov 1816, and to Dr. W. P. C. Barton, 15 Oct 1816, RG 94, M565, roll 5, vol. 4, pp. 66, 117, 124.

APPENDIXES

1. Unless otherwise indicated, material in this appendix is based on Gibson, Otto. Washington's General Orders, 20 Nov 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 88; Weedon, Valley Forge, p. 135; Robert Kirkwood, The Journals and Order Book of Captain Robert Kirkwood of the Delaware Regiment of the Continental Line, ed. Joseph Brown Turner (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1910), p. 248; Shippen report of 24 Nov 1777, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 239.

2. Quote from Sproat, "Extracts," p. 443, Rev Henry Melchior Mühlenberg to Halle Fathers in Germany, Gibson, Otto, pp. 153-54.

3. Duncan, Medical Men, p. 226; Jordan, "Returns," pp. 36-38; A Return of the Wounded Belonging to Different Regiments and Their Respective Companies, Lancaster, 11 Oct 1777, Alison Papers; Gen George Washington to Lt Col William Stephens Smith, 27 Jan 1778, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 10: 356-57; Ebenezer David, A Rhode Island Chaplain in the Revolution, Letters of Ebenezer David to Nicholas Brown, 1775-1778, eds. Jeannette D. Black and William Greene Roelker (Providence: The Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati, 1949), p. 75; Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10.

4. Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 158.

5. Griffenhagen, Drug Supplies, p. 127; James Craik to Jonathan Potts, 7 Apr 1778, Gibson, Otto, p. 162; Heiges, "Letters," pp. 74, 77; Shippen report of 24 Nov 1777, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 239. Duncan's book contains neither footnotes nor bibliography and the original of this report has not been located. His version of the document lists "Mendham" rather than Manheim, but because it is not likely that the Mendham hospital was still open, because, although no state is mentioned, the hospital is listed with those in Pennsylvania, and because Duncan has been known to misread the city names in eighteenth century reports, it seems obvious that Manheim is the name intended by Shippen.

6. Weedon, Valley Forge, pp. 109-10; Shippen report of 24 Nov 1777, Duncan, Medical Men, p. 239.

7. Middleton, "Valley Forge," p. 485.

8. Jordan, "Returns," p. 40; Radbill, "Alison," p. 252; A Return of the Sick & Wounded in the Hospital at Plumstead, 10 Dec 1777, Alison Papers; Shippen, Just Account.

9. Sproat Journal, Gibson, Otto, p. 329.

10. Sproat Journal, Gibson, Otto, p. 326; Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 27 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 11.


267

11. Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 26 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10.

12. Quote from Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 25 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 10; Heiges, "Letters," p. 77.

13. Matthew Irwine to Jonathan Potts, 22 Mar 1778, Potts Papers, 4: 423; Report of Brig Gen Lachlan McIntosh, 27 Apr 1778, RG 93, M246, roll 135, folder 3-1, item 11; Sproat Journal, Gibson, Otto, p. 328.

14. Washington's General Orders, 17 Jun 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 8: 251; Accounts of John Dunn, 1777-78, RG 93, M859, roll 124, frame 989, item 035501.

15. Washington's General Orders, 17 Jun 1777, Fitzpatrick, Washington, 8: 257; Ella W. Mockridge, Our Mendham (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1961), p. 56; Mendham, New Jersey, Mayor's Tercentenary Committee, The Mendhams, (Brookside, N.J., 1964), p. 32.

16. Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 167n; Benjamin Rush to Julia Rush, 10 Nov 1777, and Benjamin Rush to James Searle, 19 Nov 1777, Butterfield, Letters of Rush, 1: 166.